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E. Allan Lind

James L. Vincent Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Leadership
Fuqua School of Business
Box 90120, Durham, NC 27708-0120
Fuqua Sch of Bus, 100 Fuqua Drive, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Reminders of behavioral disinhibition increase public conformity in the Asch paradigm and behavioral affiliation with ingroup members.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2015 This paper argues that being in the Asch situation, where there is a felt need to conform to others' faulty behaviors, poses a social threat to people. Furthermore, participating in a psychology experiment in which you will have to interact with other part ... Full text Cite

Perceived Organizational Justice in Care Services: creation and multi-sample validation of a measure.

Journal Article Social science & medicine (1982) · February 2014 Organizational justice (OJ) perceptions predict attitudes and behaviors of customers and employees across a broad range of services. Although OJ has proven predictive power and relevance, it has rarely been studied in health care settings. This stems parti ... Full text Cite

Freeing organizational behavior from inhibitory constraints

Journal Article Research in Organizational Behavior · November 6, 2013 Many organizational policies and practices are based on the view that people's behavior needs to be inhibited to protect against their selfish basic nature. Indeed, a fundamental assumption of theories ranging from social exchange to economic models of org ... Full text Cite

On Sense-Making Reactions and Public Inhibition of Benign Social Motives. An Appraisal Model of Prosocial Behavior.

Journal Article · January 1, 2013 This chapter describes a body of work on the social psychological implications of behavioral inhibition and disinhibition. Many social philosophers, economists, and other theorists have long assumed that it is good when people inhibit their behaviors, beca ... Full text Cite

Exploring interpersonal behavior and team sensemaking during health information technology implementation.

Journal Article Advances in health care management · January 2013 PurposeWe examine how interpersonal behavior and social interaction influence team sensemaking and subsequent team actions during a hospital-based health information technology (HIT) implementation project.Design/methodology/approachOver ... Full text Cite

Freeing organizational behavior from inhibitory constraints

Journal Article Research in Organizational Behavior · 2013 Cite

The missed promotion: An exercise demonstrating the importance of organizational justice

Journal Article Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal · December 30, 2011 Full text Cite

On the benign qualities of behavioral disinhibition: because of the prosocial nature of people, behavioral disinhibition can weaken pleasure with getting more than you deserve.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · October 2011 This article focuses on social situations in which people are surprised about what is happening and inhibited about how to respond to the situation at hand. We study these situations by examining a classic topic in social psychology: how people respond to ... Full text Cite

The missed promotion: An exercise demonstrating the importance of organizational justice

Journal Article Journal of Management Education · August 1, 2011 Treating employees fairly produces many positive outcomes, but evidence suggests that managers' efforts to be fair are often unsuccessful because they emphasize the wrong aspects of justice. Managers tend to emphasize distributive justice, though employees ... Full text Cite

Chapter 1: Sounding the alarm: Moving from system justification to system condemnation in the justice judgment process

Journal Article Research on Managing Groups and Teams · December 1, 2010 Purpose - In this chapter, we seek to resolve the conflicting implications that emerge from status quo theories of justice, on the one hand, and theories of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice on the other. Specifically, status quo theories ... Full text Cite

Exploration of fairness in health services: a qualitative analysis.

Journal Article Health marketing quarterly · July 2010 A content analysis of fair and unfair experiences described by students as customers of health care services was made. The way customers had been treated by the staff during the implementation of procedures, along with the information exchange between clie ... Full text Cite

Fairness and other leadership heuristics: A four-nation study

Journal Article European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology · June 1, 2008 Leaders' fairness may be just one of several heuristics - cognitive shortcuts - that followers use to decide quickly whether they can rely on a given leader to lead them to ends that are good for the collective, rather than just good for the leader. Other ... Full text Cite

Reminders of behavioral disinhibition increase public conformity in the Asch paradigm and behavioral affiliation with ingroup members.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2015 This paper argues that being in the Asch situation, where there is a felt need to conform to others' faulty behaviors, poses a social threat to people. Furthermore, participating in a psychology experiment in which you will have to interact with other part ... Full text Cite

Perceived Organizational Justice in Care Services: creation and multi-sample validation of a measure.

