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John William Sleasman

Dr. Glenn A. Kiser and Eltha Muriel Kiser Professor of Pediatrics
Pediatrics, Allergy and Immunology
203 Research Dr, MSRB 1, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


Biomarkers detected in cord blood predict vaccine responses in young infants.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2023 INTRODUCTION: Factors influencing vaccine immune priming in the first year of life involve both innate and adaptive immunity but there are gaps in understanding how these factors sustain vaccine antibody levels in healthy infants. The hypothesis was that b ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of FcRn antagonism on protective antibodies and to vaccines in IgG-mediated autoimmune diseases pemphigus and generalised myasthenia gravis.

Journal Article Autoimmunity · December 2022 Antagonism of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) by efgartigimod has been studied in several autoimmune diseases mediated by immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a therapeutic approach to remove pathogenic IgGs. Whereas reduction of pathogenic titres has demonstrated ef ... Full text Link to item Cite

Partial RAG deficiency in humans induces dysregulated peripheral lymphocyte development and humoral tolerance defect with accumulation of T-bet+ B cells.

Journal Article Nat Immunol · August 2022 The recombination-activating genes (RAG) 1 and 2 are indispensable for diversifying the primary B cell receptor repertoire and pruning self-reactive clones via receptor editing in the bone marrow; however, the impact of RAG1/RAG2 on peripheral tolerance is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anti-inflammatory effects of recreational marijuana in virally suppressed youth with HIV-1 are reversed by use of tobacco products in combination with marijuana.

Journal Article Retrovirology · May 31, 2022 BACKGROUND: Marijuana's putative anti-inflammatory properties may benefit HIV-associated comorbidities. How recreational marijuana use affects gene expression in peripheral blood cells (PBC) among youth with HIV-1 (YWH) is unknown. APPROACH: YWH with defin ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Normal IgH Repertoire Diversity in an Infant with ADA Deficiency After Gene Therapy.

Journal Article J Clin Immunol · October 2021 PURPOSE: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) through an accumulation of toxic metabolites within lymphocytes. Recently, ADA deficiency has been successfully treated using lentiviral-transduced autologous CD34 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms, Neurocognitive Function, and Viral Suppression With Antiretroviral Therapy Among Youth With HIV Over 36 months.

Journal Article J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr · June 1, 2021 BACKGROUND: Depression and neurocognitive impairment are highly prevalent among persons living with HIV and associated with poorer clinical outcomes; however, longitudinal studies of depression-neurocognition relationships in youth living with HIV (YLWH), ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differential controls of MAIT cell effector polarization by mTORC1/mTORC2 via integrating cytokine and costimulatory signals.

Journal Article Nat Commun · April 1, 2021 Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have important functions in immune responses against pathogens and in diseases, but mechanisms controlling MAIT cell development and effector lineage differentiation remain unclear. Here, we report that IL-2/IL-1 ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Total serum immunoglobulin A in ALS.

Journal Article Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener · February 2021 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can have marked phenotypic variability. To date, no biomarker explains this variability. This study tested the hypothesis that immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels might help explain the variability seen in ALS clinical present ... Full text Link to item Cite

Thymic Epithelial Cell-Derived IL-15 and IL-15 Receptor α Chain Foster Local Environment for Type 1 Innate Like T Cell Development.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2021 Expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in thymic epithelial cells (TECs) ensures negative selection of highly self-reactive T cells to establish central tolerance. Whether some of these TRAs could exert their canonical biological functions to shap ... Full text Link to item Cite

Regulation of Intrinsic and Bystander T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation and Autoimmunity by Tsc1.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2021 T Follicular helper (Tfh) cells promote germinal center (GC) B cell responses to develop effective humoral immunity against pathogens. However, dysregulated Tfh cells can also trigger autoantibody production and the development of autoimmune diseases. We r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Negative control of diacylglycerol kinase ζ-mediated inhibition of T cell receptor signaling by nuclear sequestration in mice.

Journal Article Eur J Immunol · November 2020 Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) play important roles in restraining diacylglycerol (DAG)-mediated signaling. Within the DGK family, the ζ isoform appears to be the most important isoform in T cells for controlling their development and function. DGKζ has bee ... Full text Link to item Cite

Benefits of Prophylactic Short-Course Immune Tolerance Induction in Patients With Infantile Pompe Disease: Demonstration of Long-Term Safety and Efficacy in an Expanded Cohort.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2020 Immune tolerance induction (ITI) with a short-course of rituximab, methotrexate, and/or IVIG in the enzyme replacement therapy (ERT)-naïve setting has prolonged survival and improved clinical outcomes in patients with infantile Pompe disease (IPD) lacking ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vasculitis as a Major Morbidity Factor in Patients With Partial RAG Deficiency.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2020 Vasculitis can be a life-threatening complication associated with high mortality and morbidity among patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), including variants of severe and combined immunodeficiencies ((S)CID). Our understanding of vasculitis in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immune globulin subcutaneous, human - klhw 20% for primary humoral immunodeficiency: an open-label, Phase III study.

Journal Article Immunotherapy · November 2019 Aim: This prospective, Phase III study assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and tolerability of immune globulin subcutaneous, human - klhw 20% solution (IGSC-C 20%) in participants with primary humoral immunodeficiency (PI), compared with immune glob ... Full text Link to item Cite

Heterozygous FOXN1 Variants Cause Low TRECs and Severe T Cell Lymphopenia, Revealing a Crucial Role of FOXN1 in Supporting Early Thymopoiesis.

Journal Article Am J Hum Genet · September 5, 2019 FOXN1 is the master regulatory gene of thymic epithelium development. FOXN1 deficiency leads to thymic aplasia, alopecia, and nail dystrophy, accounting for the nude/severe combined immunodeficiency (nu/SCID) phenotype in humans and mice. We identified sev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Higher soluble CD14 levels are associated with lower visuospatial memory performance in Youth with HIV (YWH).

Journal Article AIDS · September 2, 2019 OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist despite early antiretroviral therapy (ART) and optimal viral suppression. We examined the relationship between immunopathogenesis driven by various pathways of immune activation and discrete neuroc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tenofovir Has Minimal Effect on Biomarkers of Bone Health in Youth with HIV Receiving Initial Antiretroviral Therapy.

Journal Article AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · August 2019 Both HIV infection and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment adversely impact bone metabolism and may lead to osteopenia, which has critical implications for youth with HIV (YWH). This study evaluates changes in the biomarkers of bone metabolism an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcomes and Treatment Strategies for Autoimmunity and Hyperinflammation in Patients with RAG Deficiency.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract · 2019 BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sexually transmitted infections and immune activation among HIV-infected but virally suppressed youth on antiretroviral therapy.

Journal Article J Clin Virol · May 2018 BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with chronic immune activation, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase immune activation. OBJECTIVES: Because HIV-infected youth are at high risk of STIs and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Biomarkers detected in cord blood predict vaccine responses in young infants.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2023 INTRODUCTION: Factors influencing vaccine immune priming in the first year of life involve both innate and adaptive immunity but there are gaps in understanding how these factors sustain vaccine antibody levels in healthy infants. The hypothesis was that b ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of FcRn antagonism on protective antibodies and to vaccines in IgG-mediated autoimmune diseases pemphigus and generalised myasthenia gravis.

