Skip to main content

Matthew Kelly

Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases
3 Genome Court, MSRB3, Room 4128, DUMC 102346, Durham, NC 27710
3 Genome Court, MSRB3, Room 4128, DUMC 102346, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


Immunogenicity of Monovalent mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 Vaccines in Children <5 Years of Age.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 1, 2024 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The messenger RNA (mRNA)-based coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines approved for use in children <5 years of age have different antigen doses and administration schedules that could affect vaccine immunogenicity and effectiveness. W ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comprehensive Assessment of the Intrinsic Pancreatic Microbiome.

Journal Article Ann Surg · April 16, 2024 OBJECTIVE: We sought to comprehensively profile tissue and cyst fluid in patients with benign, precancerous, and cancerous conditions of the pancreas to characterize the intrinsic pancreatic microbiome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Small studies in pancreatic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Understanding the influence of the microbiome on childhood infections.

Journal Article Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther · April 12, 2024 INTRODUCTION: The microbiome is known to have a substantial impact on human health and disease. However, the impacts of the microbiome on immune system development, susceptibility to infectious diseases, and vaccine-elicited immune responses are emerging a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Persistent Lower Extremity Compensation for Sagittal Imbalance After Surgical Correction of Complex Adult Spinal Deformity: A Radiographic Analysis of Early Impact.

Journal Article Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) · February 1, 2024 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Achieving spinopelvic realignment during adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery does not always produce ideal outcomes. Little is known whether compensation in lower extremities (LEs) plays a role in this disassociation. The object ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Child Health Needs and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Workforce: 2020-2040.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 1, 2024 Pediatric infectious diseases (PID) physicians prevent and treat childhood infections through clinical care, research, public health, education, antimicrobial stewardship, and infection prevention. This article is part of an American Board of Pediatrics Fo ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Microbiome and Pediatric Transplantation.

Journal Article Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society · February 2024 The microbial communities that inhabit our bodies have been increasingly linked to host physiology and pathophysiology. This microbiome, through its role in colonization resistance, influences the risk of infections after transplantation, including those c ... Full text Cite

The effects of antibiotic exposures on the gut resistome during hematopoietic cell transplantation in children.

Journal Article Gut Microbes · 2024 Antibiotic resistance is a global threat driven primarily by antibiotic use. We evaluated the effects of antibiotic exposures on the gut microbiomes and resistomes of children at high risk of colonization by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We performed shot ... Full text Link to item Cite

Serotype epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of pneumococcal isolates colonizing infants in Botswana (2016-2019).

Journal Article PLoS One · 2024 BACKGROUND: In 2012, Botswana introduced 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) to its childhood immunization program in a 3+0 schedule, achieving coverage rates of above 90% by 2014. In other settings, PCV introduction has been followed by an i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Imipenem/Cilastatin/Relebactam in Children with Confirmed or Suspected Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: A Phase 1b, Open-Label, Single-Dose Clinical Trial.

Journal Article J Clin Pharmacol · December 2023 Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam is approved for the treatment of serious gram-negative bacterial infections in adults. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of a single dose of imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam (with a fixed 2 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Financial burden and recommended multilevel solutions among caregivers of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

Journal Article Pediatr Blood Cancer · December 2023 BACKGROUND: The healthcare costs of patients who receive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are substantial. At the same time, the increasing use of pediatric HSCT leaves more caregivers of pediatric HSCT recipients at risk for financial burden ... Full text Link to item Cite

Strain-resolved metagenomic analysis of the gut as a reservoir for bloodstream infection pathogens among premature infants in Singapore.

Journal Article Gut Pathog · November 16, 2023 BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis contributes to the high risk of bloodstream infection (BSI) among premature infants. Most prior studies of the premature infant gut microbiota were conducted in Western countries and prior to development of current tools for strai ... Full text Link to item Cite

Host microbiome-pathogen interactions in pediatric infections.

Journal Article Curr Opin Infect Dis · October 1, 2023 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss recent research that has furthered our understanding of microbiome development during childhood, the role of the microbiome in infections during this life stage, and emerging opportunities for microbiome-based ... Full text Link to item Cite

Leveraging the human microbiota to target bacterial respiratory pathogens: new paths toward an expanded antimicrobial armamentarium.

