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Warren Grimes Hall

Anne W. Deane Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Comparative Neurobiology
Psychology & Neuroscience
Box 90086, Durham, NC 27708-0086
229 Soc-Psych, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Appetitive Responses to Dehydration and Food-Deprivation are Learned

Journal Article Psychological Behavior · 2002 Cite

Thirst modulates a perception.

Journal Article Perception · January 2001 Does thirst make you more likely to think you see water? Tales of thirsty desert travelers and oasis mirages are consistent with our intuitions that appetitive state can influence what we see in the world. Yet there has been surprisingly little scrutiny of ... Full text Cite

Olfactory conditioning facilitates diet transition in human infants.

Journal Article · November 2000 We evaluated whether Pavlovian conditioning methods could be used to increase the ingestion of non-preferred solutions by formula-fed human infants. In baseline measures, 5-7 month old infants sucked less frequently and consumed less water than regular for ... Open Access Cite

The acquisition of an appetite.

Journal Article Psychological science · March 2000 Unlike older animals, weanling-age rats do not seek water to drink when they are dehydrated, despite the fact that a physiological sensitivity to dehydration is present very soon after birth. We demonstrate here that the appetitive behaviors needed to appr ... Full text Cite

Conditioned changes in appetitive and consummatory responses to flavors paired with oral or nutrient reinforcement among adult rats.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · March 2000 Recent studies of the behavioral organization of conditioned flavor preferences have suggested the involvement of at least two separate learning systems-an appetitive response system sensitive to the oral hedonic properties of the reinforcer, and a consumm ... Full text Cite

Evidence that oral and nutrient reinforcers differentially condition appetitive and consummatory responses to flavors.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · June 1998 Rats tend to increase their intake of a flavor that has previously been paired with either sweet taste or with caloric repletion. However, it is unclear whether such a change in intake is caused by changes in appetitive behaviors such as orienting and appr ... Full text Cite

Electromyographic analysis of oral habituation in rat pups.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · January 1998 Rat pups show decreases in mouthing activity in response to a series of repeated oral infusions of a diet. This decrease in mouthing activity has been termed "oral habituation" and these changes have been readily recorded with simple behavioral observation ... Full text Cite

Unilateral conditioning of an odor aversion in 6-day-old rat pups.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · June 1995 In young rats, several forms of olfactory memory can be functionally localized to one side of the brain by restricting training stimuli to one naris and corresponding olfactory bulb. In the experiment, the analysis of lateralized olfactory learning in 6-da ... Full text Cite

Does oral experience terminate ingestion?

Journal Article Appetite · October 1994 Using data from studies of ingestive behavior in developing rat pups we demonstrate how oral experience can contribute to the termination of ingestion. In rat pups, repeated oral stimulation with sweet solutions causes a decline in oral responsiveness. The ... Full text Cite

Integration of oral habituation and gastric signals in decerebrate rat pups.

Journal Article The American journal of physiology · July 1993 During a series of oral infusions of a sweet solution, the ingestive responses of young rat pups habituate; pups stop responding to the infusions even when their stomachs are empty and the infused diet is nonnutritive. The rate of this oral habituation is ... Full text Cite

Taste and smell sensations enhance the satiating effect of both a high-carbohydrate and a high-fat meal in humans.

Journal Article Physiol Behav · March 1993 The effects of meal sensory properties (tasty vs. bland) and nutrient composition [high-CHO (carbohydrate) vs. high-FAT] on hunger ratings, blood glucose and free fatty acids (FFA), taste perception, and subsequent food intake, were studied in human subjec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Control of ingestion by oral habituation in rat pups.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · August 1992 The role of habituation of mouthing activity in the control of ingestion was investigated in 6-, 12-, and 18-day-old rat pups. In pups at all ages, oral habituation to a flavored diet inhibited ingestion of a continuous oral infusion of that same diet. Twe ... Full text Cite

Ontogeny of feeding motor patterns in infant rats: an electromyographic analysis of suckling and chewing.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · June 1992 During mammalian ontogeny, there is a transition from suckling to the chewing of food. The question was asked: Is suckling a neuromuscular precursor to chewing, or are suckling and chewing independent systems? Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded in rat pu ... Full text Cite

Oral habituation in rat pups is in the brainstem.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · March 1992 We have previously demonstrated a decremental, oral, experienced-based control of ingestion in rat pups that is potent, diet-specific, and long lasting. This control of ingestion is revealed in the decreases in mouthing responses of rat pups to repeated or ... Full text Cite

Developmental strategies in the analysis of ingestive behavior.

Journal Article Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences · January 1992 Full text Cite

The early presence of food-oriented appetitive behavior in developing rats.

