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Scott Huettel CV

Professor in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
Psychology & Neuroscience
Box 90999, Durham, NC 27708-0999
B243E LSRC, Durham, NC 27708
CV

Selected Publications


Curiosity evolves as information unfolds.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · October 24, 2023 When people feel curious, they often seek information to resolve their curiosity. Reaching resolution, however, does not always occur in a single step but instead may follow the accumulation of information over time. Here, we investigated changes in curios ... Full text Link to item Cite

Eyes on the account size: Interactions between attention and budget in consumer choice

Journal Article Journal of Economic Psychology · August 1, 2023 The context surrounding a consumer decision, such as one's overall budget available for purchases, can exert a strong effect on the subjective value of a product. Across three eye-tracking studies, we explore the attentional processes through which budget ... Full text Cite

Gaze-dependent evidence accumulation predicts multi-alternative risky choice behaviour.

Journal Article PLoS computational biology · July 2022 Choices are influenced by gaze allocation during deliberation, so that fixating an alternative longer leads to increased probability of choosing it. Gaze-dependent evidence accumulation provides a parsimonious account of choices, response times and gaze-be ... Full text Cite

Shuffle the Decks: Children Are Sensitive to Incidental Nonrandom Structure in a Sequential-Choice Task.

Journal Article Psychol Sci · April 2022 As children age, they can learn increasingly complex features of environmental structure-a key prerequisite for adaptive decision-making. Yet when we tested children (N = 304, 4-13 years old) in the Children's Gambling Task, an age-appropriate variant of t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Peer presence increases the prosocial behavior of adolescents by speeding the evaluation of outcomes for others.

Journal Article Scientific reports · April 2022 Peer presence can elicit maladaptive adolescent decision-making, potentially by increasing sensitivity to the rewards one receives. It remains unknown whether peer presence also increases adolescents' sensitivity to others' outcomes, which could have an ad ... Full text Cite

Transient Motion Classification Through Turbid Volumes via Parallelized Single-Photon Detection and Deep Contrastive Embedding.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2022 Fast noninvasive probing of spatially varying decorrelating events, such as cerebral blood flow beneath the human skull, is an essential task in various scientific and clinical settings. One of the primary optical techniques used is diffuse correlation spe ... Full text Cite

Beyond money: Risk preferences across both economic and non-economic contexts predict financial decisions.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2022 Important decisions about risk occur in wide-ranging contexts, from investing to healthcare. While an underlying, domain-general risk attitude has been identified across contexts, it remains unclear what role it plays in shaping behavior relative to more d ... Full text Cite

Cognitive Functions as Revealed by Imaging of the Human Brain

Chapter · January 1, 2022 Functional neuroimaging techniques allow neuroscientists to map the processes of perception, cognition, memory, and action onto the human brain. The core techniques used in current research either measure neuronal activity directly (e.g., electroencephalog ... Full text Cite

Healthful choices depend on the latency and rate of information accumulation.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · December 2021 The drift diffusion model provides a parsimonious explanation of decisions across neurobiological, psychological and behavioural levels of analysis. Although most drift diffusion model implementations assume that only a single value guides decisions, choic ... Full text Cite

Resolving ambiguity: Broadening the consideration of risky decision making over adolescent development

Journal Article Developmental Review · December 1, 2021 Popular culture often portrays adolescence as a period of peak risk-taking, but that developmental trend is not consistently found across laboratory studies. Instead, meta-analytic evidence shows that while adolescents take more risks compared to adults, c ... Full text Cite

The hidden cost of humanization: Individuating information reduces prosocial behavior toward in-group members

Journal Article Journal of Economic Psychology · October 1, 2021 This paper reports robust experimental evidence that humanization—in the form of individuating information about another's personal preferences—leads to decreased prosocial behavior toward in-group members. Previous research shows that individuating inform ... Full text Cite

Oversampling of minority categories drives misperceptions of group compositions.

Journal Article Cognition · September 2021 The ability to estimate proportions informs our immediate impressions of social environments (e.g., of the diversity of races or genders within a crowded room). This study examines how the distribution of attention during brief glances shapes estimates of ... Full text Cite

Hypoactivation in the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex during ambiguous decision making in individuals with HIV.

Journal Article Journal of neurovirology · June 2021 People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often have neurocognitive impairment. People with HIV make riskier decisions when the outcome probabilities are known, and have abnormal neural architecture underlying risky decision making. However, ambiguous ... Full text Cite

Disruptions of Sustained Spatial Attention Can Be Resistant to the Distractor's Prior Reward Associations.

Journal Article Front Hum Neurosci · 2021 Attention can be involuntarily biased toward reward-associated distractors (value-driven attentional capture, VDAC). Yet past work has primarily demonstrated this distraction phenomenon during a particular set of circumstances: transient attentional orient ... Full text Link to item Cite

Voter Preferences Reflect a Competition Between Policy and Identity

Journal Article Frontiers in Psychology · October 15, 2020 Canonical rational choice models of voter preferences assume that voters select candidates whose policy positions most closely match their own. Yet, much of the electorate often appears to prioritize identity variables (e.g., social categories, group membe ... Full text Cite

Deconstructing bias in social preferences reveals groupy and not-groupy behavior.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · September 2020 Group divisions are a continual feature of human history, with biases toward people's own groups shown in both experimental and natural settings. Using a within-subject design, this paper deconstructs group biases to find significant and robust individual ... Full text Cite

Neural sensitivity to risk in adults with co-occurring HIV infection and cocaine use disorder.

Journal Article Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience · August 2020 Persons with co-occurring HIV infection and cocaine use disorder tend to engage in riskier decision-making. However, the neural correlates of sensitivity to risk are not well-characterized in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the ne ... Full text Cite

Dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex track distinct properties of dynamic social behavior.

Journal Article Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci · June 23, 2020 Understanding how humans make competitive decisions in complex environments is a key goal of decision neuroscience. Typical experimental paradigms constrain behavioral complexity (e.g. choices in discrete-play games), and thus, the underlying neural mechan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams.

Journal Article Nature · June 2020 Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same datas ... Full text Link to item Cite

Curiosity evolves as information unfolds.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · October 24, 2023 When people feel curious, they often seek information to resolve their curiosity. Reaching resolution, however, does not always occur in a single step but instead may follow the accumulation of information over time. Here, we investigated changes in curios ... Full text Link to item Cite

Eyes on the account size: Interactions between attention and budget in consumer choice

Journal Article Journal of Economic Psychology · August 1, 2023 The context surrounding a consumer decision, such as one's overall budget available for purchases, can exert a strong effect on the subjective value of a product. Across three eye-tracking studies, we explore the attentional processes through which budget ... Full text Cite

Gaze-dependent evidence accumulation predicts multi-alternative risky choice behaviour.

Journal Article PLoS computational biology · July 2022 Choices are influenced by gaze allocation during deliberation, so that fixating an alternative longer leads to increased probability of choosing it. Gaze-dependent evidence accumulation provides a parsimonious account of choices, response times and gaze-be ... Full text Cite

Shuffle the Decks: Children Are Sensitive to Incidental Nonrandom Structure in a Sequential-Choice Task.

