Skip to main content

Michael Joseph Smith

Professor of Pediatrics
Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases

Selected Publications


Description of a national, multi-center registry of patients with sickle cell disease and SARS-CoV-2 infection: Data from the Pediatric COVID-19 United States Registry.

Journal Article Pediatr Blood Cancer · June 2024 Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of complications from viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. We present the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric patients with SCD from the Pediatric COVID-19 United States Registry who dev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ambulatory amoxicillin use for common acute respiratory infections during a national shortage: Results from the SHARPS-OP benchmarking collaborative.

Journal Article Am J Infect Control · May 2024 We quantified antibiotic prescribing for ambulatory pediatric acute respiratory illness at 22 institutions in "pre-shortage" (Jan 2019-Sep 2022) and "shortage" (Oct 2022-Mar 2023) periods for amoxicillin. While acute respiratory illness prescribing increas ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal PCR Testing in Pediatric Patients With Suspected Respiratory Infections.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · April 24, 2024 Observational studies in adults suggest nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) swabs have a high negative predictive value (NPV) for ruling out MRSA pneumonia, however, pediatric data are limited. This retrospective study of 505 pediatric ... Full text Link to item Cite

Opportunistic dried blood spot sampling validates and optimizes a pediatric population pharmacokinetic model of metronidazole.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · April 3, 2024 Pharmacokinetic models rarely undergo external validation in vulnerable populations such as critically ill infants, thereby limiting the accuracy, efficacy, and safety of model-informed dosing in real-world settings. Here, we describe an opportunistic appr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Teams in Transition: Increasing Role of Advanced Practice Providers in Antimicrobial Use and Infectious Diseases Consultation.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · April 2024 BACKGROUND: Advanced practice providers (APPs) have taken on increasing responsibilities as primary team members in acute care hospitals, but the impact of this practice shift on antimicrobial prescribing and infectious diseases (ID) consultation requests ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs Reduce Antibiotic Use at Combined Adult-Pediatric Hospitals.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 1, 2024 Implementation of dedicated pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) at two combined adult-pediatric hospitals with existing ASPs was associated with sustained decreases in pediatric antibiotic use (AU) out of proportion to declines seen in adul ... Full text Link to item Cite

Variations in antibiotic prescribing among children enrolled in North Carolina Medicaid, 2013-2019.

Journal Article J Rural Health · January 29, 2024 PURPOSE: The majority of pediatric antibiotic prescribing occurs in the outpatient setting and inappropriate use contributes to antimicrobial resistance. There are regional variations in outpatient antibiotic use with the highest rates occurring in the Sou ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunogenicity and safety of varying dosages of a fifth-wave influenza A/H7N9 inactivated vaccine given with and without AS03 adjuvant in healthy adults.

Journal Article Vaccine · January 12, 2024 BACKGROUND: Human infections with the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were first reported in China in 2013 and continued to occur in annual waves. In the 2016/2017 fifth wave, Yangtze River Delta (YRD) lineage viruses, which differed antigenically from those ... Full text Link to item Cite

Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing varies by clinical services at United States children's hospitals.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · November 2023 OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing at US children's hospitals and how these patterns vary by clinical service. DESIGN: Serial, cross-sectional study using quarterly surveys. SETTING: Surveys were completed in quarter 1 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of the Child Opportunity Index to Examine Racial Variations in Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing to Children.

Journal Article J Pediatr · October 2023 To examine further racial and ethnic variations in antibiotic prescribing to children, we used the Child Opportunity Index. Black children were less likely to be prescribed an antibiotic. Low- and moderate-opportunity areas were associated with greater rat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk of COVID-19 after natural infection or vaccination.

Journal Article EBioMedicine · October 2023 BACKGROUND: While vaccines have established utility against COVID-19, phase 3 efficacy studies have generally not comprehensively evaluated protection provided by previous infection or hybrid immunity (previous infection plus vaccination). Individual patie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of bivalent and monovalent SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines: the phase 2 randomized open-label COVAIL trial.