Journal Article mBio · August 31, 2023 Acute respiratory infections are the most frequent infections across the lifespan and are the leading infectious cause of death among children globally. Bacterial respiratory infections are routinely treated with antibiotics, nearly all of which are derive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Revisiting the intrinsic mycobiome in pancreatic cancer.

Journal Article Nature · August 2023 A growing body of literature suggests that alterations in the human microbiome are causative of disease initiation and progression. Aykut et al. present data supporting the argument that alterations in the gut fungal microbiome (the “mycobiome”), along wit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial Inequities in Sepsis Mortality Among Children in the United States.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · May 1, 2023 BACKGROUND: Racial inequities influence health outcomes in the United States, but their impact on sepsis outcomes among children is understudied. We aimed to evaluate for racial inequities in sepsis mortality using a nationally representative sample of ped ... Full text Link to item Cite

Case Report: Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in children with complete DiGeorge anomaly.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2023 Children with complete DiGeorge anomaly (cDGA) have congenital athymia, resulting in severe T cell immunodeficiency and susceptibility to a broad range of infections. We report the clinical course, immunologic phenotypes, treatment, and outcomes of three c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunogenicity of Monovalent mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 Vaccines in Children <5 Years of Age.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 1, 2024 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The messenger RNA (mRNA)-based coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines approved for use in children <5 years of age have different antigen doses and administration schedules that could affect vaccine immunogenicity and effectiveness. W ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comprehensive Assessment of the Intrinsic Pancreatic Microbiome.

Journal Article Ann Surg · April 16, 2024 OBJECTIVE: We sought to comprehensively profile tissue and cyst fluid in patients with benign, precancerous, and cancerous conditions of the pancreas to characterize the intrinsic pancreatic microbiome. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Small studies in pancreatic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Understanding the influence of the microbiome on childhood infections.

Journal Article Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther · April 12, 2024 INTRODUCTION: The microbiome is known to have a substantial impact on human health and disease. However, the impacts of the microbiome on immune system development, susceptibility to infectious diseases, and vaccine-elicited immune responses are emerging a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Persistent Lower Extremity Compensation for Sagittal Imbalance After Surgical Correction of Complex Adult Spinal Deformity: A Radiographic Analysis of Early Impact.

Journal Article Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) · February 1, 2024 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Achieving spinopelvic realignment during adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery does not always produce ideal outcomes. Little is known whether compensation in lower extremities (LEs) plays a role in this disassociation. The object ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Child Health Needs and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Workforce: 2020-2040.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 1, 2024 Pediatric infectious diseases (PID) physicians prevent and treat childhood infections through clinical care, research, public health, education, antimicrobial stewardship, and infection prevention. This article is part of an American Board of Pediatrics Fo ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Microbiome and Pediatric Transplantation.

Journal Article Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society · February 2024 The microbial communities that inhabit our bodies have been increasingly linked to host physiology and pathophysiology. This microbiome, through its role in colonization resistance, influences the risk of infections after transplantation, including those c ... Full text Cite

The effects of antibiotic exposures on the gut resistome during hematopoietic cell transplantation in children.

Journal Article Gut Microbes · 2024 Antibiotic resistance is a global threat driven primarily by antibiotic use. We evaluated the effects of antibiotic exposures on the gut microbiomes and resistomes of children at high risk of colonization by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We performed shot ... Full text Link to item Cite

Serotype epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of pneumococcal isolates colonizing infants in Botswana (2016-2019).

Journal Article PLoS One · 2024 BACKGROUND: In 2012, Botswana introduced 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) to its childhood immunization program in a 3+0 schedule, achieving coverage rates of above 90% by 2014. In other settings, PCV introduction has been followed by an i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Imipenem/Cilastatin/Relebactam in Children with Confirmed or Suspected Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: A Phase 1b, Open-Label, Single-Dose Clinical Trial.