Journal Article Psychol Sci · April 2022 As children age, they can learn increasingly complex features of environmental structure-a key prerequisite for adaptive decision-making. Yet when we tested children (N = 304, 4-13 years old) in the Children's Gambling Task, an age-appropriate variant of t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Peer presence increases the prosocial behavior of adolescents by speeding the evaluation of outcomes for others.

Journal Article Scientific reports · April 2022 Peer presence can elicit maladaptive adolescent decision-making, potentially by increasing sensitivity to the rewards one receives. It remains unknown whether peer presence also increases adolescents' sensitivity to others' outcomes, which could have an ad ... Full text Cite

Transient Motion Classification Through Turbid Volumes via Parallelized Single-Photon Detection and Deep Contrastive Embedding.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2022 Fast noninvasive probing of spatially varying decorrelating events, such as cerebral blood flow beneath the human skull, is an essential task in various scientific and clinical settings. One of the primary optical techniques used is diffuse correlation spe ... Full text Cite

Beyond money: Risk preferences across both economic and non-economic contexts predict financial decisions.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2022 Important decisions about risk occur in wide-ranging contexts, from investing to healthcare. While an underlying, domain-general risk attitude has been identified across contexts, it remains unclear what role it plays in shaping behavior relative to more d ... Full text Cite

Cognitive Functions as Revealed by Imaging of the Human Brain

Chapter · January 1, 2022 Functional neuroimaging techniques allow neuroscientists to map the processes of perception, cognition, memory, and action onto the human brain. The core techniques used in current research either measure neuronal activity directly (e.g., electroencephalog ... Full text Cite

Healthful choices depend on the latency and rate of information accumulation.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · December 2021 The drift diffusion model provides a parsimonious explanation of decisions across neurobiological, psychological and behavioural levels of analysis. Although most drift diffusion model implementations assume that only a single value guides decisions, choic ... Full text Cite

Resolving ambiguity: Broadening the consideration of risky decision making over adolescent development

Journal Article Developmental Review · December 1, 2021 Popular culture often portrays adolescence as a period of peak risk-taking, but that developmental trend is not consistently found across laboratory studies. Instead, meta-analytic evidence shows that while adolescents take more risks compared to adults, c ... Full text Cite

The hidden cost of humanization: Individuating information reduces prosocial behavior toward in-group members

Journal Article Journal of Economic Psychology · October 1, 2021 This paper reports robust experimental evidence that humanization—in the form of individuating information about another's personal preferences—leads to decreased prosocial behavior toward in-group members. Previous research shows that individuating inform ... Full text Cite

Oversampling of minority categories drives misperceptions of group compositions.

Journal Article Cognition · September 2021 The ability to estimate proportions informs our immediate impressions of social environments (e.g., of the diversity of races or genders within a crowded room). This study examines how the distribution of attention during brief glances shapes estimates of ... Full text Cite

Hypoactivation in the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex during ambiguous decision making in individuals with HIV.

Journal Article Journal of neurovirology · June 2021 People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often have neurocognitive impairment. People with HIV make riskier decisions when the outcome probabilities are known, and have abnormal neural architecture underlying risky decision making. However, ambiguous ... Full text Cite

Disruptions of Sustained Spatial Attention Can Be Resistant to the Distractor's Prior Reward Associations.

Journal Article Front Hum Neurosci · 2021 Attention can be involuntarily biased toward reward-associated distractors (value-driven attentional capture, VDAC). Yet past work has primarily demonstrated this distraction phenomenon during a particular set of circumstances: transient attentional orient ... Full text Link to item Cite

Voter Preferences Reflect a Competition Between Policy and Identity

Journal Article Frontiers in Psychology · October 15, 2020 Canonical rational choice models of voter preferences assume that voters select candidates whose policy positions most closely match their own. Yet, much of the electorate often appears to prioritize identity variables (e.g., social categories, group membe ... Full text Cite

Deconstructing bias in social preferences reveals groupy and not-groupy behavior.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · September 2020 Group divisions are a continual feature of human history, with biases toward people's own groups shown in both experimental and natural settings. Using a within-subject design, this paper deconstructs group biases to find significant and robust individual ... Full text Cite

Neural sensitivity to risk in adults with co-occurring HIV infection and cocaine use disorder.

Journal Article Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience · August 2020 Persons with co-occurring HIV infection and cocaine use disorder tend to engage in riskier decision-making. However, the neural correlates of sensitivity to risk are not well-characterized in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the ne ... Full text Cite

Dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex track distinct properties of dynamic social behavior.

Journal Article Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci · June 23, 2020 Understanding how humans make competitive decisions in complex environments is a key goal of decision neuroscience. Typical experimental paradigms constrain behavioral complexity (e.g. choices in discrete-play games), and thus, the underlying neural mechan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams.

Journal Article Nature · June 2020 Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same datas ... Full text Link to item Cite

Synergistic effects of marijuana abuse and HIV infection on neural activation during a cognitive interference task.

Journal Article Addict Biol · November 2019 Marijuana use, which is disproportionately prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, can alter activity in fronto-parietal regions during cognitively demanding tasks. While HIV is also associated with altered neural activation, i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Developmental Maturation of the Precuneus as a Functional Core of the Default Mode Network.

Journal Article Journal of cognitive neuroscience · October 2019 Efforts to map the functional architecture of the developing human brain have shown that connectivity between and within functional neural networks changes from childhood to adulthood. Although prior work has established that the adult precuneus distinctiv ... Full text Cite

Small Social Incentives Did Not Improve the Survey Response Rate of Patients Who Underwent Orthopaedic Surgery: A Randomized Trial.

Journal Article Clin Orthop Relat Res · July 2019 BACKGROUND: The generalizability of data derived from patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) depends largely on the proportion of the relevant population that completes PROM surveys. However, PROM survey responses remain low, despite efforts to increase ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exploring common changes after acute mental stress and acute tryptophan depletion: Resting-state fMRI studies.

Journal Article J Psychiatr Res · June 2019 Stress and low serotonin levels are important biological factors in depression and anxiety etiologies. Although studies indicate that low serotonin levels, stress, and other factors may interact in depression/anxiety psychopathology, few studies have inves ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bayesian nonparametric models characterize instantaneous strategies in a competitive dynamic game.

Journal Article Nat Commun · April 18, 2019 Previous studies of strategic social interaction in game theory have predominantly used games with clearly-defined turns and limited choices. Yet, most real-world social behaviors involve dynamic, coevolving decisions by interacting agents, which poses cha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Amount and time exert independent influences on intertemporal choice.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · April 2019 Intertemporal choices involve trade-offs between the value of rewards and the delay before those rewards are experienced. Canonical intertemporal choice models such as hyperbolic discounting assume that reward amount and time until delivery are integrated ... Full text Cite

Indulgent Foods Can Paradoxically Promote Disciplined Dietary Choices.