Journal Article Nat Med · September 2023 Vaccine protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection wanes over time, requiring updated boosters. In a phase 2, open-label, randomized clinical trial with sequentially enrolled stages at 22 US sites, we assessed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inappropriate Prescribing of Antibiotics to Pediatric Patients Receiving Medicaid: Comparison of High-Volume and Non-High-Volume Antibiotic Prescribers-Kentucky, 2019.

Journal Article Healthcare (Basel) · August 16, 2023 Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing to pediatric Medicaid patients was compared among high-volume and non-high-volume prescribers. High-volume prescribers had a higher percentage of inappropriate prescriptions than non-high-volume prescribers (17.2% versu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Benchmarking of Outpatient Pediatric Antibiotic Prescribing: Results of a Multicenter Collaborative.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · June 30, 2023 BACKGROUND: Most antibiotic use occurs in ambulatory settings. No benchmarks exist for pediatric institutions to assess their outpatient antibiotic use and compare prescribing rates to peers. We aimed to share pediatric outpatient antibiotic use reports an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial Inequities in Sepsis Mortality Among Children in the United States.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · May 1, 2023 BACKGROUND: Racial inequities influence health outcomes in the United States, but their impact on sepsis outcomes among children is understudied. We aimed to evaluate for racial inequities in sepsis mortality using a nationally representative sample of ped ... Full text Link to item Cite

Childhood infections and antibiotic prescribing

Chapter · January 1, 2023 Childhood infections are one of the most common reasons children seek medical care, and antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed medication to children (Chai et al., 2012). Pediatric and family medicine primary care providers must be familiar with an ... Full text Cite

Recurrent Antibiotic Use in Kentucky Children With 6 Years of Continuous Medicaid Enrollment.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 5, 2022 BACKGROUND: Little is known about the distribution of antibiotic use in individual children over time. The amoxicillin index is a recently proposed metric to assess first-line antibiotic prescribing to children. METHODS: We constructed a cohort of continuo ... Full text Link to item Cite

School Masking Policies and Secondary SARS-CoV-2 Transmission.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, masking has been a widely used mitigation practice in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school districts to limit within-school transmission. Prior studies attempting to quantify the impact of masking have ... Full text Link to item Cite

Description of a national, multi-center registry of patients with sickle cell disease and SARS-CoV-2 infection: Data from the Pediatric COVID-19 United States Registry.

Journal Article Pediatr Blood Cancer · June 2024 Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of complications from viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. We present the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric patients with SCD from the Pediatric COVID-19 United States Registry who dev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ambulatory amoxicillin use for common acute respiratory infections during a national shortage: Results from the SHARPS-OP benchmarking collaborative.

Journal Article Am J Infect Control · May 2024 We quantified antibiotic prescribing for ambulatory pediatric acute respiratory illness at 22 institutions in "pre-shortage" (Jan 2019-Sep 2022) and "shortage" (Oct 2022-Mar 2023) periods for amoxicillin. While acute respiratory illness prescribing increas ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal PCR Testing in Pediatric Patients With Suspected Respiratory Infections.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · April 24, 2024 Observational studies in adults suggest nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) swabs have a high negative predictive value (NPV) for ruling out MRSA pneumonia, however, pediatric data are limited. This retrospective study of 505 pediatric ... Full text Link to item Cite

Opportunistic dried blood spot sampling validates and optimizes a pediatric population pharmacokinetic model of metronidazole.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · April 3, 2024 Pharmacokinetic models rarely undergo external validation in vulnerable populations such as critically ill infants, thereby limiting the accuracy, efficacy, and safety of model-informed dosing in real-world settings. Here, we describe an opportunistic appr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Teams in Transition: Increasing Role of Advanced Practice Providers in Antimicrobial Use and Infectious Diseases Consultation.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · April 2024 BACKGROUND: Advanced practice providers (APPs) have taken on increasing responsibilities as primary team members in acute care hospitals, but the impact of this practice shift on antimicrobial prescribing and infectious diseases (ID) consultation requests ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs Reduce Antibiotic Use at Combined Adult-Pediatric Hospitals.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 1, 2024 Implementation of dedicated pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) at two combined adult-pediatric hospitals with existing ASPs was associated with sustained decreases in pediatric antibiotic use (AU) out of proportion to declines seen in adul ... Full text Link to item Cite

Variations in antibiotic prescribing among children enrolled in North Carolina Medicaid, 2013-2019.