Journal Article Autoimmunity · December 2022 Antagonism of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) by efgartigimod has been studied in several autoimmune diseases mediated by immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a therapeutic approach to remove pathogenic IgGs. Whereas reduction of pathogenic titres has demonstrated ef ... Full text Link to item Cite

Partial RAG deficiency in humans induces dysregulated peripheral lymphocyte development and humoral tolerance defect with accumulation of T-bet+ B cells.

Journal Article Nat Immunol · August 2022 The recombination-activating genes (RAG) 1 and 2 are indispensable for diversifying the primary B cell receptor repertoire and pruning self-reactive clones via receptor editing in the bone marrow; however, the impact of RAG1/RAG2 on peripheral tolerance is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anti-inflammatory effects of recreational marijuana in virally suppressed youth with HIV-1 are reversed by use of tobacco products in combination with marijuana.

Journal Article Retrovirology · May 31, 2022 BACKGROUND: Marijuana's putative anti-inflammatory properties may benefit HIV-associated comorbidities. How recreational marijuana use affects gene expression in peripheral blood cells (PBC) among youth with HIV-1 (YWH) is unknown. APPROACH: YWH with defin ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Normal IgH Repertoire Diversity in an Infant with ADA Deficiency After Gene Therapy.

Journal Article J Clin Immunol · October 2021 PURPOSE: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) through an accumulation of toxic metabolites within lymphocytes. Recently, ADA deficiency has been successfully treated using lentiviral-transduced autologous CD34 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms, Neurocognitive Function, and Viral Suppression With Antiretroviral Therapy Among Youth With HIV Over 36 months.

Journal Article J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr · June 1, 2021 BACKGROUND: Depression and neurocognitive impairment are highly prevalent among persons living with HIV and associated with poorer clinical outcomes; however, longitudinal studies of depression-neurocognition relationships in youth living with HIV (YLWH), ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differential controls of MAIT cell effector polarization by mTORC1/mTORC2 via integrating cytokine and costimulatory signals.

Journal Article Nat Commun · April 1, 2021 Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have important functions in immune responses against pathogens and in diseases, but mechanisms controlling MAIT cell development and effector lineage differentiation remain unclear. Here, we report that IL-2/IL-1 ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Total serum immunoglobulin A in ALS.

Journal Article Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener · February 2021 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can have marked phenotypic variability. To date, no biomarker explains this variability. This study tested the hypothesis that immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels might help explain the variability seen in ALS clinical present ... Full text Link to item Cite

Thymic Epithelial Cell-Derived IL-15 and IL-15 Receptor α Chain Foster Local Environment for Type 1 Innate Like T Cell Development.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2021 Expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in thymic epithelial cells (TECs) ensures negative selection of highly self-reactive T cells to establish central tolerance. Whether some of these TRAs could exert their canonical biological functions to shap ... Full text Link to item Cite

Regulation of Intrinsic and Bystander T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation and Autoimmunity by Tsc1.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2021 T Follicular helper (Tfh) cells promote germinal center (GC) B cell responses to develop effective humoral immunity against pathogens. However, dysregulated Tfh cells can also trigger autoantibody production and the development of autoimmune diseases. We r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Negative control of diacylglycerol kinase ζ-mediated inhibition of T cell receptor signaling by nuclear sequestration in mice.

Journal Article Eur J Immunol · November 2020 Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) play important roles in restraining diacylglycerol (DAG)-mediated signaling. Within the DGK family, the ζ isoform appears to be the most important isoform in T cells for controlling their development and function. DGKζ has bee ... Full text Link to item Cite

Benefits of Prophylactic Short-Course Immune Tolerance Induction in Patients With Infantile Pompe Disease: Demonstration of Long-Term Safety and Efficacy in an Expanded Cohort.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2020 Immune tolerance induction (ITI) with a short-course of rituximab, methotrexate, and/or IVIG in the enzyme replacement therapy (ERT)-naïve setting has prolonged survival and improved clinical outcomes in patients with infantile Pompe disease (IPD) lacking ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vasculitis as a Major Morbidity Factor in Patients With Partial RAG Deficiency.

Journal Article Front Immunol · 2020 Vasculitis can be a life-threatening complication associated with high mortality and morbidity among patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), including variants of severe and combined immunodeficiencies ((S)CID). Our understanding of vasculitis in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immune globulin subcutaneous, human - klhw 20% for primary humoral immunodeficiency: an open-label, Phase III study.

Journal Article Immunotherapy · November 2019 Aim: This prospective, Phase III study assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and tolerability of immune globulin subcutaneous, human - klhw 20% solution (IGSC-C 20%) in participants with primary humoral immunodeficiency (PI), compared with immune glob ... Full text Link to item Cite

Heterozygous FOXN1 Variants Cause Low TRECs and Severe T Cell Lymphopenia, Revealing a Crucial Role of FOXN1 in Supporting Early Thymopoiesis.

Journal Article Am J Hum Genet · September 5, 2019 FOXN1 is the master regulatory gene of thymic epithelium development. FOXN1 deficiency leads to thymic aplasia, alopecia, and nail dystrophy, accounting for the nude/severe combined immunodeficiency (nu/SCID) phenotype in humans and mice. We identified sev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Higher soluble CD14 levels are associated with lower visuospatial memory performance in Youth with HIV (YWH).

Journal Article AIDS · September 2, 2019 OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist despite early antiretroviral therapy (ART) and optimal viral suppression. We examined the relationship between immunopathogenesis driven by various pathways of immune activation and discrete neuroc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tenofovir Has Minimal Effect on Biomarkers of Bone Health in Youth with HIV Receiving Initial Antiretroviral Therapy.

Journal Article AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · August 2019 Both HIV infection and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment adversely impact bone metabolism and may lead to osteopenia, which has critical implications for youth with HIV (YWH). This study evaluates changes in the biomarkers of bone metabolism an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcomes and Treatment Strategies for Autoimmunity and Hyperinflammation in Patients with RAG Deficiency.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract · 2019 BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sexually transmitted infections and immune activation among HIV-infected but virally suppressed youth on antiretroviral therapy.

Journal Article J Clin Virol · May 2018 BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with chronic immune activation, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase immune activation. OBJECTIVES: Because HIV-infected youth are at high risk of STIs and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Soluble CD14, CD163, and CD27 biomarkers distinguish ART-suppressed youth living with HIV from healthy controls.

Journal Article J Leukoc Biol · April 2018 OBJECTIVE: To define inflammatory pathways in youth living with HIV infection (YLWH), assessments of biomarkers associated with lymphocyte and macrophage activation, vascular injury, or bone metabolism were performed in YLWH in comparison with healthy cont ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association Between Breast Milk Bacterial Communities and Establishment and Development of the Infant Gut Microbiome.

