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Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein

Associate Professor in Population Health Sciences
Population Health Sciences
215 Morris Street Suite 210, Durham, NC 27701

Selected Publications


Using decision tree models and comprehensive statewide data to predict opioid overdoses following prison release.

Journal Article Ann Epidemiol · June 2024 PURPOSE: Identifying predictors of opioid overdose following release from prison is critical for opioid overdose prevention. METHODS: We leveraged an individually linked, state-wide database from 2015-2020 to predict the risk of opioid overdose within 90 d ... Full text Link to item Cite

Few Prison Systems Release Individual Death Data: Death in Custody Reporting Act Completeness, Speed, and Compliance.

Journal Article J Public Health Manag Pract · May 2024 The United States has one of the largest incarcerated populations per capita. Prisons are dangerous environments, with high in-prison and postrelease mortality. The Death in Custody Reporting Acts (DCRAs) of 2000 and 2013 require deaths of people in correc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identifying structural risk factors for overdose following incarceration: a concept mapping study.

Journal Article Health Justice · March 12, 2024 BACKGROUND: Currently, there are more than two million people in prisons or jails, with nearly two-thirds meeting the criteria for a substance use disorder. Following these patterns, overdose is the leading cause of death following release from prison and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Documenting Competing Needs to Well-Being Among Those on Community Supervision in the South.

Journal Article J Correct Health Care · February 2024 Although the harms of incarceration on health are well known, little is known about individuals' competing priorities to maintaining their health while on probation and parole after release from incarceration. We explored individuals' competing needs on pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Implementing Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention in a Statewide Correctional System in the United States.

Journal Article Public Health Rep · 2024 HIV disproportionately affects populations experiencing incarceration. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective approach to preventing HIV acquisition among populations at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Yet few, if any, efforts have been made to of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mass Probation: Effects of Sentencing Severity on Mental Health for Black and White Individuals.

Journal Article Epidemiology · January 1, 2024 BACKGROUND: Incarceration is associated with negative impacts on mental health. Probation, a form of community supervision, has been lauded as an alternative. However, the effect of probation versus incarceration on mental health is unclear. Our objective ... Full text Link to item Cite

"It's just us sitting there for 23 hours like we done something wrong": Isolation, incarceration, and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2024 For the millions of people incarcerated in United States' prisons and jails during the COVID-19 pandemic, isolation took many forms, including medical isolation for those sick with COVID-19, quarantine for those potentially exposed, and prolonged facility- ... Full text Link to item Cite

"Nothing but a rope to hang yourself:" The toll of mass supervision on mental well-being.

Journal Article SSM Ment Health · December 15, 2023 While incarceration has proven detrimental to mental well-being, it remains unknown if community supervision is better for mental well-being than incarceration. Our objective was to explore the individual- and community-level relationships between communit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mass probation: Temporal and geographic correlation of county-level probation rates & mental health in North Carolina.

Journal Article SSM Ment Health · December 2023 High community incarceration rates are associated with worse community mental health. However, it remains unknown whether higher rates of probation, a form of criminal legal community supervision, are similarly associated with worse community mental health ... Full text Link to item Cite

Collateral consequences of COVID-19 for people on probation and parole

Journal Article Health and Justice · December 1, 2023 Background: While the severe detrimental impact of COVID-19 on incarcerated people is well known, little is known about the experience of COVID-19 on those on community supervision. Our objective was to better understand the experience of the COVID-19 pand ... Full text Cite

Analyzing COVID-19 Rates Between Residents and Staff in Correctional Facilities: A Telemedicine Opportunity.

Journal Article Stud Health Technol Inform · October 20, 2023 To evaluate the relationship of COVID-19 infection rates between residents and staff members in prison facilities. We collected historical data on daily COVID-19 counts for California, Florida, and Wisconsin residents and staff. We analyzed 78,250 COVID-19 ... Full text Link to item Cite

The current state of Carceral health data: an analysis of "Listening Sessions" with stakeholders.

Journal Article Health Justice · September 28, 2023 BACKGROUND: Understanding the health conditions of those under carceral control is often made difficult due to lack of access to data. Yet, as has been made clear during the COVID-19 pandemic, is that data is essential to understand the scope of disease an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Death in Prison: increasing transparency on next of kin notification and disposition of remains.

Journal Article Health Justice · September 12, 2023 BACKGROUND: Policies for next-of-kin (NOK) notification and disposition of remains surrounding death are unclear across the United States' (US) carceral systems. The goal of this study was to collect data on carceral system policies pertaining to NOK notif ... Full text Link to item Cite

Extreme Heat and Suicide Watch Incidents Among Incarcerated Men.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · August 1, 2023 IMPORTANCE: Extreme heat poses a distinct risk to the 2.1 million incarcerated people in the United States, who have disparately high rates of behavioral health conditions. Suicide is a leading cause of death among people in prisons. OBJECTIVE: To examine ... Full text Link to item Cite

COVID-19 vaccine deliberation in individuals directly impacted by incarceration.

Journal Article Vaccine · May 26, 2023 Delays in vaccinating communities of color to COVID-19 have signaled a need to investigate structural barriers to vaccine uptake, with mass incarceration demanding greater characterization as a potential factor. In a nationally representative survey from F ... Full text Link to item Cite

Context specific HIV risk: evidence from screening into the southern pre-exposure prophylaxis study (SPECS).

Journal Article AIDS Care · April 2023 While Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious in preventing HIV, little is known about PrEP use among those on community supervision. The Southern Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Study (SPECS) investigates barriers and facilitators for PrEP initiation and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cervical Cancer Screening and Follow-Up Practices in U.S. Prisons.