Journal Article Social science & medicine (1982) · February 2014 Organizational justice (OJ) perceptions predict attitudes and behaviors of customers and employees across a broad range of services. Although OJ has proven predictive power and relevance, it has rarely been studied in health care settings. This stems parti ... Full text Cite

Freeing organizational behavior from inhibitory constraints

Journal Article Research in Organizational Behavior · November 6, 2013 Many organizational policies and practices are based on the view that people's behavior needs to be inhibited to protect against their selfish basic nature. Indeed, a fundamental assumption of theories ranging from social exchange to economic models of org ... Full text Cite

On Sense-Making Reactions and Public Inhibition of Benign Social Motives. An Appraisal Model of Prosocial Behavior.

Journal Article · January 1, 2013 This chapter describes a body of work on the social psychological implications of behavioral inhibition and disinhibition. Many social philosophers, economists, and other theorists have long assumed that it is good when people inhibit their behaviors, beca ... Full text Cite

Exploring interpersonal behavior and team sensemaking during health information technology implementation.

Journal Article Advances in health care management · January 2013 PurposeWe examine how interpersonal behavior and social interaction influence team sensemaking and subsequent team actions during a hospital-based health information technology (HIT) implementation project.Design/methodology/approachOver ... Full text Cite

Freeing organizational behavior from inhibitory constraints

Journal Article Research in Organizational Behavior · 2013 Cite

The missed promotion: An exercise demonstrating the importance of organizational justice

Journal Article Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal · December 30, 2011 Full text Cite

On the benign qualities of behavioral disinhibition: because of the prosocial nature of people, behavioral disinhibition can weaken pleasure with getting more than you deserve.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · October 2011 This article focuses on social situations in which people are surprised about what is happening and inhibited about how to respond to the situation at hand. We study these situations by examining a classic topic in social psychology: how people respond to ... Full text Cite

The missed promotion: An exercise demonstrating the importance of organizational justice

Journal Article Journal of Management Education · August 1, 2011 Treating employees fairly produces many positive outcomes, but evidence suggests that managers' efforts to be fair are often unsuccessful because they emphasize the wrong aspects of justice. Managers tend to emphasize distributive justice, though employees ... Full text Cite

Chapter 1: Sounding the alarm: Moving from system justification to system condemnation in the justice judgment process

Journal Article Research on Managing Groups and Teams · December 1, 2010 Purpose - In this chapter, we seek to resolve the conflicting implications that emerge from status quo theories of justice, on the one hand, and theories of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice on the other. Specifically, status quo theories ... Full text Cite

Exploration of fairness in health services: a qualitative analysis.

Journal Article Health marketing quarterly · July 2010 A content analysis of fair and unfair experiences described by students as customers of health care services was made. The way customers had been treated by the staff during the implementation of procedures, along with the information exchange between clie ... Full text Cite

Fairness and other leadership heuristics: A four-nation study

Journal Article European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology · June 1, 2008 Leaders' fairness may be just one of several heuristics - cognitive shortcuts - that followers use to decide quickly whether they can rely on a given leader to lead them to ends that are good for the collective, rather than just good for the leader. Other ... Full text Cite

Requisite Connectivity:. Finding Flow in a Not-So-Flat World

Journal Article Organizational Dynamics · April 1, 2008 Full text Cite

Justice and the human alarm system: The impact of exclamation points and flashing lights on the justice judgment process

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · March 1, 2008 Extending theory within the justice domain and work on the human alarm system, the current paper argues that the process by which justice judgments are formed may be influenced reliably by the activation of psychological systems that people use to detect a ... Full text Cite

Realpolitik versus fair process: moderating effects of group identification on acceptance of political decisions.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · March 2007 Three studies examined the effects of perceived procedural justice and the favorability of a group-level outcome on the endorsement of a group-level decision and the evaluation of the authority responsible for the decision. Results showed that, contrary to ... Full text Cite

How do people react to negative procedures? On the moderating role of authority's biased attitudes

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · September 1, 2006 The authors focus on the effects an authority's apparent inconsistency between persons on judgments of relational treatment and procedural justice following negative procedures (i.e., procedures that people commonly regard as unfair). In Experiment 1, part ... Full text Cite

It's a bet! A problem-solving approach promotes the construction of contingent agreements.