Journal Article JAMA Pediatr · July 1, 2017 IMPORTANCE: Establishment of the infant microbiome has lifelong implications on health and immunity. Gut microbiota of breastfed compared with nonbreastfed individuals differ during infancy as well as into adulthood. Breast milk contains a diverse populati ... Full text Link to item Cite

HIV-1 Infection Primes Macrophages Through STAT Signaling to Promote Enhanced Inflammation and Viral Replication.

Journal Article AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · July 2017 Macrophages play important roles in HIV-1 pathogenesis as targets for viral replication and mediators of chronic inflammation. Similar to IFNγ-priming, HIV-1 primes macrophages, resulting in hyperresponsiveness to subsequent toll-like receptor (TLR) stimul ... Full text Link to item Cite

Brief Report: Antibody Responses to Quadrivalent HPV Vaccination in HIV-Infected Young Women as Measured by Total IgG and Competitive Luminex Immunoassay.

Journal Article J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr · June 1, 2017 We compared antibody responses of HIV-infected young women to the human papillomavirus (HPV) 6, 11, 16, and 18 vaccine using total immunoglobulin (Ig) G Luminex immunoassay (LIA) and competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA) assays. HPV18 seropositivity after ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel pathogenic variants in FOXP3 in fetuses with echogenic bowel and skin desquamation identified by ultrasound.

Journal Article Am J Med Genet A · May 2017 Immunodysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a rare, X-linked recessive disease that affects regulatory T cells (Tregs) resulting in diarrhea, enteropathy, eczema, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. IPEX syndrome ... Full text Link to item Cite

Long-term outcomes of 176 patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome treated with or without hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol · April 2017 BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency with high morbidity and mortality compared with those seen in healthy subjects. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been considered a curative therapy, but the procedure ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Regulatory B Cell Compartment Expands Transiently During Childhood and Is Contracted in Children With Autoimmunity.

Journal Article Arthritis Rheumatol · January 2017 OBJECTIVE: Regulatory B cells that inhibit immune responses through interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion (B10 cells) have been characterized in adult subjects with autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to characterize B10 cells in individuals across th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Brief Report: Macrophage Activation in HIV-Infected Adolescent Males Contributes to Differential Bone Loss by Sex: Adolescent Trials Network Study 021.

Journal Article J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr · August 1, 2016 Accumulating evidence suggests that rates of low bone mass are greater in HIV-infected males than females. Of 11 biomarkers assessed by sex and HIV-status, HIV-infected males had increased levels of soluble CD14 which inversely correlated with bone mineral ... Full text Link to item Cite

Flebogamma(®) 5 % DIF Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Replacement Therapy in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

Journal Article J Clin Immunol · August 2016 PURPOSE: The previous studies with Flebogamma(®) 5 % DIF intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contained insufficient numbers of pediatric subjects to fully warrant a pediatric indication by the FDA. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, sa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antiretroviral treatment initiation does not differentially alter neurocognitive functioning over time in youth with behaviorally acquired HIV.

Journal Article J Neurovirol · April 2016 Although youth living with behaviorally acquired HIV (YLWH) are at risk for cognitive impairments, the relationship of impairments to HIV and potential to improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are unclear. This prospective observational study was desig ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy and tolerability of 16% subcutaneous immunoglobulin compared with 20% subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary antibody deficiency.

Journal Article Clin Exp Immunol · September 2015 Multiple subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) products are available to treat primary antibody deficiency (PAD). The efficacy and tolerability of 16% SCIG (Vivaglobin(®) ) was compared with 20% SCIG (Hizentra(®) ) in PAD subjects. The study was a prospective ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increased inflammation but similar physical composition and function in older-aged, HIV-1 infected subjects.

Journal Article BMC Immunol · July 24, 2015 BACKGROUND: Systemic immune activation (inflammation) and immunosenescence develop in some people with advancing age. This process, known as "inflamm-aging," is associated with physical frailty and sarcopenia. Meanwhile, successful antiretroviral therapy h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances lipopolysaccharide-stimulated tissue factor in human monocytes and monocyte-derived microvesicles

Journal Article Journal of Inflammation (United Kingdom) · June 12, 2015 Background: Immunomodulatory effects in humans of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana are controversial. Tissue factor (TF), the activator of the extrinsic coagulation cascade, is increased on circulating activated monocy ... Full text Cite

Immune Reconstitution but Persistent Activation After 48 Weeks of Antiretroviral Therapy in Youth With Pre-Therapy CD4 >350 in ATN 061.

Journal Article J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr · May 1, 2015 BACKGROUND: Measures of immune outcomes in youth who initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) early in HIV infection are limited. DESIGN: Adolescent Trials Network 061 examined changes over 48 weeks of cART in T-cell subsets and markers of T-cell ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recalcitrant rhinosinusitis, innate immunity, and mannose-binding lectin.

Journal Article Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol · February 2015 BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a protein produced by the liver that participates in innate immunity by tagging the surface of microbes for opsonization. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency is present in 7% of the population and has been implicat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol treatment during human monocyte differentiation reduces macrophage susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

Journal Article J Neuroimmune Pharmacol · June 2014 The major psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), also acts to suppress inflammatory responses. Receptors for THC, CB1, CB2, and GPR55, are differentially expressed on multiple cell types including monocytes and macrophages, w ... Full text Link to item Cite

ICON: the early diagnosis of congenital immunodeficiencies.

Journal Article J Clin Immunol · May 2014 Primary immunodeficiencies are intrinsic defects in the immune system that result in a predisposition to infection and are frequently accompanied by a propensity to autoimmunity and/or immunedysregulation. Primary immunodeficiencies can be divided into inn ... Full text Link to item Cite

Concordance between self-reported substance use and toxicology among HIV-infected and uninfected at risk youth.

Journal Article Drug Alcohol Depend · January 1, 2014 BACKGROUND: Substance use by youth living with HIV (YLWH) is a concern, given potential interactions with virus-associated immune suppression and adverse effects on risk behaviors, neurocognition, and adherence. Self-report substance use measures provide e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fiscal implications of newborn screening in the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract · 2014 In the United States, newborn screening (NBS) is currently recommended for identification of 31 debilitating and potentially fatal conditions. However, individual states determine which of the recommended conditions are screened. The addition of severe com ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lipopolysaccharide and soluble CD14 in cord blood plasma are associated with prematurity and chorioamnionitis.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · January 2014 BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, causes preterm birth in animals and has been implicated as a factor triggering preterm labor and systemic complications in humans. Little is known regarding LPS in the cord blood ... Full text Link to item Cite

Psychrobacter immobilis septicemia in a boy with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease and fulminant hepatic failure.

Journal Article J Clin Immunol · January 2014 A 16-year old boy with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) developed Psychrobacter immobilis septicemia during a course of fulminant hepatic failure. The patient died despite aggressive management with antimicrobials and corticosteroids. While Psychrobacte ... Full text Link to item Cite

IgM repertoire biodiversity is reduced in HIV-1 infection and systemic lupus erythematosus

Journal Article Frontiers in Immunology · December 19, 2013 Background: HIV-1 infection or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disrupt B cell homeostasis, reduce memory B cells, and impair function of IgG and IgM antibodies. Objective: To determine how disturbances in B cell populations producing polyclonal antibodi ... Full text Cite

Evolutionarily conserved epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases detected by HIV-1-infected subjects.