Journal Article J Clin Pharmacol · December 2023 Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam is approved for the treatment of serious gram-negative bacterial infections in adults. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of a single dose of imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam (with a fixed 2 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Financial burden and recommended multilevel solutions among caregivers of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

Journal Article Pediatr Blood Cancer · December 2023 BACKGROUND: The healthcare costs of patients who receive hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are substantial. At the same time, the increasing use of pediatric HSCT leaves more caregivers of pediatric HSCT recipients at risk for financial burden ... Full text Link to item Cite

Strain-resolved metagenomic analysis of the gut as a reservoir for bloodstream infection pathogens among premature infants in Singapore.

Journal Article Gut Pathog · November 16, 2023 BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis contributes to the high risk of bloodstream infection (BSI) among premature infants. Most prior studies of the premature infant gut microbiota were conducted in Western countries and prior to development of current tools for strai ... Full text Link to item Cite

Host microbiome-pathogen interactions in pediatric infections.

Journal Article Curr Opin Infect Dis · October 1, 2023 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss recent research that has furthered our understanding of microbiome development during childhood, the role of the microbiome in infections during this life stage, and emerging opportunities for microbiome-based ... Full text Link to item Cite

Leveraging the human microbiota to target bacterial respiratory pathogens: new paths toward an expanded antimicrobial armamentarium.

Journal Article mBio · August 31, 2023 Acute respiratory infections are the most frequent infections across the lifespan and are the leading infectious cause of death among children globally. Bacterial respiratory infections are routinely treated with antibiotics, nearly all of which are derive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Revisiting the intrinsic mycobiome in pancreatic cancer.

Journal Article Nature · August 2023 A growing body of literature suggests that alterations in the human microbiome are causative of disease initiation and progression. Aykut et al. present data supporting the argument that alterations in the gut fungal microbiome (the “mycobiome”), along wit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial Inequities in Sepsis Mortality Among Children in the United States.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · May 1, 2023 BACKGROUND: Racial inequities influence health outcomes in the United States, but their impact on sepsis outcomes among children is understudied. We aimed to evaluate for racial inequities in sepsis mortality using a nationally representative sample of ped ... Full text Link to item Cite

Case Report: Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in children with complete DiGeorge anomaly.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2023 Children with complete DiGeorge anomaly (cDGA) have congenital athymia, resulting in severe T cell immunodeficiency and susceptibility to a broad range of infections. We report the clinical course, immunologic phenotypes, treatment, and outcomes of three c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Abnormal Spirometry Is Common Among Adults With and Without HIV in Botswana

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · 2023 Cite

Association of Gut Microbiome With COVID-19 Status in Children in the BRAVE Cohort

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY · 2023 Cite

Evaluation of Recombinant Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Vaccines RSV/ΔNS2/Δ1313/I1314L and RSV/276 in RSV-Seronegative Children.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · December 13, 2022 BACKGROUND: This United States-based study compared 2 candidate vaccines: RSV/ΔNS2/Δ1313/I1314L, attenuated by NS2 gene-deletion and temperature-sensitivity mutation in the polymerase gene; and RSV/276, attenuated by M2-2 deletion. METHODS: RSV-seronegativ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-Related Changes in the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome Are Associated With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection and Symptoms Among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 24, 2022 BACKGROUND: Children are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and typically have milder illness courses than adults, but the factors underlying these age-associated differences are not well understood. The upper respiratory microbiome undergoes substan ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Kinetics of pneumococcal antibodies among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants in Botswana.

Journal Article Vaccine · August 5, 2022 BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of severe infections among children. Despite vaccination, HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children have a higher incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease than HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) children. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Understanding the financial and psychological impact of employment disruption among caregivers of pediatric HSCT recipients: a mixed methods analysis.

Journal Article Support Care Cancer · June 2022 PURPOSE: Pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) confers a substantial financial burden onto patients' families. In addition to high direct medical costs, HSCTs typically require at least one caregiver to take time away from work or other ... Full text Link to item Cite

Asthma and the Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Children and Adolescents.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: Over 6 million pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have occurred in the United States, but risk factors for infection remain poorly defined. We sought to evaluate the association between asthma and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium species are associated with decreased risk of pneumococcal colonization during infancy.

