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Loren W. Nolte

Professor Emeritus in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Box 90291, Durham, NC 27708-0291
3471 Ciemas, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Intrinsic structure study of whale vocalizations

Conference OCEANS 2016 MTS/IEEE Monterey, OCE 2016 · November 28, 2016 Whale vocalizations can be modeled as polynomial-phase signals, which are widely used in radar and sonar applications. Such signals lie on a nonlinear manifold parameterized by polynomial phase coefficients. In this paper, we apply manifold learning method ... Full text Cite

Impact of breast structure on lesion detection in breast tomosynthesis, a simulation study.

Journal Article J Med Imaging (Bellingham) · July 2016 This study aims to characterize the effect of background tissue density and heterogeneity on the detection of irregular masses in breast tomosynthesis, while demonstrating the capability of the sophisticated tools that can be used in the design, implementa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data.

Journal Article Med Phys · July 2015 PURPOSE: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-di ... Full text Link to item Cite

The impact of breast structure on lesion detection in breast tomosynthesis

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · January 1, 2015 Virtual clinical trials (VCT) can be carefully designed to inform, orient, or potentially replace clinical trials. The focus of this study was to demonstrate the capability of the sophisticated tools that can be used in the design, implementation, and perf ... Full text Cite

Development and application of a suite of 4-D virtual breast phantoms for optimization and evaluation of breast imaging systems.

Journal Article IEEE Trans Med Imaging · July 2014 Mammography is currently the most widely utilized tool for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, in women with dense breast tissue, tissue overlap may obscure lesions. Digital breast tomosynthesis can reduce tissue overlap. Furthermore, imagin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of matched virtual and physical breast phantoms based on patient data

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · 2013 Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and clinical evaluation of x-ray systems. These phantoms are used for various tests such as quality assurance testing, system characterization, reconstruction evaluation, and dosimetry. The ... Full text Cite

Application of a dynamic 4D anthropomorphic breast phantom in contrast-based imaging system optimization: Dual-energy or temporal subtraction?

Journal Article Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) · August 15, 2012 We previously developed a dynamic 4D anthropomorphic breast phantom, which can be used to optimize contrast-based breast imaging systems, accounting for patient variability and contrast kinetics [1]. In this study we aim to compare the performance of contr ... Full text Cite

Development of a dynamic 4D anthropomorphic breast phantom for contrast-based breast imaging

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · May 4, 2012 Mammography is currently the most widely accepted tool for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, the sensitivity of mammography is reduced in women with dense breast tissue due to tissue overlap, which may obscure lesions. Digital breast tomos ... Full text Cite

An anthropomorphic breast model for breast imaging simulation and optimization.

Journal Article Acad Radiol · May 2011 RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Optimization studies for x-ray-based breast imaging systems using computer simulation can greatly benefit from a phantom capable of modeling varying anatomical variability across different patients. This study aimed to develop a t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Computerized detection of low SNR cases in NSECT: An ROC-based sensitivity analysis

Journal Article IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record · January 1, 2011 Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is an imaging technique that uses gamma energy spectra emitted from inelastic scattering of fast neutrons to extract quantitative elemental information from tissue. The NSECT acquisition system consis ... Full text Cite

Bayesian quantitative electrophysiology and its multiple applications in bioengineering.

Journal Article IEEE reviews in biomedical engineering · January 2010 Bayesian interpretation of observations began in the early 1700s, and scientific electrophysiology began in the late 1700s. For two centuries these two fields developed mostly separately. In part that was because quantitative Bayesian interpretation, in pr ... Full text Cite

Decision-level fusion of EEG and pupil features for single-trial visual detection analysis.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · July 2009 Several recent studies have reported success in applying EEG-based signal analysis to achieve accurate single-trial classification of responses to visual target detection. Pupil responses are proposed as a complementary modality that can support improved a ... Full text Cite

Bayesian analysis of fiber impedance measurements.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · December 1, 2007 The resistivities of microscale components of excitable tissue include the longitudinal intracellular and interstitial resistivities and the membrane resistivity. Measurements of these tissue micro impedances have rarely been obtained, mainly because of th ... Cite

Decision fusion of circulating markers for breast cancer detection in premenopausal women

Chapter · December 1, 2007 Current mammographic screeningfor breast cancer is less effective for younger women. To complement mammography for premenopausal women, we investigated the feasibility screening test using 98 blood serum proteins. Because the data set was very noisy and co ... Full text Cite

Decision fusion of ground-penetrating radar and metal detector algorithms - A robust approach

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing · February 1, 2007 Numerous detection algorithms, using various sensor modalities, have been developed for the detection of mines in cluttered and noisy backgrounds. The performance for each detection algorithm is typically reported in terms of the receiver operating charact ... Full text Cite

Bayesian analysis of fiber impedance measurements.

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference · January 2007 The resistivities of microscale components of excitable tissue include the longitudinal intracellular and interstitial resistivities and the membrane resistivity. Measurements of these tissue micro impedances have rarely been obtained, mainly because of th ... Full text Cite

Bayesian analysis of fiber impedance measurements.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · 2007 Cite

Optimized approach to decision fusion of heterogeneous data for breast cancer diagnosis.