Journal Article J Virol · September 2013 Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-associated epitopes, evolutionarily conserved on both HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) reverse transcriptases (RT), were identified using gamma interferon (IFN-γ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bioavailability of IgG administered by the subcutaneous route.

Journal Article J Clin Immunol · July 2013 PURPOSE: US licensing studies of subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) calculate dose adjustments necessary to achieve area under the curve (AUC) of serum IgG vs. time on SCIG that is non-inferior to that on intravenous IgG (IVIG), within the FDA-set limit of ±20%. The ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessment of biomarkers of cardiovascular risk among HIV type 1-infected adolescents: role of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule as an early indicator of endothelial inflammation.

Journal Article AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · March 2013 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers were examined in a cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adolescents who participated in Adolescent Trials Network study 083 utilizing samples from the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care cohort, a longitu ... Full text Link to item Cite

High-resolution deep sequencing reveals biodiversity, population structure, and persistence of HIV-1 quasispecies within host ecosystems.

Journal Article Retrovirology · December 17, 2012 BACKGROUND: Deep sequencing provides the basis for analysis of biodiversity of taxonomically similar organisms in an environment. While extensively applied to microbiome studies, population genetics studies of viruses are limited. To define the scope of HI ... Full text Link to item Cite

The HIV-1 protease inhibitor nelfinavir activates PP2 and inhibits MAPK signaling in macrophages: a pathway to reduce inflammation.

Journal Article J Leukoc Biol · October 2012 The HIV-1 PI NFV has off-target effects upon host enzymes, including inhibition of the 20S proteasome, resulting in activation of PP1. HIV-1-associated monocyte/macrophage activation, in part a result of systemically elevated levels of microbial products i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Low bone mass in behaviorally HIV-infected young men on antiretroviral therapy: Adolescent Trials Network Study 021B.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 2012 BACKGROUND: Peak bone mass is achieved in adolescence/early adulthood and is the key determinant of bone mass in adulthood. We evaluated the association of bone mass with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) during ... Full text Link to item Cite

Management of children undergoing cardiac transplantation with high Panel Reactive Antibodies.

Journal Article Cardiol Young · December 2011 Highly sensitised children in need of cardiac transplantation have overall poor outcomes because of increased risk for dysfunction of the cardiac allograft, acute cellular and antibody-mediated rejection, and vasculopathy of the cardiac allograft. Cardiopu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Developmental regulation of P-glycoprotein activity within thymocytes results in increased anti-HIV protease inhibitor activity.

Journal Article J Leukoc Biol · October 2011 The thymus harbors HIV-1 and supports its replication. Treatment with PI-containing ART restores thymic output of naïve T cells. This study demonstrates that CXCR4-using WT viruses are more sensitive to PI in fetal thymcocytes than mature T cells with aver ... Full text Link to item Cite

Subcutaneous immunoglobulin replacement therapy with Hizentra, the first 20% SCIG preparation: a practical approach.

Journal Article Adv Ther · July 2011 To reduce the risk of infection in adults and children with primary immunodeficiencies, replacement therapy with IgG, which can be administered to patients intravenously or subcutaneously, is required. Although intravenous administration of IgG (IVIG) has ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association identifies diverse causes of common variable immunodeficiency.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol · June 2011 BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous immune defect characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, failure of specific antibody production, susceptibility to infections, and an array of comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: To address the und ... Full text Link to item Cite

Profound reduction of invariant natural killer T cells in the peripheral blood of a patient with interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 deficiency.

Journal Article Immunol Lett · August 16, 2010 We previously described a patient with a history of frequent life-threatening pneumonias, infections with bacterial pathogens, interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 4 deficiency, and failure to maintain antibody titers to polysaccharide antigens or to a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microbial translocation induces persistent macrophage activation unrelated to HIV-1 levels or T-cell activation following therapy.

Journal Article AIDS · June 1, 2010 OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 replication and microbial translocation occur concomitant with systemic immune activation. This study delineates mechanisms of immune activation and CD4 T-cell decline in pediatric HIV-1 infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tolerability of a new 10% liquid immunoglobulin for intravenous use, Privigen, at different infusion rates.

Journal Article J Clin Immunol · May 2010 PURPOSE: The tolerability of L-proline-stabilized Privigen, a new 10% liquid immunoglobulin for intravenous administration, was assessed at high infusion rates in a Phase III, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study in 45 patients with primary immune def ... Full text Link to item Cite

IFNgamma primes macrophages for inflammatory activation by high molecular weight hyaluronan.

Journal Article Cell Immunol · 2010 The objective was to assess outcomes of IFNgamma-priming upon macrophage activation by the synovial macromolecule high molecular weight hyaluronan [HMW-HA] in the context of rheumatoid arthritis inflammation. Human macrophages primed by IFNgamma and activa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunodeficiency diseases of the neonate

Journal Article · January 1, 2010 Significant progress has been made towards the understanding of the clinical implications of the immature neonatal immune system. With the increasing survival of extremely premature infants, neonatologists and other physicians caring for these patients mus ... Full text Cite

Obesity and dyslipidemia in behaviorally HIV-infected young women: Adolescent Trials Network study 021.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · January 1, 2010 BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to determine the nature and prevalence of abnormalities in lipids, glucose metabolism, and body composition in behaviorally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected young women and the relationship of these abnorma ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antiretroviral therapy restores diversity in the T-cell receptor Vbeta repertoire of CD4 T-cell subpopulations among human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children and adolescents.

Journal Article Clin Vaccine Immunol · September 2009 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection perturbs the T-cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta repertoire. The TCR CDR3 length diversity of individual Vbeta families was examined within CD45RA and CD45RO CD4 T cells to assess the impact of the virus on clona ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic determinants in HIV-1 Gag and Env V3 are related to viral response to combination antiretroviral therapy with a protease inhibitor.

Journal Article AIDS · August 24, 2009 OBJECTIVE: To identify novel viral determinants in HIV-1 protease, Gag, and envelope V3 that relate to outcomes to initial protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: A longitudinal cohort study of protease inhibitor-naive, HIV-infected indivi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetics of a new 10% intravenous immunoglobulin in patients receiving replacement therapy for primary immunodeficiency.

Journal Article Eur J Pharm Sci · June 28, 2009 Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used in treating immunodeficiencies and autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. As manufacturing processes and storage can alter IgG molecules, pharmacokinetic assessments are important for new preparations. Thus, we stud ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy and safety of privigen in children and adolescents with primary immunodeficiency

Journal Article Pediatric Asthma, Allergy and Immunology · June 1, 2009 The objective of this prospective, open-label, single-arm, Phase III study was to assess the efficacy and safety of Privigen ®, the first 10% liquid intravenous immunoglobulin stabilized with L-proline, in patients with primary immunodeficiency. As part of ... Full text Cite

Short-cycle therapy in adolescents after continuous therapy with established viral suppression: the impact on viral load suppression.

