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Scott Leigh Shofer

Associate Professor of Medicine
Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine
Duke Box 102356, Durham, NC 27710
112 Hanes Bldg, Box 102356, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


High Yield of Pleural Cell-Free DNA for Diagnosis of Oncogenic Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Journal Article Chest · July 2023 BACKGROUND: Pleural cytology is currently used to assess targetable mutations in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. However, it is fraught with low diagnostic yield. RESEARCH QUESTION: Can pleural cell-free DNA (cfDNA) be used to assess targetable ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial Disparities in Lung Cancer Screening Among Veterans, 2013 to 2021.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · June 1, 2023 IMPORTANCE: Racial disparities in lung cancer screening (LCS) are often ascribed to barriers such as cost, insurance status, access to care, and transportation. Because these barriers are minimized within the Veterans Affairs system, there is a question of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interventions to improve lung cancer screening among racially and ethnically minoritized groups: A scoping review.

Journal Article Lung Cancer · February 2023 Lung cancer screening (LCS) decreases lung cancer related mortality among high-risk people who smoke cigarettes and has been endorsed by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) since 2013. However, adoption of LCS has been limited, and disparities i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Implementation and Effectiveness of a Veterans Affairs-Based Comprehensive Lung Cancer Survivorship Program.

Journal Article J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev · May 1, 2022 PURPOSE: Few programs exist to address persistent impairment in functional status, quality of life, and mental health in lung cancer survivors. We aimed to determine whether a 12-wk multimodal survivorship program imparts clinical benefit. METHODS: Any pat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities, Version 1.2022, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

Journal Article Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN · April 2022 The aim of the NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities is to provide guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events resulting from cancer immunotherapy. The NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel i ... Full text Cite

Comparison of Forceps, Cryoprobe, and Thoracoscopic Lung Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Disease - The CHILL Study.

Journal Article Respiration · 2022 RATIONALE: Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) has emerged as a less invasive method to obtain a tissue diagnosis in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The diagnostic yield of TBLC compared to surgical lung biopsy (SLB) remains uncertain. OBJ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pilot Study of the Performance of 19-G Needle in Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Aspiration for the Diagnosis and Testing of Molecular Markers in Lung Cancer.

Journal Article J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol · July 1, 2021 BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become the standard for diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Historically, 21- and 22-G needles have been paired with EBUS. We evaluated the performance of EBUS-T ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to prevent central airway stenosis after lung transplantation.

Journal Article J Heart Lung Transplant · April 2021 BACKGROUND: Central airway stenosis (CAS) is a severe airway complication after lung transplantation associated with bronchial ischemia and necrosis. We sought to determine whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), an established treatment for tissue ische ... Full text Link to item Cite

Variable Learning Curve of Basic Rigid Bronchoscopy in Trainees.

Journal Article Respiration · 2021 BACKGROUND: Despite increased use of rigid bronchoscopy (RB) for therapeutic indications and recommendations from professional societies to use performance-based competency, an assessment tool has not been utilized to measure the competency of trainees to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Operator Perception of a Single-Use Flexible Bronchoscope: Comparison With Current Standard Bronchoscopes.

Journal Article Respir Care · November 2020 BACKGROUND: Single-use flexible bronchoscopes have gained popularity in recent years for various advantages over the traditional reusable bronchoscope. There are several commercially available disposable bronchoscopes; however, all have limitations compare ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endobronchial coils for emphysema: Dual mechanism of action on lobar residual volume reduction.

Journal Article Respirology · November 2020 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The RENEW trial demonstrated that bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial coils improves quality of life, pulmonary function and exercise performance. In this post hoc analysis of RENEW, we examine the mechanism of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Electronic Cigarettes: A Role in Smoking Cessation?

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · August 15, 2020 Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of Zephyr Endobronchial Valves on Dyspnea, Activity Levels, and Quality of Life at One Year. Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · July 2020 Rationale: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with Zephyr Valves improves lung function, exercise tolerance, and quality of life of patients with hyperinflated emphysema and little to no collateral ventilation.Objectives:Post hoc analysis of patient-repor ... Full text Link to item Cite

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities, Version 1.2020.