Journal Article Med Phys · August 2006 As more diagnostic testing options become available to physicians, it becomes more difficult to combine various types of medical information together in order to optimize the overall diagnosis. To improve diagnostic performance, here we introduce an approa ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of data set size on computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer: Comparing decision fusion to a linear discriminant

Journal Article Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · June 23, 2006 Data sets with relatively few observations (cases) in medical research are common, especially if the data are expensive or difficult to collect. Such small sample sizes usually do not provide enough information for computer models to learn data patterns we ... Full text Cite

Bayesian sonar detection performance prediction with source position uncertainty using SWellEx-96 vertical array data

Journal Article IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering · April 1, 2006 Predicting sonar detection performance is important for the development of sonar systems. The classical sonar equation cannot accurately predict sonar detection performance because it does not incorporate the effect of ocean environmental and source positi ... Full text Cite

Intrinsic structure study of whale vocalizations

Conference OCEANS 2016 MTS/IEEE Monterey, OCE 2016 · November 28, 2016 Whale vocalizations can be modeled as polynomial-phase signals, which are widely used in radar and sonar applications. Such signals lie on a nonlinear manifold parameterized by polynomial phase coefficients. In this paper, we apply manifold learning method ... Full text Cite

Impact of breast structure on lesion detection in breast tomosynthesis, a simulation study.

Journal Article J Med Imaging (Bellingham) · July 2016 This study aims to characterize the effect of background tissue density and heterogeneity on the detection of irregular masses in breast tomosynthesis, while demonstrating the capability of the sophisticated tools that can be used in the design, implementa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data.

Journal Article Med Phys · July 2015 PURPOSE: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-di ... Full text Link to item Cite

The impact of breast structure on lesion detection in breast tomosynthesis

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · January 1, 2015 Virtual clinical trials (VCT) can be carefully designed to inform, orient, or potentially replace clinical trials. The focus of this study was to demonstrate the capability of the sophisticated tools that can be used in the design, implementation, and perf ... Full text Cite

Development and application of a suite of 4-D virtual breast phantoms for optimization and evaluation of breast imaging systems.

Journal Article IEEE Trans Med Imaging · July 2014 Mammography is currently the most widely utilized tool for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, in women with dense breast tissue, tissue overlap may obscure lesions. Digital breast tomosynthesis can reduce tissue overlap. Furthermore, imagin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of matched virtual and physical breast phantoms based on patient data

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · 2013 Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and clinical evaluation of x-ray systems. These phantoms are used for various tests such as quality assurance testing, system characterization, reconstruction evaluation, and dosimetry. The ... Full text Cite

Application of a dynamic 4D anthropomorphic breast phantom in contrast-based imaging system optimization: Dual-energy or temporal subtraction?

Journal Article Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) · August 15, 2012 We previously developed a dynamic 4D anthropomorphic breast phantom, which can be used to optimize contrast-based breast imaging systems, accounting for patient variability and contrast kinetics [1]. In this study we aim to compare the performance of contr ... Full text Cite

Development of a dynamic 4D anthropomorphic breast phantom for contrast-based breast imaging

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · May 4, 2012 Mammography is currently the most widely accepted tool for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, the sensitivity of mammography is reduced in women with dense breast tissue due to tissue overlap, which may obscure lesions. Digital breast tomos ... Full text Cite

An anthropomorphic breast model for breast imaging simulation and optimization.

Journal Article Acad Radiol · May 2011 RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Optimization studies for x-ray-based breast imaging systems using computer simulation can greatly benefit from a phantom capable of modeling varying anatomical variability across different patients. This study aimed to develop a t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Computerized detection of low SNR cases in NSECT: An ROC-based sensitivity analysis

Journal Article IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record · January 1, 2011 Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is an imaging technique that uses gamma energy spectra emitted from inelastic scattering of fast neutrons to extract quantitative elemental information from tissue. The NSECT acquisition system consis ... Full text Cite

Bayesian quantitative electrophysiology and its multiple applications in bioengineering.

Journal Article IEEE reviews in biomedical engineering · January 2010 Bayesian interpretation of observations began in the early 1700s, and scientific electrophysiology began in the late 1700s. For two centuries these two fields developed mostly separately. In part that was because quantitative Bayesian interpretation, in pr ... Full text Cite

Decision-level fusion of EEG and pupil features for single-trial visual detection analysis.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · July 2009 Several recent studies have reported success in applying EEG-based signal analysis to achieve accurate single-trial classification of responses to visual target detection. Pupil responses are proposed as a complementary modality that can support improved a ... Full text Cite

Bayesian analysis of fiber impedance measurements.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · December 1, 2007 The resistivities of microscale components of excitable tissue include the longitudinal intracellular and interstitial resistivities and the membrane resistivity. Measurements of these tissue micro impedances have rarely been obtained, mainly because of th ... Cite

Decision fusion of circulating markers for breast cancer detection in premenopausal women

Chapter · December 1, 2007 Current mammographic screeningfor breast cancer is less effective for younger women. To complement mammography for premenopausal women, we investigated the feasibility screening test using 98 blood serum proteins. Because the data set was very noisy and co ... Full text Cite

Decision fusion of ground-penetrating radar and metal detector algorithms - A robust approach

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing · February 1, 2007 Numerous detection algorithms, using various sensor modalities, have been developed for the detection of mines in cluttered and noisy backgrounds. The performance for each detection algorithm is typically reported in terms of the receiver operating charact ... Full text Cite

Bayesian analysis of fiber impedance measurements.

