Predictors of cognitive recovery after cardiac surgery.


Journal Article

BACKGROUND: Postoperative neurocognitive decline occurs frequently. Although predictors of cognitive injury have been well examined, factors that modulate recovery have not. We sought to determine the predictors of cognitive recovery after initial injury following cardiac surgery. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-one patients previously enrolled in cognitive studies who experienced cognitive decline 6 weeks after cardiac surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Eligible patients completed a battery of neurocognitive measures and quality-of-life assessments at baseline, 6 weeks, and 1 year after surgery. Factor analysis was conducted to calculate the cognitive index (CI), a unified, continuous measure of cognitive function. Cognitive recovery was defined as 1-year CI greater than baseline CI. Potential predictors of cognitive recovery including patient characteristics, quality-of-life factors, comorbidities, medications, and intraoperative variables were assessed with multivariable regression modeling; P<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Of the 229 patients in our final data set, 103 (45%) demonstrated cognitive recovery after initial decline in CI at 6 weeks. Multivariable analyses revealed that more education (odds ratio [OR] 1.332 [1.131-1.569], P<0.001), baseline CI (OR 0.987 [0.976-0.998], P=0.02), less decline in CI at 6 weeks (OR 1.044 [1.014-1.075], P=0.004), and greater activities of daily living at 6 weeks (OR 0.891 [0.810-0.981], P=0.02) were significant predictors of cognitive recovery. CONCLUSION: Cognitive recovery occurred in approximately one half of the cardiac surgical patients experiencing early decline. The association between cognitive recovery and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scores at 6 weeks merits further investigation as it is the only potentially modifiable predictor of recovery.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Fontes, MT; Swift, RC; Phillips-Bute, B; Podgoreanu, MV; Stafford-Smith, M; Newman, MF; Mathew, JP; Neurologic Outcome Research Group of the Duke Heart Center,

Published Date

  • February 2013

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 116 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 435 - 442

PubMed ID

  • 23302978

Pubmed Central ID

  • 23302978

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1526-7598

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1213/ANE.0b013e318273f37e


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States