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William Kuang-Yao Pan

Elizabeth Brooks Reid and Whitelaw Reid Associate Professor
Environmental Sciences and Policy
90519, 310 Trent Drive, Rm 227, Durham, NC 27708
310 Trent Drive, Room 227, Box 90519, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Diet choices determine mercury exposure risks for people living in gold mining regions of Peru

Journal Article Environmental Research: Health · September 1, 2024 AbstractArtisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest global anthropogenic mercury (Hg) source and is widespread in the Peruvian Amazon. Consuming Hg-laden foods exposes people to this potent n ... Full text Cite

Contributions of Initial Conditions and Meteorological Forecast to Subseasonal-to-Seasonal Hydrological Forecast Skill in Western Tropical South America

Journal Article Journal of Hydrometeorology · May 1, 2024 Hydrological predictions at subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) time scales can support improved decision-making in climate-dependent sectors like agriculture and hydropower. Here, we present an S2S hydrological forecasting system (S2S-HFS) for western tropical ... Full text Cite

Impact of climate and land use/land cover changes on malaria incidence in the Ecuadorian Amazon

Journal Article PLOS Climate · April 19, 2024 Malaria transmission is influenced by climate and land use/land cover change (LULC). This study examines the impact of climate and LULC on malaria risk in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Weekly malaria surveillance data between 2008 and 2019 from Ecuador’s ... Full text Cite

Study protocol: improving response to malaria in the Amazon through identification of inter-community networks and human mobility in border regions of Ecuador, Peru and Brazil.

Journal Article BMJ open · April 2024 IntroductionUnderstanding human mobility's role in malaria transmission is critical to successful control and elimination. However, common approaches to measuring mobility are ill-equipped for remote regions such as the Amazon. This study develops ... Full text Cite

Correction: Bioenergetic function is decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of veterans with Gulf War Illness.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2024 [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0287412.]. ... Full text Cite

Network Profile: Improving Response to Malaria in the Amazon through Identification of Inter-Community Networks and Human Mobility in Border Regions of Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil.

Journal Article medRxiv · November 29, 2023 OBJECTIVES: Understanding human mobility's role on malaria transmission is critical to successful control and elimination. However, common approaches to measuring mobility are ill-equipped for remote regions such as the Amazon. This study develops a networ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Spatial transferability of an agent-based model to simulate Taenia solium control interventions.

Journal Article Parasites & vectors · November 2023 BackgroundModels can be used to study and predict the impact of interventions aimed at controlling the spread of infectious agents, such as Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite whose larval stage causes epilepsy and economic loss in many rural areas ... Full text Cite

A prospective cohort study linking migration, climate, and malaria risk in the Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article Epidemiology and infection · November 2023 Migration is an important risk factor for malaria transmission for malaria transmission, creating networks that connect Plasmodium between communities. This study aims to understand the timing of why people in the Peruvian Amazon migrated and how ch ... Full text Cite

In Utero Exposure to Metals and Birth Outcomes in an Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Birth Cohort in Madre de Dios, Peru.

Journal Article Environmental health perspectives · September 2023 BackgroundFew birth cohorts in South America evaluate the joint effect of minerals and toxic metals on neonatal health. In Madre de Dios, Peru, mercury exposure is prevalent owing to artisanal gold mining, yet its effect on neonatal health is unkn ... Full text Cite

Government interventions and control policies to contain the first COVID-19 outbreak: An analysis of evidence.

Journal Article Scandinavian journal of public health · July 2023 BackgroundThe overarching aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness over time of government interventions and policy restrictions and the impact of determinants on spread and mortality during the first-wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, glob ... Full text Cite

The impact of sustained malaria control in the Loreto region of Peru: a retrospective, observational, spatially-varying interrupted time series analysis of the PAMAFRO program.

Journal Article Lancet regional health. Americas · April 2023 BackgroundAlthough malaria control investments worldwide have resulted in dramatic declines in transmission since 2000, progress has stalled. In the Amazon, malaria resurgence has followed withdrawal of Global Fund support of the Project for Malar ... Full text Cite

Bioenergetic function is decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of veterans with Gulf War Illness.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2023 Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a major health problem for approximately 250,000 Gulf War (GW) veterans, but the etiology of GWI is unclear. We hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction is an important contributor to GWI, based on the similarity of some GWI sy ... Full text Cite

Advancing climate change health adaptation through implementation science.

Journal Article The Lancet. Planetary health · November 2022 To date, there are few examples of implementation science studies that help guide climate-related health adaptation. Implementation science is the study of methods to promote the adoption and integration of evidence-based tools, interventions, and policies ... Full text Cite

Influence of Vegetation on Simulation of the Water Balance and Hydrological Response to El Niño–Southern Oscillation in Western Tropical South America

Journal Article Journal of Hydrometeorology · November 1, 2022 Land surface models (LSMs) rely on vegetation parameters for use in hydrological and energy balance analysis, monitoring, and forecasting. This study examines the influence that vegetation representation in the Noah-Multiparameterization (Noah-MP) LSM has ... Full text Cite

Risk of lead exposure from wild game consumption from cross-sectional studies in Madre de Dios, Peru.

Journal Article Lancet regional health. Americas · August 2022 BackgroundStudies have shown elevated blood lead levels (BLL) in residents of remote communities in the Amazon, yet sources of lead exposure are not fully understood, such as lead ammunition consumed in wild game.MethodsData was collected ... Full text Cite

Global, regional, and national burden of aortic aneurysm, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Journal Article European journal of preventive cardiology · May 2022 AimsThis study aimed at evaluating the age, sex, and country-income patterns in aortic aneurysm disease burden, analysing trends in mortality and years of life lost (YLLs), as well as their causal drivers and risk factors, using the 2017 Global Bu ... Full text Cite

CystiHuman: A model of human neurocysticercosis.