Journal Article Psychol Sci · February 2019 As obesity rates continue to rise, interventions promoting healthful choices will become increasingly important. Here, participants ( N = 79) made binary choices between familiar foods; some trials contained a common consequence that had a constant probabi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reward and executive control network resting-state functional connectivity is associated with impulsivity during reward-based decision making for cocaine users.

Journal Article Drug and alcohol dependence · January 2019 BackgroundCocaine addiction is related to impulsive decision making that is mediated by brain circuitry involved in reward processing and executive functions, such as cognitive control and attentional salience. Resting-state functional connectivit ... Full text Cite

Testing a behavioral intervention to improve adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET).

Journal Article Contemp Clin Trials · January 2019 Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) is used to prevent recurrence and reduce mortality for women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Poor adherence to AET is a significant problem and contributes to increased medical costs and mortality. A variety o ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Sleep deprivation, effort allocation and performance.

Chapter · January 2019 Sleep deprivation causes physiological alterations (e.g., decreased arousal, intrusion of micro-sleeps), that negatively affect performance on a wide range of cognitive domains. These effects indicate that cognitive performance relies on a capacity-limited ... Full text Cite

Data from: Neurobiology of social reward valuation in adults with a history of anorexia nervosa

Dataset · November 27, 2018 Objective: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by atypical patterns of reward valuation (e.g. positive valuation of hunger). Atypical reward processing may extend into social domains. If so, such findings would be of prognostic significance a ... Full text Cite

Feedback-Based Learning in Aging: Contributions and Trajectories of Change in Striatal and Hippocampal Systems.

Journal Article J Neurosci · September 26, 2018 The striatum supports learning from immediate feedback by coding prediction errors (PEs), whereas the hippocampus (HC) plays a parallel role in learning from delayed feedback. Both regions show evidence of decline in human aging, but behavioral research su ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neural mechanisms underlying subsequent memory for personal beliefs:An fMRI study.

Journal Article Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience · April 2018 Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is i ... Full text Cite

Cocaine and HIV are independently associated with neural activation in response to gain and loss valuation during economic risky choice.

Journal Article Addict Biol · March 2018 Stimulant abuse is disproportionately common in HIV-positive persons. Both HIV and stimulants are independently associated with deficits in reward-based decision making, but their interactive and/or additive effects are poorly understood despite their prev ... Full text Link to item Cite

The order of information processing alters economic gain-loss framing effects.

Journal Article Acta psychologica · January 2018 Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available information during the process of choice. In many decisions that information is presented visually - which means that variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity) can potentially influ ... Full text Cite

Neurobiology of social reward valuation in adults with a history of anorexia nervosa.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by atypical patterns of reward valuation (e.g. positive valuation of hunger). Atypical reward processing may extend into social domains. If so, such findings would be of prognostic significance a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neuromarketing: Ethical Implications of its Use and Potential Misuse

Journal Article Journal of Business Ethics · September 1, 2017 Neuromarketing is an emerging field in which academic and industry research scientists employ neuroscience techniques to study marketing practices and consumer behavior. The use of neuroscience techniques, it is argued, facilitates a more direct understand ... Full text Cite

Cocaine dependence modulates the effect of HIV infection on brain activation during intertemporal decision making.

Journal Article Drug Alcohol Depend · September 1, 2017 BACKGROUND: Both HIV infection and chronic cocaine use alter the neural circuitry of decision making, but the interactive effects of these commonly comorbid conditions have not been adequately examined. This study tested how cocaine moderates HIV-related n ... Full text Link to item Cite

Large-Scale Network Coupling with the Fusiform Cortex Facilitates Future Social Motivation.

Journal Article eNeuro · September 2017 Large-scale functional networks, as identified through the coordinated activity of spatially distributed brain regions, have become central objects of study in neuroscience because of their contributions to many processing domains. Yet, it remains unclear ... Full text Cite

Moral conformity in online interactions: rational justifications increase influence of peer opinions on moral judgments

Journal Article Social Influence · July 3, 2017 Over the last decade, social media has increasingly been used as a platform for political and moral discourse. We investigate whether conformity, specifically concerning moral attitudes, occurs in these virtual environments apart from face-to-face interact ... Full text Cite

Five-year-olds do not show ambiguity aversion in a risk and ambiguity task with physical objects.

Journal Article Journal of experimental child psychology · July 2017 Ambiguity aversion arises when a decision maker prefers risky gambles with known probabilities over equivalent ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities. This phenomenon has been consistently observed in adults across a large body of empirical work. Eva ... Full text Cite

Cocaine dependence does not contribute substantially to white matter abnormalities in HIV infection.

Journal Article J Neurovirol · June 2017 This study investigated the association of HIV infection and cocaine dependence with cerebral white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). One hundred thirty-five participants stratified by HIV and cocaine status (26 HIV+/COC+, 37 HIV+/COC- ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Reason's Enemy Is Not Emotion: Engagement of Cognitive Control Networks Explains Biases in Gain/Loss Framing.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · March 2017 In the classic gain/loss framing effect, describing a gamble as a potential gain or loss biases people to make risk-averse or risk-seeking decisions, respectively. The canonical explanation for this effect is that frames differentially modulate emotional p ... Full text Cite

Mapping rhetorical topologies in cognitive neuroscience

Chapter · January 1, 2017 Many tools that neuroscientists use to trace the complex topography of the human brain draw on the neuroscience literature to yield “metanalyses” or “syntheses of data.” These approaches conflate rhetorical connections in the literature with physical conne ... Full text Cite

Functional MRI (fMRI)

Chapter · January 1, 2017 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows researchers to investigate the mechanisms underlying information processing in the human brain. Most fMRI studies use standard MRI scanners to collect images sensitive to changes in blood oxygenation leve ... Full text Cite

Issues or Identity? Cognitive Foundations of Voter Choice.

Journal Article Trends in cognitive sciences · November 2016 Voter choice is one of the most important problems in political science. The most common models assume that voting is a rational choice based on policy positions (e.g., key issues) and nonpolicy information (e.g., social identity, personality). Though such ... Full text Cite

Prosocial reward learning in children and adolescents

Journal Article Frontiers in Psychology · October 5, 2016 Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to social contexts. To evaluate how social context sensitivity changes over development-and influences reward learning-we investigated how children and adolescents perceive and integrate rewards for oneself ... Full text Open Access Cite

Compensatory activation in fronto-parietal cortices among HIV-infected persons during a monetary decision-making task.

Journal Article Hum Brain Mapp · July 2016 HIV infection can cause direct and indirect damage to the brain and is consistently associated with neurocognitive disorders, including impairments in decision-making capacities. The tendency to devalue rewards that are delayed (temporal discounting) is re ... Full text Link to item Cite

Altruistic traits are predicted by neural responses to monetary outcomes for self vs charity.