Journal Article AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · June 2009 This was a proof-of-principle study to evaluate the impact of short cycle therapy (SCT; 4 days on/3 days off) in adolescents and young adults with good viral suppression on a protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral regimen. Subjects were recruited by the A ... Full text Link to item Cite

Abacavir pharmacokinetics during chronic therapy in HIV-1-infected adolescents and young adults.

Journal Article Clin Pharmacol Ther · April 2009 The pharmacokinetics of abacavir and its metabolites were investigated in 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adolescents and young adults 13-25 years of age, equally divided into two groups: <18 years of age and >or=18 years of age. All the sub ... Full text Link to item Cite

The role of cognitive functioning in medication adherence of children and adolescents with HIV infection.

Journal Article J Pediatr Psychol · March 2009 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between cognitive functioning and medication adherence in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection. METHODS: Children and adolescents, ages 3-18 (N = 1,429), received a cognitive evaluation an ... Full text Link to item Cite

FOXP3 expression following bone marrow transplantation for IPEX syndrome after reduced-intensity conditioning.

Journal Article Immunol Res · 2009 The objective of this study is to determine if immune reconstitution of FOXP3+ T regulatory cells correlates with clinical improvement of IPEX syndrome following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An 8-months-old male infant with a mutation in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Drug-associated changes in amino acid residues in Gag p2, p7(NC), and p6(Gag)/p6(Pol) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) display a dominant effect on replicative fitness and drug response.

Journal Article Virology · September 1, 2008 Regions of HIV-1 gag between p2 and p6(Gag)/p6(Pol), in addition to protease (PR), develop genetic diversity in HIV-1 infected individuals who fail to suppress virus replication by combination protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. To elucidate functional conseq ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antiretroviral therapy corrects HIV-1-induced expansion of CD8+ CD45RA+ CD2-) CD11a(bright) activated T cells.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol · July 2008 BACKGROUND: HIV infection decreases thymic output and induces chronic T-cell activation. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reconstitution of naive and activated T cells. METHODS: Extended immune phenotyping of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets was combined with T-c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of in vitro brevetoxin exposure on apoptosis and cellular metabolism in a leukemic T cell line (Jurkat).

Journal Article Mar Drugs · June 10, 2008 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, produce red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Significant health effects associated with red tide toxin exposure have been reported in sea life and in humans, with brevetoxins documented w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical implications of discordant viral and immune outcomes following protease inhibitor containing antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected children.

Journal Article Immunol Res · 2008 Many HIV-infected children treated with protease inhibitors (PI) reconstitute immunity despite viral breakthrough predicting disease progression. We studied a unique cohort of PI treated children with advanced disease who demonstrated sustained CD4 T cell ... Full text Link to item Cite

HIV-1 activates macrophages independent of Toll-like receptors.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2008 BACKGROUND: Macrophages provide an interface between innate and adaptive immunity and are important long-lived reservoirs for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1). Multiple genetic networks involved in regulating signal transduction cascades and imm ... Full text Link to item Cite

Complete DiGeorge syndrome associated with CHD7 mutation.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol · October 2007 Full text Link to item Cite

Phylodynamics of HIV-1 in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues reveals a central role for the thymus in emergence of CXCR4-using quasispecies.

Journal Article PLoS One · September 26, 2007 BACKGROUND: During HIV-1 infection coreceptor switch from CCR5- (R5)- to CXCR4 (X4)-using viruses is associated with disease progression. X4 strains of HIV-1 are highly cytopathic to immature thymocytes. Virtually no studies have evaluated the HIV-1 quasis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diagnosis of immunodeficiency diseases

Chapter · January 1, 2007 Immunodeficiency diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Immune deficient states can be subdivided into primary immune deficiency diseases due to a hereditary or intrinsic defect in the immune system, or secondary immune deficiency ... Cite

Primary immunodeficiency diseases

Chapter · January 1, 2007 Primary immunodeficiencies can be classified by a variety of criteria, such as the main limb of the immune system affected, the spectrum of infections, their primary or secondary nature, and, in the case of hereditary primary immunodeficiencies, their mech ... Cite

Aids and other acquired immunodeficiency diseases

Chapter · January 1, 2007 Many factors influencing the function of the immune system can lead to variable degrees of immunoincompetence. Infections, exposure to toxic environmental factors, physical trauma, and therapeutic interventions can all be associated with immune dysfunction ... Cite

Immune response: Antigens, lymphocytes, and accessory cells

Chapter · January 1, 2007 The immune system has evolved to ensure constant surveillance of “nonself” structures. Both T and B lymphocytes have cell-surface receptors that are able to recognize structures not normally presented or expressed by the organism. Once that recognition tak ... Cite

Validation of current joint American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology and American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology guidelines for antibody response to the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine using a population of HIV-infected children.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol · December 2006 BACKGROUND: Measuring antibody responses to 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPV) is crucial to evaluation of humoral immune function. However, data are limited comparing responses in immunodeficient subjects. OBJECTIVE: A case-controlled st ... Full text Link to item Cite

Brief report: assessing adherence to pediatric antiretroviral regimens using the 24-hour recall interview.

Journal Article J Pediatr Psychol · October 2006 OBJECTIVE: Examine the 24-hr Recall Interview (24RI) for assessing children's antiretroviral medication adherence. METHODS: Caregivers of 54 children with HIV (aged 2-12 years) completed a clinical adherence interview and the 24RI by telephone. Children's ... Full text Link to item Cite

LMP-420, a small-molecule inhibitor of TNF-alpha, reduces replication of HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human cells.

Journal Article AIDS Res Ther · March 31, 2006 BACKGROUND: Co-infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb) are steadily increasing and represent a major health crisis in many developing countries. Both pathogens individually stimulate tumor necrosis factor-alp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Complex determinants in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 mediate CXCR4-dependent infection of macrophages.

Journal Article J Virol · November 2005 Host cell range, or tropism, combined with coreceptor usage defines viral phenotypes as macrophage tropic using CCR5 (M-R5), T-cell-line tropic using CXCR4 (T-X4), or dually lymphocyte and macrophage tropic using CXCR4 alone or in combination with CCR5 (D- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruption and food allergy.

Journal Article Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol · March 2005 BACKGROUND: Acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruption (AE) is a distinct rash associated with profound zinc deficiency. It is seen in a variety of conditions but has not been reported as a presentation of food allergy. OBJECTIVE: To report AE as an unusua ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunodeficiency diseases of the neonate

Journal Article · January 1, 2005 Introduction Significant progress has been made towards the understanding of the clinical implications of the neonatal immune system and its immaturity. With the increasing survival of extremely premature infants, neonatologists and other physicians caring ... Full text Cite

Impact on genetic networks in human macrophages by a CCR5 strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Journal Article J Virol · November 2004 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) impacts multiple lineages of hematopoietic cells, including lymphocytes and macrophages, either by direct infection or indirectly by perturbations of cell networks, leading to generalized immune deficiency. We de ... Full text Link to item Cite

Two-year clinical and immune outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children who reconstitute CD4 T cells without control of viral replication after combination antiretroviral therapy.