Journal Article ISME J · March 2022 Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of severe infections among children and adults. Interactions between commensal microbes in the upper respiratory tract and S. pneumoniae are poorly described. In this study, we sought to identify i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk Factors for CMV Viremia and Treatment-Associated Adverse Events Among Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · February 2022 BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are limited data on risk factors for CMV viremia and the safety of antiviral medications used to treat CMV in children. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evolution of pneumococcal serotype epidemiology in Botswana following introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2022 Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines reduce the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease, but the sustained effect of these vaccines can be diminished by an increase in disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes. To describe pneumococcal serotype epidemiology in Bo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epstein-Barr Virus DNAemia and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2022 BACKGROUND: Pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients commonly have Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia and are at risk of developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). EBV DNAemia has not been analyzed on a continuous scale in this ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply to Anderson and Caniza.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 2, 2021 Full text Link to item Cite

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infections Among Children in the Biospecimens from Respiratory Virus-Exposed Kids (BRAVE Kids) Study.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 2, 2021 BACKGROUND: Child with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection typically have mild symptoms that do not require medical attention, leaving a gap in our understanding of the spectrum of SARS-CoV-2-related illnesses that the vi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Global Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Related Infant Community Deaths.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · September 2, 2021 BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of pediatric death, with >99% of mortality occurring in low- and lower middle-income countries. At least half of RSV-related deaths are estimated to occur in the community, but clinical chara ... Full text Link to item Cite

Asymptomatic or mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection elicits durable neutralizing antibody responses in children and adolescents.

Journal Article JCI insight · September 2021 As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread globally, questions have emerged regarding the strength and durability of immune responses in specific populations. In this study, we evaluated humoral immune responses in 69 children and adolescents with asymptomatic or m ... Full text Cite

Decreased Mortality in 1-Year Survivors of Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant vs. Matched Related or Matched Unrelated Donor Transplant in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

Journal Article Transplant Cell Ther · August 2021 Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) has the potential to cure hematologic malignancies but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although deaths during the first year after transplantation are often attributable to tr ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Effect of Haemophilus influenzae Type b and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations and Deaths in Botswana.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · July 15, 2021 BACKGROUND: Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children. Few data exist regarding the effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) on the burden of childhood pneumonia in A ... Full text Link to item Cite

Asymptomatic or mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection elicits durable neutralizing antibody responses in children and adolescents.

Journal Article medRxiv · April 20, 2021 As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread globally, questions have emerged regarding the strength and durability of immune responses in specific populations. In this study, we evaluated humoral immune responses in 69 children and adolescents with asymptomatic or m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related changes in the upper respiratory microbiome are associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and illness severity.

Journal Article medRxiv · March 23, 2021 UNLABELLED: Children are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and typically have milder illness courses than adults. We studied the nasopharyngeal microbiomes of 274 children, adolescents, and young adults with SARS-CoV-2 exposure using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Dysregulated transcriptional responses to SARS-CoV-2 in the periphery.

Journal Article Nat Commun · February 17, 2021 SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to trigger a wide spectrum of immune responses and clinical manifestations in human hosts. Here, we sought to elucidate novel aspects of the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection through RNA sequencing of peripheral bloo ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics and Risk of Graft-versus-Host Disease in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Transplantation for Acute Leukemia: Association of Carbapenem Use with the Risk of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Journal Article Transplant Cell Ther · February 2021 Variation in the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Because antibiotics induce dysbiosis, we examined the association of broad-spectrum antibioti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bacterial Signatures of Paediatric Respiratory Disease: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis.

Journal Article Front Microbiol · 2021 Introduction: The airway microbiota has been linked to specific paediatric respiratory diseases, but studies are often small. It remains unclear whether particular bacteria are associated with a given disease, or if a more general, non-specific microbiota ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lessons From COVID-19 in Children: Key Hypotheses to Guide Preventative and Therapeutic Strategies.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 5, 2020 The current pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reveals a peculiar trend of milder disease and lower case fatality in children compared with adults. Consisten ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anaerobic Antibiotics and the Risk of Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Journal Article Biol Blood Marrow Transplant · November 2020 Certain anaerobic bacteria are important for maintenance of gut barrier integrity and immune tolerance and may influence the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We conducted a single-cen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microbiology of Bloodstream Infections in Children After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience Over Two Decades (1997-2017).