Journal Article PLoS computational biology · May 2022 IntroductionThe Taenia solium tapeworm is responsible for cysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease presenting as larvae in the body of a host following taenia egg ingestion. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the name of the disease when it affects the ... Full text Cite

Adult Exposures to Toxic Trace Elements as Measured in Nails along the Interoceanic Highway in the Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article International journal of environmental research and public health · May 2022 Deforestation, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), and the rapid development related to highway expansion cause opportunities for toxic trace element exposure in the Amazon region of Madre de Dios (MDD), Peru, one of the most biologically diverse ... Full text Cite

Analysis of overdispersion in airborne transmission of COVID-19

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · May 1, 2022 Superspreading events and overdispersion are hallmarks of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the specific roles and influence of established viral and physical factors related to the mechanisms of transmission, on overdispersion, remain unresolved. We, theref ... Full text Cite

Diet choices determine mercury exposure risks for people living in gold mining regions of Peru

Journal Article Environmental Research: Health · September 1, 2024 AbstractArtisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest global anthropogenic mercury (Hg) source and is widespread in the Peruvian Amazon. Consuming Hg-laden foods exposes people to this potent n ... Full text Cite

Contributions of Initial Conditions and Meteorological Forecast to Subseasonal-to-Seasonal Hydrological Forecast Skill in Western Tropical South America

Journal Article Journal of Hydrometeorology · May 1, 2024 Hydrological predictions at subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) time scales can support improved decision-making in climate-dependent sectors like agriculture and hydropower. Here, we present an S2S hydrological forecasting system (S2S-HFS) for western tropical ... Full text Cite

Impact of climate and land use/land cover changes on malaria incidence in the Ecuadorian Amazon

Journal Article PLOS Climate · April 19, 2024 Malaria transmission is influenced by climate and land use/land cover change (LULC). This study examines the impact of climate and LULC on malaria risk in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Weekly malaria surveillance data between 2008 and 2019 from Ecuador’s ... Full text Cite

Study protocol: improving response to malaria in the Amazon through identification of inter-community networks and human mobility in border regions of Ecuador, Peru and Brazil.

Journal Article BMJ open · April 2024 IntroductionUnderstanding human mobility's role in malaria transmission is critical to successful control and elimination. However, common approaches to measuring mobility are ill-equipped for remote regions such as the Amazon. This study develops ... Full text Cite

Correction: Bioenergetic function is decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of veterans with Gulf War Illness.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2024 [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0287412.]. ... Full text Cite

Network Profile: Improving Response to Malaria in the Amazon through Identification of Inter-Community Networks and Human Mobility in Border Regions of Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil.

Journal Article medRxiv · November 29, 2023 OBJECTIVES: Understanding human mobility's role on malaria transmission is critical to successful control and elimination. However, common approaches to measuring mobility are ill-equipped for remote regions such as the Amazon. This study develops a networ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Spatial transferability of an agent-based model to simulate Taenia solium control interventions.

Journal Article Parasites & vectors · November 2023 BackgroundModels can be used to study and predict the impact of interventions aimed at controlling the spread of infectious agents, such as Taenia solium, a zoonotic parasite whose larval stage causes epilepsy and economic loss in many rural areas ... Full text Cite

A prospective cohort study linking migration, climate, and malaria risk in the Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article Epidemiology and infection · November 2023 Migration is an important risk factor for malaria transmission for malaria transmission, creating networks that connect Plasmodium between communities. This study aims to understand the timing of why people in the Peruvian Amazon migrated and how ch ... Full text Cite

In Utero Exposure to Metals and Birth Outcomes in an Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Birth Cohort in Madre de Dios, Peru.

Journal Article Environmental health perspectives · September 2023 BackgroundFew birth cohorts in South America evaluate the joint effect of minerals and toxic metals on neonatal health. In Madre de Dios, Peru, mercury exposure is prevalent owing to artisanal gold mining, yet its effect on neonatal health is unkn ... Full text Cite

Government interventions and control policies to contain the first COVID-19 outbreak: An analysis of evidence.

Journal Article Scandinavian journal of public health · July 2023 BackgroundThe overarching aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness over time of government interventions and policy restrictions and the impact of determinants on spread and mortality during the first-wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, glob ... Full text Cite

The impact of sustained malaria control in the Loreto region of Peru: a retrospective, observational, spatially-varying interrupted time series analysis of the PAMAFRO program.

Journal Article Lancet regional health. Americas · April 2023 BackgroundAlthough malaria control investments worldwide have resulted in dramatic declines in transmission since 2000, progress has stalled. In the Amazon, malaria resurgence has followed withdrawal of Global Fund support of the Project for Malar ... Full text Cite

Bioenergetic function is decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of veterans with Gulf War Illness.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2023 Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a major health problem for approximately 250,000 Gulf War (GW) veterans, but the etiology of GWI is unclear. We hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction is an important contributor to GWI, based on the similarity of some GWI sy ... Full text Cite

Advancing climate change health adaptation through implementation science.

Journal Article The Lancet. Planetary health · November 2022 To date, there are few examples of implementation science studies that help guide climate-related health adaptation. Implementation science is the study of methods to promote the adoption and integration of evidence-based tools, interventions, and policies ... Full text Cite

Influence of Vegetation on Simulation of the Water Balance and Hydrological Response to El Niño–Southern Oscillation in Western Tropical South America

Journal Article Journal of Hydrometeorology · November 1, 2022 Land surface models (LSMs) rely on vegetation parameters for use in hydrological and energy balance analysis, monitoring, and forecasting. This study examines the influence that vegetation representation in the Noah-Multiparameterization (Noah-MP) LSM has ... Full text Cite

Risk of lead exposure from wild game consumption from cross-sectional studies in Madre de Dios, Peru.

Journal Article Lancet regional health. Americas · August 2022 BackgroundStudies have shown elevated blood lead levels (BLL) in residents of remote communities in the Amazon, yet sources of lead exposure are not fully understood, such as lead ammunition consumed in wild game.MethodsData was collected ... Full text Cite

Global, regional, and national burden of aortic aneurysm, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Journal Article European journal of preventive cardiology · May 2022 AimsThis study aimed at evaluating the age, sex, and country-income patterns in aortic aneurysm disease burden, analysing trends in mortality and years of life lost (YLLs), as well as their causal drivers and risk factors, using the 2017 Global Bu ... Full text Cite

CystiHuman: A model of human neurocysticercosis.

Journal Article PLoS computational biology · May 2022 IntroductionThe Taenia solium tapeworm is responsible for cysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease presenting as larvae in the body of a host following taenia egg ingestion. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the name of the disease when it affects the ... Full text Cite

Adult Exposures to Toxic Trace Elements as Measured in Nails along the Interoceanic Highway in the Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article International journal of environmental research and public health · May 2022 Deforestation, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), and the rapid development related to highway expansion cause opportunities for toxic trace element exposure in the Amazon region of Madre de Dios (MDD), Peru, one of the most biologically diverse ... Full text Cite

Analysis of overdispersion in airborne transmission of COVID-19

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · May 1, 2022 Superspreading events and overdispersion are hallmarks of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the specific roles and influence of established viral and physical factors related to the mechanisms of transmission, on overdispersion, remain unresolved. We, theref ... Full text Cite

Full breastfeeding protection against common enteric bacteria and viruses: results from the MAL-ED cohort study.

Journal Article The American journal of clinical nutrition · March 2022 BackgroundBreastfeeding is known to reduce the risk of enteropathogen infections, but protection from specific enteropathogens is not well characterized.ObjectiveThe aim was to estimate the association between full breastfeeding (days fed ... Full text Cite

Amazon forests capture high levels of atmospheric mercury pollution from artisanal gold mining.