Journal Article American journal of preventive medicine · February 2023 IntroductionThe objective of this study is to better understand cervical cancer screening and follow-up practices in U.S. prisons.MethodsA 29-question survey examining cervical cancer screening practices, education, and facility/patient c ... Full text Cite

Using decision tree models and comprehensive statewide data to predict opioid overdoses following prison release.

Journal Article Ann Epidemiol · June 2024 PURPOSE: Identifying predictors of opioid overdose following release from prison is critical for opioid overdose prevention. METHODS: We leveraged an individually linked, state-wide database from 2015-2020 to predict the risk of opioid overdose within 90 d ... Full text Link to item Cite

Few Prison Systems Release Individual Death Data: Death in Custody Reporting Act Completeness, Speed, and Compliance.

Journal Article J Public Health Manag Pract · May 2024 The United States has one of the largest incarcerated populations per capita. Prisons are dangerous environments, with high in-prison and postrelease mortality. The Death in Custody Reporting Acts (DCRAs) of 2000 and 2013 require deaths of people in correc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identifying structural risk factors for overdose following incarceration: a concept mapping study.

Journal Article Health Justice · March 12, 2024 BACKGROUND: Currently, there are more than two million people in prisons or jails, with nearly two-thirds meeting the criteria for a substance use disorder. Following these patterns, overdose is the leading cause of death following release from prison and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Documenting Competing Needs to Well-Being Among Those on Community Supervision in the South.

Journal Article J Correct Health Care · February 2024 Although the harms of incarceration on health are well known, little is known about individuals' competing priorities to maintaining their health while on probation and parole after release from incarceration. We explored individuals' competing needs on pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Implementing Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention in a Statewide Correctional System in the United States.

Journal Article Public Health Rep · 2024 HIV disproportionately affects populations experiencing incarceration. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective approach to preventing HIV acquisition among populations at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Yet few, if any, efforts have been made to of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mass Probation: Effects of Sentencing Severity on Mental Health for Black and White Individuals.

Journal Article Epidemiology · January 1, 2024 BACKGROUND: Incarceration is associated with negative impacts on mental health. Probation, a form of community supervision, has been lauded as an alternative. However, the effect of probation versus incarceration on mental health is unclear. Our objective ... Full text Link to item Cite

"It's just us sitting there for 23 hours like we done something wrong": Isolation, incarceration, and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2024 For the millions of people incarcerated in United States' prisons and jails during the COVID-19 pandemic, isolation took many forms, including medical isolation for those sick with COVID-19, quarantine for those potentially exposed, and prolonged facility- ... Full text Link to item Cite

"Nothing but a rope to hang yourself:" The toll of mass supervision on mental well-being.

Journal Article SSM Ment Health · December 15, 2023 While incarceration has proven detrimental to mental well-being, it remains unknown if community supervision is better for mental well-being than incarceration. Our objective was to explore the individual- and community-level relationships between communit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mass probation: Temporal and geographic correlation of county-level probation rates & mental health in North Carolina.

Journal Article SSM Ment Health · December 2023 High community incarceration rates are associated with worse community mental health. However, it remains unknown whether higher rates of probation, a form of criminal legal community supervision, are similarly associated with worse community mental health ... Full text Link to item Cite

Collateral consequences of COVID-19 for people on probation and parole

Journal Article Health and Justice · December 1, 2023 Background: While the severe detrimental impact of COVID-19 on incarcerated people is well known, little is known about the experience of COVID-19 on those on community supervision. Our objective was to better understand the experience of the COVID-19 pand ... Full text Cite

Analyzing COVID-19 Rates Between Residents and Staff in Correctional Facilities: A Telemedicine Opportunity.

Journal Article Stud Health Technol Inform · October 20, 2023 To evaluate the relationship of COVID-19 infection rates between residents and staff members in prison facilities. We collected historical data on daily COVID-19 counts for California, Florida, and Wisconsin residents and staff. We analyzed 78,250 COVID-19 ... Full text Link to item Cite

The current state of Carceral health data: an analysis of "Listening Sessions" with stakeholders.

Journal Article Health Justice · September 28, 2023 BACKGROUND: Understanding the health conditions of those under carceral control is often made difficult due to lack of access to data. Yet, as has been made clear during the COVID-19 pandemic, is that data is essential to understand the scope of disease an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Death in Prison: increasing transparency on next of kin notification and disposition of remains.

Journal Article Health Justice · September 12, 2023 BACKGROUND: Policies for next-of-kin (NOK) notification and disposition of remains surrounding death are unclear across the United States' (US) carceral systems. The goal of this study was to collect data on carceral system policies pertaining to NOK notif ... Full text Link to item Cite

Extreme Heat and Suicide Watch Incidents Among Incarcerated Men.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · August 1, 2023 IMPORTANCE: Extreme heat poses a distinct risk to the 2.1 million incarcerated people in the United States, who have disparately high rates of behavioral health conditions. Suicide is a leading cause of death among people in prisons. OBJECTIVE: To examine ... Full text Link to item Cite

COVID-19 vaccine deliberation in individuals directly impacted by incarceration.

Journal Article Vaccine · May 26, 2023 Delays in vaccinating communities of color to COVID-19 have signaled a need to investigate structural barriers to vaccine uptake, with mass incarceration demanding greater characterization as a potential factor. In a nationally representative survey from F ... Full text Link to item Cite

Context specific HIV risk: evidence from screening into the southern pre-exposure prophylaxis study (SPECS).