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · November 2020 BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) occur frequently after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We examined the microbiology of BSI in pediatric HSCT recipients over a 2-decade period at our institution to inform empirical antimicrobial pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among Children in the Biospecimens from Respiratory Virus-Exposed Kids (BRAVE Kids) Study.

Journal Article medRxiv · September 1, 2020 BACKGROUND: Children with SARS-CoV-2 infection typically have mild symptoms that do not require medical attention, leaving a gap in our understanding of the spectrum of illnesses that the virus causes in children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Dysregulated transcriptional responses to SARS-CoV-2 in the periphery support novel diagnostic approaches.

Journal Article medRxiv · July 26, 2020 In order to elucidate novel aspects of the host response to SARS-CoV-2 we performed RNA sequencing on peripheral blood samples across 77 timepoints from 46 subjects with COVID-19 and compared them to subjects with seasonal coronavirus, influenza, bacterial ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Placental Transfer of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Antibody Among HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Infants.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · July 13, 2020 BACKGROUND: Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with lower placental transfer of antibodies specific to several childhood pathogens. Our objective for this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal HIV infection on the pl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Long-term stability of microbiome diversity and composition in fecal samples stored in eNAT medium.

Journal Article Microbiologyopen · July 2020 Fecal samples collected for microbiome analyses are typically frozen to avoid postcollection changes in microbial composition. eNAT is a guanidine thiocyanate-based medium that stabilizes microbial DNA and allows safe specimen handling and shipping by inac ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interpretation of pediatric chest radiographs by non-radiologist clinicians in Botswana using World Health Organization criteria for endpoint pneumonia.

Journal Article Pediatr Radiol · June 2020 BACKGROUND: In low- and middle-income countries, chest radiographs are most frequently interpreted by non-radiologist clinicians. OBJECTIVE: We examined the reliability of chest radiograph interpretations performed by non-radiologist clinicians in Botswana ... Full text Link to item Cite

The stepwise assembly of the neonatal virome is modulated by breastfeeding.

Journal Article Nature · May 2020 The gut of healthy human neonates is usually devoid of viruses at birth, but quickly becomes colonized, which-in some cases-leads to gastrointestinal disorders1-4. Here we show that the assembly of the viral community in neonates takes place in distinct st ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microbiology and Risk Factors for Hospital-Associated Bloodstream Infections Among Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · April 2020 BACKGROUND: Children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at high risk for hospital-associated bloodstream infections (HA-BSIs). This study aimed to describe the incidence, microbiology, and risk factors for HA-BSI in pediatric HSC ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Association of Adverse Hearing, Growth, and Discharge Age Outcomes With Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection in Infants With Very Low Birth Weight.

Journal Article JAMA Pediatr · February 1, 2020 IMPORTANCE: Studies suggest that postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can lead to long-term morbidity in infants with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g), including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and neurodevelopm ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microbiome implications in transplantation and oncology

Chapter · January 1, 2020 At birth, infants become colonized with trillions of commensal microbes that play important roles in health and disease. The majority of these microbes reside in the gastrointestinal tract. Complex microbial communities are also found on all human surfaces ... Full text Cite

The prevalence and clinical characteristics of pertussis-associated pneumonia among infants in Botswana.

Journal Article BMC Pediatr · November 16, 2019 BACKGROUND: There are scant data on the prevalence and clinical course of pertussis disease among infants with pneumonia in low- and middle-income countries. While pertussis vaccination coverage is high (≥90%) among infants in Botswana, human immunodeficie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gut Colonization Preceding Mucosal Barrier Injury Bloodstream Infection in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients.

Journal Article Biol Blood Marrow Transplant · November 2019 The gastrointestinal tract is the predicted reservoir for most bloodstream infections (BSIs) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomics have the potential to improve our understanding of the dynam ... Full text Link to item Cite

Predictors of Poor Outcomes Among Infants With Respiratory Syncytial Virus-associated Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Botswana.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · May 2019 Among children 1-23 months of age with respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory infection in Botswana, young age (<6 months), household use of wood as a cooking fuel, moderate or severe malnutrition and oxygen saturation <90% on room ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reduction in Mortality after Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation in Children Over a 20-Year Period (1995-2014).