Journal Article Nature communications · January 2022 Mercury emissions from artisanal and small-scale gold mining throughout the Global South exceed coal combustion as the largest global source of mercury. We examined mercury deposition and storage in an area of the Peruvian Amazon heavily impacted by artisa ... Full text Cite

Non-local validated parametrization of an agent-based model of local-scale Taenia solium transmission in North-West Peru.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2022 The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, is the cause of a preventable zoonotic disease, cysticercosis, affecting both pigs and humans. Continued endemic transmission of T. solium is a major contributor of epilepsy and other neurologic morbidity, and the source o ... Full text Cite

Efficacy of Hair Total Mercury Content as a Biomarker of Methylmercury Exposure to Communities in the Area of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Madre de Dios, Peru.

Journal Article International journal of environmental research and public health · December 2021 Total mercury content (THg) in hair is an accepted biomarker for chronic dietary methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. In artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) communities, the validity of this biomarker is questioned because of the potential for contamina ... Full text Cite

Validation of a spatial agent-based model for Taenia solium transmission ("CystiAgent") against a large prospective trial of control strategies in northern Peru.

Journal Article PLoS neglected tropical diseases · October 2021 BackgroundThe pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is a parasitic helminth that imposes a major health and economic burden on poor rural populations around the world. As recognized by the World Health Organization, a key barrier for achieving control of ... Full text Cite

Intensity and frequency of extreme novel epidemics.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · August 2021 Observational knowledge of the epidemic intensity, defined as the number of deaths divided by global population and epidemic duration, and of the rate of emergence of infectious disease outbreaks is necessary to test theory and models and to inform public ... Full text Cite

Satellite Observations and Malaria: New Opportunities for Research and Applications.

Journal Article Trends in parasitology · June 2021 Satellite remote sensing provides a wealth of information about environmental factors that influence malaria transmission cycles and human populations at risk. Long-term observations facilitate analysis of climate-malaria relationships, and high-resolution ... Full text Cite

Estimating the COVID-19 Spread Through Real-time Population Mobility Patterns: Surveillance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

Journal Article Journal of medical Internet research · June 2021 BackgroundOn January 21, 2020, the World Health Organization reported the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which rapidly evolved to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, the virus has also rapidly spread among Latin Amer ... Full text Cite

Influences on catch-up growth using relative versus absolute metrics: evidence from the MAL-ED cohort study.

Journal Article BMC public health · June 2021 BackgroundPoor growth in early childhood has been considered irreversible after 2-3 years of age and has been associated with morbidity and mortality over the short-term and with poor economic and cognitive outcomes over the long-term. The MAL-ED ... Full text Cite

Risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in a high-altitude forest region of Peru.

Journal Article Tropical medicine and health · May 2021 BackgroundAmerican cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease typically associated with men working in remote, sylvatic environments. We sought to identify CL risk factors in a highly deforested region where anecdotal reports sug ... Full text Cite

A population-based mercury exposure assessment near an artisanal and small-scale gold mining site in the Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology · February 2021 Human exposure to mercury is a leading public health problem. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a major source of global mercury emissions. Although occupational mercury exposure to miners (via mercury vapor inhalation) is known, chronic merc ... Full text Cite

Are environmental pollution and biodiversity levels associated to the spread and mortality of COVID-19? A four-month global analysis.

Journal Article Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) · February 2021 On March 12th, 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. The collective impact of environmental and ecosystem factors, as well as biodiversity, on the spread of COVID-19 and its mortality evolution remain empirically unknown, particularly in regions w ... Full text Cite

Racial, Ethnic, and Geographic Disparities in Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Test Positivity in North Carolina.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · January 2021 BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that black and Hispanic communities in the United States are disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A complex interplay of socioeconomic and healthcare disparities likely contribute to dis ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

CoNaMad-Cohorte de Nacimiento de Madre de Dios/Madre de Dios Birth Cohort to Study Effects of in-utero Trace Metals Exposure in the Southern Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article Ann Glob Health · 2021 BACKGROUND: In-utero exposure to mercury and other trace metals pose a significant threat to child health and development, but exposures and health impacts in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) environments are poorly defined. OBJECTIVES: We desc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Heterogeneity in the Effectiveness of Non-pharmaceutical Interventions During the First SARS-CoV2 Wave in the United States.

Journal Article Front Public Health · 2021 Background: Attempts to quantify effect sizes of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) to control COVID-19 in the US have not accounted for heterogeneity in social or environmental factors that may influence NPI effectiveness. This study quantifies nation ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Factors related with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity among low- and middle-income settings: the 10/66 DRG study.

Journal Article Scientific reports · November 2020 Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity research in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) is limited. We investigated sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity prevalence and sociodemographic, bio-clinical and lifestyle factors in LMICs settings. For the purposes of ... Full text Cite

Malaria Transmission and Spillover across the Peru-Ecuador Border: A Spatiotemporal Analysis.

Journal Article International journal of environmental research and public health · October 2020 Border regions have been implicated as important hot spots of malaria transmission, particularly in Latin America, where free movement rights mean that residents can cross borders using just a national ID. Additionally, rural livelihoods largely depend on ... Full text Cite

Early Life Experiences and Trajectories of Cognitive Development.

Journal Article Pediatrics · September 2020 BackgroundMultiple factors constrain the trajectories of child cognitive development, but the drivers that differentiate the trajectories are unknown. We examine how multiple early life experiences differentiate patterns of cognitive development o ... Full text Cite

COVID-19: Effectiveness of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions in the United States before Phased Removal of Social Distancing Protections Varies by Region

Journal Article · August 20, 2020 ABSTRACTAlthough coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in January 2020, there is no quantified effect size for non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) to control the outbreak in the continental US. Objective. To quanti ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of Peruvian Government Interventions to Reduce Childhood Anemia.

Journal Article Annals of global health · August 2020 BackgroundIn Peru, anemia has been a persistent health problem that is known to lead to irreversible cognitive and developmental deficits in children. The Peruvian government has recently made anemia a primary health concern by passing legislation ... Full text Cite

Estimating the COVID-19 Spread Through Real-time Population Mobility Patterns: Surveillance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (Preprint)

Journal Article · July 29, 2020 BACKGROUNDOn January 21, 2020, the World Health Organization reported the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which rapidly evolved to the COVID-19 pandemic. Si ... Full text Cite

Understanding transmission and control of the pork tapeworm with CystiAgent: a spatially explicit agent-based model.

Journal Article Parasites & vectors · July 2020 BackgroundThe pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, is a serious public health problem in rural low-resource areas of Latin America, Africa and Asia, where the associated conditions of nuerocysticercosis (NCC) and porcine cysticercosis cause substantial h ... Full text Cite

Elevated Hair Mercury Levels Are Associated With Neurodevelopmental Deficits in Children Living Near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Peru.