Journal Article J Rural Health · January 29, 2024 PURPOSE: The majority of pediatric antibiotic prescribing occurs in the outpatient setting and inappropriate use contributes to antimicrobial resistance. There are regional variations in outpatient antibiotic use with the highest rates occurring in the Sou ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunogenicity and safety of varying dosages of a fifth-wave influenza A/H7N9 inactivated vaccine given with and without AS03 adjuvant in healthy adults.

Journal Article Vaccine · January 12, 2024 BACKGROUND: Human infections with the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were first reported in China in 2013 and continued to occur in annual waves. In the 2016/2017 fifth wave, Yangtze River Delta (YRD) lineage viruses, which differed antigenically from those ... Full text Link to item Cite

Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing varies by clinical services at United States children's hospitals.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · November 2023 OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing at US children's hospitals and how these patterns vary by clinical service. DESIGN: Serial, cross-sectional study using quarterly surveys. SETTING: Surveys were completed in quarter 1 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of the Child Opportunity Index to Examine Racial Variations in Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing to Children.

Journal Article J Pediatr · October 2023 To examine further racial and ethnic variations in antibiotic prescribing to children, we used the Child Opportunity Index. Black children were less likely to be prescribed an antibiotic. Low- and moderate-opportunity areas were associated with greater rat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk of COVID-19 after natural infection or vaccination.

Journal Article EBioMedicine · October 2023 BACKGROUND: While vaccines have established utility against COVID-19, phase 3 efficacy studies have generally not comprehensively evaluated protection provided by previous infection or hybrid immunity (previous infection plus vaccination). Individual patie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of bivalent and monovalent SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines: the phase 2 randomized open-label COVAIL trial.

Journal Article Nat Med · September 2023 Vaccine protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection wanes over time, requiring updated boosters. In a phase 2, open-label, randomized clinical trial with sequentially enrolled stages at 22 US sites, we assessed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inappropriate Prescribing of Antibiotics to Pediatric Patients Receiving Medicaid: Comparison of High-Volume and Non-High-Volume Antibiotic Prescribers-Kentucky, 2019.

Journal Article Healthcare (Basel) · August 16, 2023 Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing to pediatric Medicaid patients was compared among high-volume and non-high-volume prescribers. High-volume prescribers had a higher percentage of inappropriate prescriptions than non-high-volume prescribers (17.2% versu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Benchmarking of Outpatient Pediatric Antibiotic Prescribing: Results of a Multicenter Collaborative.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · June 30, 2023 BACKGROUND: Most antibiotic use occurs in ambulatory settings. No benchmarks exist for pediatric institutions to assess their outpatient antibiotic use and compare prescribing rates to peers. We aimed to share pediatric outpatient antibiotic use reports an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial Inequities in Sepsis Mortality Among Children in the United States.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · May 1, 2023 BACKGROUND: Racial inequities influence health outcomes in the United States, but their impact on sepsis outcomes among children is understudied. We aimed to evaluate for racial inequities in sepsis mortality using a nationally representative sample of ped ... Full text Link to item Cite

Childhood infections and antibiotic prescribing

Chapter · January 1, 2023 Childhood infections are one of the most common reasons children seek medical care, and antibiotics are the most frequently prescribed medication to children (Chai et al., 2012). Pediatric and family medicine primary care providers must be familiar with an ... Full text Cite

Recurrent Antibiotic Use in Kentucky Children With 6 Years of Continuous Medicaid Enrollment.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 5, 2022 BACKGROUND: Little is known about the distribution of antibiotic use in individual children over time. The amoxicillin index is a recently proposed metric to assess first-line antibiotic prescribing to children. METHODS: We constructed a cohort of continuo ... Full text Link to item Cite