Journal Article AIDS Care · April 2023 While Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious in preventing HIV, little is known about PrEP use among those on community supervision. The Southern Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Study (SPECS) investigates barriers and facilitators for PrEP initiation and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cervical Cancer Screening and Follow-Up Practices in U.S. Prisons.

Journal Article American journal of preventive medicine · February 2023 IntroductionThe objective of this study is to better understand cervical cancer screening and follow-up practices in U.S. prisons.MethodsA 29-question survey examining cervical cancer screening practices, education, and facility/patient c ... Full text Cite

Characterizing Arrest and Incarceration in a Prospective Cohort of Transgender Women.

Journal Article Journal of correctional health care : the official journal of the National Commission on Correctional Health Care · February 2023 This study characterized arrest, incarceration, and risk factors for incident incarceration among transgender women (TW) in the northeastern and southern United States. During semiannual study visits over 24 months in a multicenter cohort study, TW complet ... Full text Cite

COVID-19 in Carceral Systems: A Review

Journal Article Annual Review of Criminology · January 27, 2023 As with past pandemics of influenza, COVID-19 tore through US prisons and jails; however, the COVID-19 pandemic, uniquely, has led to more health research on carceral systems than has been seen to date. Herein, we review the data on its impact on incarcera ... Full text Cite

Anticipated Barriers to Sustained Engagement in Treatment With Medications for Opioid Use Disorder After Release From Incarceration.

Journal Article J Addict Med · January 2023 BACKGROUND: Although the burden of opioid use disorder is disproportionately high among persons who are incarcerated, medications for opioid use disorder are often unavailable in correctional settings. The Rhode Island Department of Corrections provides al ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retention strategies among those on community supervision in the South: Lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2023 OBJECTIVES: Cohort studies must implement effective retention strategies to produce internally valid and generalizable results. Ensuring all study participants are retained, particularly those involved in the criminal legal system, ensures study findings a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Suicides in state prisons in the United States: Highlighting gaps in data.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2023 OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to document data availability and reporting on suicide mortality in state prison systems. The United States leads the world in mass incarceration, a structural determinant of health, but lacks real-time reporting of prison h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inequities in life course criminal legal system sanctions: measuring cumulative involvement.

Journal Article Ann Epidemiol · December 2022 PURPOSE: The impact of incarceration on health is well known. Yet, most studies measure incarceration alone and miss additional exposure to the criminal legal system over time. We evaluated adult criminal legal sanctions - inclusive of arrests, charges, pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comprehensive Reform Urgently Needed in Hospital Shackling Policy for Incarcerated Patients in the United States.

Journal Article J Correct Health Care · December 2022 Approximately 2.2 million people are incarcerated in the United States. The carceral population is aging due to strict sentencing laws, which has increased the frequency and acuity of off-site medical care. Inpatient providers must follow departments of co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Policy and public communication methods among U.S. state prisons during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic

Journal Article Health and Justice · December 1, 2022 Background: Throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, our research team monitored and documented policy changes in United States (U.S.) prison systems. Data sources included prison websites and official prison social media accounts. Over 2500 dat ... Full text Cite

Increasing availability of COVID-19 vaccine to older adults under community supervision.

Journal Article Int J Prison Health · November 15, 2022 PURPOSE: Vaccinating adults who are involved with the carceral system, particularly those aged 55 or older, is crucial to containing the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA, particularly as variants continue to emerge and spread. In this Viewpoint, the authors di ... Full text Link to item Cite

Jail Health Care in the Southeastern United States From Entry to Release.

Journal Article The Milbank quarterly · September 2022 Policy Points As a consequence of mass incarceration and related social inequities in the United States, jails annually incarcerate millions of people who have profound and expensive health care needs. Resources allocated for jail health care are scarce, l ... Full text Cite

Interventions Designed to Improve HIV Continuum of Care Outcomes for Persons with HIV in Contact with the Carceral System in the USA.

Journal Article Curr HIV/AIDS Rep · August 2022 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe existing evidence and identify future directions for intervention research related to improving HIV care outcomes for persons with HIV involved in the carceral system in the USA, a population with high unmet HIV care needs. R ... Full text Link to item Cite

Treatment outcomes associated with medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) among criminal justice-referred admissions to residential treatment in the U.S., 2015-2018.

Journal Article Drug Alcohol Depend · July 1, 2022 AIMS: To examine the use and association of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) with treatment completion and retention for criminal justice referred (CJR) admissions to residential treatment. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the Treatment Episo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age and COVID-19 mortality in the United States: a comparison of the prison and general population.

Journal Article Int J Prison Health · June 23, 2022 PURPOSE: The USA has a rapidly aging prison population that, combined with their poorer health and living conditions, is at extreme risk for COVID-19. The purpose of this paper is to compare COVID-19 mortality trends in the US prison population and the gen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Overlapping Crises: Climate Disaster Susceptibility and Incarceration.

Journal Article Int J Environ Res Public Health · June 17, 2022 Climate-related disasters are becoming more frequent all over the world; however, there is significant variability in the impact of disasters, including which specific communities are the most vulnerable. The objective of this descriptive study was to exam ... Full text Link to item Cite

Treatment preference for opioid use disorder among people who are incarcerated.

Journal Article J Subst Abuse Treat · June 2022 INTRODUCTION: The devastating overdose crisis remains a leading cause of death in the United States, especially among individuals involved in the criminal legal system. Currently, three classes (opioid agonist, partial agonist-antagonist, and antagonist) o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of State COVID-19 Vaccination Prioritization With Vaccination Rates Among Incarcerated Persons.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · April 1, 2022 This cross-sectional study examines the association between prioritization of COVID-19 vaccination for state prison systems and the rate of vaccination among incarcerated persons. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incarcerated workers: overlooked as essential workers.