Journal Article Biol Blood Marrow Transplant · April 2019 Infections and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have historically resulted in high mortality among children undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). However, recent advances in clinical practice have likely improved outcomes of these patient ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Investigating Mediators of the Poor Pneumonia Outcomes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed but Uninfected Children.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · March 28, 2019 BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected (HIV-EU) children have a higher mortality rate than the children of HIV-negative mothers (HIV-unexposed). Causal mediators of the poor health outcomes of HIV-EU children remain poorly defined. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pneumococcal Colonization and the Nasopharyngeal Microbiota of Children in Botswana.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · November 2018 BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. A more detailed understanding of interactions between S. pneumoniae and the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children could inform strategies to prevent pneumococca ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utility of Autopsy among Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: One Last Chance to Learn?

Journal Article Biol Blood Marrow Transplant · September 2018 Autopsy may confirm clinical diagnoses or identify conditions that were not suspected prior to a patient's death. Previous studies evaluating the utility of autopsy in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients yielded conflicting results. We con ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Use of Population Pharmacokinetics and Electronic Health Records to Assess Piperacillin-Tazobactam Safety in Infants.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · September 2017 BACKGROUND: Piperacillin, in combination with tazobactam, is frequently used in infants for treating nosocomial infections, although safety data in this population are limited. Electronic health record (EHR) data can be used to evaluate drug safety in infa ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Nasopharyngeal Microbiota of Children With Respiratory Infections in Botswana.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · September 2017 BACKGROUND: Nearly half of child pneumonia deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Microbial communities in the nasopharynx are a reservoir for pneumonia pathogens and remain poorly described in African children. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected fr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Timing of Multiorgan Dysfunction among Hospitalized Infants with Fatal Fulminant Sepsis.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · June 2017 Objective Identify the progression of specific signs of multiorgan dysfunction among infants with fatal sepsis. Study Design Cohort study of 679 infants who died within 3 days of the start of a late-onset sepsis (LOS) episode in neonatal intensive care uni ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rapid enteric testing to permit targeted antimicrobial therapy, with and without Lactobacillus reuteri probiotics, for paediatric acute diarrhoeal disease in Botswana: A pilot, randomized, factorial, controlled trial.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2017 INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resour ... Full text Link to item Cite

Chest Radiographic Findings and Outcomes of Pneumonia Among Children in Botswana.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · March 2016 BACKGROUND: Chest radiography is increasingly used to diagnose pneumonia in low-income and middle-income countries. Few studies examined whether chest radiographic findings predict outcomes of children with clinically suspected pneumonia in these settings. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection and the Risk for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Journal Article JAMA Pediatr · December 2015 IMPORTANCE: Postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) is typically benign in term infants but in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants can cause pneumonitis and sepsislike illness. Whether postnatal CMV infection results in long-term pulmonary sequelae in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Treatment Failures and Excess Mortality Among HIV-Exposed, Uninfected Children With Pneumonia.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 2015 BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU) children are at increased risk of infectious illnesses and mortality compared with children of HIV-negative mothers (HIV-unexposed). However, treatment outcomes for lower respirato ... Full text Link to item Cite

The epidemiology and diagnosis of invasive candidiasis among premature infants.

Journal Article Clin Perinatol · March 2015 Invasive candidiasis is a leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Improved recognition of modifiable risk factors and antifungal prophylaxis has contributed to the recent decline in the incidence of this infection among in ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of exposure to wood smoke on outcomes of childhood pneumonia in Botswana.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · March 2015 SETTING: Tertiary hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether exposure to wood smoke worsens outcomes of childhood pneumonia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of children aged 1-23 months meeting clinical criteria for pneumonia. Household ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of respiratory viruses with outcomes of severe childhood pneumonia in Botswana.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2015 BACKGROUND: The highest incidence of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) is in low- and middle-income countries. Few studies examined whether detection of respiratory viruses predicts ALRI outcomes in these settings. METHODS: We conduc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Moving CLABSI Prevention beyond the Intensive Care Unit: Risk Factors in Pediatric Oncology Patients

Journal Article Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology · November 2011 Background and Objective.Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) frequently complicate the use of central venous catheters (CVCs) among pediatric patients with cancer. ... Full text Cite