Journal Article Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci · June 2016 Human altruism is often expressed through charitable donation-supporting a cause that benefits others in society, at cost to oneself. The underlying mechanisms of this other-regarding behavior remain imperfectly understood. By recording event-related-poten ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cortical Brain Activity Reflecting Attentional Biasing Toward Reward-Predicting Cues Covaries with Economic Decision-Making Performance.

Journal Article Cereb Cortex · January 2016 Adaptive choice behavior depends critically on identifying and learning from outcome-predicting cues. We hypothesized that attention may be preferentially directed toward certain outcome-predicting cues. We studied this possibility by analyzing event-relat ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Prosocial Reward Learning in Children and Adolescents.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2016 Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to social contexts. To evaluate how social context sensitivity changes over development-and influences reward learning-we investigated how children and adolescents perceive and integrate rewards for oneself ... Full text Cite

Reduced Risk-Taking following Disruption of the Intraparietal Sulcus.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2016 Decision makers frequently encounter opportunities to pursue great gains-assuming they are willing to accept greater risks. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) are ... Full text Cite

Cognitive functions as revealed by imaging of the human brain

Chapter · January 1, 2016 Functional neuroimaging techniques allow neuroscientists to map the processes of perception, cognition, memory, and action onto the human brain. The core techniques used in current research either measure neuronal activity directly (e.g., electroencephalog ... Full text Cite

Functional MRI (fMRI)

Chapter · January 1, 2016 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows researchers to investigate the mechanisms underlying information processing in the human brain. Most fMRI studies use standard MRI scanners to collect images sensitive to changes in blood oxygenation leve ... Full text Cite

THE IMPACT OF FEEDBACK TIMING ON VALUE LEARNING IN AGING

Conference The Gerontologist · November 2015 Full text Cite

Separate and overlapping brain areas encode subjective value during delay and effort discounting.

Journal Article NeuroImage · October 2015 Making decisions about rewards that involve delay or effort requires the integration of value and cost information. The brain areas recruited in this integration have been well characterized for delay discounting. However only a few studies have investigat ... Full text Cite

The rational adolescent: Strategic information processing during decision making revealed by eye tracking

Journal Article Cognitive Development · October 2015 Abstract Adolescence is often viewed as a time of irrational, risky decision-making—despite adolescents’ competence in other cognitive domains. In this study, we examined the strategies used by adolescents (N = 30) and young adults (N = 47) to resolve comp ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The risk matrix

Journal Article Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences · October 1, 2015 Neuroimaging methods (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging or FMRI) can now resolve momentary changes in deep brain activity that not only correlate with but also predict risky choice. Accumulating evidence beginning from financial choice studies bu ... Full text Cite

Consumer neuroscience: Applications, challenges, and possible solutions

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · August 1, 2015 The first decade of consumer neuroscience research has produced groundbreaking work in identifying the basic neural processes underlying human judgment and decision making, with the majority of such studies published in neuroscience journals and influencin ... Full text Cite

Synchrony between sensory and cognitive networks is associated with subclinical variation in autistic traits

Journal Article Frontiers in Human Neuroscience · March 23, 2015 Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders exhibit distinct personality traits linked to attentional, social, and affective functions, and those traits are expressed with varying levels of severity in the neurotypical and subclinical population. Variatio ... Full text Open Access Cite

Social Decision Making

Chapter · February 14, 2015 Full text Cite

Functional connectivity with ventromedial prefrontal cortex reflects subjective value for social rewards.

Journal Article Social cognitive and affective neuroscience · December 2014 According to many studies, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) encodes the subjective value of disparate rewards on a common scale. Yet, a host of other reward factors-likely represented outside of VMPFC-must be integrated to construct such signals ... Full text Cite

Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · November 2014 Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such a ... Full text Cite

An overall probability of winning heuristic for complex risky decisions: Choice and eye fixation evidence

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · November 1, 2014 When faced with multi-outcome gambles involving possibilities of both gains and losses, people often use a simple heuristic that maximizes the overall probability of winning (Pwin). Across three different studies, using choice data as well as process data ... Full text Cite

Resting state networks distinguish human ventral tegmental area from substantia nigra.

Journal Article Neuroimage · October 15, 2014 Dopaminergic networks modulate neural processing across a spectrum of function from perception to learning to action. Multiple organizational schemes based on anatomy and function have been proposed for dopaminergic nuclei in the midbrain. One schema origi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mapping the semantic structure of cognitive neuroscience.

Journal Article J Cogn Neurosci · September 2014 Cognitive neuroscience, as a discipline, links the biological systems studied by neuroscience to the processing constructs studied by psychology. By mapping these relations throughout the literature of cognitive neuroscience, we visualize the semantic stru ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Characterizing individual differences in functional connectivity using dual-regression and seed-based approaches.

Journal Article NeuroImage · July 2014 A central challenge for neuroscience lies in relating inter-individual variability to the functional properties of specific brain regions. Yet, considerable variability exists in the connectivity patterns between different brain areas, potentially producin ... Full text Cite

Neural correlates of cognitive and affective processing in maltreated youth with posttraumatic stress symptoms: does gender matter?

Journal Article Dev Psychopathol · May 2014 We investigated the relationship of gender to cognitive and affective processing in maltreated youth with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Maltreated (N = 29, 13 females, 16 males) and nonmaltreated partic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and mesolimbic responses to rewards.

Journal Article Mol Autism · January 31, 2014 BACKGROUND: There has been significant progress in identifying genes that confer risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, the heterogeneity of symptom presentation in ASDs impedes the detection of ASD risk genes. One approach to understanding ge ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Precuneus is a functional core of the default-mode network.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · January 2014 Efforts to understand the functional architecture of the brain have consistently identified multiple overlapping large-scale neural networks that are observable across multiple states. Despite the ubiquity of these networks, it remains unclear how regions ... Full text Cite

Effects of induced moods on economic choices

Journal Article Judgment and Decision Making · January 1, 2014 Emotions can shape decision processes by altering valuation signals, risk perception, and strategic orientation. Although multiple theories posit a role for affective processes in mediating the influence of frames on decision making, empirical studies have ... Cite

Advancing consumer neuroscience

Journal Article Marketing Letters · 2014 Cite

Advancing consumer neuroscience

Journal Article Marketing Letters · January 1, 2014 In the first decade of consumer neuroscience, strong progress has been made in understanding how neuroscience can inform consumer decision making. Here, we sketch the development of this discipline and compare it to that of the adjacent field of neuroecono ... Full text Cite

Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2014 The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly documented in adults but never measured in children. Here, we use two distinct tasks ... Full text Cite

Differential reward learning for self and others predicts self-reported altruism.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 In social environments, decisions not only determine rewards for oneself but also for others. However, individual differences in pro-social behaviors have been typically studied through self-report. We developed a decision-making paradigm in which particip ... Full text Link to item Cite

Advanced fMRI Methods

Chapter · 2014 Cite

Experimental Design

Chapter · 2014 Cite

MRI Scanners

Chapter · 2014 Cite

Cognitive functions as revealed by imaging of the human brain

Chapter · November 1, 2013 Functional neuroimaging techniques allow neuroscientists to map the processes of perception, cognition, memory, and action onto the human brain. The core techniques used in current research either measure neuronal activity directly (e.g., electroencephalog ... Full text Cite

Neural mechanisms of risky decision-making and reward response in adolescent onset cannabis use disorder.