Journal Article Pediatrics · November 2004 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 96-week clinical and immune outcomes to protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted of 40 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children who displayed viral suppression (VS) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of influenza virus vaccine on the expression of human immunodeficiency virus co-receptor CCR5.

Journal Article Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol · September 2004 BACKGROUND: Administration of influenza vaccine to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children can lead to increased viral load. CCR5 and CXCR4 are known to play an important role in HIV cell entry and viral replication. OBJECTIVE: To determine th ... Full text Link to item Cite

HIV and older adults: clinical outcomes in the era of HAART.

Journal Article J Gerontol Nurs · July 2004 As the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic enters its third decade, nurses are caring for increasing numbers of older adults with HIV who are on complicated medication regimens or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Although HAART has rev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in children with human immunodeficiency virus undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Journal Article Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol · May 2004 BACKGROUND: The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PSV) has been recommended for children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); however, the efficacy of this vaccination in HIV-infected children undergoing highly active antiretrov ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical assessment of medication adherence among HIV-infected children: examination of the Treatment Interview Protocol (TIP).

Journal Article AIDS Care · April 2004 This paper presents findings of a multi-site study designed to document: (1) caregivers' regimen knowledge; (2) barriers to adherence; and (3) the relationships between adherence, regimen knowledge and barriers. Fifty-one predominantly female, African Amer ... Full text Link to item Cite

Varicella zoster as a manifestation of immune restoration disease in HIV-infected children.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol · April 2004 BACKGROUND: Exacerbation of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients shortly after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been named immune restoration disease (IRD). Thus far, IRD has not been reported in children. OBJECTI ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptor expression on CD4 T lymphocyte subsets in infants and adolescents.

Journal Article AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · March 2004 HIV-1 infection alters expression of CCR5 and CXCR4 on CD4 T cells in adults, although an effect by virus on expression of coreceptor genes in pediatric subjects is unknown. We designed an exploratory study to evaluate surface expression of CXCR4 and CCR5 ... Full text Link to item Cite

HIV-1 fitness and macrophages.

Journal Article J Leukoc Biol · November 2003 HIV-1 comprises a collection of closely related, but not identical, viruses or quasispecies. Fitness represents a selective advantage for propagation among populations of organisms competing in a particular environment and is an important characteristic of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aberrant monocyte prostaglandin synthase 2 (PGS2) expression in type 1 diabetes before and after disease onset.

Journal Article Pediatr Diabetes · March 2003 METHODS: We examined monocyte prostaglandin synthase 2 (PGS2/COX2) expression in individuals at risk for or with type 1 diabetes including: (i) 58 established type 1 and 2 diabetic patients; (ii) 34 autoantibody positive (AA+) children and adults; (iii) 16 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) induces activation of multiple STATs in CD4+ cells of lymphocyte or monocyte/macrophage lineages.

Journal Article J Leukoc Biol · March 2003 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) impacts the activation state of multiple lineages of hematopoietic cells. Chronic HIV-1 infection among individuals with progressive disease can be associated with increased levels of activated signal transducers ... Full text Link to item Cite

13. HIV-1 infection.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol · February 2003 This review is intended to provide a fundamental perspective on the dynamic interplay between HIV-1 and the immune system, an essential aspect in defining the pathogenesis and treatment of AIDS. HIV-1 infection, the cause of AIDS, is a worldwide pandemic w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Combination antiretroviral therapy results in a rapid increase in T cell receptor variable region beta repertoire diversity within CD45RA CD8 T cells in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · February 1, 2003 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 disrupts the T cell receptor (TCR) variable region (V) beta repertoire in CD8 T cells by impairing thymic capacity and skewing postthymic cellular maturation. The TCR repertoire was examined using spectratyping of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of zidovudine in preterm infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · January 2003 OBJECTIVE: To determine zidovudine pharmacokinetics and tolerance in premature human human immunodeficiency virus-exposed infants. STUDY DESIGN: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 331 was a multicentered prospective, open-label study of the use of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of resistance mutations in women receiving standard antiretroviral therapy who received intrapartum nevirapine to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission: a substudy of pediatric AIDS clinical trials group protocol 316.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · July 15, 2002 Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 316 was an international, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial comparing single-dose oral nevirapine (200 mg to mother and 2 mg/kg to infant) with placebo in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Nucleoside-analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors plus nevirapine, nelfinavir, or ritonavir for pretreated children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · April 1, 2002 The relative potency and tolerability of multidrug regimens used to treat infants and children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are largely unknown. In Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Protocol 377, 181 infants and chil ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) therapy for acute cardiac humoral rejection: a case report.

Journal Article Transplantation · March 27, 2002 Humoral or antibody-mediated rejection in cardiac transplant recipients is mediated by donor-specific cytotoxic antibodies and is histologically defined by linear deposits of immunoglobulin and complement in the myocardial capillaries. Antibody-mediated re ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increased replication of non-syncytium-inducing HIV type 1 isolates in monocyte-derived macrophages is linked to advanced disease in infected children.

Journal Article AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · March 20, 2002 Non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) strains of HIV-1 prevail among most infected children, including pediatric patients who develop advanced disease, severe immune suppression, and die. A study was designed to address the hypothesis that genotypic and/or phenotyp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Naturally occurring amino acid polymorphisms in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag p7(NC) and the C-cleavage site impact Gag-Pol processing by HIV-1 protease.

Journal Article Virology · January 5, 2002 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease activity is targeted at nine cleavage sites comprising different amino acid sequences in the viral Gag-Pol polyprotein. Amino acid polymorphisms in protease and in regions of Gag, particularly p7(NC) and ... Full text Link to item Cite

A pilot study for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes

Journal Article International Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology · October 4, 2001 Purpose. Obtain preliminary response, toxicity, and survival data in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) and immunodeficiency syndromes using short-duration chemotherapy, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), intravenous (IV) immunoglobul ... Cite

Human lymphocyte proliferation responses following primary immunization with rabies vaccine as neoantigen.

Journal Article Clin Diagn Lab Immunol · September 2001 Evaluation of the T-cell immune response following primary antigenic challenge with a neoantigen is a critical aspect of assessment of the cellular immune response. While many antigens can be used to accurately assess in vitro T-cell proliferation to a rec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Natural history of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections in the acyclovir era.

Journal Article Pediatrics · August 2001 OBJECTIVE: During the 2 decades in which effective antiviral therapies have been available for neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease, changes have been documented not only in the outcomes of infected infants, but also in the natural history of the di ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety and efficacy of high-dose intravenous acyclovir in the management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

Journal Article Pediatrics · August 2001 OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to establish the safety of high-dose (HD) acyclovir for the treatment of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease. In addition, an estimate of therapeutic efficacy was sought, both with respect to morta ... Full text Link to item Cite

Long-term virologic and immunologic responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children treated with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · April 1, 2001 Virologic and immunologic responses were examined for 33 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children who participated for > or = 96 weeks in a phase 1/2 protocol of 16 weeks of indinavir monotherapy, followed by the addition of zidovudine and lami ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease genotype predicts immune and viral responses to combination therapy with protease inhibitors (PIs) in PI-naive patients.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · February 15, 2001 Protease genotype, as a variable in outcome to combination therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection, was evaluated among protease inhibitor-naive children and adolescents who had received extensive treatment with reverse-transcriptas ... Full text Link to item Cite

A randomized, double-blind study of triple nucleoside therapy of abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine versus lamivudine and zidovudine in previously treated human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children. The CNAA3006 Study Team.