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference · January 2007 The resistivities of microscale components of excitable tissue include the longitudinal intracellular and interstitial resistivities and the membrane resistivity. Measurements of these tissue micro impedances have rarely been obtained, mainly because of th ... Full text Cite

Bayesian analysis of fiber impedance measurements.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · 2007 Cite

Optimized approach to decision fusion of heterogeneous data for breast cancer diagnosis.

Journal Article Med Phys · August 2006 As more diagnostic testing options become available to physicians, it becomes more difficult to combine various types of medical information together in order to optimize the overall diagnosis. To improve diagnostic performance, here we introduce an approa ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of data set size on computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer: Comparing decision fusion to a linear discriminant

Journal Article Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · June 23, 2006 Data sets with relatively few observations (cases) in medical research are common, especially if the data are expensive or difficult to collect. Such small sample sizes usually do not provide enough information for computer models to learn data patterns we ... Full text Cite

Bayesian sonar detection performance prediction with source position uncertainty using SWellEx-96 vertical array data

Journal Article IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering · April 1, 2006 Predicting sonar detection performance is important for the development of sonar systems. The classical sonar equation cannot accurately predict sonar detection performance because it does not incorporate the effect of ocean environmental and source positi ... Full text Cite

Effects of environmental uncertainties on sonar detection performance prediction.

Journal Article The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · April 2005 The development of effective passive sonar systems depends upon the ability to accurately predict the performance of sonar detection algorithms in realistic ocean environments. Such environments are typically characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, ... Full text Cite

Bayesian sonar detection performance prediction in the presence of interference in uncertain environments.

Journal Article The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · April 2005 The detection performance of sonar systems can be greatly limited by the presence of interference and environmental uncertainty. The classic sonar equation does not take into account these two limiting factors and is inaccurate in predicting sonar detectio ... Full text Cite

Optimal Multisensor Decision Fusion of Mine Detection Algorithms

Conference Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · November 26, 2003 Numerous detection algorithms, using various sensor modalities, have been developed for the detection of mines in cluttered and noisy backgrounds. The performance for each detection algorithm is typically reported in terms of the Receiver Operating Charact ... Full text Cite

Application of likelihood ratio to classification of mammographic masses; performance comparison to case-based reasoning.

Journal Article Med Phys · May 2003 The likelihood ratio (LR) is an optimal approach for deciding which of two alternate hypotheses best describes a given situation. We adopted this formalism for predicting whether biopsy results of mammographic masses will be benign or malignant, aiming to ... Full text Link to item Cite

The performance of matched-field track-before-detect methods using shallow-water Pacific data.

Journal Article The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · July 2002 Matched-field track-before-detect processing, which extends the concept of matched-field processing to include modeling of the source dynamics, has recently emerged as a promising approach for maintaining the track of a moving source. In this paper, optima ... Full text Cite

Active microwave imaging I - 2-D forward and inverse scattering methods

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques · 2002 Active microwave imaging (MWI) for the detection of breast tumors is an emerging technique to complement existing X-ray mammography. The potential advantages of MWI arise mainly from the high contrast of electrical properties between tumors and normal brea ... Full text Cite

On array design for matched-field processing

Journal Article The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · April 2000 Conventional plane-wave beamforming array design guidelines are motivated by the desire to obtain particular beampattern characteristics, such as main lobe width and side lobe levels. These design guidelines are appropriate for arrays employed for beamform ... Full text Cite

Bayesian signal detection for multiple aspect targets with an uncertain look angle

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1999 An optimal signal detection theory (likelihood ratio) approach is presented for the determination of the presence or absence of a target observed at multiple aspects in noise, where there is uncertainty in the initial look angle at which the aspects are ob ... Cite

Effects of signal-to-noise ratio mismatch on Bayesian matched-field source localization performance

Journal Article ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings · January 1, 1999 The signal-to-noise ratio of real data is rarely known with complete certainty. However, Bayesian matched-field processing techniques for ocean acoustic source localization often require the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to be known a priori. In this paper, ... Cite

Optimal array processor performance trade-offs under directional uncertainty

Journal Article IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (USA) · 1998 Detection performance in terms of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is obtained for three specific problems involving either signal or noise source location uncertainty. The array processors are optimum in the sense that they form the likel ... Cite

Wideband optimal a posteriori probability source localization in an uncertain shallow ocean environment

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1998 A wideband extension of the Optimum Uncertain Field Processor (OUFP) is presented. Combined with Monte Carlo estimation methods, this processor provides a fast, efficient, and robust technique for Matched-Field Processing (MFP). Under a simulated Hudson Ca ... Full text Cite

Tracking and localizing a moving source in an uncertain shallow water environment

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1998 An optimal approach to tracking a moving source in the presence of environmental variability is presented. This tracking algorithm, called the optimum uncertain field tracking algorithm (OUFTA), incorporates a model for the source motion as well as the unc ... Full text Cite