Journal Article BMC Public Health · March 15, 2022 OBJECTIVE: To use the example of COVID-19 vaccine prioritization for incarcerated workers to call attention to the need to prioritize incarcerated workers' health. METHODS: From November to December 2020, we searched publicly available information (e.g. De ... Full text Link to item Cite

Carceral epidemiology: mass incarceration and structural racism during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal Article Lancet Public Health · March 2022 The COVID-19 pandemic and the ongoing epidemic of mass incarceration are closely intertwined, as COVID-19 entered US prisons and jails at astounding rates. Although observers warned of the swiftness with which COVID-19 could devastate people who are held a ... Full text Link to item Cite

"It's probably going to save my life;" attitudes towards treatment among people incarcerated in the era of fentanyl.

Journal Article Drug Alcohol Depend · March 1, 2022 INTRODUCTION: In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in overdose deaths involving illicitly manufactured fentanyl. The risk of death due to fentanyl exposure is far higher for people without adequate tolerance, such as those being released fro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Opioid Overdose Deaths Among Formerly Incarcerated Persons and the General Population: North Carolina, 2000‒2018.

Journal Article Am J Public Health · February 2022 Objectives. To compare opioid overdose death (OOD) rates among formerly incarcerated persons (FIPs) from 2016 to 2018 with the North Carolina population and with OOD rates from 2000 to 2015. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 259 861 Nor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infectious disease surveillance in U.S. jails: Findings from a national survey.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2022 While infectious diseases (ID) are a well-documented public health issue in carceral settings, research on ID screening and treatment in jails is lacking. A survey was sent to 1,126 jails in the United States to identify the prevalence of health screenings ... Full text Link to item Cite

COVID-19 community spread and consequences for prison case rates.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2022 BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and mass incarceration are closely intertwined with prisons having COVID-19 case rates much higher than the general population. COVID-19 has highlighted the relationship between incarceration and health, but prior work has not explored ... Full text Link to item Cite

Acceptability of a Community Health Worker Program to Link High-Risk People in Jail to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.

Journal Article J Health Care Poor Underserved · 2022 BACKGROUND: People involved in the criminal justice system (PICJS) are at a disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for HIV prevention; however, there are barriers to accessing and remaining on PrEP. We ... Full text Link to item Cite

Improving the Continuity of Care for People Living with HIV Experiencing Incarceration in North Carolina Jails: Stakeholder Perspectives.

Journal Article N C Med J · 2022 BACKGROUND Jail detention can disrupt the continuity of care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). Using a state's "Data to Care" (D2C) program might help overcome this barrier, but raises important questions of data security, personal privacy, resource ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fentanyl-related overdose during incarceration: a comprehensive review

Journal Article Health and Justice · December 1, 2021 Background: Fentanyl and related compounds have recently saturated the illicit drug supply in the United States, leading to unprecedented rates of fatal overdose. Individuals who are incarcerated are particularly vulnerable, as the burden of opioid use dis ... Full text Cite

Engaged scholarship at the Brown University School of Public Health: designing education for better prisoner and community health

Journal Article International Journal of Prisoner Health · November 17, 2021 Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the course, “Designing Education for Better Prisoner and Community Health,” which provided students with the knowledge, skills and resources needed to build real-world health education materials for persons ... Full text Cite

Using implementation interventions and peer recovery support to improve opioid treatment outcomes in community supervision: Protocol.

Journal Article J Subst Abuse Treat · September 2021 OBJECTIVE: The purpose is to determine whether a facilitated local change team (LCT) intervention improves linkage to medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) and implementation outcomes, and whether participant-level outcomes are further enhanced by use ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Transitions Clinic Network: Post Incarceration Addiction Treatment, Healthcare, and Social Support (TCN-PATHS): A hybrid type-1 effectiveness trial of enhanced primary care to improve opioid use disorder treatment outcomes following release from jail.

Journal Article J Subst Abuse Treat · September 2021 BACKGROUND: In 2016, at least 20% of people with opioid use disorder (OUD) were involved in the criminal justice system, with the majority of individuals cycling through jails. Opioid overdose is the leading cause of death and a common cause of morbidity a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Longitudinal pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability, initiation and adherence among criminal justice-involved adults in the USA: the Southern PrEP Cohort Study (SPECS) protocol.

Journal Article BMJ Open · July 16, 2021 INTRODUCTION: HIV prevalence among criminal justice (CJ)-involved adults is five times higher than the general population. Following incarceration, CJ-involved individuals experience multilevel barriers to HIV prevention. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk of COVID-19 infection among prison staff in the United States.

Journal Article BMC Public Health · June 2, 2021 BACKGROUND: Multiple large outbreaks of COVID-19 have been documented in prisons and jails across regions of the world, with hazardous environmental conditions amplify the risks of exposure for both incarcerated people and correctional staff. The objective ... Full text Link to item Cite

Linking Women Experiencing Incarceration to Community-Based HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Care: A Qualitative Study.

Journal Article AIDS Educ Prev · June 2021 Women experiencing incarceration (WEI) in the United States are disproportionately impacted by HIV, yet HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is underutilized by women in the United States. In order to inform an intervention to promote PrEP initiation during ... Full text Link to item Cite

Why we vaccinate incarcerated people first

Journal Article EClinicalMedicine · May 1, 2021 Full text Cite

Optimizing the impact of medications for opioid use disorder at release from prison and jail settings: A microsimulation modeling study.