Journal Article GeoHealth · May 2020 Children living near artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) are at risk of exposure to mercury, a neurotoxicant. It is not certain whether such exposures are harming development, as they occur in underresourced contexts entwined with other stressors, ... Full text Cite

Population-based dietary exposure to mercury through fish consumption in the Southern Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article Environmental research · April 2020 BackgroundMercury exposure related to artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has raised environmental and public health concerns globally. Exposure to mercury, a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in fish, is especially of concern to wome ... Full text Cite

Madden-Julian Oscillation influence on sub-seasonal rainfall variability on the west of South America.

Journal Article Climate dynamics · February 2020 The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the leading driver of intraseasonal rainfall variability in the global tropics. However, the influence of MJO on western tropical South America (WTSA) has not been a focus of research. This is not surprising since the ... Full text Cite

Deforestation Due to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Exacerbates Soil and Mercury Mobilization in Madre de Dios, Peru.

Journal Article Environmental science & technology · January 2020 Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a significant contributor of mercury (Hg) contamination and deforestation across the globe. In the Colorado River watershed in Madre de Dios, Peru, mining and deforestation have increased exponentially since ... Full text Cite

In urban, but not rural, areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, adoption of a Western diet is inversely associated with selenium intake.

Journal Article The Science of the total environment · October 2019 Road development has been a major driver of the transition from traditional to calorie-dense processed 'Western' diets in lower and middle-income countries. The paving of the Interoceanic Highway (IOH) facilitated rapid development to the Madre de Dios (MD ... Full text Cite

Intestinal permeability and inflammation mediate the association between nutrient density of complementary foods and biochemical measures of micronutrient status in young children: results from the MAL-ED study.

Journal Article The American journal of clinical nutrition · October 2019 BackgroundEnvironmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is thought to increase the risk of micronutrient deficiencies, but few studies adjust for dietary intakes and systemic inflammation.ObjectiveWe tested whether EED is associated with micron ... Full text Cite

Modeling asymptomatic infections and work-related human circulation as drivers of unstable malaria transmission in low-prevalence areas: A study in the Northern Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article Acta tropica · September 2019 BackgroundDespite relatively successful control campaigns, malaria remains a relevant public health problem in the Peruvian Amazon. Several studies suggest that malaria persistence in the area can be connected with a high prevalence of asymptomati ... Full text Cite

Early Life Child Micronutrient Status, Maternal Reasoning, and a Nurturing Household Environment have Persistent Influences on Child Cognitive Development at Age 5 years: Results from MAL-ED.

Journal Article The Journal of nutrition · August 2019 BackgroundChild cognitive development is influenced by early-life insults and protective factors. To what extent these factors have a long-term legacy on child development and hence fulfillment of cognitive potential is unknown.ObjectiveT ... Full text Cite

Seasonal patterns in risk factors for Taenia solium transmission: a GPS tracking study of pigs and open human defecation in northern Peru.

Journal Article Parasites & vectors · July 2019 BackgroundTaenia solium (cysticercosis) is a parasitic cestode that is endemic in rural populations where open defecation is common and free-roaming pigs have access to human feces. The purpose of this study was to examine the roaming patterns of ... Full text Cite

Predictors of mitochondrial DNA copy number and damage in a mercury-exposed rural Peruvian population near artisanal and small-scale gold mining: An exploratory study.

Journal Article Environmental and molecular mutagenesis · March 2019 Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number (CN) and damage in circulating white blood cells have been proposed as effect biomarkers for pollutant exposures. Studies have shown that mercury accumulates in mitochondria and affects mitochondrial function and integ ... Full text Cite

Mercury Exposure and Poor Nutritional Status Reduce Response to Six Expanded Program on Immunization Vaccines in Children: An Observational Cohort Study of Communities Affected by Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article Int J Environ Res Public Health · February 21, 2019 Background: Poor nutritional status combined with mercury exposure can generate adverse child health outcomes. Diet is a mediator of mercury exposure and evidence suggests that nutritional status modifies aspects of mercury toxicity. However, health impact ... Full text Link to item Cite

Oral polio vaccine response in the MAL-ED birth cohort study: Considerations for polio eradication strategies.

Journal Article Vaccine · January 2019 BackgroundImmunization programs have leveraged decades of research to maximize oral polio vaccine (OPV) response. Moving toward global poliovirus eradication, the WHO recommended phased OPV-to-IPV replacement on schedules in 2012. Using the MAL-ED ... Full text Cite

The anti-inflammatory potential of diet and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the ATTICA study.

Journal Article Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology · January 2019 BackgroundNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is correlated with low-grade inflammation and dietary habits. Until today, there have been limited epidemiologic data assessing the role of diet's inflammatory potential on NAFLD. The aim was to e ... Full text Cite

Individual and Spatial Risk of Dengue Virus Infection in Puerto Maldonado, Peru.

Journal Article The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene · December 2018 Dengue virus (DENV) affects more than 100 countries worldwide. Dengue virus infection has been increasing in the southern Peruvian Amazon city of Puerto Maldonado since 2000. We designed this study to describe the prevalence of past DENV infection and to e ... Full text Cite

Assessing development across cultures: Invariance of the Bayley-III Scales Across Seven International MAL-ED sites.

Journal Article School psychology quarterly : the official journal of the Division of School Psychology, American Psychological Association · December 2018 The Bayley's Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III) were used to measure the development of 24-month-old children (N = 1,452) in the Interactions of Malnutrition and Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Develop ... Full text Cite

Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to investigate the effect of enteropathogen infections on linear growth in children in low-resource settings: longitudinal analysis of results from the MAL-ED cohort study.

Journal Article The Lancet. Global health · December 2018 BackgroundEnteropathogen infections in early childhood not only cause diarrhoea but contribute to poor growth. We used molecular diagnostics to assess whether particular enteropathogens were associated with linear growth across seven low-resource ... Full text Cite

Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to assess the aetiology, burden, and clinical characteristics of diarrhoea in children in low-resource settings: a reanalysis of the MAL-ED cohort study.

Journal Article The Lancet. Global health · December 2018 BackgroundOptimum management of childhood diarrhoea in low-resource settings has been hampered by insufficient data on aetiology, burden, and associated clinical characteristics. We used quantitative diagnostic methods to reassess and refine estim ... Full text Cite

Morbidity and mortality due to shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea: the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2016.

Journal Article The Lancet. Infectious diseases · November 2018 BackgroundShigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are bacterial pathogens that are frequently associated with diarrhoeal disease, and are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injurie ... Full text Cite

Assessment of Two Diabetes Point-of-care Analyzers Measuring Hemoglobin A1c in the Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article Annals of global health · November 2018 BackgroundWith an estimated 174 million undiagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus worldwide and 80% of them occurring in low- and middle-income countries an effective point-of-care diagnostic tool is key to fighting this global epidemic. Glycated hem ... Full text Cite

Relationships among Common Illness Symptoms and the Protective Effect of Breastfeeding in Early Childhood in MAL-ED: An Eight-Country Cohort Study.