School Masking Policies and Secondary SARS-CoV-2 Transmission.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, masking has been a widely used mitigation practice in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school districts to limit within-school transmission. Prior studies attempting to quantify the impact of masking have ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inappropriate outpatient antibiotic use in children insured by Kentucky Medicaid.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · May 2022 OBJECTIVE: To describe risk factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing to children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of antibiotic prescribing to children, using Kentucky Medicaid medical and pharmacy claims data, 2017. PAR ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utilization of West Virginia Pediatric Medicaid Claims Data to Guide Outpatient Antimicrobial Stewardship Interventions.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · April 30, 2022 West Virginia consistently ranks in the top two nationally for per capita antibiotic prescription rates in both pediatric and adult outpatient populations. We present the first descriptive analysis evaluating outpatient prescription rates within the WV ped ... Full text Link to item Cite

Burden of healthcare-associated infections among hospitalized children within community hospitals participating in an infection control network.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · April 2022 We describe the frequency of pediatric healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) identified through prospective surveillance in community hospitals participating in an infection control network. Over a 6-year period, 84 HAIs were identified. Of these 51 (61% ... Full text Link to item Cite

Severe Congenital Syphilis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Case Series.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · April 1, 2022 BACKGROUND: There has been a 291% relative increase in congenital syphilis (CS) cases in the United States from 2015 to 2019. Although the majority of affected fetuses/infants are stillborn or are asymptomatic, a subset is born with severe clinical illness ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevention of pneumococcal infections in childhood: two decades of progress.

Journal Article Curr Opin Pediatr · April 1, 2022 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights progress in combating pediatric pneumococcal disease in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). This review is timely given the development of increased valency PCVs for potential use in children. RECENT ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antibiotic prescribing to Kentucky Medicaid children, 2012-2017: Prescribing is higher in rural areas.

Journal Article J Rural Health · March 2022 PURPOSE: Antibiotic resistance is a major public health threat. Antibiotic use is the main driver of resistance, with children and the state of Kentucky having particularly high rates of outpatient antibiotic prescribing. The purpose of this study was to d ... Full text Link to item Cite

Secondary Transmission of COVID-19 in K-12 Schools: Findings From 2 States.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 2022 ObjectivesWe evaluated the impact of distancing practices on secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the degree of sports-associated secondary transmission across a large diverse cohort of schools during sprin ... Full text Cite

A School-Based SARS-CoV-2 Testing Program: Testing Uptake and Quarantine Length After In-School Exposures.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related quarantines, which are required after close contact with infected individuals, have substantially disrupted in-person education for kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) stud ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myocarditis Cases Reported After mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccination in the US From December 2020 to August 2021.

Journal Article JAMA · January 25, 2022 IMPORTANCE: Vaccination against COVID-19 provides clear public health benefits, but vaccination also carries potential risks. The risks and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To describe reports of myocarditis and th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quality of antibiotic prescribing to children through the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Journal Article Antimicrob Steward Healthc Epidemiol · 2022 OBJECTIVE: To describe pediatric outpatient visits and antibiotic prescribing during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: An observational, retrospective control study from January 2019 to October 2021. SETTING: Outpatient clinics, inc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epstein-Barr Virus DNAemia and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2022 BACKGROUND: Pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients commonly have Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia and are at risk of developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). EBV DNAemia has not been analyzed on a continuous scale in this ... Full text Link to item Cite

Community SARS-CoV-2 Surge and Within-School Transmission.

Journal Article Pediatrics · October 2021 OBJECTIVES: When the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began, experts raised concerns about in-person instruction in the setting of high levels of community transmission. We describe secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccine in Children.