Journal Article Int J Drug Policy · May 2021 BACKGROUND: We examined the impact of expanded access to medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in a unified prison and jail system on post-release, opioid-related overdose mortality. METHODS: We developed a microsimulation model to simulate a populati ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Factors that Motivate Law Enforcement's Use of Force: A Systematic Review.

Journal Article Am J Community Psychol · March 2021 Media attention relevant to law enforcement use of force in the last decade finally alerted the scientific community to the need for more research regarding law enforcement discretion and decision making. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the exi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prison Population Reductions and COVID-19: A Latent Profile Analysis Synthesizing Recent Evidence From the Texas State Prison System.

Journal Article J Urban Health · February 2021 People in prison are particularly vulnerable to infectious disease due to close living conditions and the lack of protective equipment. As a result, public health professionals and prison administrators seek information to guide best practices and policy r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiology of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in US Immigration and Customs Enforcement Detention Facilities.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · January 4, 2021 This cohort study describes the burden of coronavirus disease 2019 among people detained by US Immigration and Customs Enforcement compared with the US population. ... Full text Link to item Cite

The association between intersystem prison transfers and COVID-19 incidence in a state prison system.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2021 Prisons are the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. Media reports have focused on whether transfers of incarcerated people between prisons have been the source of outbreaks. Our objective was to examine the relationship between intersystem prison transfers ... Full text Link to item Cite

COVID-19 in corrections: Quarantine of incarcerated people.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2021 Carceral settings in the United States have been the source of many single site COVID-19 outbreaks. Quarantine is a strategy used to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in correctional settings, and specific quarantine practices differ state to state. To bette ... Full text Link to item Cite

Initial SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Uptake in a Correctional Setting: Cross-sectional Study.

Journal Article JMIRx Med · 2021 BACKGROUND: The largest outbreaks of COVID-19 in the United States have occurred in correctional facilities, and little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine campaigns among incarcerated people. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Best Practices to Assuage COVID-19 Risk in Jails and Prisons

Chapter · January 1, 2021 Carceral settings have been disparately impacted by the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease COVID-19). Many of those who are incarcerated have a high burden of poor health outcomes and/or are aging, making them likely ... Full text Cite

COVID-19 cases and testing in 53 prison systems.

Journal Article Health Justice · December 11, 2020 BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has entered United States prison systems at alarming rates. Disparities in social and structural determinants of health disproportionately affect those experiencing incarceration, making them more vulnerable to COVID-19. Additionally, ... Full text Link to item Cite

MOUD Provision in Correctional Settings During Time of COVID-19: Prevention and Solutions.

Journal Article J Addict Med · December 2020 : Correctional settings can be vectors of infectious diseases due to overcrowding, unsanitary living conditions, and very little capacity to engage in social distancing. In the US, COVID-19 outbreaks were first identified in the New York City and Cook Coun ... Full text Link to item Cite

Erratum: Scraping the web for public health gains: Ethical considerations from a 'big data' research project on HIV and incarceration (Public Health Ethics DOI: 10.1093/phe/phaa006)

Journal Article Public Health Ethics · November 1, 2020 The first version of this article (doi:10.1093/phe/ phaa006) did not include Colleen Blue as fifth author. This has now been corrected. The authors regret the error. ... Full text Cite

COVID-19 and mass incarceration: a call for urgent action.

Journal Article Lancet Public Health · November 2020 Full text Link to item Cite

Building community resilience to prevent and mitigate community impact of gun violence: conceptual framework and intervention design.

Journal Article BMJ Open · October 10, 2020 INTRODUCTION: The USA has the highest rate of community gun violence of any developed democracy. There is an urgent need to develop feasible, scalable and community-led interventions that mitigate incident gun violence and its associated health impacts. Ou ... Full text Link to item Cite

Making change happen in criminal justice settings: Leveraging implementation science to improve mental health care

Journal Article Health and Justice · September 6, 2020 Background: It is a constitutional right to receive health care, including mental health care, while incarcerated. Yet, even basic evidence-based mental health care practices have not been routinely integrated into criminal justice (CJ) settings. Strategie ... Full text Cite

Practical and Ethical Concerns in Implementing Enhanced Surveillance Methods to Improve Continuity of HIV Care: Qualitative Expert Stakeholder Study.

Journal Article JMIR Public Health Surveill · September 4, 2020 BACKGROUND: Retention in HIV care is critical to maintaining viral suppression and preventing further transmission, yet less than 50% of people living with HIV in the United States are engaged in care. All US states have a funding mandate to implement Data ... Full text Link to item Cite

Expert stakeholders' perspectives on a Data-to-Care strategy for improving care among HIV-positive individuals incarcerated in jails.

Journal Article AIDS Care · September 2020 Data-to-Care (D2C) uses surveillance data (e.g., laboratory, Medicaid billing) to identify out-of-care HIV-positive persons to re-link them to care. Most US states are implementing D2C, yet few studies have explored stakeholders' perspectives on D2C, and n ... Full text Link to item Cite

Postrelease mortality among persons hospitalized during their incarceration.

Journal Article Ann Epidemiol · May 2020 PURPOSE: Health and mortality of people released from incarceration have received increased attention, and yet little is known about the postrelease experiences of those hospitalized during incarceration. METHODS: For persons incarcerated and released from ... Full text Link to item Cite

Internalized stigma and its correlates among justice-involved individuals with mental illness

Journal Article International Journal of Mental Health · April 2, 2020 In the United States, the number of justice-involved individuals living with mental illnesses is large and growing; however, there is little information about internalized stigma experienced by this population. To address this gap, we assessed internalized ... Full text Cite

Scraping the web for public health gains: Ethical considerations from a 'big data' research project on HIV and incarceration

Journal Article Public Health Ethics · April 1, 2020 Web scraping involves using computer programs for automated extraction and organization of data from the Web for the purpose of further data analysis and use. It is frequently used by commercial companies, but also has become a valuable tool in epidemiolog ... Full text Cite

Estimating the impact of wide scale uptake of screening and medications for opioid use disorder in US prisons and jails.