Improved decision-theoretic approach to the optimum detection of mines

Conference Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 1997 The fundamental goal of mine detection is to achieve a high detection rate along with a low false alarm rate. While many mine detectors achieve the first of these goals, it is often at the cost of a prohibitively large false alarm rate. In this paper, a Ba ... Cite

Wide-band source localization in the presence of internal waves

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · November 1, 1997 The effects of internal waves on low-frequency (25-Hz) wide-band source localization performance are investigated at a very long range (1000 km). Sound-speed perturbations induced by internal waves obeying the Garrett-Munk spectral model are incorporated i ... Full text Cite

Narrow-band source localization in the presence of internal waves for 1000-km range and 25-Hz acoustic frequency

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · March 1, 1997 The effects of internal waves on low-frequency (25 Hz) narrow-band source localization performance are investigated at a very long range (1000 km). Sound-speed perturbations induced by internal waves obeying the Garrett- Munk spectral model are incorporate ... Full text Cite

Hierarchical Markov random field modeling for texture classification in chest radiographs

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 1996 A hierarchical Markov random field (MRF) modeling approach is presented for the classification of textures in selected regions of interest (ROIs) of chest radiographs. The procedure integrates possible texture classes and their spatial definition with othe ... Full text Cite

Posteriori probability source localization in an uncertain shallow water environment (Hudson Canyon)

Journal Article ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings · January 1, 1996 A wideband Optimum Uncertain Field Processor (OUFP) is presented, which when combined with Monte Carlo techniques, provides a computationally efficient and robust technique for Matched-Field Processing (MFP). Under a simulated Hudson Canyon environment, a ... Cite

Performance evaluation of multilayer perceptrons in signal detection and classification.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural networks · January 1995 Multilayer perceptrons trained with the backpropagation algorithm are tested in detection and classification tasks and are compared to optimal algorithms resulting from likelihood ratio tests. The focus is on the problem of one of M orthogonal signals in a ... Full text Cite

Full-field optimum detection in an uncertain, anisotropic random wave scattering environment

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1995 The optimum detection of an unknown object in an uncertain random wave scattering environment is considered. A physics-based approach to the design of the optimum detector is presented which merges statistical physical modeling of the acoustic scattering m ... Full text Cite

Signal detection theory and reconstruction algorithms--performance for images in noise.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · May 1994 In many noisy image processing situations, decision making is the ultimate objective. In this paper, we show using signal detection theory how direct optimal processing of the projection data yields a considerable gain in the decision making performance ov ... Full text Cite

Signal Detection Theory Approach to the Multiple Parallel Moving Targets Problem

Journal Article CVGIP: Graphical Models and Image Processing · July 1, 1993 The problem of detection and line location estimation of multiple, parallel, dim, moving targets, such as the ones typically encountered when a geostationary satellite is tracking targets, is studied under the framework of signal detection theory. Part I o ... Full text Cite

A Posteriori Probability Source Localization with Uncertain Mesoscale Eddy Currents

Journal Article IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering · January 1, 1993 Long range source localization is shown to be affected by a mesoscale eddy whose realization is solely a cyclonic current (no thermal manifestation).The sensitivity of a matched-field type processor (known ocean) to an eddy is demonstrated, as well as its ... Full text Cite

Source localization in an uncertain acoustic scattering environment

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1993 The sensitivity of conventional matched-field processing algorithms to uncertainty in ocean acoustic environmental parameters has prompted the design of more robust methods for source localization. In a recent study, Richardson and Nolte [J. Acoust. Soc. A ... Full text Cite

A posteriori probability source localization with array tilt uncertainty

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · October 14, 1992 In a previous paper [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 2280 (1991)], the authors illustrated how estimation theory could be utilized to develop a localization processor that exhibited robust performance in the presence of uncertainty about the acoustic environment. ... Full text Cite

ROC performance evaluation of multilayer perceptrons in the detection of one of M orthogonal signals

Conference ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings · January 1, 1992 A neural network detector is compared to an optimal algorithm from signal detection theory for the problem of one of M orthogonal signals in a Gaussian noise environment. The neural detector is a multilayer per-ceptron trained with the back-propagation alg ... Full text Cite

Source localization in the presence of a mesoscale eddy

Conference OCEANS 1992 - Proceedings: Mastering the Oceans Through Technology · January 1, 1992 Our simulation configuration consists of several components: a true 3-D ray tracing program able to account for unsteady inhomogeneous flow in the medium, the GDEM database accessed by a high speed cubic spline, and a current model for a mesoscale eddy. Su ... Full text Cite

Optimal detection theory and image reconstruction-Comparison of performance in the presence of noise

Journal Article Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology · December 1, 1991 The authors study the reconstruction problem as a detection problem and cast the problem as a binary hypotheses decision-making problem to decide the presence of a high-contrast object. Two formulations of the detection problem are presented: one involves ... Cite

A posteriori probability source localization in an uncertain sound speed, deep ocean environment

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1991 The a posteriori source position probability density function for a narrowband source in an uncertain acoustic environment is derived. The implementation of this probability density function (pdf) is termed the optimum uncertain field processor (OUFP). It ... Full text Cite