Journal Article Drug Alcohol Depend · November 1, 2013 BACKGROUND: Neural mechanisms of decision-making and reward response in adolescent cannabis use disorder (CUD) are underexplored. METHODS: Three groups of male adolescents were studied: CUD in full remission (n=15); controls with psychopathology without su ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ventromedial prefrontal cortex encodes emotional value.

Journal Article J Neurosci · July 3, 2013 The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a critical role in processing appetitive stimuli. Recent investigations have shown that reward value signals in the vmPFC can be altered by emotion regulation processes; however, to what extent the processin ... Full text Link to item Cite

A nexus model of the temporal-parietal junction.

Journal Article Trends in cognitive sciences · July 2013 The temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) has been proposed to support either specifically social functions or non-specific processes of cognition such as memory and attention. To account for diverse prior findings, we propose a nexus model for TPJ function: ov ... Full text Cite

Sleep deprivation alters effort discounting but not delay discounting of monetary rewards.

Journal Article Sleep · June 2013 Study objectivesTo determine whether sleep deprivation would affect the discounting of delayed rewards, of rewards entailing the expense of effort, or both.DesignWe measured rates of two types of reward discounting under conditions of res ... Full text Cite

Rapid brain responses independently predict gain maximization and loss minimization during economic decision making.

Journal Article J Neurosci · April 17, 2013 Success in many decision-making scenarios depends on the ability to maximize gains and minimize losses. Even if an agent knows which cues lead to gains and which lead to losses, that agent could still make choices yielding suboptimal rewards. Here, by anal ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Correspondence Are Cognitive Functions Localizable?

Journal Article JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES · March 1, 2013 Link to item Cite

Experimental Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience

Journal Article · January 1, 2013 The growth of neuroeconomics as an academic discipline has been inextricably tied to the development of research methods to study brain function and its relationship to behavior. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of these methods at a cursory ... Full text Cite

NEURORHETORIC: MAPPING THE SEMANTIC STRUCTURE OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE

Conference JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE · January 1, 2013 Link to item Cite

Learning from silver linings.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2013 Full text Cite

Translating upwards: linking the neural and social sciences via neuroeconomics.

Journal Article Nature reviews. Neuroscience · November 2012 The social and neural sciences share a common interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie human behaviour. However, interactions between neuroscience and social science disciplines remain strikingly narrow and tenuous. We illustrate the scope an ... Full text Cite

Event-related fMRI in cognition.

Journal Article NeuroImage · August 2012 A primary advantage of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) over other techniques in neuroscience is its flexibility. Researchers have used fMRI to study a remarkable diversity of topics, from basic processes of perception and memory, to the comple ... Full text Cite

A distinct role of the temporal-parietal junction in predicting socially guided decisions.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · July 2012 To make adaptive decisions in a social context, humans must identify relevant agents in the environment, infer their underlying strategies and motivations, and predict their upcoming actions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging, in conjunction wi ... Full text Cite

Decision neuroscience and consumer decision making

Journal Article Marketing Letters · June 1, 2012 This article proposes that neuroscience can shape future theory and models in consumer decision making and suggests ways that neuroscience methods can be used in decision-making research. The article argues that neuroscience facilitates better theory devel ... Full text Cite

Strategic control in decision-making under uncertainty.

Journal Article The European journal of neuroscience · April 2012 Complex economic decisions - whether investing money for retirement or purchasing some new electronic gadget - often involve uncertainty about the likely consequences of our choices. Critical for resolving that uncertainty are strategic meta-decision proce ... Full text Cite

Identity economics and the brain: uncovering the mechanisms of social conflict.

Journal Article Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences · March 2012 Social contexts can have dramatic effects on decisions. When individuals recognize each other as coming from the same social group, they can coordinate their actions towards a common goal. Conversely, information about group differences can lead to conflic ... Full text Cite

The fMRI BOLD signal tracks electrophysiological spectral perturbations, not event-related potentials.

Journal Article NeuroImage · February 2012 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) are primary tools of the psychological neurosciences. It is therefore important to understand the relationship between hemodynamic and electrophysiological responses. An early st ... Full text Cite

Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood

Journal Article Frontiers in Human Neuroscience · January 3, 2012 Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting de ... Full text Cite

The functional neuroanatomy of decision making: prefrontal control of thought and action.

Journal Article Brain research · January 2012 Humans exhibit a remarkable capacity for flexible thought and action. Despite changing internal needs and external context, individuals maintain stable goals and pursue purposeful action. Functional neuroimaging research examining the neural underpinnings ... Full text Cite

What makes a pattern? Matching decoding methods to data in multivariate pattern analysis.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2012 Research in neuroscience faces the challenge of integrating information across different spatial scales of brain function. A promising technique for harnessing information at a range of spatial scales is multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of functional m ... Full text Cite

From risk-seeking to risk-averse: the development of economic risk preference from childhood to adulthood.

Journal Article Front Psychol · 2012 Adolescence is often described as a period of heightened risk-taking. Adolescents are notorious for impulsivity, emotional volatility, and risky behaviors such as drinking and driving under the influence of alcohol. By contrast, we found that risk-taking d ... Full text Link to item Cite

Seasonal variation of salivary testosterone in men, normally cycling women, and women using hormonal contraceptives.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · October 2011 Humans' endogenous testosterone concentrations vary over a number of temporal scales, with little known about variation longer than monthly cycles. Past studies of seasonal or circannual variation have principally used male participants and have produced i ... Full text Cite

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex drives mesolimbic dopaminergic regions to initiate motivated behavior.

Journal Article J Neurosci · July 13, 2011 How does the brain translate information signaling potential rewards into motivation to get them? Motivation to obtain reward is thought to depend on the midbrain [particularly the ventral tegmental area (VTA)], the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and the dorsol ... Full text Link to item Cite

Contributions of frontopolar cortex to judgments about self, others and relations.

Journal Article Social cognitive and affective neuroscience · June 2011 Activation in frontopolar cortex (FPC; BA 10) has been associated both with attending to mental states and with integrating multiple mental relations. However, few previous studies have manipulated both of these cognitive processes, precluding a clear func ... Full text Cite

Infrequent, task-irrelevant monetary gains and losses engage dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

Journal Article Brain research · June 2011 Decision making is commonly conceived to reflect the interplay of mutually antagonistic systems: executive processes must inhibit affective information to make adaptive choices. Consistent with this interpretation, prior studies have shown that the dorsola ... Full text Cite

Neuroeconomics of risky decisions: From variables to strategies

Chapter · May 1, 2011 We make a variety of decisions throughout our lives. Some decisions involve outcomes whose values can be readily compared, especially when those outcomes are simple, immediate, and familiar. Other decisions involve imperfect knowledge about their potential ... Full text Cite

Within- and cross-participant classifiers reveal different neural coding of information.