Journal Article J Natl Compr Canc Netw · March 2020 The NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities provide interdisciplinary guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) resulting from cancer immunotherapy. These NCCN Guidelines Insights describe symptoms that ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utilization of 19F MRI for Identification of Iraq-Afghanistan War Lung Injury.

Journal Article Mil Med · January 7, 2020 INTRODUCTION: There is mounting evidence of respiratory problems related to military service in the Middle East in the past two decades due to environmental exposures during deployment (eg, sand storms and burn pits). This pilot study tests the hypothesis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical and radiographic predictors of successful therapeutic bronchoscopy for the relief of malignant central airway obstruction.

Journal Article BMC Pulm Med · November 21, 2019 BACKGROUND: Malignant central airway obstruction (CAO) occurs in approximately 20-30% of patients with lung cancer and is associated with debilitating symptoms and poor prognosis. Multimodality therapeutic bronchoscopy can relieve malignant CAO, though car ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Predictors of Response to Endobronchial Coil Therapy in Patients With Advanced Emphysema.

Journal Article Chest · May 2019 BACKGROUND: The Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Patients With Emphysema (RENEW) trial reported improvements in quality of life, pulmonary function, and exercise performance following endobronchial coil treatment. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pos ... Full text Link to item Cite

Yield of Malignant Pleural Effusion for Detection of Oncogenic Driver Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Journal Article J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol · April 2019 BACKGROUND: Pleural fluid can be used to assess targetable mutations in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The primary objective of this study was to assess the yield of pleural fluid cytology for targetable oncogenic mutations (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ALK, and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Management of Lung Transplant Bronchial Stenosis With Mitomycin C.

Journal Article J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol · April 2019 BACKGROUND: Bronchial stenosis is a significant source of morbidity among lung transplant recipients, with etiologies including infection and ischemia of the airways. Current management with balloon bronchoplasty and stents is imperfect and a subset of pat ... Full text Link to item Cite

High Yield of Pleural Cell-Free DNA for Diagnosis of Oncogenic Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Journal Article Chest · July 2023 BACKGROUND: Pleural cytology is currently used to assess targetable mutations in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. However, it is fraught with low diagnostic yield. RESEARCH QUESTION: Can pleural cell-free DNA (cfDNA) be used to assess targetable ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial Disparities in Lung Cancer Screening Among Veterans, 2013 to 2021.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · June 1, 2023 IMPORTANCE: Racial disparities in lung cancer screening (LCS) are often ascribed to barriers such as cost, insurance status, access to care, and transportation. Because these barriers are minimized within the Veterans Affairs system, there is a question of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interventions to improve lung cancer screening among racially and ethnically minoritized groups: A scoping review.

Journal Article Lung Cancer · February 2023 Lung cancer screening (LCS) decreases lung cancer related mortality among high-risk people who smoke cigarettes and has been endorsed by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) since 2013. However, adoption of LCS has been limited, and disparities i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Implementation and Effectiveness of a Veterans Affairs-Based Comprehensive Lung Cancer Survivorship Program.

Journal Article J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev · May 1, 2022 PURPOSE: Few programs exist to address persistent impairment in functional status, quality of life, and mental health in lung cancer survivors. We aimed to determine whether a 12-wk multimodal survivorship program imparts clinical benefit. METHODS: Any pat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities, Version 1.2022, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

Journal Article Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN · April 2022 The aim of the NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities is to provide guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events resulting from cancer immunotherapy. The NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel i ... Full text Cite

Comparison of Forceps, Cryoprobe, and Thoracoscopic Lung Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Disease - The CHILL Study.

Journal Article Respiration · 2022 RATIONALE: Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) has emerged as a less invasive method to obtain a tissue diagnosis in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The diagnostic yield of TBLC compared to surgical lung biopsy (SLB) remains uncertain. OBJ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pilot Study of the Performance of 19-G Needle in Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Aspiration for the Diagnosis and Testing of Molecular Markers in Lung Cancer.