Journal Article Personality & social psychology bulletin · August 2005 Negotiators often have different expectations about the future. A contingent agreement, or a bet that makes the ultimate outcome dependent on some future event, builds on negotiators' differences. The authors argue that a problem-solving approach, in which ... Full text Cite

Fairness heuristic theory is an empirical framework: a reply to Arnadóttir.

Journal Article Scandinavian journal of psychology · July 2004 In this article on fairness heuristic theory, we point out some important flaws in Arnadóttir's (2002) claim that fairness heuristic theory is "not empirical," by which Arnadóttir meant that theory's predictions are knowable a priori, and are not contingen ... Full text Cite

Public participation in environmental decisions: Stakeholders, authorities and procedural justice

Journal Article International Journal of Global Environmental Issues · January 1, 2003 We analysed a stakeholder participation process undertaken by the North Carolina Division of Water Quality to see if the process satisfied elements of procedural justice: representation of relevant parties, voice, sound technical basis, fair treatment by a ... Full text Cite

The injustices of others: Social reports and the integration of others' experiences in organizational justice judgments

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · January 1, 2002 This research examines how people integrate social reports regarding another person's injustice experience into their own justice assessments. Specifically, we examine three variables-participant injustice experience, co-worker injustice severity, and prio ... Full text Cite

When fairness works: Toward a general theory of uncertainty management

Journal Article Research in Organizational Behavior · January 1, 2002 The only way in our opinion to account for this striving for justice and truth is by the analysis of the whole history of man, socially and individually. We find then that for everybody who is powerless, justice and truth are the most important weapons in ... Full text Cite

Uncertainty management by means of fairness judgments

Journal Article Advances in Experimental Social Psychology · January 1, 2002 Full text Cite

Primacy Effects in Justice Judgments: Testing Predictions from Fairness Heuristic Theory.

Journal Article Organizational behavior and human decision processes · July 2001 We tested predictions from fairness heuristic theory that justice judgments are more sensitive to early fairness-relevant information than to later fairness-relevant information and that this primacy effect is more evident when group identification is high ... Full text Cite

Thinking critically about justice judgments

Journal Article Journal of Vocational Behavior · April 1, 2001 In his commentary on Cropanzano et al. (2001), the author notes that their literature review is thorough and well done. He centers his commentary around four main points. First, he argues that justice research as reviewed by Cropanzano et al. is not as foc ... Full text Cite

Procedural justice

Chapter · 2001 Cite

The psychology of own versus others' treatment: Self-oriented and other-oriented effects on perceptions of procedural justice

Journal Article Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin · January 1, 2001 This article focuses on how people interpret their own versus others' treatment. Two experiments investigate how perceived procedural justice is affected by procedures that are experienced personally versus those seen to have been experienced by others. Th ... Full text Cite

Social Justice

Chapter · 2000 Cite

Cultural Values and Authority Relations: The Psychology of Conflict Resolution Across Cultures

Journal Article Psychology, Public Policy, and Law · January 1, 2000 The findings of 4 studies suggest that cultural values about power distance influence the way that people react to third-party authorities in a manner predicted by the relational model of authority (T. R. Tyler & E. A. Lind, 1992). Power-distance values re ... Full text Cite

The winding road from employee to complainant: Situational and psychological determinants of wrongful-termination claims