Journal Article Pediatrics · January 2001 OBJECTIVES: Abacavir (ABC) is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase. We compared the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of combination therapy with ABC, lamivudine (3TC), and zidovudine (ZDV) versus 3TC and ... Full text Link to item Cite

T-Cell receptor Vbeta repertoire CDR3 length diversity differs within CD45RA and CD45RO T-cell subsets in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

Journal Article Clin Diagn Lab Immunol · November 2000 The T-cell receptor (TCR) CDR3 length heterogeneity is formed during recombination of individual Vbeta gene families. We hypothesized that CDR3 length diversity could be used to assess the fundamental differences within the TCR repertoire of CD45RA and CD4 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetically and epidemiologically related "non-syncytium-inducing" isolates of HIV-1 display heterogeneous growth patterns in macrophages.

Journal Article J Med Virol · June 2000 The objective of this study was to identify phenotypic parameters that could distinguish among seemingly homogeneous non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) viruses and that might provide a surrogate marker for clinical progression in pediatric human immunodeficiency ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunoreconstitution after ritonavir therapy in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection involves multiple lymphocyte lineages.

Journal Article J Pediatr · May 1999 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lymphocyte reconstitution after protease inhibitor therapy in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-four HIV-infected children receiving ritonavir monotherapy followed by the addition of zido ... Full text Link to item Cite

Toxicity and efficacy of daily vs. weekly dapsone for prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus. ACTG 179 Study Team. AIDS Clinical Trials Group.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · May 1999 BACKGROUND: Dapsone is an alternative drug for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis in individuals intolerant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (T/S). There are, however, few data on the pharmacokinetics, toxicity or efficacy of dapsone in child ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rapid telomere shortening in children.

Journal Article Blood · May 1, 1999 Telomere shortening may reflect the total number of divisions experienced by a somatic cell and is associated with replicative senescence. We found that the average rate of telomere shortening in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained longitud ... Link to item Cite

A phase I/II study of the protease inhibitor indinavir in children with HIV infection.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 1998 BACKGROUND: Indinavir, an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease, is approved for the treatment of HIV infection in adults when antiretroviral therapy is indicated. We evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of the i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Expression of CCR5 increases during monocyte differentiation and directly mediates macrophage susceptibility to infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Journal Article J Virol · June 1998 The stage of differentiation and the lineage of CD4+ cells profoundly affect their susceptibility to infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). While CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients are readily susceptible to HIV-1 infection, peripheral blo ... Full text Link to item Cite

A phase I/II study of the protease inhibitor ritonavir in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Journal Article Pediatrics · March 1998 BACKGROUND: Ritonavir, a potent antiretroviral protease inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of adults and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In a phase I/II study, we assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokineti ... Full text Link to item Cite

SLE nephritis is associated with an oligoclonal expansion of intrarenal T cells.

Journal Article Am J Kidney Dis · March 1998 Autoimmune systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis is characterized by the influx of mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrates within the glomeruli and renal interstitium. To evaluate the possibility that intrarenal T cells result from the expansion o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Nutrition intervention with HIV infected children

Journal Article FASEB Journal · December 1, 1997 Ten symptomatic HIV infected children (CDC stage B or C) with a mean age of 76 months (range 22-142 months) and with normal status in all monitored nutritional parameters consumed 1 can daily of a nutrition supplement drink (Peptamen Junior) for 6 months. ... Cite

Enteral glutamine supplementation for very low birth weight infants decreases morbidity.

Journal Article J Pediatr · November 1997 Glutamine, described as a "conditionally essential" amino acid for critically ill patients, has not been routinely added to parenteral amino acid formulations for critically ill neonates and is provided in only small quantities by the enteral route when en ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunomagnetic selection of purified monocyte and lymphocyte populations from peripheral blood mononuclear cells following cryopreservation.

Journal Article Clin Diagn Lab Immunol · November 1997 Cryopreservation is a method commonly used to store human blood samples. We sought to determine if cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could be separated effectively into distinct populations by using monoclonal antibodies and immunomag ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multilocular thymic cysts in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection: clinical and pathologic aspects.

Journal Article J Pediatr · August 1997 BACKGROUND: Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have an increased susceptibility to severe and unusual infections, malignancies, and disorders characterized by abnormal lymphoproliferation (e.g., lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis). W ... Full text Link to item Cite

Zidovudine administered to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and to their neonates reduces pediatric infection independent of an effect on levels of maternal virus.

Journal Article J Pediatr · June 1997 OBJECTIVE: To determine whether zidovudine, administered to reduce vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), impacts the level of maternal viral DNA within the lymphocytes of infected pregnant women. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antiphospholipid antibodies in pediatric lupus nephritis.

Journal Article Am J Kidney Dis · March 1997 Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) of various isotypes are known to occur in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the significance of this finding in the pediatric population remains unclear. Our aim was to determine whether children with lupus nephritis ... Full text Link to item Cite

CD4+ memory T cells are the predominant population of HIV-1-infected lymphocytes in neonates and children.

Journal Article AIDS · November 1996 BACKGROUND: CD4+ memory T cells express CD45RO and are the principal viral reservoir in HIV-infected adults. In infants and children, CD45RO T cells comprise the minority of the CD4+ T-cell population. The majority of blood CD4+ T cells are naive, expressi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tetany in a child with AIDS receiving intravenous tobramycin.

Journal Article South Med J · November 1996 Aminoglycosides have been reported to cause tetany by inducing renal wasting of magnesium and secondary hypocalcemia. A 9-year-old girl with AIDS was brought to the emergency department because of tetany. She had just finished a 3-week course of intravenou ... Full text Link to item Cite

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in velo-cardio-facial syndrome: coincidence or unusual complication?

Journal Article Am J Med Genet · September 6, 1996 We report on two patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). The first, a 9-year-old girl, presented with microcephaly, characteristic face, congenital heart disease, and velopharyngeal insufficiency. Fluoresce ... Full text Link to item Cite

A model for alignment of Env V1 and V2 hypervariable domains from human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.