Journal Article J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol · July 1, 2021 BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become the standard for diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Historically, 21- and 22-G needles have been paired with EBUS. We evaluated the performance of EBUS-T ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to prevent central airway stenosis after lung transplantation.

Journal Article J Heart Lung Transplant · April 2021 BACKGROUND: Central airway stenosis (CAS) is a severe airway complication after lung transplantation associated with bronchial ischemia and necrosis. We sought to determine whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), an established treatment for tissue ische ... Full text Link to item Cite

Variable Learning Curve of Basic Rigid Bronchoscopy in Trainees.

Journal Article Respiration · 2021 BACKGROUND: Despite increased use of rigid bronchoscopy (RB) for therapeutic indications and recommendations from professional societies to use performance-based competency, an assessment tool has not been utilized to measure the competency of trainees to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Operator Perception of a Single-Use Flexible Bronchoscope: Comparison With Current Standard Bronchoscopes.

Journal Article Respir Care · November 2020 BACKGROUND: Single-use flexible bronchoscopes have gained popularity in recent years for various advantages over the traditional reusable bronchoscope. There are several commercially available disposable bronchoscopes; however, all have limitations compare ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endobronchial coils for emphysema: Dual mechanism of action on lobar residual volume reduction.

Journal Article Respirology · November 2020 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The RENEW trial demonstrated that bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial coils improves quality of life, pulmonary function and exercise performance. In this post hoc analysis of RENEW, we examine the mechanism of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Electronic Cigarettes: A Role in Smoking Cessation?

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · August 15, 2020 Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of Zephyr Endobronchial Valves on Dyspnea, Activity Levels, and Quality of Life at One Year. Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · July 2020 Rationale: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with Zephyr Valves improves lung function, exercise tolerance, and quality of life of patients with hyperinflated emphysema and little to no collateral ventilation.Objectives:Post hoc analysis of patient-repor ... Full text Link to item Cite

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities, Version 1.2020.

Journal Article J Natl Compr Canc Netw · March 2020 The NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities provide interdisciplinary guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) resulting from cancer immunotherapy. These NCCN Guidelines Insights describe symptoms that ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utilization of 19F MRI for Identification of Iraq-Afghanistan War Lung Injury.

Journal Article Mil Med · January 7, 2020 INTRODUCTION: There is mounting evidence of respiratory problems related to military service in the Middle East in the past two decades due to environmental exposures during deployment (eg, sand storms and burn pits). This pilot study tests the hypothesis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical and radiographic predictors of successful therapeutic bronchoscopy for the relief of malignant central airway obstruction.

Journal Article BMC Pulm Med · November 21, 2019 BACKGROUND: Malignant central airway obstruction (CAO) occurs in approximately 20-30% of patients with lung cancer and is associated with debilitating symptoms and poor prognosis. Multimodality therapeutic bronchoscopy can relieve malignant CAO, though car ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Predictors of Response to Endobronchial Coil Therapy in Patients With Advanced Emphysema.

Journal Article Chest · May 2019 BACKGROUND: The Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Patients With Emphysema (RENEW) trial reported improvements in quality of life, pulmonary function, and exercise performance following endobronchial coil treatment. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pos ... Full text Link to item Cite

Yield of Malignant Pleural Effusion for Detection of Oncogenic Driver Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Journal Article J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol · April 2019 BACKGROUND: Pleural fluid can be used to assess targetable mutations in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The primary objective of this study was to assess the yield of pleural fluid cytology for targetable oncogenic mutations (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ALK, and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Management of Lung Transplant Bronchial Stenosis With Mitomycin C.

Journal Article J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol · April 2019 BACKGROUND: Bronchial stenosis is a significant source of morbidity among lung transplant recipients, with etiologies including infection and ischemia of the airways. Current management with balloon bronchoplasty and stents is imperfect and a subset of pat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities, Version 1.2019.