Journal Article Administrative Science Quarterly · January 1, 2000 Structured interviews with 996 recently fired or laid-off workers provided data for analyses of the situational and psychological antecedents of both thinking about filing a wrongful-termination claim and actually filing such a claim. Potential antecedents ... Full text Cite

The two psychologies of conflict resolution: Differing antecedents of pre-experience choices and post-experience evaluations

Journal Article Group Processes and Intergroup Relations · December 1, 1999 The literature on the 'myth of self-interest' model of perceived human motivation suggests that people believe that both they and others are more motivated by self-interest than is actually the case. Four studies are reported which test one implication of ... Full text Cite

Social involvement, justice judgments, and the psychology of negotiation

Conference RESEARCH ON NEGOTIATION IN ORGANIZATIONS, VOL 7 - 1999 · January 1, 1999 Link to item Cite

When do we need procedural fairness? The role of trust in authority.

Conference Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · December 1998 Full text Cite

The Self-Relevant Implications of the Group-Value Model: Group Membership, Self-Worth, and Treatment Quality

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · September 1, 1998 Past research demonstrates that quality of treatment is linked to support of authorities and acceptance of their decisions, particularly when the authority represents a valued ingroup. The group-value model suggests that the group membership effect occurs ... Full text Cite

The Social Construction of Injustice: Fairness Judgments in Response to Own and Others' Unfair Treatment by Authorities.

Journal Article Organizational behavior and human decision processes · July 1998 The research literature in organizational justice has examined in some detail the dynamics and consequences of justice judgments based on direct experiences with fair and unfair authorities, but little is known about how people form justice judgments on th ... Full text Cite

Fairness evaluations of encounters with police officers and correctional officers

Journal Article Journal of Applied Social Psychology · June 16, 1998 The fairness of treatment can be inferred from 2 aspects of the relationship between authority and other party: the person-related aspect and the role-related aspect. One hundred seventy-five American detainees were interviewed about their encounters with ... Full text Cite

Cohesion and Respect: An Examination of Group Decision Making in Social and Escalation Dilemmas

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · May 1, 1998 Our experiment analyzes situations in which a group engages in two dilemmas, a social dilemma and an escalation dilemma, in one of two orders. Some of the groups were composed of long-time friends (high cohesion); other groups were composed of unacquainted ... Full text Cite

Evaluating outcomes by means of the fair process effect: Evidence for different processes in fairness and satisfaction judgments

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · January 1, 1998 The authors refine and extend their explanation of the psychology of the fair process effect (the positive influence of procedural fairness on outcome evaluations). On the basis of fairness heuristic theory's substitutability proposition, the authors predi ... Full text Cite

Conflict with outsiders: Disputing within and across cultural boundaries

Journal Article Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin · January 1, 1998 Two studies examine how people's reactions to conflict resolution efforts by third parties are affected by whether the conflict occurs within or across cultural boundaries. Both test the social categorization hypothesis of the relational model of authority ... Full text Cite

How do I judge my outcome when I do not know the outcome of others? The psychology of the fair process effect.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · May 1997 On the basis of fairness heuristic theory, the authors provide an explanation of the frequently replicated fair process effect (the finding that perceived procedural fairness positively affects how people react to outcomes). The authors argue that, in many ... Full text Cite

Social Conflict and the Fairness Heuristic

Journal Article Representative Research in Social Psychology · 1997 Cite

Goals and Tactics in Within- and Between-Culture Conflict

Journal Article Tohoku Psychologia Folia · 1997 Cite

Procedural context and culture: Variation in the antecedents of procedural justice judgments

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · January 1, 1997 T. R. Tyler and E. A. Lind (1992) identified 3 relational variables that make authoritative procedures seem fair: indications of status recognition, trust in benevolence, and neutrality in decision making. In Study 1, students from the United States, Germa ... Full text Cite

The Meaning of Procedural Fairness: A Comparison of Taxpayers' and Representatives' Views of Their Tax Audits

Journal Article Social Justice Research · January 1, 1997 This study compares how taxpayers and their representatives judge the procedural fairness of tax audits. Taxpayers (N = 70) and their representatives (N = 70) participated in interviews after the completion of their tax audits and were asked to describe th ... Full text Cite

Superordinate Identification, Subgroup Identification, and Justice Concerns: Is Separatism the Problem; Is Assimilation the Answer?