Journal Article Drug Alcohol Depend · March 1, 2020 BACKGROUND: Medications for opioid use disorder (OUD) are the most effective treatment for OUD, but uptake of these life-saving medications has been extremely limited in US prisons and jail settings, and limited data are available to guide policy decisions ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incarceration and the health of detained children.

Journal Article Lancet Public Health · February 2020 Full text Link to item Cite

Intersectional analysis of life stress, incarceration and sexual health risk practices among cisgender Black gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in the Deep South of the US: the MARI Study.

Journal Article Sex Health · February 2020 UNLABELLED: Objectives The purpose of the present study was to examine associations between life stress and incarceration history in relation to sexual health risk practices among a sample of cisgender Black gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with me ... Full text Link to item Cite

Barriers to linking high-risk jail detainees to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2020 Individuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system continue to be at disproportionate risk for HIV infection, and often have a greater prevalence of substance use and sexual related risk behaviors relative to their non-CJ involved peers. Pre-exposure ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interest and Knowledge of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in a Unified Jail and Prison Setting.

Journal Article J Correct Health Care · January 2020 Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be an effective approach to prevent HIV among people who are currently incarcerated or who have been recently released from incarceration. However, awareness and interest in PrEP are largely unknown in this population. T ... Full text Link to item Cite

The benefits and implementation challenges of the first state-wide comprehensive medication for addictions program in a unified jail and prison setting.

Journal Article Drug Alcohol Depend · December 1, 2019 The prevalence of opioid use disorders among people who are incarcerated is high. People who are released from incarceration are at increased risk for overdose. The current study details the first year of implementation of a state-wide medications for addi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Urban, individuals of color are impacted by fentanyl-contaminated heroin.

Journal Article Int J Drug Policy · November 2019 The present phase of the overdose epidemic is characterized by fentanyl-contaminated heroin, particularly in the eastern United States (U.S.). However, there is little research examining how changes in drug potency are affecting urban, racial minority indi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pre-exposure prophylaxis awareness and interest among participants in a medications for addiction treatment program in a unified jail and prison setting in Rhode Island.

Journal Article J Subst Abuse Treat · November 2019 People who are incarcerated are at increased risk for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) acquisition upon release, and one possible intervention for prevention is the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) upon release. The present study assessed HIV risk ... Full text Link to item Cite

Post-release treatment uptake among participants of the Rhode Island Department of Corrections comprehensive medication assisted treatment program.

Journal Article Prev Med · November 2019 The Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RIDOC) recently implemented the first state-wide, comprehensive medications for addiction treatment (MAT) program in the US. The objective of this study was to elucidate perceived barriers for individuals who par ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of Restrictive Housing During Incarceration With Mortality After Release.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · October 2, 2019 IMPORTANCE: Restrictive housing, otherwise known as solitary confinement, during incarceration is associated with poor health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the association of restrictive housing with reincarceration and mortality after release. DESI ... Full text Link to item Cite

Medical Providers and Harm Reduction Views on Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention Among People Who Inject Drugs.

Journal Article AIDS Educ Prev · August 2019 Despite high pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among people who inject drugs (PWID) and PrEP providers, PrEP uptake is low and little is known about how to promote PrEP among PWID. This qualitative study with providers in North Carolina explore ... Full text Link to item Cite

"One guy goes to jail, two people are ready to take his spot": Perspectives on drug-induced homicide laws among incarcerated individuals.

Journal Article Int J Drug Policy · August 2019 BACKGROUND: As overdose deaths have increased in the United States, some lawmakers have explored punitive, "supply-side" interventions aimed at reducing the supply of fentanyl. While a rationale of seeking to protect people who use drugs is often given to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Screening for Opioid Use Disorder in the Largest Jail in Arkansas: A Brief Report.

Journal Article J Correct Health Care · July 2019 Individuals who have experienced incarceration have an increased risk of both fatal and nonfatal overdose. Given the increases in illicit opioid use in Arkansas and across the South, many individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) are likely to encounter t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Best practices for identifying men who have sex with men for corrections-based pre-exposure prophylaxis provision

Journal Article Health and Justice · April 13, 2019 Purpose: Men who have sex with men (MSM) who are incarcerated are at increased risk for HIV acquisition, yet there are challenges associated with disclosing sexual identity/orientation among people who are incarcerated. Methods: The current study used semi ... Full text Cite

Linking women experiencing incarceration to community-based HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis care: protocol of a pilot trial.

Journal Article Addict Sci Clin Pract · March 4, 2019 BACKGROUND: Women experiencing incarceration (WEI) engage in high rates of sex- and drug-related behavior that places them at risk for HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious means of reducing HIV acquisition. There is a general lack of know ... Full text Link to item Cite

Institutional distrust among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men as a barrier to accessing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

Journal Article AIDS Care · March 2019 Populations at highest risk for acquiring HIV are more likely to pass through criminal justice (CJ) settings, and CJ-involved individuals are often at the intersection of multiple overlapping risk factors. The present study explored interest in, knowledge ... Full text Link to item Cite

Criminal justice continuum for opioid users at risk of overdose.