Journal Article J Natl Compr Canc Netw · March 1, 2019 The aim of the NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities is to provide guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events resulting from cancer immunotherapy. The NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increasing PET Use in Small Cell Lung Cancer: Survival Improvement and Stage Migration in the VA Central Cancer Registry.

Journal Article J Natl Compr Canc Netw · February 2019 Background: Accurate staging for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is critical for determining appropriate therapy. The clinical impact of increasing PET adoption and stage migration is well described in non-small cell lung cancer but not in SCLC. The objectiv ... Full text Link to item Cite

Post Cardiac Surgery Pleural Effusions and Thoracentesis

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2019 Link to item Cite

Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Thoracic Metastases and Detection of Receptor Discordance.

Journal Article J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol · July 2018 BACKGROUND: Metastasis of breast cancer to mediastinal lymph nodes is common and biopsy of suspicious lesions can have important diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications, particularly with respect to tumor receptor status. Our aim was to show t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Navigational Bronchoscopy with Airo CT Confirmation - Biopsy of a Cystic Lesion

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2018 Link to item Cite

Transbronchial lung biopsy

Chapter · September 7, 2017 Full text Cite

Systemic Bevacizumab for Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis: A Single Center Experience of Two Cases.

Journal Article Am J Case Rep · July 31, 2017 BACKGROUND Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), is the most common benign neoplasm of the larynx and central airways. RRP has a significant impact on quality life and high annual costs to healthcare. Currently, ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Assessment of Bronchial Stenosis in Lung Transplant Recipients.

Journal Article Am J Transplant · July 2017 Bronchial stenosis in lung transplant recipients is a common disorder that adversely affects clinical outcomes. It is evaluated by spirometry, CT scanning, and bronchoscopy with significant limitations. We hypothesize that MRI using both ultrashort echo ti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Randomized Trial of Pleural Fluid Drainage Frequency in Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusions. The ASAP Trial.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · April 15, 2017 RATIONALE: Patients with malignant pleural effusions have significant dyspnea and shortened life expectancy. Indwelling pleural catheters allow patients to drain pleural fluid at home and can lead to autopleurodesis. The optimal drainage frequency to achie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ozone primes alveolar macrophage-derived innate immunity in healthy human subjects.

Journal Article J Allergy Clin Immunol · October 2016 The present study demonstrates that acute ozone exposure of healthy human subjects enhances lung immune responses to subsequent bacterial stimuli. This highlights common air pollutant exposures as modifiers of the intensity of pulmonary immune activation. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for management of central airway stenosis after lung transplant.

Journal Article Clin Transplant · September 2016 BACKGROUND: Central airway stenosis (CAS) is common after lung transplantation and causes significant post-transplant morbidity. It is often preceded by extensive airway necrosis, related to airway ischemia. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is useful for i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of Endobronchial Coils vs Usual Care on Exercise Tolerance in Patients With Severe Emphysema: The RENEW Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA · May 24, 2016 IMPORTANCE: Preliminary clinical trials have demonstrated that endobronchial coils compress emphysematous lung tissue and may improve lung function, exercise tolerance, and symptoms in patients with emphysema and severe lung hyperinflation. OBJECTIVE: To d ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of a Tool to Assess Basic Competency in the Performance of Rigid Bronchoscopy.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · April 2016 RATIONALE: Rigid bronchoscopy is increasingly used by pulmonologists for the management of central airway disorders. However, an assessment tool to evaluate the competency of operators in the performance of this technique has not been developed. We created ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypoxic Gene Expression of Donor Bronchi Linked to Airway Complications after Lung Transplantation.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · March 1, 2016 RATIONALE: Central airway stenosis (CAS) after lung transplantation has been attributed in part to chronic airway ischemia; however, little is known about the time course or significance of large airway hypoxia early after transplantation. OBJECTIVES: To e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Role Of Mitomycin C Application In Lung Transplantation Related Airway Stenosis

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

Bronchomediastinal fistula caused by endobronchial aspergilloma.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · January 2015 RATIONALE: Endobronchial aspergilloma is a rare condition affecting immunocompromised patients. We present three cases resulting in airway fistulae. CASE PRESENTATIONS: A 68-year-old male with orthotopic heart transplantation presented with fatigue, cough, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Therapeutic bronchoscopy improves spirometry, quality of life, and survival in central airway obstruction.