Journal Article The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene · March 2018 Children in low-income countries experience multiple illness symptoms in early childhood. Breastfeeding is protective against diarrhea and respiratory infections, and these illnesses are thought to be risk factors of one another, but these relationships ha ... Full text Cite

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Subclinical Infection and Coinfections and Impaired Child Growth in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.

Journal Article Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition · February 2018 ObjectiveWe evaluated the impact of subclinical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) infection alone and in combination with other pathogens in the first 6 months of life on child growth.MethodsNondiarrheal samples from 1684 children ... Full text Cite

Out of the net: An agent-based model to study human movements influence on local-scale malaria transmission.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2018 Though malaria control initiatives have markedly reduced malaria prevalence in recent decades, global eradication is far from actuality. Recent studies show that environmental and social heterogeneities in low-transmission settings have an increased weight ... Full text Cite

Early childhood cognitive development is affected by interactions among illness, diet, enteropathogens and the home environment: findings from the MAL-ED birth cohort study.

Journal Article BMJ global health · January 2018 BackgroundMillions of children in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are at risk of not reaching their full cognitive potential. Malnutrition and enteric infections in early life are implicated as risk factors; however, most studies on ... Full text Cite

INTRODUCING CYSTIAGENT: AN AGENT-BASED MODEL TO SIMULATE TRANSMISSION IN PERU

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE · January 1, 2018 Link to item Cite

Hair Mercury Level is Associated with Anemia and Micronutrient Status in Children Living Near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene · December 2017 Anemia has been widely studied in global health contexts because of severe nutritional deficiency, and more recently, inflammatory status, but chemical exposures are rarely considered. Until recently, "anemia" was used synonymously with "iron deficiency an ... Full text Cite

Spatial, Temporal, and Dietary Variables Associated with Elevated Mercury Exposure in Peruvian Riverine Communities Upstream and Downstream of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining.

Journal Article International journal of environmental research and public health · December 2017 Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the ... Full text Cite

DEVELOPING AN EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR MALARIA IN THE AMAZON: PROGRESS IN PERU

Conference AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE · November 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

Effects of methyl and inorganic mercury exposure on genome homeostasis and mitochondrial function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Journal Article DNA repair · April 2017 Mercury toxicity mechanisms have the potential to induce DNA damage and disrupt cellular processes, like mitochondrial function. Proper mitochondrial function is important for cellular bioenergetics and immune signaling and function. Reported impacts of me ... Full text Cite

Causal Pathways from Enteropathogens to Environmental Enteropathy: Findings from the MAL-ED Birth Cohort Study.

Journal Article EBioMedicine · April 2017 BackgroundEnvironmental enteropathy (EE), the adverse impact of frequent and numerous enteric infections on the gut resulting in a state of persistent immune activation and altered permeability, has been proposed as a key determinant of growth fai ... Full text Cite

Vaccine coverage and adherence to EPI schedules in eight resource poor settings in the MAL-ED cohort study.

Journal Article Vaccine · January 2017 BackgroundLaunched in 1974, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is estimated to prevent two-three million deaths annually from polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis, pertussis, measles, and tetanus. Additional lives could be saved through better ... Full text Cite

Relationship between growth and illness, enteropathogens and dietary intakes in the first 2 years of life: Findings from the MAL-ED birth cohort study

Journal Article BMJ Global Health · January 1, 2017 Background Dietary and illness factors affect risk of growth faltering; the role of enteropathogens is less clear. As part of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Devel ... Full text Cite

Epidemiology and Impact of Campylobacter Infection in Children in 8 Low-Resource Settings: Results From the MAL-ED Study.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · November 2016 BackgroundEnteropathogen infections have been associated with enteric dysfunction and impaired growth in children in low-resource settings. In a multisite birth cohort study (MAL-ED), we describe the epidemiology and impact of Campylobacter infect ... Full text Cite

Plasma Tryptophan and the Kynurenine-Tryptophan Ratio are Associated with the Acquisition of Statural Growth Deficits and Oral Vaccine Underperformance in Populations with Environmental Enteropathy.

Journal Article The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene · October 2016 Early childhood enteric infections have adverse impacts on child growth and can inhibit normal mucosal responses to oral vaccines, two critical components of environmental enteropathy. To evaluate the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) activity a ... Full text Cite

Land use as a mediating factor of fertility in the Amazon.

Journal Article Population and environment · September 2016 Despite implications for both humans and the environment, a scant body of research examines fertility in forest frontiers. This study examines the fertility-environment association using empirical data from Ecuadorian Amazon between 1980 and 1999. Fertilit ... Full text Cite

Hurdles to herd immunity: Distrust of government and vaccine refusal in the US, 2002-2003.

Journal Article Vaccine · July 2016 High rates of nonmedical exemptions (NMEs) from required childhood vaccinations have contributed to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and pertussis. Understanding the parental decision to obtain an NME could help health professiona ... Full text Cite

Towards sustainable partnerships in global health: the case of the CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases in Peru.

Journal Article Globalization and health · June 2016 Human capital requires opportunities to develop and capacity to overcome challenges, together with an enabling environment that fosters critical and disruptive innovation. Exploring such features is necessary to establish the foundation of solid long-term ... Full text Cite

Occupational Risk Factors for Tuberculosis Among Healthcare Workers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · May 2016 BackgroundTuberculosis is a known occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs), especially in countries with a high burden of tuberculosis. It is estimated that HCWs have a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of developing tuberculosis compared with ... Full text Cite

Norovirus Infection and Acquired Immunity in 8 Countries: Results From the MAL-ED Study.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · May 2016 BackgroundNorovirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhea. We present data from a longitudinal, multicountry study describing norovirus epidemiology during the first 2 years of life.MethodsA birth cohort of 1457 children across 8 co ... Full text Cite

Antagonistic Growth Effects of Mercury and Selenium in Caenorhabditis elegans Are Chemical-Species-Dependent and Do Not Depend on Internal Hg/Se Ratios.

Journal Article Environmental science & technology · March 2016 The relationship between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) toxicity is complex, with coexposure reported to reduce, increase, and have no effect on toxicity. Different interactions may be related to chemical compound, but this has not been systematically exam ... Full text Open Access Cite

Is There a Relationship Between the Concentration of Same-Sex Couples and Tobacco Retailer Density?