Journal Article Pediatr Rev · October 2021 Full text Link to item Cite

Indirect Standardization as a Case Mix Adjustment Method to Improve Comparison of Children's Hospitals' Antimicrobial Use.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · September 7, 2021 Antimicrobial use (AU) in days of therapy per 1000 patient-days (DOT/1000 pd) varies widely among children's hospitals. We evaluated indirect standardization to adjust AU for case mix, a source of variation inadequately addressed by current measurements. H ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antibiotic Safety and Effectiveness in Premature Infants With Complicated Intraabdominal Infections.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · June 1, 2021 BACKGROUND: In premature infants, complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although universally prescribed, the safety and effectiveness of commonly used antibiotic regimens have not been established in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pediatric research priorities in healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · May 2021 OBJECTIVE: To develop a pediatric research agenda focused on pediatric healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial stewardship topics that will yield the highest impact on child health. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 26 geographically diverse adul ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incidence and Secondary Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Schools.

Journal Article Pediatrics · April 2021 BackgroundIn an effort to mitigate the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), North Carolina closed prekindergarten through grade 12 public schools to in-person instruction on March 14, 2020. On July 15, 2020, Nort ... Full text Cite

Cefdinir Use in the Kentucky Medicaid Population: A Priority for Outpatient Antimicrobial Stewardship.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · March 26, 2021 Cefdinir is frequently prescribed for pediatric infections despite lack of first-line indications. We reviewed Kentucky Medicaid claims from 2012 through 2016. Cefdinir prescriptions and spending significantly increased over the study period. Upper respira ... Full text Link to item Cite

Children And The Opioid Epidemic: Age-Stratified Exposures And Harms.

Journal Article Health Aff (Millwood) · October 2020 Using North Carolina Medicaid 2016-18 claims data, we found that approximately one in ten adolescents (10.8 percent) filled at least one opioid prescription per year. Dentists, advanced practice providers, and surgeons were common prescribers of opioids to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enhanced Bundled Interventions to Reduce Surgical Site Infections for Patients with Congenital Cardiac Disease

Conference Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology · October 2020 Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) among cardiothoracic (CT) patients are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Data are limited regarding SSI incidence among pediatric patients undergoing primary re ... Full text Cite

Microbiology and Risk Factors for Hospital-Associated Bloodstream Infections Among Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · April 2020 BACKGROUND: Children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at high risk for hospital-associated bloodstream infections (HA-BSIs). This study aimed to describe the incidence, microbiology, and risk factors for HA-BSI in pediatric HSC ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Antimicrobial stewardship in immunocompromised hosts

Chapter · January 1, 2020 Antimicrobial stewardship refers to the appropriate selection, dosing, route, and duration of antimicrobial therapy to optimize patient outcomes and minimize toxicity and the development of resistant pathogens. The optimal stewardship strategies in the ped ... Full text Cite

Outpatient Pediatric Antibiotic Use: a Systematic Review.

Journal Article Curr Infect Dis Rep · March 20, 2019 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The majority of pediatric antibiotic use occurs in outpatients. However, the optimal strategies for antimicrobial stewardship in this setting are unknown. We sought to identify studies relevant to pediatric outpatient stewardship that ha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Creation of a Multicenter Pediatric Inpatient Data Repository Derived from Electronic Health Records.

Journal Article Appl Clin Inform · March 2019 BACKGROUND: Integration of electronic health records (EHRs) data across sites and access to that data remain limited. OBJECTIVE: We developed an EHR-based pediatric inpatient repository using nine U.S. centers from the National Institute of Child Health an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Route of administration for antibiotics with high oral bioavailability.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · February 2019 Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in patients admitted to freestanding pediatric hospitals, 2009-2016.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · December 2018 We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Population-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Approach to Pantoprazole Dosing for Obese Children and Adolescents.

Journal Article Paediatr Drugs · October 2018 BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pharmacokinetic data for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), acid-suppression drugs commonly prescribed to children, are lacking for obese children who are at greatest risk for acid-related disease. In a recent multi-center investigation, w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Accuracy of Administrative Data for Antimicrobial Administration in Hospitalized Children.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · August 17, 2018 Administrative data are often used as a proxy for medication-administration record (MAR) data. Multicenter MAR data were compared retrospectively with administrative data from January 2010 through June 2013 from the Pediatric Health Information Systems dat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Psychotropic Polypharmacy Among Children and Youth Receiving Medicaid, 2012-2015.