Detection of unresolved target tracks in infrared imagery

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1991 Two methods for detecting dim, unresolved target tracks in infrared imagery are presented. Detecting such targets in a sequence of noisy images is very challenging from the standpoint of algorithm design as well as detection performance evaluation. Since t ... Full text Cite

Source localization in an uncertain range-dependent ocean

Journal Article Oceans Conference Record (IEEE) · September 1, 1990 When the acoustic environment is known, matched field processing (MFP) can be used to estimate the position (range, depth, and bearing) of an acoustic source. When there is mismatch between the actual (measured) and replica (calculated) acoustic fields, ho ... Cite

Optimal Fault-Tolerant Signal Detection

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing · January 1, 1990 Meyer and Weinert [1] use the majority rule for fault-tolerant signal detection. We extend this, and examine a redundant system with a general voting rule. We present an optimal design of each individual processor, and the optimal selection of the k-out-of ... Full text Cite

Optimal Design and Performance of Distributed Signal Detection Systems with Faults

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing · January 1, 1990 Presented are the design and performance of distributed signal detection systems with processor failures. Using a general processor fault model, which also models an imperfect channel, we consider the optimal design given a priori failure probabilities. Th ... Full text Cite

CNR enhancement in the presence of multiple interfering processes using linear filters

Journal Article Magn. Reson. Med. (USA) · 1990 Given several images of the same slice, a linear filter can produce an image in which the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between pathological and normal tissues is greater than in any of the initial images. To distinguish the pathology from more than one ti ... Cite

Hough transform and signal detection theory performance for images with additive noise

Journal Article Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing · January 1, 1990 The line detection performance and sensitivity to the noise distribution of the Hough transform and two signal detection theory processors are evaluated quantitatively (using receiver operating characteristics (ROC)) and compared for images corrupted by ea ... Full text Cite

Comments, with reply, on `Optimal detection and performance of distributed sensor systems'

Journal Article IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (USA) · 1989 The commenter observes that the general solution proposed in the above paper (see ibid., vol.AES-23, no.1, p.24-30, Jan. 1988) for the global optimization of a distributed sensor detection system with fusion leads to coupled equations whose solution is a f ... Full text Link to item Cite

On determining the design of fusion detection networks

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control · December 1, 1988 Methods are explored to determine an efficient design procedure for large, distributed fusion networks. An efficient design will not require optimization over the discrete fusion rule. The authors present several approaches to developing efficient designs, ... Cite

Performance of the hough transform and its relationship to statistical signal detection theory

Journal Article Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing · January 1, 1988 A statistical signal detection theory approach can be used for curve detection in digital images corrupted by random noise. This approach is shown to be a refinement of the frequently used Hough transform, resulting in improved performance, both in decidin ... Full text Cite

PERFORMANCE OF REDUNDANT AND DISTRIBUTED DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH PROCESSOR FAULTS.

Journal Article ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings · January 1, 1988 The authors examine the performance of signal detectors when processors can have faults. The fault tolerance of two systems, the redundant system and the distributed fusion network, are examined. The optimal fault-tolerant design for each system is present ... Cite

On performance of array signal processing

Journal Article IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. (USA) · 1987 A unified treatment for performance evaluation of various array signal processors involving waveshape estimation is presented. Detection performance is expressed in terms of the parameters of the power-type receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for optim ... Cite

Optimal Detection and Performance of Distributed Sensor Systems

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems · January 1, 1987 Global optimization of a distributed sensor detection system with fusion is considered, where The fusion rule and local detectors are solved to obtain overall optimal performance. This yields coupled equations for the local detectors and the fusion center. ... Full text Cite

Design and Performance Comparison of Distributed Detection Networks

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems · January 1, 1987 Optimization of a distributed detection network using the minimum global cost criterion results in local processors that individually form the likelihood ratio when the input observation vectors are statistically independent. In addition, the local thresho ... Full text Cite

DETECTION PERFORMANCE OF TWO-SENSOR DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS FOR NORMAL LOCAL ROCS.

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control · January 1, 1987 The global performance of two-sensor fusion and serial distributed detection networks is examined. The performance of the local sensors is characterized by normal receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). The networks are compared for different sensor ene ... Full text Cite

COMPARISON OF HOUGH TRANSFORM AND SIGNAL DETECTION THEORY APPROACHES FOR CURVE DETECTION.

Journal Article Proceedings of the Annual Southeastern Symposium on System Theory · January 1, 1987 A signal detection theory approach is used for curve detection in digital images corrupted by random noise. This approach is shown to be a refinement of the frequently used Hough transform, and it therefore results in improved performance, both in deciding ... Cite

PERFORMANCE OF DISTRIBUTED DETECTION NETWORKS.

Journal Article Proceedings of the Annual Southeastern Symposium on System Theory · January 1, 1987 In a distributed detection system the local processors compare the likelihood ratio of the incoming observation vector to a threshold that depends on the decisions received from other local processors. The optimal thresholds and the overall network perform ... Cite

On Performance of Array Signal Processing

Journal Article IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering · January 1, 1987 A unified treatment for performance evaluation of various array signal processors is presented. Detection performance is expressed in terms of the parameter of the power-type receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for optimum, beamformer, and null-steerer ... Full text Cite

UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC MULTIPATH SIGNAL PROCESSING.