Journal Article NeuroImage · May 2011 Analyzing distributed patterns of brain activation using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has become a popular approach for using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to predict mental states. While the majority of studies currently build ... Full text Cite

Low- and high-testosterone individuals exhibit decreased aversion to economic risk.

Journal Article Psychol Sci · April 2011 Testosterone is positively associated with risk-taking behavior in social domains (e.g., crime, physical aggression). However, the scant research linking testosterone to economic risk preferences presents inconsistent findings. We examined the relationship ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cognitive and neural contributors to emotion regulation in aging.

Journal Article Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci · April 2011 Older adults, compared to younger adults, focus on emotional well-being. While the lifespan trajectory of emotional processing and its regulation has been characterized behaviorally, few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Here, old ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Sleep deprivation biases the neural mechanisms underlying economic preferences.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · March 2011 A single night of sleep deprivation (SD) evoked a strategy shift during risky decision making such that healthy human volunteers moved from defending against losses to seeking increased gains. This change in economic preferences was correlated with the mag ... Full text Cite

A parallel functional topography between medial and lateral prefrontal cortex: evidence and implications for cognitive control.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · March 2011 The dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (dmPFC and dlPFC) together support cognitive control, with dmPFC responsible for monitoring performance and dlPFC responsible for adjusting behavior. The dlPFC contains a topographic organization that re ... Full text Cite

Nucleus accumbens mediates relative motivation for rewards in the absence of choice

Journal Article Frontiers in Human Neuroscience · January 1, 2011 To dissociate a choice from its antecedent neural states, motivation associated with the expected outcome must be captured in the absence of choice. Yet, the neural mechanisms that mediate behavioral idiosyncrasies in motivation, particularly with regard t ... Full text Cite

Sleep deprivation alters valuation signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

Journal Article Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience · January 2011 Even a single night of total sleep deprivation (SD) can have dramatic effects on economic decision making. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that SD influences economic decisions by altering the valuation process. Using functional magnetic resonance imag ... Full text Cite

Behavioral risk elicits selective activation of the executive system in adolescents: clinical implications.

Journal Article Front Psychiatry · 2011 We investigated adolescent brain processing of decisions under conditions of varying risk, reward, and uncertainty. Adolescents (n = 31) preformed a Decision-Reward Uncertainty task that separates decision uncertainty into behavioral and reward risk, while ... Full text Link to item Cite

Nucleus accumbens mediates relative motivation for rewards in the absence of choice.

Journal Article Frontiers in human neuroscience · January 2011 To dissociate a choice from its antecedent neural states, motivation associated with the expected outcome must be captured in the absence of choice. Yet, the neural mechanisms that mediate behavioral idiosyncrasies in motivation, particularly with regard t ... Full text Open Access Cite

Decision-making under risk in children, adolescents, and young adults.

Journal Article Front Psychol · 2011 Adolescents often make risky and impulsive decisions. Such behavior has led to the common assumption that a dysfunction in risk-related decision-making peaks during this age. Differences in how risk has been defined across studies, however, make it difficu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early childhood to adulthood.

Journal Article Front Hum Neurosci · 2011 Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the brain regions supporting de ... Full text Link to item Cite

Decision neuroscience: neuroeconomics.

Journal Article Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science · November 2010 Few aspects of human cognition are more personal than the choices we make. Our decisions-from the mundane to the impossibly complex-continually shape the courses of our lives. In recent years, researchers have applied the tools of neuroscience to understan ... Full text Cite

Scan-rescan reliability of subcortical brain volumes derived from automated segmentation.

Journal Article Hum Brain Mapp · November 2010 Large-scale longitudinal studies of regional brain volume require reliable quantification using automated segmentation and labeling. However, repeated MR scanning of the same subject, even if using the same scanner and acquisition parameters, does not resu ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Processing speed and memory mediate age-related differences in decision making.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · June 2010 Decision making under risk changes with age. Increases in risk aversion with age have been most commonly characterized, although older adults may be risk seeking in some decision contexts. An important, and unanswered, question is whether these changes in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Functional Neuroimaging of Intertemporal Choice Models: A Review

Journal Article Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics · May 1, 2010 People often forsake a larger reward later for a smaller reward sooner. The process of devaluing the larger, later prize is called temporal discounting or delay discounting, which lies at the core of intertemporal choice. Here, we describe the methodology ... Full text Cite

Functional significance of striatal responses during episodic decisions: recovery or goal attainment?

Journal Article J Neurosci · March 31, 2010 Memory retrieval is typically a goal-directed behavior, and as such, potentially influenced by reinforcement and motivation processes. Although striatal activation is often evident during memory retrieval, its functional significance remains unclear becaus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Distinct value signals in anterior and posterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

Journal Article J Neurosci · February 17, 2010 The core feature of an economic exchange is a decision to trade one good for another, based on a comparison of relative value. Economists have long recognized, however, that the value an individual ascribes to a good during decision making (i.e., their rel ... Full text Link to item Cite

Economic decision-making and the sleep-deprived brain

Chapter · January 1, 2010 Introduction As acceptable temporal boundaries of business and social activities gradually disappear with pervasive connectivity, an increasing number of persons will be called upon to make decisions at times that our predecessors reserved for sleep. In th ... Full text Cite

Ten challenges for decision neuroscience

Journal Article Frontiers in Decision Neuroscience · 2010 Cite

Age-Related Cognitive Decline Predicts Changes in Risk Preference

Journal Article Psychology and Aging · 2010 Cite

Functional MRI (fMRI)

Journal Article · January 1, 2010 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows researchers to investigate the mechanisms underlying information processing in the human brain. Most fMRI studies use standard MRI scanners to collect images sensitive to changes in blood oxygenation leve ... Full text Cite

The effect of acute tryptophan depletion on emotional distraction and subsequent memory.

Journal Article Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci · December 2009 Serotonin is a key neurotransmitter involved in emotional regulation and memory. A number of studies using acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) in healthy subjects have shown that a temporary serotonin reduction both induces a negative emotional bias and impai ... Full text Link to item Cite

Resolving response, decision, and strategic control: evidence for a functional topography in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · October 2009 The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) plays a central role in aspects of cognitive control and decision making. Here, we provide evidence for an anterior-to-posterior topography within the DMPFC using tasks that evoke three distinct forms of control de ... Full text Open Access Cite

Rule-dependent prefrontal cortex activity across episodic and perceptual decisions: an fMRI investigation of the criterial classification account.

Journal Article Journal of cognitive neuroscience · May 2009 Although lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is clearly involved in decision-making, competing functional characterizations exist. One characterization posits that activation reflects the need to select among competing representations. In contrast, recent fMR ... Full text Cite

Local pattern classification differentiates processes of economic valuation.

Journal Article NeuroImage · May 2009 For effective decision making, individuals must be able to form subjective values from many types of information. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underlie potential differences in value computation across different decision scenarios are incompletely under ... Full text Cite

Separate neural mechanisms underlie choices and strategic preferences in risky decision making.