Journal Article Developmental psychobiology · November 1991 The appetitive behavior of 3- to 6-day-old rat pups was studied by testing their ability to direct their ingestive behavior to a restricted food source. We found that, from 3 days of age, pups were able to feed efficiently from such a source. More specific ... Full text Cite

Habituation of oromotor responding to oral infusions in rat pups.

Journal Article Appetite · August 1991 The influence of oromotor experience on the pattern of ingestion in rat pups and the relation of this influence to age and pups' physiological state were investigated using a procedure designed to mimic the sham-feeding preparation in adult rats. Six-, 12- ... Full text Cite

Analysis of 2-DG autoradiograms using image-averaging and image-differencing procedures for systems-level description of neurobehavioral function.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · July 1991 Computer assisted 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography has been used to provide functional maps of areas of altered neural activity related to changes in an animal's behavior or state. The standard procedure for comparison of autoradiograms between differ ... Full text Cite

Appetitive Responses to Dehydration and Food-Deprivation are Learned

Journal Article Psychological Behavior · 2002 Cite

Thirst modulates a perception.

Journal Article Perception · January 2001 Does thirst make you more likely to think you see water? Tales of thirsty desert travelers and oasis mirages are consistent with our intuitions that appetitive state can influence what we see in the world. Yet there has been surprisingly little scrutiny of ... Full text Cite

Olfactory conditioning facilitates diet transition in human infants.

Journal Article · November 2000 We evaluated whether Pavlovian conditioning methods could be used to increase the ingestion of non-preferred solutions by formula-fed human infants. In baseline measures, 5-7 month old infants sucked less frequently and consumed less water than regular for ... Open Access Cite

The acquisition of an appetite.

Journal Article Psychological science · March 2000 Unlike older animals, weanling-age rats do not seek water to drink when they are dehydrated, despite the fact that a physiological sensitivity to dehydration is present very soon after birth. We demonstrate here that the appetitive behaviors needed to appr ... Full text Cite

Conditioned changes in appetitive and consummatory responses to flavors paired with oral or nutrient reinforcement among adult rats.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · March 2000 Recent studies of the behavioral organization of conditioned flavor preferences have suggested the involvement of at least two separate learning systems-an appetitive response system sensitive to the oral hedonic properties of the reinforcer, and a consumm ... Full text Cite

Evidence that oral and nutrient reinforcers differentially condition appetitive and consummatory responses to flavors.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · June 1998 Rats tend to increase their intake of a flavor that has previously been paired with either sweet taste or with caloric repletion. However, it is unclear whether such a change in intake is caused by changes in appetitive behaviors such as orienting and appr ... Full text Cite

Electromyographic analysis of oral habituation in rat pups.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · January 1998 Rat pups show decreases in mouthing activity in response to a series of repeated oral infusions of a diet. This decrease in mouthing activity has been termed "oral habituation" and these changes have been readily recorded with simple behavioral observation ... Full text Cite

Unilateral conditioning of an odor aversion in 6-day-old rat pups.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · June 1995 In young rats, several forms of olfactory memory can be functionally localized to one side of the brain by restricting training stimuli to one naris and corresponding olfactory bulb. In the experiment, the analysis of lateralized olfactory learning in 6-da ... Full text Cite

Does oral experience terminate ingestion?

Journal Article Appetite · October 1994 Using data from studies of ingestive behavior in developing rat pups we demonstrate how oral experience can contribute to the termination of ingestion. In rat pups, repeated oral stimulation with sweet solutions causes a decline in oral responsiveness. The ... Full text Cite

Integration of oral habituation and gastric signals in decerebrate rat pups.

Journal Article The American journal of physiology · July 1993 During a series of oral infusions of a sweet solution, the ingestive responses of young rat pups habituate; pups stop responding to the infusions even when their stomachs are empty and the infused diet is nonnutritive. The rate of this oral habituation is ... Full text Cite

Taste and smell sensations enhance the satiating effect of both a high-carbohydrate and a high-fat meal in humans.