Journal Article Proceedings of the Annual Southeastern Symposium on System Theory · January 1, 1987 An acoustic model of the inhomogeneous medium is used to determine the spatially dependent impulse response between source and receiver. From the impulse response, an optimum-likelihood-ratio processor is derived and receiver operating characteristics (ROC ... Cite

MULTICHANNEL DETECTION OF KNOWN SIGNALS IN NOISE OF UNCERTAIN LEVEL.

Journal Article · December 1, 1984 This work is an extension of the work of Spooner to a multichannel model. The distribution of a Bayes likelihood ratio is computed, and the resulting detection performance analyzed. The problem is to detect one of two known multichannel signals in noise of ... Cite

SIGNAL DETECTION IN NON-GAUSSIAN ENVIRONMENTS.

Journal Article · December 1, 1984 A numerical method for computing likelihood ratios and corresponding processor performance is developed. When forming the likelihood ratio of the received data, the densities from which the data are generated are assumed to be discrete and finite. This mod ... Cite

MULTICHANNEL ADAPTIVE ARRAY PROCESSING FOR OPTIMAL DETECTION.

Journal Article ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings · January 1, 1984 Cite

Analysis of spect including scatter and attenuation using sophisticated monte carlo modeling methods

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science · January 1, 1982 The effects of scatter and attenuation on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images can be analyzed with the aid of sophisticated Monte Carlo simulation. Correction procedures can be evaluated by comparing corrected images with images absen ... Full text Cite

ANALYSIS OF SPECT INCLUDING SCATTER AND ATTENUATION USING SOPHISTICATED MONTE CARLO MODELING METHODS.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science · 1981 A Monte Carlo-based computer program accurately simulates the SPECT imaging system response. The performance of the simulation is illustrated and system resolution, effects of scatter and attenuation, and the final image variance are shown to be comparable ... Cite

ADAPTIVE MSE ESTIMATION.

Journal Article ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings · January 1, 1981 Two basic approaches to adaptive signal processing are in common use. The first and most direct involves substituting data-derived estimates of signal and noise autocorrelations into the standard Wiener-Hopf equation. The second uses a stochastic algorithm ... Cite

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ARRAY PROCESSORS FOR DETECTING GAUSSIAN ACOUSTIC SIGNALS.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing · 1980 The detection performance for ″noise-like″ underwater acoustic signals from a known direction is presented using the receiver operating characteristic. Analytical expressions for P//F//A and P//D are derived in terms of the eigenvalues of the covariance ma ... Cite

A sequential implementation of optimal array processors

Journal Article IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (USA) · 1980 A sequential implementation of the likelihood ratio for doubly composite hypothesis array processing problems is presented in which the likelihood ratio is realized by an appropriate combination of single frequency components. The array processor is decomp ... Cite

ADAPTIVE LINEAR ESTIMATION BASED ON TIME DOMAIN ORTHOGONALITY.

Journal Article Record - IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech & Signal Processing · January 1, 1980 A method for adaptive linear estimation is proposed based on a Time Domain Orthogonality condition. This algorithm arises naturally from the criterion used rather than through the application of a numerical analysis method as in the derivation of the LMS G ... Cite

Performance Evaluation of Array Processors for Detecting Gaussian Acoustic Signals

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing · January 1, 1980 The detection performance for “noise-like” underwater acoustic signals from a known direction is presented using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Analytical expressions for PFAand PDare derived in terms of the eigenvalues of the covariance matr ... Full text Cite

FIXED-POINT ITERATION ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE LINEAR ESTIMATION APPLIED TO SPECTRAL LINE ENHANCEMENT.

Journal Article · January 1, 1979 An Adaptive Linear Estimation Algorithm which can be applied to the Spectral Line Enhancement problem is proposed. Through computer simulation, the rate of convergence of the proposed method is found to be significantly better than that of the LMS Gradient ... Cite

Performance sensitivity of array detectors to a priori spatial knowledge

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1978 Performance of array detectors degrades when the a priori spatial knowledge of the signal direction or interfering noise direction is inaccurate. Two classes of signal waveforms are considered; one is the known-waveform signal, the other is the Gaussian si ... Full text Cite

Array Processor Performance Under Directional Uncertainty

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems · January 1, 1978 Detection performance of four candidate receiver structures for the signal known except for direction (SKED) array problem is investigated. Included are the Bayes optimal detector, two estimate and plug structures, and a fixed estimate structure. Estimator ... Full text Cite

ON RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DETECTION AND ESTIMATION THEORY.

Journal Article · January 1, 1978 This paper takes a global approach to the processing of information. The viewpoint is Bayesian where any uncertain parameters are modeled as random variables and knowledge about them is summarized by a priori probability density functions. The processors d ... Full text Cite

Performance evaluation of array processors for detecting Gaussian acoustic signals

Conference ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings · January 1, 1977 Performance of detecting »noise-like» under-water acoustic signals are measured by probability of false alarm (PFA) and probability of detection (PD). Analytical expressions for PFAand PDare derived in terms of the eigenvalues of the covariance matrices of ... Full text Cite

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ARRAY PROCESSORS FOR DETECTING GAUSSIAN ACOUSTIC SIGNALS.