Journal Article Addict Behav · November 2018 The United States (US) is in the midst of an epidemic of opioid use; however, overdose mortality disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, more than half of state prisoners and approximately two-thirds of county jail detainees report issue ... Full text Link to item Cite

Experiences of HIV stigma in rural Southern religious settings

Journal Article International Journal of Culture and Mental Health · October 2, 2018 Experiences of stigma, including stigma in religious settings, among individuals who are HIV positive have been widely documented. However, research related to stigma has predominantly focussed on urban locations. As a result, stigma incurred via religious ... Full text Cite

Health Literacy and Demographic Disparities in HIV Care Continuum Outcomes.

Journal Article AIDS Behav · August 2018 Studies evaluating the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continuum of care outcomes [antiretroviral (ART) adherence, retention in care, viral suppression] and health literacy have yielded conflicting results. Moreover, studie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Opioid Use Among Those Who Have Criminal Justice Experience: Harm Reduction Strategies to Lessen HIV Risk.

Journal Article Curr HIV/AIDS Rep · June 2018 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the HIV and opioid literature relevant to harm reduction strategies for those with criminal justice experience. RECENT FINDINGS: Opioid use in the United States has risen at an alarming rate recently. This has led to increase ... Full text Link to item Cite

Syringe Decriminalization Advocacy in Red States: Lessons from the North Carolina Harm Reduction Coalition.

Journal Article Curr HIV/AIDS Rep · June 2018 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Syringe access programs (SAPs) are cornerstone harm reduction interventions for combatting the national opioid epidemic. The goal of this paper is to describe effective advocacy strategies for enacting syringe decriminalization legislati ... Full text Link to item Cite

HIV Clustering in Mississippi: Spatial Epidemiological Study to Inform Implementation Science in the Deep South.

Journal Article JMIR Public Health Surveill · April 3, 2018 BACKGROUND: In recent years, more than half of new HIV infections in the United States occur among African Americans in the Southeastern United States. Spatial epidemiological analyses can inform public health responses in the Deep South by identifying HIV ... Full text Link to item Cite

Postincarceration Fatal Overdoses After Implementing Medications for Addiction Treatment in a Statewide Correctional System.

Journal Article JAMA Psychiatry · April 1, 2018 This analysis examines the association of death from overdose among individuals released from the Rhode Island correctional system after implementation of a comprehensive program of medications for addiction therapy. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk of fentanyl-involved overdose among those with past year incarceration: Findings from a recent outbreak in 2014 and 2015.

Journal Article Drug Alcohol Depend · April 1, 2018 Overdose is the leading cause of unintentional injury-related death. Rhode Island (RI) has the highest rate of illicit drug use nationally and the 5th highest overdose mortality rate. RI has experienced an outbreak of fentanyl-related overdoses. In incarce ... Full text Link to item Cite

A randomized, open label trial of methadone continuation versus forced withdrawal in a combined US prison and jail: Findings at 12 months post-release.

Journal Article Drug Alcohol Depend · March 1, 2018 Recently, incarcerated individuals are at increased risk of opioid overdose. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an effective way to address opioid use disorder and prevent overdose; however, few jails and prisons in the United States initiate or cont ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exploring Healthcare Experiences for Incarcerated Individuals Who Identify as Transgender in a Southern Jail

Journal Article Transgender Health · February 1, 2018 Purpose: To document the health-related experiences and needs of jail detainees who self-identified as transgender women. Methods: Semistructured interviews with 10 transgender women of color were conducted in a county jail in a mid-sized southern city bet ... Full text Cite

Knowledge, interest, and anticipated barriers of pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and adherence among gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men who are incarcerated.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 Criminal justice (CJ) settings disproportionately include populations at high risk for acquiring HIV, and CJ-involved individuals are often at the intersection of multiple overlapping risk factors. However, few studies have examined attitudes about pre-exp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk behaviors and HIV care continuum outcomes among criminal justice-involved HIV-infected transgender women and cisgender men: Data from the Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain Harmonization Initiative.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 BACKGROUND: Transgender persons are highly victimized, marginalized, disproportionately experience incarceration, and have alarmingly increased rates of HIV infection compared to cis-gender persons. Few studies have examined the HIV care continuum outcomes ... Full text Link to item Cite

Statewide mental health training for probation officers: improving knowledge and decreasing stigma

Journal Article Health and Justice · December 1, 2017 Background: The large and growing number of probationers with mental illnesses pose significant challenges to the probationer officers who supervise them. Stigma towards mental illnesses among probation officers is largely unstudied and the effectiveness o ... Full text Cite

Commentary: the importance of Medicaid expansion for criminal justice populations in the south

Journal Article Health and Justice · December 1, 2017 Though the full implications of a Trump presidency for ongoing health care and criminal justice reform efforts remain uncertain, whatever policy changes are made will be particularly salient for the South, which experiences the highest incarceration rates, ... Full text Cite

Daily Marijuana Use is Associated with Missed Clinic Appointments Among HIV-Infected Persons Engaged in HIV Care.

Journal Article AIDS Behav · July 2017 We assessed the association between marijuana use and retention in HIV care through a retrospective cohort study of patients engaged in care at a large HIV clinic in 2011 and 2012. Two different retention outcomes were assessed: not meeting the Institute o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Addressing excess risk of overdose among recently incarcerated people in the USA: harm reduction interventions in correctional settings.

Journal Article Int J Prison Health · March 13, 2017 Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss overdose among those with criminal justice experience and recommend harm reduction strategies to lessen overdose risk among this vulnerable population. Design/methodology/approach Strategies are needed to red ... Full text Link to item Cite

Defining the HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis care continuum.