Journal Article Respiration · 2015 BACKGROUND: Central airway obstruction (CAO) occurs in patients with primary or metastatic lung malignancy and nonmalignant pulmonary disorders and results in significant adverse effects on respiratory function and quality of life. OBJECTIVES: The objectiv ... Full text Link to item Cite

High Dose Brachytherapy For Bronchial Stenosis In Lung Transplant Recipients

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2015 Link to item Cite

Pleural Effusions Underlying Rejection After Lung Transplantation

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · January 1, 2015 Link to item Cite

Tumor acquisition for biomarker research in lung cancer.

Journal Article Cancer Invest · July 2014 The biopsy collection data from two lung cancer trials that required fresh tumor samples be obtained for microarray analysis were reviewed. In the trial for advanced disease, microarray data were obtained on 50 patient samples, giving an overall success ra ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ventilation and anesthetic approaches for rigid bronchoscopy.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · May 2014 Due to growing interest in management of central airway obstruction, rigid bronchoscopy is undergoing a resurgence in popularity among pulmonologists. Performing rigid bronchoscopy requires use of deep sedation or general anesthesia to achieve adequate pat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Learning experience of linear endobronchial ultrasound among pulmonary trainees.

Journal Article Chest · March 1, 2014 BACKGROUND: Linear endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) allows real-time guidance of transbronchial needle aspiration of thoracic structures and has become an increasingly important diagnostic tool for chest physicians. Little has been published about the learn ... Full text Link to item Cite

Feasibility of using an epigenetic marker of risk for lung cancer, methylation of p16, to promote smoking cessation among US veterans.

Journal Article BMJ Open Respir Res · 2014 INTRODUCTION: Providing smokers feedback using epigenetic markers of lung cancer risk has yet to be tested as a strategy to motivate smoking cessation. Epigenetic modification of Rb-p16 (p16) due to tobacco exposure is associated with increased risk of dev ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Hemorrhagic complications of thoracentesis and small-bore chest tube placement in patients taking clopidogrel.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · January 2014 RATIONALE: Clopidogrel is a commonly used antiplatelet medication. The risk of local hemorrhage associated with use of this drug during routine thoracentesis or small-bore chest tube placement is not well established. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a prospective ... Full text Link to item Cite

A comparative analysis of bronchial stricture after lung transplantation in recipients with and without early acute rejection.

Journal Article Ann Thorac Surg · September 2013 BACKGROUND: Risk factors and outcomes of bronchial stricture after lung transplantation are not well defined. An association between acute rejection and development of stricture has been suggested in small case series. We evaluated this relationship using ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endobronchial fiducial to guide stereotactic body radiotherapy.

Journal Article J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol · July 2013 Optimal treatment for unresectable central airway tumors is not well established. Stereotactic body radiation therapy has shown efficacy for both peripheral and central lung lesions. However, the treatment of central tumors has been limited because of asso ... Full text Link to item Cite

Significance of and risk factors for the development of central airway stenosis after lung transplantation.

Journal Article Am J Transplant · February 2013 Central airways stenosis (CAS) after lung transplant is a poorly understood complication. Objectives of this study were to determine if CAS was associated with chronic rejection or worse survival after transplant as well as to identify factors associated w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Alendronate tracheobronchitis.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · February 2013 Full text Link to item Cite

Endobronchial metastasis from primary anorectal melanoma.

Journal Article Am J Case Rep · 2013 PATIENT: Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Metastatic anorectal melanoma with endotracheal metastasis Symptoms: Fatigue • weight loss • hematochezia • cough MEDICATION: None Clinical Procedure: Biopsy of anal mass • rigid bronchoscopy Specialty: Internal medicine ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The opprobrium of Big Tobacco.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · May 1, 2012 Full text Link to item Cite

Flexible Bronchoscopy Training

Journal Article · January 5, 2012 Full text Cite

Bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction with Exhale airway stents for emphysema (EASE trial): randomised, sham-controlled, multicentre trial.