Journal Article Physiol Behav · March 1993 The effects of meal sensory properties (tasty vs. bland) and nutrient composition [high-CHO (carbohydrate) vs. high-FAT] on hunger ratings, blood glucose and free fatty acids (FFA), taste perception, and subsequent food intake, were studied in human subjec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Control of ingestion by oral habituation in rat pups.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · August 1992 The role of habituation of mouthing activity in the control of ingestion was investigated in 6-, 12-, and 18-day-old rat pups. In pups at all ages, oral habituation to a flavored diet inhibited ingestion of a continuous oral infusion of that same diet. Twe ... Full text Cite

Ontogeny of feeding motor patterns in infant rats: an electromyographic analysis of suckling and chewing.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · June 1992 During mammalian ontogeny, there is a transition from suckling to the chewing of food. The question was asked: Is suckling a neuromuscular precursor to chewing, or are suckling and chewing independent systems? Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded in rat pu ... Full text Cite

Oral habituation in rat pups is in the brainstem.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · March 1992 We have previously demonstrated a decremental, oral, experienced-based control of ingestion in rat pups that is potent, diet-specific, and long lasting. This control of ingestion is revealed in the decreases in mouthing responses of rat pups to repeated or ... Full text Cite

Developmental strategies in the analysis of ingestive behavior.

Journal Article Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences · January 1992 Full text Cite

The early presence of food-oriented appetitive behavior in developing rats.

Journal Article Developmental psychobiology · November 1991 The appetitive behavior of 3- to 6-day-old rat pups was studied by testing their ability to direct their ingestive behavior to a restricted food source. We found that, from 3 days of age, pups were able to feed efficiently from such a source. More specific ... Full text Cite

Habituation of oromotor responding to oral infusions in rat pups.

Journal Article Appetite · August 1991 The influence of oromotor experience on the pattern of ingestion in rat pups and the relation of this influence to age and pups' physiological state were investigated using a procedure designed to mimic the sham-feeding preparation in adult rats. Six-, 12- ... Full text Cite

Analysis of 2-DG autoradiograms using image-averaging and image-differencing procedures for systems-level description of neurobehavioral function.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · July 1991 Computer assisted 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography has been used to provide functional maps of areas of altered neural activity related to changes in an animal's behavior or state. The standard procedure for comparison of autoradiograms between differ ... Full text Cite

Effects of hydrational state on ingestion in infant rats: is dehydration the only ingestive stimulus?

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · April 1991 The physiological stimulus for deprivation-enhanced ingestion was studied in developing rats. During an overnight deprivation period, continuous gastric infusions of isotonic saline or milk were made to 6- and 15-day-old rat pups in order to preferentially ... Full text Cite

Developmental change in unilateral olfactory habituation is mediated by anterior commissure maturation.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · October 1990 Habituation of an orienting response in rat pups was used to study the development of the anterior commissure (AC) and its role in olfactory memory. Six- and 12-day-old pups received odor presentations to one side of their olfactory system and were tested ... Full text Cite

The anterior limb of the anterior commissure is an access route to contralateral stored olfactory preference memories

Journal Article Psychobiology · January 1, 1990 Young rats learn to prefer novel odors that have been paired with reinforcers. Memories for such preference learning can be confined to one side of the olfactory system by blocking the contralateral naris during odor-reinforcer training. These memories can ... Full text Cite

A nutritive control of independent ingestion in rat pups emerges by nine days of age.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · November 1989 The emergence of controls of independent ingestion in rat pups was studied using nutritive (0.6 M glucose in saline or water) and vehicle gastric preloads. Two hours after preloading, ingestive responses were assessed in a 30-minute test of feeding from th ... Full text Cite

Neural systems for early independent ingestion: regional metabolic changes during ingestive responding and dehydration.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · April 1989 The ingestive behavior of young rodents, studied independently of the mother and suckling, provides a system for the developmental analysis of the neurobiology of feeding and drinking. In these experiments regional neural metabolic activity, as assessed by ... Full text Cite

Developmental change in reversal learning of an olfactory discrimination

Journal Article Psychobiology · January 1, 1989 We examined developmental changes in the reversal of a learned discrimination in an olfactory conditioning paradigm in three experiments. Preweanling rats were exposed to an odor (CS+) paired with footshock and a different odor (CS−) that was explicitly un ... Full text Cite

Ingestive behavior in preweanling rats: emergence of postgastric controls.

Journal Article The American journal of physiology · August 1988 Previous studies have indicated that the termination of intake in very young rat pups is controlled almost exclusively by the level of gastric fill; nutritive cues from diet have no effect on intake. In the present series of experiments, we investigated th ... Full text Cite

Developmental change in the access to olfactory memories.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · June 1988 Memory for a learned odor preference can be functionally confined to one side of the brain in 6-day-old rat pups by preferentially stimulating a single naris and corresponding olfactory bulb during training. We report here that this form of unilateral lear ... Full text Cite

Reinforcers in infancy: classical conditioning using stroking or intra-oral infusions of milk as UCS.