Journal Article AIDS · March 13, 2017 Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy. There is little scientific consensus about how to measure PrEP program implementation progress. We draw on several years of experience in implementing PrEP programs and propose a PrEP ... Full text Link to item Cite

Latent class analysis of acceptability and willingness to pay for self-HIV testing in a United States urban neighbourhood with high rates of HIV infection.

Journal Article J Int AIDS Soc · January 17, 2017 INTRODUCTION: Acceptability and willingness to both take and pay for HIV self-tests (HIVSTs) in US neighbourhoods with high rates of HIV infection are not well understood. METHODS: We surveyed 1,535 individuals about acceptability and willingness to take a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Social, structural, behavioral and clinical factors influencing retention in Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) care in Mississippi.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2017 Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical intervention that can reduce rates of HIV transmission when taken once daily by HIV-negative individuals. Little is understood about PrEP uptake and retention in care among the populations most heavily impact ... Full text Link to item Cite

Condom use and incarceration among STI clinic attendees in the Deep South.

Journal Article BMC Public Health · September 13, 2016 BACKGROUND: Incarceration history is associated with lower rates of condom use and increased HIV risk. Less is known about duration of incarceration and multiple incarcerations' impact on condom use post-release. METHODS: In the current study, we surveyed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical care of incarcerated people with HIV, viral hepatitis, or tuberculosis.

Journal Article Lancet · September 10, 2016 The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Individual and Partner-Level Factors Associated with Condom Non-Use Among African American STI Clinic Attendees in the Deep South: An Event-Level Analysis.

Journal Article AIDS Behav · June 2016 The US HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated in the Deep South, yet factors contributing to HIV transmission are not fully understood. We examined relationships between substance use, sexual partnership characteristics, and condom non-use in an African America ... Full text Link to item Cite

Introduction

Book · January 4, 2016 Full text Cite

Academics in action!: A model for community-engaged research, teaching, and service

Book · January 4, 2016 The academy is often described as an ivory tower, isolated from the community surrounding it. Presenting the theory, vision, and implementation of a socially engaged program for the Department of Human and Organizational Development (HOD) in Peabody's Coll ... Cite

Understanding the Effects of Multiple Stigmas Among Formerly Incarcerated HIV-Positive African American Men.

Journal Article AIDS Educ Prev · April 2015 Race, HIV, and incarceration, as individual and intersecting markers of social identity, have associated stigma. While some research has indicated multiple burdens of stigma can be additive, there remains a lack of investigation relative to the effects of ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Interdependence of African American Men's Definitions of Manhood and Health.

Journal Article Fam Community Health · 2015 In this article, we explore themes that cut across how 24- to 77-year-old African American men define manhood and health. Utilizing a thematic approach, we analyzed data from 9 focus groups (N = 73). We found that manhood and health were relational constru ... Full text Link to item Cite

Health literacy as a process: caseworker perspectives on HIV health literacy.

Journal Article Soc Work Public Health · 2015 Health status and health literacy are interrelated. Previous research suggests that this relationship must be considered when providing services to HIV positive individuals. However, the pathways through which health literacy affects HIV remain unclear. Th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Leadership religiosity: A critical analysis

Journal Article Leadership and Organization Development Journal · August 26, 2014 Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of leadership religiosity in a local non-profit organizational setting, from a larger program evaluation project, and to problematize prevailing theoretical assumptions in the leadership religi ... Full text Cite

Shifting Perceptions of Race and Incarceration as Adolescents Age: Addressing Disproportionate Minority Contact by Understanding How Social Environment Informs Racial Attitudes

Journal Article Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal · February 1, 2014 African American youth disproportionately experience incarceration in the United States and a number of programs have been created to address disproportionate minority contact (DMC) with the juvenile justice system. Thus, we aim to understand the ways in w ... Full text Cite

Exploring the experiences of violence among individuals who are homeless using a consumer-led approach.

Journal Article Violence Vict · 2014 Homelessness increases vulnerability to violence victimization; however, the precise factors associated with victimization and injury are not clearly understood. Thus, this study explores the prevalence of and characteristics associated with violence victi ... Full text Link to item Cite

A latent class analysis of stigmatizing attitudes and knowledge of HIV risk among youth in South Africa.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 BACKGROUND: The current study aims to investigate how the ability to accurately gauge risk factors associated with contracting HIV while taking into consideration various individual and community level socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., race and pove ... Full text Link to item Cite

Leveraging Identity, Gaining Access: Explorations of Self in Diverse Field-Based Research Settings

Journal Article Journal of Community Practice · January 1, 2014 Negotiating identity is a salient feature of many researchers' experiences. In this article, we expand on the current literature in examining how interdisciplinary scholars leverage identity to engage with diverse populations, organizations, and informatio ... Full text Cite

Health impact of incarceration on HIV-positive African American males: a qualitative exploration.

Journal Article AIDS Patient Care STDS · August 2013 Previous research suggests that incarceration can have a negative effect on health. These health effects have an especially profound impact on HIV-positive individuals. As such, the current study investigates how incarceration affects the health of 12 Afri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Putting desert in its place

Journal Article Stanford Law Review · February 1, 2013 Based on an impressive array of studies, Paul Robinson and his coauthors have developed a new theory of criminal justice, which they call "empirical desert." The theory asserts that, because people are more likely to be compliant with a legal regime that i ... Cite

The connection between serious life events, anti-retroviral adherence, and mental health among HIV-positive individuals in the Western Cape, South Africa.

Journal Article AIDS care · January 2013 South Africa currently has one of the world's largest rates of HIV infection. A majority of the existing research focuses on individual risk behaviors that lead to increased risk of HIV contraction while also acknowledging the importance of the social and ... Full text Cite