Journal Article AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · August 10, 1996 HIV-1 env gene encodes a multifunctional glycoprotein that is involved in virus infectivity, interactions between the virus and the host immune system, and phenotypic characteristics of virus isolates in culture. A number of Env functions map by genetic an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Factors influencing mother-child transmission of HIV-1

Journal Article Journal of the Florida Medical Association · August 6, 1996 Pediatric HIV-1 infection is acquired most commonly by transmission from mother to child. Transmission varies geographically and ranges between 15% to 50%. Several factors are involved. The mother's immune status and disease stage, characteristics of the i ... Cite

Natural variation in HIV-1 protease, Gag p7 and p6, and protease cleavage sites within gag/pol polyproteins: amino acid substitutions in the absence of protease inhibitors in mothers and children infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

Journal Article Virology · May 15, 1996 Reduced sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to protease inhibitors is associated with multiple amino acid substitutions in the virus-encoded protease. The combination of changes that contribute to drug resistance is dependent in part ... Full text Link to item Cite

The association between immunodeficiency and the development of autoimmune disease.

Journal Article Adv Dent Res · April 1996 There is a paradoxical relationship between immunodeficiency diseases and autoimmunity. While not all individuals with immunodeficiency develop autoimmunity, nor are all individuals with autoimmunity immunodeficient, defects within certain components of th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Congenital deficiency of CD4+ T lymphocytes is associated with the progressive loss of CD8+ T cells

Journal Article Journal of Investigative Medicine · January 1, 1996 Combined Immunodeficiency due to the selective absence of CD4+ T lymphocytes is a rare form of immunodeficiency disease characterized by low CD4+ T cell number at birth, decreased production of IL-2, elevated CD8+ T cell numbers, poor mitogen induced lymph ... Cite

Molecular analysis of highly enriched populations of T-cell-depleted monocytes.

Journal Article Clin Diagn Lab Immunol · November 1995 CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages are important components of the immune system. Blood monocytes are usually targeted for studies of the human macrophage lineage cells because of their accessibility through blood sampling. Most separation techni ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hyponatremia in pediatric patients with HIV-1 infection.

Journal Article South Med J · October 1995 Hyponatremia has been recognized as a complication in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We did a retrospective study evaluating the medical records of 86 children (age 4 months to 21 years) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) inf ... Full text Link to item Cite

Arrested rearrangement of TCR V beta genes in thymocytes from children with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

Journal Article J Immunol · July 1, 1994 Human X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is an immunodeficiency disorder in which T cell development is arrested in the thymic cortex. B lymphocytes in children with X-linked SCID seem to differentiate normally. X-linked SCID is assoc ... Link to item Cite

Persistence of multiple maternal genotypes of human immunodeficiency virus type I in infants infected by vertical transmission.

Journal Article J Clin Invest · January 1994 The extent of nucleotide variation within the HIV-1 env hypervariable domains serves as a marker of virus genotypes within infected individuals and as a means to track transmission of the virus between individuals. We analyzed env V1 and V2 sequences in lo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Independent variation and positive selection in env V1 and V2 domains within maternal-infant strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vivo.

Journal Article J Virol · July 1993 Multiple targets for immune recognition and cellular tropism are localized to the V1 and V2 hypervariable regions in the amino portion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120env. We have assessed genetic diversity in env V1 and V2 hypervariabl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Corticosteroids improve survival of children with AIDS and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

Journal Article Am J Dis Child · January 1993 OBJECTIVE: To determine if corticosteroids administered in addition to antimicrobials improve survival in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). DESIGN: Before-after, nonrandomized, case-comparison ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibodies are secreted by the CD5- B cell lineage.

Journal Article Cell Immunol · August 1992 To determine whether human antibody responses to T cell-independent pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens are derived from CD5+ or CD5- B cells, we utilized an ELISPOT assay to detect individual anti-polysaccharide antibody-secreting cells. Human anti-type ... Full text Link to item Cite

CD5+ B lymphocytes in high-risk islet cell antibody-positive and newly diagnosed IDDM subjects.

Journal Article Diabetes · October 1991 Human CD5+ B lymphocytes produce autoantibodies that bind to self- and exogenous antigens. Extremely high percentages of CD5+ B lymphocytes are present in the fetal and newborn periods, whereas they constitute only a minority of B lymphocytes in healthy ad ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pathogenesis and natural history of HIV infection.

Journal Article J Fla Med Assoc · October 1991 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a human retrovirus. The virus infects cells of the immune system by attachment of a glycoprotein viral envelope (gp 120) to a molecule expressed ... Link to item Cite

Pediatric HIV infection. An update.

Journal Article J Fla Med Assoc · October 1991 Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a leading cause of immunodeficiency in children. The epidemic in children parallels that in women since most infected women are in the child-bearing age groups. The risk of vertical transmission of HIV from an infe ... Link to item Cite

Cytochalasins enhance the proliferation of CD4 cells through the CD3-Ti antigen receptor complex or the CD2 molecule through an effect on early events of activation.

Journal Article J Immunol · June 1, 1991 Cytochalasins are known to inhibit or enhance the proliferation of T cells induced by mitogens in a concentration-dependent fashion. To clarify the mechanism by which cytochalasins enhance T cell proliferation, we examined which activation pathways and eve ... Link to item Cite

Con A-induced suppressor cell function depends on the activation of the CD4+CD45RA inducer T cell subpopulation.

Journal Article Cell Immunol · April 1, 1991 Human T cells incubated for 48 hr with Con A suppress B cell Ig production. We sought to define the interactions between CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in the generation of suppressor cell activity following Con A stimulation. Con A-activated CD4+ inducer T ... Full text Link to item Cite

Combined immunodeficiency due to the selective absence of CD4 inducer T lymphocytes.

Journal Article Clin Immunol Immunopathol · June 1990 Selective congenital deficiency of the CD4 inducer T lymphocyte subset is a recently described variant of combined immunodeficiency. To further characterize the cellular and molecular mechanisms which lead to the profound T and B cell immunodeficiency in t ... Full text Link to item Cite

The role of functionally distinct helper T lymphocyte subpopulations in the induction of human B cell differentiation.

Journal Article Eur J Immunol · June 1990 Human helper T lymphocytes can be dissected into two functionally distinct subpopulations based on expression of the CD45RA (2H4) or CD45R0 (UCHL-1) surface antigens. While both subpopulations are able to induce equivalent levels of B cell activation and p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Plasma thrombospondin as an indicator of intravascular platelet activation in patients with vasculitis.

Journal Article Thromb Haemost · October 28, 1987 The use of plasma thrombospondin (TSP) concentration was investigated as an indicator of intravascular platelet activation. Patients (n = 20) with diseases that have known vasculitis were included in the study. The range and the mean of plasma TSP concentr ... Link to item Cite

T lymphocyte depletion of human peripheral blood and bone marrow using monoclonal antibodies and magnetic microspheres.

Journal Article Bone Marrow Transplant · August 1987 It has previously been demonstrated that graft-versus-host disease can be overcome in patients receiving HLA-mismatched bone marrow transplants by prior in vitro depletion of T lymphocytes from the marrow. In this report we describe the use of monoclonal a ... Link to item Cite

Pulsed methylprednisolone therapy compared to high dose prednisone in systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis.

Journal Article Eur J Pediatr · October 1986 This study was done to determine whether intravenous methylprednisolone therapy given concomitantly with low-dose daily, oral prednisone would be as effective as high-dose daily prednisone in the treatment of patients with active systemic lupus erythematos ... Full text Link to item Cite