Systolic Blood Pressure and Socioeconomic Status in a large multi-study population.
The present study used harmonized data from eight studies (N = 28,891) to examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and resting systolic blood pressure (SBP). The study replicates and extends our prior work on this topic by examining potential moderation of this association by race and gender. We also examined the extent to which body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and smoking might explain the association between SES and SBP. Data were available from six race/gender groups: 9200 Black women; 2337 Black men; 7248 White women; 6519 White men; 2950 Hispanic women; and 637 Hispanic men. Multivariable regression models showed that greater annual household income was associated with lower SBP in all groups except Hispanic men. The magnitude and form of this negative association differed across groups, with White women showing the strongest linear negative association. Among Black men and Hispanic women, the association was curvilinear: relatively flat among lower income levels, but then negative among higher income ranges. Education also was independently, negatively related to SBP, though evidence was weaker for race and gender differences in the strength of the association. Higher BMI and WC were associated with higher SBP, and current smoking with lower SBP. Inclusion of these risk factors resulted in only a modest change in the magnitude of the SBP and SES relation, accounting on average about 0.4 mmHg of the effect of income and 0.2 mmHg of the effect of education-effects unlikely to be clinically significant. Further understanding of mechanisms underlying the association between SBP and SES may improve risk stratification in clinical settings and potentially inform interventions aimed at reductions in social disparities in health.
Brummett, BH; Babyak, MA; Jiang, R; Huffman, KM; Kraus, WE; Singh, A; Hauser, ER; Siegler, IC; Williams, RB
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