Journal Article Neuron · May 2009 Adaptive decision making in real-world contexts often relies on strategic simplifications of decision problems. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape these strategies and their implementation remain largely unknown. Using an economic decision-making task, ... Full text Cite

Towards a brain-to-society systems model of individual choice

Journal Article Marketing Letters · March 2009 Cite

Cerebral white matter integrity mediates adult age differences in cognitive performance.

Journal Article J Cogn Neurosci · February 2009 Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Activation in the VTA and nucleus accumbens increases in anticipation of both gains and losses.

Journal Article Front Behav Neurosci · 2009 To represent value for learning and decision making, the brain must encode information about both the motivational relevance and affective valence of anticipated outcomes. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are thought to play ke ... Full text Link to item Cite

Integrating neural and decision sciences: Convergence and constraints

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · January 1, 2009 Full text Cite

fMRI: BOLD Contrast

Journal Article · January 1, 2009 An influential technique for the study of the human brain has been functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The most common form of fMRI uses standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging scanners to create images based on blood oxygenation level-depen ... Full text Cite

Towards a Brain-to-Society Systems Model of Individual Choice

Journal Article Marketing Letters · December 1, 2008 Cite

Foundations of neuroeconomics: from philosophy to practice.

Journal Article PLoS biology · November 2008 Full text Cite

Rapid electrophysiological brain responses are influenced by both valence and magnitude of monetary rewards.

Journal Article J Cogn Neurosci · November 2008 Abstract Negative outcomes, as identified from external feedback, cause a short-latency negative deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) waveform over medial frontal electrode sites. This brain response, which has been called an "error related nega ... Full text Link to item Cite

Foundations of neuroeconomics: From philosophy to practice

Journal Article PLoS Biology · November 1, 2008 Full text Cite

The neural substrates of probabilistic and intertemporal decision making.

Journal Article Brain research · October 2008 Many important decisions involve outcomes that are either probabilistic or delayed. Based on similarities in decision preferences, models of decision making have postulated that the same psychological processes may underlie decisions involving probabilitie ... Full text Cite

Effects of aging on the neural correlates of successful item and source memory encoding.

Journal Article J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn · July 2008 To investigate the neural basis of age-related source memory (SM) deficits, young and older adults were scanned with fMRI while encoding faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Successful encoding activity was identified by comparing encoding activity for sub ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related slowing of memory retrieval: contributions of perceptual speed and cerebral white matter integrity.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · July 2008 Previous research suggests that, in reaction time (RT) measures of episodic memory retrieval, the unique effects of adult age are relatively small compared to the effects aging shares with more elementary abilities such as perceptual speed. Little is known ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risky business: the neuroeconomics of decision making under uncertainty.

Journal Article Nat Neurosci · April 2008 Many decisions involve uncertainty, or imperfect knowledge about how choices lead to outcomes. Colloquial notions of uncertainty, particularly when describing a decision as 'risky', often carry connotations of potential danger as well. Gambling on a long s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neural substrates for processing task-irrelevant sad images in adolescents.

Journal Article Dev Sci · January 2008 Neural systems related to cognitive and emotional processing were examined in adolescents using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten healthy adolescents performed an emotional oddball task. Subjects detected infrequent circles (t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Towards a brain-to-society systems model of individual choice

Journal Article Marketing Letters · January 1, 2008 Canonical models of rational choice fail to account for many forms of motivated adaptive behaviors, specifically in domains such as food selections. To describe behavior in such emotion- and reward-laden scenarios, researchers have proposed dual-process mo ... Full text Cite

Sleep deprivation elevates expectation of gains and attenuates response to losses following risky decisions.

Journal Article Sleep · May 2007 Study objectivesUsing a gambling task, we investigated how 24 hours of sleep deprivation modulates the neural response to the making of risky decisions with potentially loss-bearing outcomes.DesignTwo experiments involving sleep-deprived ... Full text Cite

Adult age differences in the functional neuroanatomy of visual attention: a combined fMRI and DTI study.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · March 2007 We combined measures from event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and cognitive performance (visual search response time) to test the hypotheses that differences between younger and older adults in top-do ... Full text Link to item Cite

Altruism is associated with an increased neural response to agency.

Journal Article Nature neuroscience · February 2007 Although the neural mechanisms underlying altruism remain unknown, empathy and its component abilities, such as the perception of the actions and intentions of others, have been proposed as key contributors. Tasks requiring the perception of agency activat ... Full text Cite

Role of aerobic fitness and aging on cerebral white matter integrity.

Journal Article Ann N Y Acad Sci · February 2007 Neuroimaging research suggests that cerebral white matter (WM) integrity, as reflected in fractional anisotropy (FA) via diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is decreased in older adults, especially in the prefrontal regions of the brain. Behavioral investigati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Behavioral, but not reward, risk modulates activation of prefrontal, parietal, and insular cortices.

Journal Article Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience · June 2006 Risky decisions may involve uncertainty about possible outcomes (i.e., reward risk) or uncertainty about which action should be taken (i.e., behavioral risk). Determining whether different forms of risk have distinct neural correlates is a central goal of ... Full text Cite

Neural signatures of economic preferences for risk and ambiguity.

Journal Article Neuron · March 2, 2006 People often prefer the known over the unknown, sometimes sacrificing potential rewards for the sake of surety. Overcoming impulsive preferences for certainty in order to exploit uncertain but potentially lucrative options may require specialized neural me ... Full text Link to item Cite

Abstinence-induced changes in self-report craving correlate with event-related FMRI responses to smoking cues.

Journal Article Neuropsychopharmacology · October 2005 Drug cues have been shown to activate brain regions involved in attention, motivation, and reward in addicted users. However, as studies have typically measured responses in only one state (ie drug abstinence), it is unclear whether observed activations re ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related changes in neural activity during visual perception and attention

Chapter · May 1, 2005 © 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights reserved. This chapter presents an overview of age-related changes in sensory systems that alter the identification of objects and events in the environment. It reviews the behavioral literature on percept ... Full text Cite

Decisions under uncertainty: probabilistic context influences activation of prefrontal and parietal cortices.

Journal Article J Neurosci · March 30, 2005 Many decisions are made under uncertainty; that is, with limited information about their potential consequences. Previous neuroimaging studies of decision making have implicated regions of the medial frontal lobe in processes related to the resolution of u ... Full text Link to item Cite

The BOLD fMRI refractory effect is specific to stimulus attributes: evidence from a visual motion paradigm.

Journal Article Neuroimage · September 2004 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) hemodynamic response (HDR) to a stimulus is reduced by the previous presentation of a similar stimulus. We investigated the dependence ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modulation of prefrontal cortex activity by information toward a decision rule.