Journal Article · January 1, 1977 Performance of detecting ″noise-like″ underwater acoustic signals is measured by probability of false alarm (P//F//A) and probability of detection (P//D). Analytical expressions for P//F//A and P//D are derived in terms of the eigenvalues of the covariance ... Cite

Adaptive optimum array processing [acoustic]

Journal Article J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (USA) · 1977 A global approach to the processing of information from an array of sensors is used in which the unprocessed outputs of the individual elements are considered as the observables, and the structure is allowed to evolve freely with optimum detection as the c ... Cite

A Generalized Likelihood Ratio Formula: Arbitrary Noise Statistics for Doubly Composite Hypotheses

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory · January 1, 1977 A relationship between the likelihood ratio and a generalized causal conditional mean estimator is presented for the doubly composite hypotheses problem. The observation statistics are arbitrary and need not be Gaussian. The relationship parallels the well ... Full text Cite

Likelihood Ratios for Sequential Hypothesis Testing on Markov Sequences

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory · January 1, 1977 A variety of likelihood ratios are derived for detecting Gauss-Markov and finite-state Markov sequences in additive Gaussian noise. The Bayesian recursions appropriate to related filtering problems are exploited, together with “known-form” likelihood ratio ... Full text Cite

Bayes optimal versus estimate and plug array processor performance when there is directional uncertainty

Journal Article Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute of Signal Processing · 1977 Detection performance of four candidate receiver structures for the signal-known-except-for-direction array problem is investigated. Included are the Bayes optimal detector, two estimate and plug structures, and a fixed estimate structure. Estimators consi ... Cite

Adaptive optimum array processing

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1977 A global approach to the processing of information from an array of sensors when uncertain parameters exist is proposed. Although an ad hoc estimate and plug structure is appealing due to its explicit adaptive characteristics, it is shown that the Bayes op ... Full text Cite

Performance comparison between a simplified and the optimal decoder for minimising symbol error rate

Journal Article IEEE Trans. Commun. (USA) · 1976 The probability of error of the optimal decoder, based on the criterion of minimising bit-error rate, is calculated for a Markov source imbedded in additive Gaussian noise for several specific cases. The tradeoff between bit-error rate and complexity of a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Optimal Array Processor Performance Trade-offs Under Directional Uncertainty

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems · January 1, 1976 Detection performance in terms of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is obtained for three specific problems involving either signal or noise source location uncertainty. The array processors are optimum in the sense that they form the likel ... Full text Cite

Covariance between Fourier coefficients representing the time waveforms observed from an array of sensors

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1976 Typically, the assumption of a long observation interval is made to achieve uncorrelatedness between Fourier coefficients at different frequency indicies. An explicit relationship between observation interval length and covariance between the Fourier coeff ... Full text Cite

PERFORMANCE COMPARISON BETWEEN A SIMPLIFIED AND THE OPTIMAL DECODER FOR MINIMIZING SYMBOL ERROR RATE.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Communications · 1976 The probability of error of the optimal decoder, based on the criterion of minimizing bit-error rate, is calculated for a Markov source imbedded in additive Gaussian noise for several specific cases. The tradeoff between bit-error rate and complexity of a ... Cite

BAYES OPTIMUM AND MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD APPROACHES IN AN ARRAY PROCESSING PROBLEM.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems · 1975 A comparison of the structure and performance of two detectors for an array processing problem is discussed. The first is optimal for detection performance in the Bayesian sense and the second models a maximum-likelihood (beam-forming) approach. Of particu ... Full text Cite

NOTE ON THE CALCULATION OF PERFORMANCE FOR LIKELIHOOD RATIO PROCESSORS VIA COMPUTER SIMULATION.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory · 1975 The performance of a likelihood ratio processor must often be determined via computer simulation. This correspondence suggests an effective method of calculating the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) that avoids emphasizing the upper tail region of t ... Cite

Optimum array detection in fluctuating ambient noise fields

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1975 In practical underwater signal-detection problems using an array, the statistics of the ambient noise field vary spatially and temporally. This paper considers the problem of detecting a farfield signal source of known location and waveform which generates ... Full text Cite

Bayes optimum array detection of targets of known location

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · January 1, 1975 This paper presents a Bayes optimum approach to detecting a target of known location by processing the outputs of an array of sensors. Beamforming is not postulated a priori. The complex exponential Fourier series is used to represent the deterministic sig ... Full text Cite

Optimal Detection of a Signal with Time-Varying Carrier Phase

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems · January 1, 1974 The problem considered in this paper is the detection of a signal signal known except for time-varying carrier phase in white Gaussian noise. The method of attacking this problem is to model the time-varying carrier phase as a Markov Markov process. Fourie ... Full text Cite

A new generalized likelihood ratio formula

Journal Article IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (USA) · 1974 A new philosophy for designing detection devices, which embodies some of the better features of the classical generalized likelihood ratio test and the classical Bayes test, is presented. A feature of the new Bayes generalized likelihood ratio test is that ... Cite

Bayesian Detection of Targets of Unknown Location

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems · January 1, 1974 In this paper the array detection problem for certain deterministic signals in spatially uncorrelated Gaussian noise is formulated in Bayesian terms and the required likelihood ratios and resulting performance characteristics are obtained. Primary emphasis ... Full text Cite

ADAPTIVE PROCESSING: TIME-VARYING PARAMETERS.