Journal Article J Manag Care Spec Pharm · August 2018 BACKGROUND: The rates of mental health diagnoses in children have increased. Children in poverty have the highest rates. The use of psychotropic medication for children has been increasing, which is concerning because of the unknown long-term effects and t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Variability in Antibiotic Use Across PICUs.

Journal Article Pediatr Crit Care Med · June 2018 OBJECTIVES: To characterize and compare antibiotic prescribing across PICUs to evaluate the degree of variability. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis from 2010 through 2014 of the Pediatric Health Information System. SETTING: Forty-one freestanding children's ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS): A Quality Improvement Collaborative.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · May 15, 2018 BACKGROUND: Although many children's hospitals have established antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), data-driven benchmarks for optimizing antimicrobial use across centers are lacking. We developed a multicenter quality improvement collaborative focu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Psychotropic Polypharmacy Among Children Receiving Medicaid

Conference JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL PEDIATRICS · February 1, 2018 Link to item Cite

Investigating occupational stress: A methodological approach

Chapter · January 17, 2018 One of the main methodological difficulties in carrying out research in the field of occupational stress is the use of pre-designed health and behavioural questionnaires. This has the serious disadvantage of either not including important stressors at work ... Cite

Cost-effectiveness of Strategies for Offering Influenza Vaccine in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

Journal Article JAMA Pediatr · January 2, 2018 IMPORTANCE: Influenza is a significant public health burden, causing morbidity and mortality in children, yet vaccination rates remain low. Vaccination in the pediatric emergency department (PED) setting may be beneficial but, to date, has not been proven ... Full text Link to item Cite

Providers' Behaviors and Beliefs on Prescribing Antipsychotic Medication to Children: A Qualitative Study.

Journal Article Community Ment Health J · January 2018 Fragmentation in behavioral and mental health care to children has resulted in suboptimal care and high rates of psychotropic medication use, especially antipsychotic medications (APM). A qualitative study, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), ai ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diphtheria

Chapter · January 1, 2018 Cite

Trends in Intravenous Antibiotic Duration for Urinary Tract Infections in Young Infants.

Journal Article Pediatrics · December 2017 OBJECTIVES: To assess trends in the duration of intravenous (IV) antibiotics for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants ≤60 days old between 2005 and 2015 and determine if the duration of IV antibiotic treatment is associated with readmission. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Missed Opportunities for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Initiation in an Insured Adolescent Female Population.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · November 24, 2017 BACKGROUND: This study assessed the initiation of HPV vaccination in insured adolescent females in relation to physician visits and receipt of other vaccines routinely given at the same age. METHODS: January 1, 2010, and September 31, 2015. Vaccination adm ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetics of Clindamycin in Obese and Nonobese Children.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · April 2017 Although obesity is prevalent among children in the United States, pharmacokinetic (PK) data for obese children are limited. Clindamycin is a commonly used antibiotic that may require dose adjustment in obese children due to its lipophilic properties. We p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety and Immunogenicity of DTaP5-IPV Compared With DTaP5 Plus IPV as the Fifth Dose in Children 4-6 Years of Age.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · March 2017 BACKGROUND: Immunogenicity and safety of stand-alone diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed, inactivated poliovirus (IPV) combination vaccine (DTaP5-IPV) was compared with separate DTaP5 plus IPV vaccines as fifth dose ... Full text Link to item Cite

4.9 EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT UTILIZATION IS INCREASED BY FOSTER CARE AND POLYPHARMACY

Conference Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry · October 2016 Full text Cite

Retropharyngeal and Parapharyngeal Abscesses Among Children and Adolescents in the United States: Epidemiology and Management Trends, 2003-2012.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · September 2016 INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology and hospital course of children with retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) or parapharyngeal abscess (PPA) have not been fully described at the national level in the United States. METHODS: Pediatric discharges for PPA and RPA were e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ergonomics Programs and Effective Implementation