Journal Article Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco · February 2016 BackgroundTobacco use is markedly higher among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations than heterosexuals. Higher density of tobacco retailers is found in neighborhoods with lower income and more racial/ethnic minorities. Same-sex couples tend to l ... Full text Cite

Geographic Expansion of Lyme Disease in the Southeastern United States, 2000-2014.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · December 2015 Background.  The majority of Lyme disease cases in the United States are acquired on the east coast between northern Virginia and New England. In recent years the geographic extent of Lyme disease has been expanding, raising the prospect of Lyme disease be ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A validated agent-based model to study the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of malaria incidence in the rainforest environment.

Journal Article Malaria journal · December 2015 BackgroundThe Amazon environment has been exposed in the last decades to radical changes that have been accompanied by a remarkable rise of both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The malaria transmission process is highly influen ... Full text Cite

Economic Burden of Dengue Virus Infection at the Household Level Among Residents of Puerto Maldonado, Peru.

Journal Article The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene · October 2015 Dengue virus (DENV) was reintroduced to Peru in the 1990s and has been reported in Puerto Maldonado (population ~65,000) in the Peruvian southern Amazon basin since 2000. This region also has the highest human migration rate in the country, mainly from are ... Full text Cite

Genotypic and Spatial Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission in a High-Incidence Urban Setting.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · September 2015 BackgroundGenotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates allows study of dynamics of tuberculosis transmission, while geoprocessing allows spatial analysis of clinical and epidemiological data. Here, genotyping data and spatial analysis were combi ... Full text Cite

Pathogen-specific burdens of community diarrhoea in developing countries: a multisite birth cohort study (MAL-ED).

Journal Article The Lancet. Global health · September 2015 BackgroundMost studies of the causes of diarrhoea in low-income and middle-income countries have looked at severe disease in people presenting for care, and there are few estimates of pathogen-specific diarrhoea burdens in the community.Method ... Full text Cite

Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012.

Journal Article International journal of environmental research and public health · July 2015 The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborh ... Full text Cite

Etiology of pediatric fever in western Kenya: a case-control study of falciparum malaria, respiratory viruses, and streptococcal pharyngitis.

Journal Article Am J Trop Med Hyg · May 2015 In Kenya, more than 10 million episodes of acute febrile illness are treated annually among children under 5 years. Most are clinically managed as malaria without parasitological confirmation. There is an unmet need to describe pathogen-specific etiologies ... Full text Link to item Cite

Building a platform for translational research in chronic noncommunicable diseases to address population health: lessons from NHLBI supported CRONICAS in Peru.

Journal Article Global heart · March 2015 The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognized ... Full text Cite

River transport of mercury from artisanal and small-scale gold mining and risks for dietary mercury exposure in Madre de Dios, Peru.

Journal Article Environmental science. Processes & impacts · February 2015 Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a major contributor to deforestation and the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric mercury worldwide. Despite significant information on the direct health impacts of mercury to ASGM miners, the impact o ... Full text Cite

El Niño adversely affected childhood stature and lean mass in northern Peru

Journal Article Climate Change Responses · December 2014 Full text Cite

Evaluating associations between vaccine response and malnutrition, gut function, and enteric infections in the MAL-ED cohort study: methods and challenges.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · November 2014 Most vaccine assessments have occurred in well-nourished populations of higher socioeconomic status. However, vaccines are often used in populations with high incidences of malnutrition and infections, in whom the effectiveness of some vaccines is inferior ... Full text Cite

The MAL-ED study: a multinational and multidisciplinary approach to understand the relationship between enteric pathogens, malnutrition, gut physiology, physical growth, cognitive development, and immune responses in infants and children up to 2 years of age in resource-poor environments.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · November 2014 Highly prevalent conditions with multiple and complex underlying etiologies are a challenge to public health. Undernutrition, for example, affects 20% of children in the developing world. The cause and consequence of poor nutrition are multifaceted. Undern ... Full text Cite

Methods of analysis of enteropathogen infection in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · November 2014 Studies of diarrheal etiology in low- and middle-income countries have typically focused on children presenting with severe symptoms to health centers and thus are best equipped to describe the pathogens capable of leading to severe diarrheal disease. The ... Full text Cite

Modeling environmental influences on child growth in the MAL-ED cohort study: opportunities and challenges.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · November 2014 Although genetics, maternal undernutrition and low birth weight status certainly play a role in child growth, dietary insufficiency and infectious diseases are key risk factors for linear growth faltering during early childhood. A primary goal of the Etiol ... Full text Cite

Disease surveillance methods used in the 8-site MAL-ED cohort study.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · November 2014 Describing the early life associations between infectious disease episodes and growth, cognitive development, and vaccine response in the first 2 years of life is one of the primary goals of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections ... Full text Cite

The MAL-ED cohort study: methods and lessons learned when assessing early child development and caregiving mediators in infants and young children in 8 low- and middle-income countries.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · November 2014 More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we ... Full text Cite

Infant feeding practices, dietary adequacy, and micronutrient status measures in the MAL-ED study.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · November 2014 The overall goal of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study is to evaluate the roles of repeated enteric infection and poor dietary intak ... Full text Cite

Effects of Shigella-, Campylobacter- and ETEC-associated diarrhea on childhood growth.

Journal Article The Pediatric infectious disease journal · October 2014 BackgroundStudies examining the etiology-specific effects of diarrheal disease on growth are limited and variable in their analytic methods, making comparisons difficult and priority setting based on these findings challenging. A study by Black et ... Full text Cite

Tuberculosis among health care workers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a retrospective cohort analysis.

Journal Article BMC public health · August 2014 BackgroundTuberculosis (TB) is an occupational hazard for health care workers (HCWs) who are at greater risk of developing TB than the general population. The objective of this study was to compare the difference in TB incidence among HCWs with ve ... Full text Cite

Conservation efforts and malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

Journal Article The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene · April 2014 We respond to Valle and Clark, who assert that "conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon," because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate. We conten ... Full text Cite

Methods for estimating population density in data-limited areas: evaluating regression and tree-based models in Peru.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2014 Obtaining accurate small area estimates of population is essential for policy and health planning but is often difficult in countries with limited data. In lieu of available population data, small area estimate models draw information from previous time pe ... Full text Cite

Impact of climate change on vector-borne disease in the Amazon

Chapter · January 1, 2014 Impending changes in climate regimes coupled with anthropogenic changes in land use and land cover change pose the most pressing challenges to human societies and natural ecosystems. Global climate change is predicted to disrupt seasonal periodicities and ... Full text Cite

Postpartum depressive symptoms across time and place: structural invariance of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire among women from the international, multi-site MAL-ED study.

Journal Article Journal of affective disorders · January 2014 BackgroundThe Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) is a screening instrument that has been shown to be an effective measure of depression in postpartum women and is widely used in developing nations.MethodsThe SRQ was administered to 2028 m ... Full text Cite

Different ontologies: land change science and health research.