Journal Article Developmental psychobiology · April 1988 Six-day-old rats received 20 forward pairings of an odor-conditioned stimulus (CS) with one of two unconditioned stimuli (UCS); 1) intra-oral milk infusions or 2) stroking with a sable-hair brush. These UCS's produce a common general response of increased ... Full text Cite

Terminology for use in investigations of nursing and suckling.

Journal Article Developmental psychobiology · January 1988 Full text Cite

New routes to early memories.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · November 1987 Stimulation of one side of the olfactory system during training with odor-milk pairings in neonatal rats results in their ability to recall an odor memory by using the trained but not the untrained side of the brain. In 12-day-old rats, olfactory learning ... Full text Cite

Ontogeny of glucose inhibition of independent ingestion in preweanling rats.

Journal Article Brain research bulletin · November 1986 Rat pups that have been maternally and nutritionally deprived will vigorously ingest diet infused directly into the mouth. The development of nutritive controls in this form of ingestion was examined by administering nutritive and non-nutritive gastric pre ... Full text Cite

Unilateral olfactory conditioning in 6-day-old rat pups.

Journal Article Behavioral and neural biology · November 1986 The potential that early olfactory learning might be laterally organized in the brain was investigated in 6-day-old rats. This hypothesis is based on the finding that the commissural systems that subserve bilateral olfactory communication do not mature unt ... Full text Cite

The ontogeny of independent ingestion in mice: or, why won't infant mice feed?

Journal Article Developmental psychobiology · May 1986 Unlike infant rats, which show deprivation-related ingestion in several different test situations, infant mice appeared to be relatively unwilling to feed independently of suckling until 12 days of age. We tested mouse pups that were deprived (of food, wat ... Full text Cite

Control of ingestion in 6-day-old rat pups: termination of intake by gastric fill alone?

Journal Article The American journal of physiology · May 1986 Six-day-old rat pups, tested away from the dam, vigorously ingested orally infused milk for up to 90 min when the ingested milk was allowed to drain through a gastric fistula. Total intake in pups with unplugged fistulas was more than double that consumed ... Full text Cite

Appetitive conditioning in neonatal rats: conditioned ingestive responding to stimuli paired with oral infusions of milk.

Journal Article Developmental psychobiology · July 1984 Components of rat pups' ingestive responses to orally infused milk came to be elicited by a novel odor conditioned stimulus (cedar) that had been repeatedly paired with milk infusions (Experiment I). Pups responded specifically to one odor, and they did no ... Full text Cite

Inhibitory controls of ingestion in 6-day-old rat pups.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · May 1984 The ability of gastric preloads of milk, water, and isotonic saline to inhibit ingestion was studied in deprived 6-day-old rat pups being fed through oral cannulas. Preloads were delivered through gastric cannulas or by gavage, and both the volume of the l ... Full text Cite

Metabolic neural mapping in neonatal rats

Journal Article N. Neurosci. Res. · 1981 Cite

Changing oral cues in suckling of weaning-age rats: Possible contributions to weaning

Journal Article Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology · June 1, 1980 Four experiments assessed the relative contribution of oral and nutritional stimuli in the control of suckling in 20- and 25-day-old Sprague-Dawley CD rat pups. Oral factors were critical to suckling satiety, since the initiation of a suckling bout in wean ... Full text Cite

The ontogeny of feeding in rats: II. Independent ingestive behavior

Journal Article J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. · 1980 Cite

The role of experience in suckling maintenance in albino rats

Journal Article J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. · 1980 Cite

Inhibition of suckling in weaning-age rats: a possible serotonergic mechanism.

Journal Article Journal of comparative and physiological psychology · June 1979 The nature, development, and specificity of serotonergic involvement in the control of suckling behavior in rat pups from 10 to 35 days of age were studied. During development, suckling normally declines after 10 days and is abandoned after 30 days. It was ... Full text Cite

Age-dependent inhibition of suckling by cholecystokinin

Journal Article Am. J. Physiol. · 1979 Cite

Appetitive learning in 1-day-old rat pups

Journal Article Science · 1979 Cite

Suckling behavior of the infant rat: modulation by a developing neurotransmitter system.

Journal Article Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior · March 1978 Drugs which alter serotonin receptor activity modified the suckling behavior of 20-day-old rat pups. Suckling could be reinstated in nondeprived pups, which normally do not suckle, by blockade of serotonin receptors with methysergide. Stimulation of serot ... Full text Cite

Suckling behavior and intake control in the developing rat pup

Journal Article J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. · 1977 Cite

Ontogeny of suckling in rats: Transitions toward adult ingestion

Journal Article J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. · 1977 Cite

Oropharyngeal control of drinking in rats

Journal Article J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. · 1976 Cite

Weaning and growth of artificially reared rats

Journal Article Science · 1975 Cite