Chapter · January 1, 2016 Ergonomics is the science that matches the capabilities of people and the work they perform. The primary interest is an understanding of how the design of work affects people’s safety, health, performance, and productivity. The purpose is to match the capa ... Full text Cite

Inpatient Antimicrobial Stewardship in Pediatrics: A Systematic Review.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 2015 BACKGROUND: The clinical and economic outcomes associated with pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and other supplemental antimicrobial stewardship (AS) interventions have not been well described or reviewed. METHODS: We performed a systema ... Full text Link to item Cite

Promoting Vaccine Confidence.

Journal Article Infect Dis Clin North Am · December 2015 Vaccine hesitancy incorporates a wide range of parental attitudes and behaviors surrounding vaccines. Ironically, the very success of the immunization program has fueled vaccine concerns; because vaccine-preventable diseases are no longer prevalent, attent ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vaccine safety: medical contraindications, myths, and risk communication.

Journal Article Pediatr Rev · June 2015 On the basis of first principles, anaphylaxis to a vaccine or vaccine component is a contraindication to future receipt of that vaccine. • On the basis of strong evidence, live viral vaccines should not be administered to severely immunocompromised childre ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influenza vaccination in children with neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders.

Journal Article Vaccine · May 11, 2015 BACKGROUND: Children with neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders (NNDDs) are at increased risk of complications from influenza. Although the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recognized NNDDs as high-risk conditions for influenza ... Full text Link to item Cite

Emergency medical services system utilization over the last 10 years: what predicts transport of children?

Journal Article Pediatr Emerg Care · May 2015 OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of pediatric ambulance transport and evaluate changes in utilization over a 10-year period. METHODS: The National Health Ambulatory Medical Care Survey emergency department (ED) data for visi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult learning and industrial training

Chapter · January 1, 2014 In theory at least, the sine qua non of adult learning in industry is the contribution it can make towards increasing the efficiency of the workforce. In practice, the situation is not so clear. One of the complicating factors is that training is only one ... Full text Cite

Alternative schedules: Why not?

Chapter · November 1, 2013 Vaccines are one of the most successful public health interventions of all time. Sixteen diseases that afflicted generations of American children are now vaccine preventable. However, as the number of vaccines in the routine childhood immunization schedule ... Full text Cite

Influenza vaccination practices of physicians and caregivers of children with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions - United States, 2011-12 influenza season.

Journal Article MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep · September 13, 2013 Cognitive dysfunction, seizure disorders (epilepsy), and other neurologic disorders are conditions associated with a high risk for complications of influenza virus infection. This risk was observed during the 2009 influenza pandemic; among 336 pediatric de ... Link to item Cite

Evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated sinusitis in children: a systematic review.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 2013 In 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics published clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) in children. The technical report accompanying those guidelines included 21 studies that assessed the diagnosis and man ... Full text Link to item Cite

Timely delivery of messages in positive train control

Conference IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology · January 1, 2013 In the railway infrastructure, positive train control (PTC) is an automated method for controlling and monitoring train movements to ensure safe travel by enforcing safe braking distances and speed limits, even if the locomotive driver fails to act within ... Full text Cite

Psychotropic medication use in children with autism in the Kentucky Medicaid population.

Journal Article Clin Pediatr (Phila) · October 2012 This study reviewed Kentucky Medicaid claims data for children with autism spectrum disorders to determine psychotropic drug (PTD) use in this population. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ICD-9 code 299.XX) in 3 different age-groups from 2005 to 20 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Extended logistic regression model for studies with interrupted events, seasonal trend, and serial correlation

Journal Article Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods · September 17, 2012 It is increasingly seen that educational, administrative, and policy interventions are being carried out to improve the quality of medication and health related outcomes. In this article, we extend the general logistic regression model to evaluate the prop ... Full text Cite

Effectiveness of antimicrobial guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia in children.