Journal Article Current opinion in environmental sustainability · October 2013 Land use and land cover (LULC) is now recognized as an important driver of disease. For emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases, LULC offers context and serves as a likely proximate driver of risk particularly when considering vector-borne or zoonotic ... Full text Cite

People, Land, and Context: Multilevel Determinants of Off-farm Employment in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

Journal Article Population, space and place · September 2013 This paper investigates the factors that motivate decisions of settler colonists to engage in off-farm employment (OFE) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA). Overall, OFE, as a type of population mobility, may increasingly become a dominant demographic ... Full text Cite

Abundance of water bodies is critical to guide mosquito larval control interventions and predict risk of mosquito-borne diseases.

Journal Article Parasites & vectors · June 2013 Characterization of mosquito breeding habitats is often accomplished with the goal of guiding larval control interventions as well as the goal of identifying areas with higher disease risk. This characterization often relies on statistical measures of asso ... Full text Cite

Hyperendemic malaria transmission in areas of occupation-related travel in the Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article Malaria journal · May 2013 BackgroundPlasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum cause a significant illness burden in Peru. Anopheline indices for populated communities in the peri-Iquitos region of Loreto have been reported to be remarkably low, with entomological inoculat ... Full text Cite

Are Recent Medical Graduates More Skeptical of Vaccines?

Journal Article Vaccines · April 2013 Rates of delay and refusal of recommended childhood vaccines are increasing in many U.S. communities. Children's health care providers have a strong influence on parents' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about vaccines. Provider attitudes towards immuniza ... Full text Cite

Symptomatic and asymptomatic Campylobacter infections associated with reduced growth in Peruvian children.

Journal Article PLoS neglected tropical diseases · January 2013 BackgroundAlthough diarrheal illnesses are recognized as both a cause and effect of undernutrition, evidence for the effect of specific enteropathogens on early childhood growth remains limited. We estimated the effects of undernutrition as a risk ... Full text Cite

Gut hormones, appetite suppression and cachexia in patients with pulmonary TB.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2013 BackgroundCachexia is a hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis and is associated with poor prognosis. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind such weight loss could reveal targets for therapeutic intervention. The role of appetite-regulatory h ... Full text Cite

Relationship between serum antibodies and Taenia solium larvae burden in pigs raised in field conditions.

Journal Article PLoS neglected tropical diseases · January 2013 BackgroundSerological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to ev ... Full text Cite

Association of vaccine-related attitudes and beliefs between parents and health care providers

Journal Article Vaccine · 2013 OBJECTIVES: Health care providers influence parental vaccination decisions. Over 90% of parents report receiving vaccine information from their child's health care provider. The majority of parents of vaccinated children and children exempt from school imm ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparative effects of vivax malaria, fever, and diarrhea on child growth

Journal Article International Journal of Epidemiology · 2012 BACKGROUND: The adverse impact of Plasmodium vivax on child health beyond acute febrile illness is poorly studied. The effect of vivax malaria on child growth was evaluated and compared with diarrhoeal disease and non-specific fever. METHODS: Using da ... Link to item Cite

Outcomes of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among a cohort of South African patients with high HIV prevalence.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2011 BackgroundMultidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major clinical challenge, particularly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. MDR-TB treatment is increasingly available, but outcomes have not been well character ... Full text Cite

Spatial patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and their relationship to socio-economic status in Vitoria, Brazil.

Journal Article The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease · November 2010 ObjectiveTo investigate spatial patterns of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and its relationship with socio-economic status in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil.DesignIn a 4-year, retrospective, territory-based surveillance stu ... Cite

Alcohol outlets and violent crime in washington d.C.

Journal Article The western journal of emergency medicine · August 2010 ObjectiveAlcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatme ... Cite

Morbidity and mortality disparities among colonist and indigenous populations in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

Journal Article Social science & medicine (1982) · February 2010 Rural populations living in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) experience the highest health burden of any region in the country. Two independent studies of colonist and indigenous groups living in the NEA are used to compare their morbidity and mortalit ... Full text Cite

Linking deforestation to malaria in the Amazon: characterization of the breeding habitat of the principal malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi.

Journal Article The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene · July 2009 This study examined the larval breeding habitat of a major South American malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi, in areas with varying degrees of ecologic alteration in the Peruvian Amazon. Water bodies were repeatedly sampled across 112 km of transects along ... Cite

Randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional-delivered in-home intervention for young reservation-based American Indian mothers.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · June 2009 ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy of a paraprofessional-delivered, home-visiting intervention among young, reservation-based American Indian (AI) mothers on parenting knowledge, involvement, and maternal and infant outcomes.MethodFrom 200 ... Full text Cite

Parental vaccine refusal in Wisconsin: a case-control study.

Journal Article WMJ : official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin · February 2009 IntroductionSuccessful immunization programs have diminished parental fear of diseases and increased fear of vaccines. Children with nonmedical exemptions to school immunization requirements are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting dise ... Cite

Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis: an incidence study in a Peruvian rural population.

Journal Article Neuroepidemiology · January 2009 BackgroundEpilepsy is a serious neurological disorder and neurocysticercosis (NCC), the central nervous system infection by the larvae of Taenia solium, is the main cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. NCC is becoming more frequent ... Full text Cite

Ecological characteristics of Anopheles darlingi breeding habitat in the Amazon

Journal Article American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygeine · 2009 Cite

Disparities in preschool immunization coverage associated with maternal age

Journal Article Hum Vaccin · 2009 Associations between maternal age and preschool immunization coverage are unclear. This study aimed to determine if maternal age is associated with preschool immunization coverage and the importance of maternal age compared with other factors affecting vac ... Link to item Cite

Peptide YY: a gut hormone associated with anorexia during infectious diarrhea in children.

Journal Article The Journal of pediatrics · November 2008 ObjectiveTo evaluate the effects of diarrhea on appetite among Peruvian children age 12 to 71 months and to assess whether elevated plasma levels of peptide YY, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-1beta contribute to anorexia i ... Full text Cite

Direct observation of hygiene in a Peruvian shantytown: not enough handwashing and too little water.

Journal Article Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH · November 2008 ObjectiveTo document frequency of hygiene practices of mothers and children in a shantytown in Lima, Peru.MethodsContinuous monitoring over three 12-h sessions in households without in-house water connections to measure: (i) water and soa ... Full text Cite

The infectiousness of tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV.

Journal Article PLoS medicine · September 2008 BackgroundThe current understanding of airborne tuberculosis (TB) transmission is based on classic 1950s studies in which guinea pigs were exposed to air from a tuberculosis ward. Recently we recreated this model in Lima, Perú, and in this paper w ... Full text Cite

Epidemiology of highly endemic multiply antibiotic-resistant shigellosis in children in the Peruvian Amazon.