Journal Article · January 1, 1973 Signal detection problems in which parameters of either or both the signal and the noise are allowed to vary with time in an uncertain manner are considered. The time variations are accounted for by assuming that the parameters can be modeled as a Markov s ... Cite

Adaptive signal detection with finite memory

Journal Article IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (USA) · 1972 The purpose of this presentation is to develop and evaluate an algorithm for determining a finite memory detector applicable to statistical signal detection theory. In the Bayesian signal detection theory, infinite soft or changeable memory is tacitly assu ... Cite

Some Geometric Properties of the Likelihoood Ratio

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory · January 1, 1971 A fundamental spatial property is noted that relates the likelihood ratio for random signals in Gaussian noise to conditional-mean parameter estimation. This allows a geometric interpretation of the estimation-correlation operation. Some additional propert ... Full text Cite

Adaptive optimal array detection of targets of unknown spatial location

Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control · January 1, 1971 A primary reason that much attention has been given to array antenna systems is their ability to perform rapid inertialess scanning. 1,2 Despite this great interest in array processing,1-6 the concept of an overall Bayesian approach to the scanning-detecti ... Full text Cite

Some geometric properties of the likelihood ratio

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory · 1971 A fundamental spatial property is noted that reates the likelihood ratio for random signals in Gaussian noise to conditional- mean parameter estimation. This allows a geometric interpretation of the estimationcorrelation operation. Some additional properti ... Cite

On Transient and PeriodicSignal Detection in Time-Varying Noise Power

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems · January 1, 1971 Detectability of periodic and synchronously recurrent transient signals in a noisy environment in which the noise power is time varying is investigated. For at least one noise model, it is shown that the basic nonlinearity of the optimum detector is a limi ... Full text Cite

Detectability of burst-like signals

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems · January 1, 1971 The detectability of signals with burst-like qualities is investigated. Detectability is interpreted in terms of the performance of the optimum (likelihood ratio) detector for this type of signal. At low false alarm probabilities, long signal bursts inters ... Full text Cite

Sequentially operating finite memory detectors

Conference Proceedings of the 1970 9th IEEE Symposium on Adaptive Processes, Decision and Control, SAP 1970 · January 1, 1970 The Bayesian approach in signal detection theory generally yields detectors with memory which contains appropriate statistics used in producing a detection output. This memory summarizes each available observation in terms of precisely representable contin ... Full text Cite

A new generalized likelihood ratio philosophy

Conference Proceedings of the 1970 9th IEEE Symposium on Adaptive Processes, Decision and Control, SAP 1970 · January 1, 1970 A new philosophy for designing detection devices is presented which embodies some of the better features of the classical generalized likelihood ratio test and the classical Bayes test. A feature of the new Bayes generalized likelihood ratio test is that i ... Full text Cite

Adaptive optimum detection: synchronous-recurrent transients.

Journal Article The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · July 1968 Full text Cite

An Adaptive Realization of the Optimum Receiver for a Sporadically Recurrent Waveform in Noise

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory · January 1, 1967 Full text Cite

An adaptive realization of the optimum receiver for a sporadically recurrent wave-form in noise

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory · 1967 The detection of a sporadically recurrent phenomenon is considered. Here, the epoch of each recurrent waveform is not known as precisely as in the synchronous case, although synchronous sampling times are assumed. ... Cite

More on the detection of one of M orthogonal signals

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · 1967 Receiver operating characteristics (ROC's) for the classic problem of detecting the presence or absence of one of M orthogonal signals is presented. Previous results were valid for low detectability, for which the ROC is approximately normal (i.e., appears ... Cite

Theory of signal detectability: adaptive optimum receiver design

Journal Article Journal of the Acoustical Society of America · 1967 Presents the theory of adaptive optimum receiver design and its relationship to the classical theory of signal detectability of Peterson, Birdsall, and Fox (1954). The classical theory concentrated on the function description; i.e., the optimum detector fo ... Cite

An Adaptive Realization of the Optimum Receiver for a Synchronous Recurrent Waveform

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Information Theory · January 1, 1966 Full text Cite

Adaptive realization of optimum receiver for sporadic-recurrent waveform in noise

Journal Article IEEE -- Communications Convention · 1965 Application of adaptive processing techniques to detection of signals in noise; it is shown how theory of signal detectability can be extended to include optimum receiver design for problems of this type; problem of detecting signal composed of fixed wavef ... Cite

Computationally efficient Monte Carlo estimation algorithms for matched field processing in uncertain ocean environments

Journal Article J. Comput. Acoust. (Singapore) In this paper, Monte Carlo estimation techniques are presented for computationally efficient implementation of two methods for matched field source localization in uncertain ocean channels. In the Optimal Uncertain Field Processor (OUFP), Monte Carlo integ ... Cite