Journal Article Lancet · September 10, 2011 BACKGROUND: Airway bypass is a bronchoscopic lung-volume reduction procedure for emphysema whereby transbronchial passages into the lung are created to release trapped air, supported with paclitaxel-coated stents to ease the mechanics of breathing. The aim ... Full text Link to item Cite

The use of electrocautery as the primary ablation modality for malignant and benign airway obstruction.

Journal Article J Thorac Oncol · September 2011 BACKGROUND: Laser has been the main ablative modality in the airways, but a growing experience with endobronchial electrocautery suggests a comparable efficacy and safety profile. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of electrocautery as the pri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Training for endobronchial ultrasound: methods for proper training in new bronchoscopic techniques.

Journal Article Curr Opin Pulm Med · July 2010 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of pulmonary medicine has experienced a rapid growth in innovative new technologies aimed at both diagnosis and treatment of airway, mediastinal and parenchymal disorders. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) has emerged as an extre ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of transbronchial lung biopsy yield between standard forceps and electrocautery hot forceps in swine.

Journal Article Respiration · 2010 BACKGROUND: Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) is a commonly performed bronchoscopic procedure. Previous studies have suggested that larger biopsy forceps may improve diagnostic yield; however, the risk of bleeding associated with larger samples may be incr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Transbronchial lung biopsy

Chapter · January 1, 2009 INTRODUCTION Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBB) is a safe and effective tool useful for the diagnosis of a wide variety of diffuse and focal pulmonary diseases. TBB is regularly performed by 69% of practicing physicians documented in a survey of 1,800 North ... Full text Cite

A micro-CT analysis of murine lung recruitment in bleomycin-induced lung injury.

Journal Article J Appl Physiol (1985) · August 2008 The effects of lung injury on pulmonary recruitment are incompletely understood. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been a valuable tool in assessing changes in recruitment during lung injury. With the development of preclinical CT scanners designed for th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Successful treatment of Ochroconis gallopavum infection in an immunocompetent host.

Journal Article Infection · October 2007 Ochroconis gallopavum, a dematiaceous fungus, is a rare cause disease in immunocompromised patients and epidemic encephalitis in poultry. We report the first case of active O. gallopavum pulmonary infection in an immunocompetent host with rapid and complet ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outdoor air pollution: particulate matter health effects.

Journal Article Am J Med Sci · April 2007 Numerous investigations studying multiple populations across a variety of environmental settings have demonstrated a strong association between ambient air particulate matter and cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. In most studies, the effect size of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outdoor air pollution: ozone health effects.

Journal Article Am J Med Sci · April 2007 Ozone is a respiratory irritant associated with a spectrum of adverse health events. Ground-level ozone has been shown to cause decreases in lung function and has been associated with other important respiratory health effects. Some reports suggest short-t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outdoor air pollution: overview and historical perspective.

Journal Article Am J Med Sci · April 2007 Outdoor air pollution is a significant public health hazard in population centers throughout the world. Recognition of air pollution as a nuisance dates back many centuries. Decades of research have established a strong link between air pollution and a spe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outdoor air pollution: counseling and exposure risk reduction.

Journal Article Am J Med Sci · April 2007 Air pollution is monitored on a daily basis in large population centers in the United States and reported to the general public through a variety of media outlets as the Air Quality Index. This index is based on current national air quality standards for c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outdoor air pollution: nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide health effects.

Journal Article Am J Med Sci · April 2007 Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide are important ambient air pollutants. High-intensity, confined space exposure to NO2 has caused catastrophic injury to humans, including death. Ambient NO2 exposure may increase the risk of ... Full text Link to item Cite

A micro-computed tomography-based method for the measurement of pulmonary compliance in healthy and bleomycin-exposed mice.