Journal Article Neuroreport · August 2004 We used fMRI to investigate how the information content of a stimulus influences activity in brain systems that support decision making. Subjects learned decision rules that were based upon the color, shape, or fill pattern of a series of stimuli. Each sti ... Full text Cite

Age-related preservation of top-down attentional guidance during visual search.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · June 2004 Younger (19-27 years of age) and older (60-82 years of age) adults performed a letter search task in which a color singleton was either noninformative (baseline condition) or highly informative (guided condition) regarding target location. In the guided co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dynamic and strategic aspects of executive processing.

Journal Article Brain research · March 2004 Executive cognitive functions have been postulated to include both dynamic behavioral selection and strategic goal-setting or response preparation. To investigate the relation between these aspects of executive processing, we embedded an event-related oddb ... Full text Cite

Diffusion tensor imaging of adult age differences in cerebral white matter: relation to response time.

Journal Article Neuroimage · March 2004 Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures the displacement of water molecules across tissue components, thus providing information regarding the microstructure of cerebral white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA), the degree to which diffusion is directional ... Full text Link to item Cite

Linking hemodynamic and electrophysiological measures of brain activity: evidence from functional MRI and intracranial field potentials.

Journal Article Cereb Cortex · February 2004 We investigated the relation between electrophysiological and hemodynamic measures of brain activity through comparison of intracranially recorded event-related local field potentials (ERPs) and blood-oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related changes in neural activity during visual target detection measured by fMRI.

Journal Article Cereb Cortex · February 2004 We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a visual target detection (oddball) task to investigate age differences in neural activation for the detection of two types of infrequent events: visually simple items requiring a response shift (targ ... Full text Link to item Cite

What is odd in the oddball task? Prefrontal cortex is activated by dynamic changes in response strategy.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · January 2004 In the "oddball" target detection task, subjects respond to target stimuli that occur infrequently and irregularly within a series of standard stimuli. Although detection of these targets reliably evokes transient activity in prefrontal cortical regions, i ... Full text Cite

Non-linearities in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) response measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference · January 2004 A central question in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI) data is whether the measured fMRI signal summates in a linear fashion over repeated inputs. Most fMRI studies collect images sensitive to blood-oxygenation-level dependent ( ... Full text Cite

In favor of an ecological account of color

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · February 1, 2003 Byrne & Hilbert understate the difficulties facing their version of color realism. We doubt that they can fix reflectance types and magnitudes in a way that does not invoke relations to perceivers. B&H's account, therefore, resembles the dispositional or e ... Full text Cite

Deterministic and stochastic features of fMRI data: implications for analysis of event-related experiments.

Journal Article Journal of neuroscience methods · August 2002 As the limits of stimuli presentation rates are explored in event-related fMRI design, there is a greater need to assess the implications of averaging raw fMRI data. Selective averaging assumes that the fMRI signal consists of task-dependent signal, random ... Full text Cite

Activation in mesolimbic and visuospatial neural circuits elicited by smoking cues: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Journal Article Am J Psychiatry · June 2002 OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to increase understanding of the brain mechanisms involved in cigarette addiction by identifying neural substrates modulated by visual smoking cues in nicotine-deprived smokers. METHOD: Event-related functional magnetic resona ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Perceiving patterns in random series: dynamic processing of sequence in prefrontal cortex.

Journal Article Nature neuroscience · May 2002 We demonstrate that regions within human prefrontal cortex develop moment-to-moment models for patterns of events occurring in the sensory environment. Subjects viewed a random binary sequence of images, each presented singly and each requiring a different ... Full text Cite

Regional differences in the refractory period of the hemodynamic response: an event-related fMRI study.

Journal Article NeuroImage · November 2001 We investigated the characteristics of the hemodynamic response (HDR) to paired presentations of visual face stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Photographs of faces were presented singly or in pairs with either a 1-s or 6-s intrapa ... Full text Cite

Dissociating the neural mechanisms of visual attention in change detection using functional MRI.

Journal Article Journal of cognitive neuroscience · October 2001 We investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processes associated with performance of a change-detection task. In this task, two versions of the same picture are presented in alternation, separated by a brief mask interval. ... Full text Cite

The effects of single-trial averaging upon the spatial extent of fMRI activation.

Journal Article Neuroreport · August 2001 We examined effects of trial averaging upon spatial extent, spatial topography, and temporal properties of fMRI activation. Two subjects participated in an event-related visual stimulation design. There was an exponential relation between number of trials ... Full text Cite

The effects of aging upon the hemodynamic response measured by functional MRI.

Journal Article NeuroImage · January 2001 We comparedthe characteristics of the visually evoked hemodynamic response (HDR) in groups of young and elderly adults. Checkerboard stimuli were presented for 500 ms either singly or in pairs separated by a 2-s intrapair interval while gradient-echo echop ... Full text Cite

Variability is not uniformily bad: The practices of psychologists generate research questions

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 2001 The practices of economists increase experimental reproducibility relative to those of selected psychologists but should not be universally adopted. Procedures criticized by Hertwig and Ortmann as producing variable data are valuable, instead, for generati ... Full text Cite

Evidence for a refractory period in the hemodynamic response to visual stimuli as measured by MRI.

Journal Article NeuroImage · May 2000 We investigated the effects of paired presentations of visual stimuli upon the evoked hemodynamic response of visual cortex measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Stimuli were identical 500-ms high-contrast checkerboard patterns, presented singly or ... Full text Cite

Effects of balance relations between objects on infants' object segregation

Journal Article Developmental Science · January 1, 2000 Young infants are sensitive to support relations between objects. However, the types of contact perceived to be sufficient for object support change over development. At 4.5 months of age, infants expect an object to be adequately supported when in contact ... Full text Cite

Psychologically rational choice: Selection between alternatives in a multiple-equilibrium game

Journal Article Cognitive Systems Research · January 1, 2000 Choice is modeled by game theory through analyses of the structure of a game situation. However, at least some choices, such as those in games that have more than one rational solution, are difficult to address under standard game theory. We investigated c ... Full text Cite

Range effects of an irrelevant dimension on classification.

Journal Article Perception & psychophysics · November 1999 In univariate classification tasks, subjects sort stimuli on the basis of the only attribute that varies. In orthogonal classification tasks, often called filtering tasks, there additionally are trial-to-trial variations in irrelevant attributes that the s ... Full text Cite

Isomorphisms and subjective colors

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 1999 Palmer describes a 'subjective barrier' that limits knowledge of others' experience. We discuss how this barrier extends to all knowledge, becoming less distinct as theoretical constructs are strengthened. We provide evidence for isomorphic experience, amo ... Full text Cite

Males and females use different distal cues in a virtual environment navigation task.

Journal Article Brain research. Cognitive brain research · April 1998 The study of navigational ability in humans is often limited by the restricted availability and inconvenience of using large novel environments. In the present study we use a computer-generated virtual environment to study sex differences in human spatial ... Full text Cite

A framework for structural constraints on feature creation

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · February 1998 We address two major limitations of Schyns et al. First, we clarify their concept of “features” by postulating several levels for processing. The composition of the feature set at each level determines the set at the next higher level, following ... Full text Cite