Journal Article Pediatrics · September 2008 ObjectiveOur goal was to estimate the impact of a Shigella vaccine in an area where shigellosis is endemic by characterizing the disease burden and antibiotic-resistance profiles of isolates and by determining the prevalence of Shigella flexneri s ... Full text Cite

Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis, central Peruvian Highlands.

Journal Article Emerging infectious diseases · February 2008 We evaluated prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in a central Peruvian Highland district by using 4 diagnostic methods: ultrasonography for 949 persons, radiography for 829, and 2 serologic tests for 929 (2 immunoblot formats using bovine hydatid cyst ... Full text Cite

[A multilevel analysis of population and deforestation in the Sierra de Lacandon National Park, Peten, Guatemala].

Journal Article Documents d'analisi geografica · January 2008 The paper examines depopulation factors associated with deforestation in the Natural park of the Sierra de Lacandón (PNSL), using multilevel regresión analysis.More than 10 percent of the park area has been deforested since the mid 1980s because of rural p ... Cite

The infectiousness of tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV

Journal Article PLoS Medicine · 2008 Background: The current understanding of airborne tuberculosis (TB) transmission is based on classic 1950s studies in which guinea pigs were exposed to air from a tuberculosis ward. Recently we recreated this model in Lima, Perú, and in this paper we repor ... Full text Cite

Vaccine knowledge and practices of primary care providers of exempt vs. vaccinated children

Journal Article Hum Vaccin · 2008 OBJECTIVES: Compare vaccine knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care providers for fully vaccinated children and children who are exempt from school immunization requirements. METHODS: We conducted a mailed survey of parent-identified primary car ... Link to item Cite

A multilevel anlaysis of population and deforestation in the Natural Park Sierra de Lacandón (Petén, Guatemala)

Journal Article Documents d'Analisi Geografica · January 1, 2008 The paper examines depopulation factors associated with deforestation in the Natural park of the Sierra de Lacandón (PNSL), using multi-level regresión analysis. More than 10 percent of the park area has been deforested since the mid 1980s because of rural ... Cite

Forest clearing in the Ecuadorian Amazon: A study of patterns over space and time.

Journal Article Population research and policy review · December 2007 This study tests four hypotheses related to forest clearing over time in Ecuador's northern Amazon: (1) a larger increase in population over time on a farm (finca) leads to more deforestation; (2) rates of forest clearing surrounding four primary reference ... Full text Cite

Natural ventilation for the prevention of airborne contagion.

Journal Article PLoS medicine · February 2007 BackgroundInstitutional transmission of airborne infections such as tuberculosis (TB) is an important public health problem, especially in resource-limited settings where protective measures such as negative-pressure isolation rooms are difficult ... Full text Cite

Home-visiting intervention to improve child care among American Indian adolescent mothers: a randomized trial.

Journal Article Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine · November 2006 ObjectiveTo assess the impact of a paraprofessional-delivered home-visiting intervention to promote child care knowledge, skills, and involvement among pregnant American Indian adolescents.DesignRandomized controlled trial comparing a fam ... Full text Cite

Support for immunization registries among parents of vaccinated and unvaccinated school-aged children: a case control study.

Journal Article BMC public health · September 2006 BackgroundImmunizations have reduced childhood vaccine preventable disease incidence by 98-100%. Continued vaccine preventable disease control depends on high immunization coverage. Immunization registries help ensure high coverage by recording ch ... Full text Cite

Declining fertility on the frontier: the Ecuadorian Amazon.

Journal Article Population and environment · September 2006 This paper examines farm and household characteristics associated with a rapid fertility decline in a forest frontier of the Ecuadorian Amazon. The Amazon basin and other rainforests in the tropics are among the last frontiers in the ongoing global fertili ... Full text Cite

Comparison of altitude effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection between rural and urban communities in Peru.

Journal Article The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene · July 2006 The mechanism of high altitude effect on tuberculosis (TB) infection has not been fully established. We previously reported a lower positive tuberculin skin test (TST) prevalence in high altitude villages compared with sea level communities in Peru. In thi ... Full text Cite

Support for tobacco control policies among youth in North Carolina.

Journal Article North Carolina medical journal · May 2006 BackgroundThe objective of this research was to examine attitudes toward tobacco control policies among middle and high school students in North Carolina. Specifically, we report data on knowledge of the harmfulness of secondhand smoke and support ... Cite

Nonmedical exemptions to school immunization requirements: secular trends and association of state policies with pertussis incidence

Journal Article JAMA · 2006 CONTEXT: School immunization requirements have played a major role in controlling vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Most states offer nonmedical exemptions to school requirements (religious or personal belief). Exemptors are at increased r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Measuring immunization coverage among preschool children: past, present, and future opportunities

Journal Article Epidemiol Rev · 2006 Control of vaccine-preventable diseases depends on maintaining high levels of immunization coverage. Immunization coverage among preschool children remains suboptimal in some areas and sociodemographic subgroups, as well as for more recently introduced vac ... Full text Link to item Cite

Farm household lifecycles and land use in the Ecuadorian Amazon

Journal Article Population and Environment · September 1, 2005 This paper describes trends in population, household formation, fragmentation of landholdings, and changes in land use between 1990 and 1999 in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (NEA) - one of the areas of highest biodiversity in the world. It also shows how ... Full text Cite

The use of a multilevel statistical model to analyze factors influencing land use: A study of the Ecuadorian Amazon

Journal Article Global and Planetary Change · July 1, 2005 This research introduces a novel application of a constrained multivariate response multilevel model of land use. Methodological objectives are (1) to examine the conceptual specification of a multilevel model of land use and (2) to incorporate constraints ... Full text Cite

Farm-level models of spatial patterns of land use and land cover dynamics in the Ecuadorian Amazon

Journal Article Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment · January 1, 2004 Longitudinal studies examining socio-demographic and other contextual factors are vital to understanding landscape change. Landscape structure, function, and change are assessed for the northern Ecuadorian Amazon by examining the composition and spatial or ... Full text Cite

Ozone-induced respiratory symptoms: exposure-response models and association with lung function.

Journal Article The European respiratory journal · October 1999 Ozone-induced respiratory symptoms are known to be functions of concentration, minute ventilation, and duration of exposure. The purposes of this study were to identify an exposure-response model for symptoms, to determine whether response was related to a ... Full text Cite

Sequential discrimination of atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias

Journal Article Computers in Cardiology · May 1, 1991 Described is a sequential hypothesis testing algorithm capable of discriminating supraventricular arrhythmias from ventricular arrhythmias. The algorithm uses simultaneous recordings of pure atrial and pure ventricular electrograms obtained using dual cham ... Cite

Ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation detection by a sequential hypothesis testing algorithm.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · September 1990 An algorithm for detecting ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) by the method of sequential hypothesis testing is presented. The algorithm first generates a binary sequence by comparing the signal to a threshold. The probability d ... Full text Cite