Journal Article Psychological Science · January 1, 1996 The diversity of American society raises concerns about whether authorities can maintain social cohesion amid competing interests and values. The group-value model of justice suggests that authorities function more effectively when they are perceived as fa ... Full text Cite

Understanding gender differences in distributive and procedural justice

Journal Article Social Justice Research · January 1, 1996 Gender differences in treatment and in judgments of distributive and procedural justice were examined. Three hundred nine litigants who had been involved in arbitrated auto negligence lawsuits responded to exit surveys. Two mechanisms by which gender might ... Full text Cite

The effects of unfair procedure on negative affect and protest

Journal Article Social Justice Research · January 1, 1996 The present study extends earlier research on procedural unfairness by assessing subjects' reactions to a procedural change before they learn about the outcome of the changed procedure. Subjects performed a series of four tests. After three tests, the proc ... Full text Cite

... And justice for all - Ethnicity, gender, and preferences for dispute resolution procedures

Journal Article Law and Human Behavior · June 1, 1994 African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, and European American students rated their procedural preferences in response to a hypothetical conflict scenario and then recalled a real dispute in which they had been involved. Subjects of all four et ... Full text Cite

Procedural Justice and Culture: Evidence for Ubiquitous Process Concerns

Journal Article Zeitschrift fur Rechtssoziologie · 1994 Cite

Psychology, crime, & law

Journal Article Psychology, Crime & Law · January 1, 1994 Full text Cite

Procedural Justice and Culture

Journal Article International Journal of Psychology · January 1, 1992 The past fifteen years have seen the development of a considerable research literature on the social psychology of procedural justice (see Lind & Tyler, 1988, for a review). Procedural justice research reveals some serious shortcomings in the exchange theo ... Full text Cite

A relational model of authority in groups

Journal Article Advances in Experimental Social Psychology · January 1, 1992 This chapter focuses on one particular aspect of authoritativeness: voluntary compliance with the decisions of authorities. Social psychologists have long distinguished between obedience that is the result of coercion, and obedience that is the result of i ... Full text Cite

Perspective and procedural justice: Attorney and litigant evaluations of court procedures

Journal Article Social Justice Research · December 1, 1990 A comparison of the procedural justice judgments of attorneys and those of lay people judging the same procedures offers an opportunity to generate new information on what factors affect judgments of fairness. In a survey of reactions to conventional and i ... Full text Cite

The Mediator as Leader: Effects of behavioral style and deadline certainty on negotiator behavior

Journal Article Group & Organization Management · January 1, 1990 This study investigated the effects of different mediator behavioral styles and disputant knowledge regarding negotiation deadline on bargaining behavior. A 2 × 2 factorial design varied mediator behavioral style (task-oriented versus person-oriented) and ... Full text Cite

Intrinsic Versus Community‐Based Justice Models: When Does Group Membership Matter?

Journal Article Journal of Social Issues · January 1, 1990 This paper examines the effects of group membership on group members' concerns about justice. Two types of effects are hypothesized to exist: inclusionary and exclusionary. Inclusionary effects involve the relationship between groups and their members. Exc ... Full text Cite

Voice, Control, and Procedural Justice: Instrumental and Noninstrumental Concerns in Fairness Judgments

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · January 1, 1990 One hundred seventy-nine undergraduate Ss took part in a study of the effects of instrumental and noninstrumental participation on distributive and procedural fairness judgments. In a goal-setting procedure, Ss were allowed voice before the goal was set, a ... Full text Cite

Nonlinear and Nonmonotonic Effects of Outcome on Procedural and Distributive Fairness Judgments