Journal Article Pediatrics · May 2012 OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of guidelines and education on empirical therapy for community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: Administrative records for children with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia from January 2007 to September 2009 were reviewed. ... Full text Link to item Cite

The blame frame: media attribution of culpability about the MMR-autism vaccination scare.

Journal Article Health Commun · 2012 Scholars have examined how news media frame events, including responsibility for causing and fixing problems, and how these frames inform public judgment. This study analyzed 281 newspaper articles about a controversial medical study linking the measles, m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Design of Fixed, Portable, and Mobile Information Devices

Chapter · January 1, 2012 In this chapter, the authors propose some ideas and considerations for dealing with ergonomic concerns for portable mobile technologies in addition to updating information on fixed computer workstation applications. The relative importance of the screen, i ... Full text Cite

Seasonal and novel H1N1 influenza vaccination at a children's hospital.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · September 2011 Full text Link to item Cite

Employee designation and health care worker support of an influenza vaccine mandate at a large pediatric tertiary care hospital.

Journal Article Vaccine · February 17, 2011 AIM: Determine predictors of support of a mandatory seasonal influenza vaccine program among health care workers (HCWs). SCOPE: Cross-sectional anonymous survey of 2443 (out of 8093) randomly selected clinical and non-clinical HCWs at a large pediatric net ... Full text Link to item Cite

Physical Ergonomics and the Web

Chapter · January 1, 2011 The purpose of this chapter is to present an overview of how the physical demands of interacting with Web devices must be considered by designers and users to reduce biomechanical and physiological strain on users. Problem areas will be identi£ed using a w ... Full text Cite

Navigating parental vaccine hesitancy.

Journal Article Pediatr Ann · August 2010 Full text Link to item Cite

On-time vaccine receipt in the first year does not adversely affect neuropsychological outcomes.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 2010 OBJECTIVES: To determine whether children who received recommended vaccines on time during the first year of life had different neuropsychological outcomes at 7 to 10 years of age as compared with children with delayed receipt or nonreceipt of these vaccin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Parental vaccine concerns in Kentucky.

Journal Article J Ky Med Assoc · September 2009 BACKGROUND: An increasing number of parents are questioning the safety and necessity of routine childhood immunizations. Locally produced vaccine risk communication materials may be effective in reassuring these parents. However, little is known about spec ... Link to item Cite

Design of computer workstations

Chapter · March 2, 2009 Cite

Vaccination and autism 10 years on: Why are parents still worried?

Journal Article Pediatric Health · December 1, 2008 Full text Cite

Meningococcal tetravalent conjugate vaccine.

Journal Article Expert Opin Biol Ther · December 2008 BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis worldwide. Since 1981, a tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine has been available in the US but it has been limited to high-risk patients and outbreak settings. In 20 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Catheter-related bloodstream infections in children.

Journal Article Am J Infect Control · December 2008 EPIDEMIOLOGY: Patient characteristics and system-level factors place children at increased risk for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). National Healthcare Safety Network data from 36 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) demonstrate a pooled ... Full text Link to item Cite

In Reply

Journal Article Pediatrics · September 1, 2008 Full text Cite

Media coverage of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autism controversy and its relationship to MMR immunization rates in the United States.

Journal Article Pediatrics · April 2008 OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to assess the association between media coverage of the MMR-autism controversy and MMR immunization in the United States. METHODS: The public-use files of the National Immunization Survey were used to estimate annual ... Full text Link to item Cite

The clinical and molecular epidemiology of community- and healthcare-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · January 2008 BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common etiologic agent of healthcare-acquired diarrhea in pediatric patients. There has been little published information on healthcare-acquired rotavirus infection. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of childr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Device-Related Infections

Chapter · January 1, 2008 Full text Cite

Device-Related Infections

Chapter · December 1, 2007 Full text Cite

Device-related infections in children.

Journal Article Pediatr Clin North Am · August 2005 Management of device-related infections includes device removal for some catheter-related bloodstream infections and all ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related infections. The isolation of certain organisms (eg, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida spp) in children ... Full text Link to item Cite