Journal Article Exp Lung Res · 2007 Micro-computed tomography (microCT) is being increasingly used to examine small animal models of pulmonary injury. The authors have developed a microCT technique suitable for the determination of pulmonary compliance in injured mice. Lung volumes in normal ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quality of occupational history assessments in working age adults with newly diagnosed asthma.

Journal Article Chest · August 2006 BACKGROUND: Approximately 10 to 15% of new-onset asthma in adults is attributable to occupational exposure. The occupational history is the most important instrument in the diagnosis of occupational asthma (OA). STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Massive pulmonary pseudotumor.

Journal Article Chest · August 2003 The term pulmonary pseudotumor may be used to describe a well-demarcated interlobar pleural effusion. Pseudotumors are located within pulmonary fissures and are commonly associated with congestive heart failure and other processes that cause transudative p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sublethal effects of pentachlorophenol in abalone (Haliotis rufescens) veliger larvae as measured by (31)P-NMR.

Journal Article Ecotoxicol Environ Saf · March 2002 Toxicity tests with larval marine organisms are widely used as water quality-monitoring tools. Often employing a single morphological endpoint, they provide only limited insight into toxic action mechanisms. Since mechanistic observations can provide more ... Full text Link to item Cite

NK-1 antagonist reduces colonic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sulfate-induced colitis in rats.

Journal Article Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol · December 2000 Although substance P (SP) has been implicated as a mediator of neurogenic inflammation in the small intestine, little information is available regarding the role of SP in the pathogenesis of chronic ulcerative colitis. In this study, our aim was to investi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of hypoxia and toxicant exposure on adenylate energy charge and cytosolic ADP concentrations in abalone.

Journal Article Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol · January 1998 Many studies have used adenylate energy charge (AEC) as an index of an organism's metabolic state under conditions of imposed stress, either through natural or xenobiotic stressors. AEC is a linear measure of the ratio of ATP concentration to total adenyla ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of hypoxia and toxicant exposure on arginine kinase function as measured by 31P-NMR magnetization transfer in living abalone

Journal Article Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Pharmacology Toxicology and Endocrinology · July 1, 1997 The activity of arginine kinase (AK) was evaluated by saturation transfer NMR in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) in response to hypoxia, sodium azide (NaN3; an inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase), or penta chlorophenol (PCP; an uncoupler of oxidative phosp ... Full text Cite

Effects of hypoxia and toxicant exposure on phosphoarginine, intracellular pH, and free Mg2+ in abalone as measured by 31P-NMR

Journal Article Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Physiology · January 1, 1997 The effects of hypoxia, sodium azide and pentachlorophenol (PCP) exposure on high-energy phosphorylated compounds, intracellular pH (pH(i)) and intracellular free Mg2+ (Mg(f)) in intact red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were determined using 31P-NMR. Abalon ... Full text Cite

Sublethal effects of pentachlorophenol and hypoxia on rates of arginine kinase flux in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) as measured by 31P magnetization saturation transfer NMR

Journal Article Marine Environmental Research · January 1, 1996 Previous studies have demonstrated 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to be a sensitive technique in assessing biochemical effects of sublethal toxicant exposure in live, intact marine organisms. This study builds upon previous work using 31P NMR magneti ... Full text Cite

Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol in the black turban snail (Tegula funebralis)

Journal Article Aquatic Toxicology · January 1, 1995 An acute study was carried out to determine the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) in the black turban snail (Tegula funebralis), an intertidal gastropod mollusc. Snails (n = 80), in four groups of 20, were exposed to 10 mg/l of [U ... Full text Cite

Comparative disposition and biotransformation of pentachlorophenol in the oyster (crassostrea gigas) and abalone (haliotis fulgens)

Journal Article Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology · January 1, 1993 In order to elucidate possible detoxication mechanisms, the disposition and biotransformation of pentachlorophenol (PCP, a general biocide) were compared in two marine molluscs: a bivalve, the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), and a gastropod, the green ... Full text Cite