Journal Article Journal of Applied Social Psychology · January 1, 1989 It has generally been assumed that increases in the concrete outcomes of a procedure will result in judgments of greater procedural and distributive fairness, but research on this topic has been inconsistent. Using a classic procedural justice paradigm (Wa ... Full text Cite

Procedural fairness and work group responses to performance evaluation systems

Journal Article Social Justice Research · September 1, 1988 In a variety of settings, procedures that permit predecision input by those affected by the decision in question have been found to have positive effects on fairness judgments, independent of the favorability of the decision. Two major models of the psycho ... Full text Cite

The Discovery Survey

Journal Article Law and Contemporary Problems · 1988 Cite

Fairness and participation in evaluation procedures: Effects on task attitudes and performance

Journal Article Social Justice Research · June 1, 1987 A laboratory study was conducted to examine the role of two components of participatory work evaluation procedures on fairness attitudes and work performance. "Opportunity for influential opinion expression" and "knowledge of evaluation criteria" were mani ... Full text Cite

Procedural Justice and Participation in Task Selection: The Role of Control in Mediating Justice Judgments

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · January 1, 1987 Recently there has been considerable debate concerning the causal role of perceived control in determining procedural justice judgments. Two experiments on task-assignment procedures, one conducted in a laboratory and one conducted in a field setting, exam ... Full text Cite

Procedural Justice and Culture. Effects of Culture, Gender, and Investigator Status on Procedural Preferences

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · June 1, 1986 Research showing strong preferences for adversary procedures of dispute resolution has been conducted only in Western countries, where cultural values emphasize autonomy and competitiveness. The generality of the effect has never been tested in non-Western ... Full text Cite

Apparent impropriety and procedural fairness judgments

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · January 1, 1985 Variation in decision making and allocation procedures has been shown to affect judgments of the fairness of the procedure and its outcome, but such effects have always been studied in the context of properly enacted procedures. It was hypothesized that th ... Full text Cite

Decision Control and Process Control Effects on Procedural Fairness Judgments

Journal Article Journal of Applied Social Psychology · January 1, 1983 Process control, the capacity to influence the content of a conflict resolution hearing, has been found repeatedly to affect disputants' judgments of the fairness of conflict resolution procedures, but never has there been an unambiguous test of the effect ... Full text Cite

The Psychology of Courtroom Procedure

Chapter · 1982 This volume presents comprehensive and integrative reviews that critically examine the psychological theory and research relevant to the courtroom trial. ... Cite

Procedure and outcome effects on reactions to adjudicated resolution of conflicts of interest

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · January 1, 1980 Examined the effects of outcome on reactions to an adjudication procedure and the effects of procedures on reactions to an adjudication outcome. 111 male undergraduates were led to believe they had been charged with wrongdoing of which they knew they were ... Full text Cite

Theory testing, theory development, and laboratory research on legal issues

Journal Article Law and Human Behavior · March 1, 1979 We have outlined here a proposed approach to research on legal issues involving theory testing via laboratory research, then theory development to account for the failure of predictions, then new research to test the new or revised theory. It is our belief ... Full text Cite

The Relation Between Procedural and Distributive Justice

Journal Article Virginia law review · 1979 Cite

POWER OF LANGUAGE - PRESENTATIONAL STYLE IN THE COURTROOM

Journal Article DUKE LAW JOURNAL · January 1, 1979 Link to item Cite

GROUP VOICE AND POLITICAL-PARTICIPATION

Journal Article PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN · January 1, 1979 Link to item Cite

Reactions to Procedural Models for Adjudicative Conflict Resolution

Journal Article Journal of Conflict Resolution · June 1978 A cross-national experimental study examining perceptions of four procedural models for adjudicative conflict resolution was conducted in four countries—the United States, Britain, France, and West Germany—whose legal procedures are based on differing adju ... Cite

Social attributions and conversation style in trial testimony

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · 1978 83 undergraduates and 43 law students heard either a male or a female witness in a taped reenactment of criminal trial testimony. The testimony was presented either in a "fragmented" style, with brief answers by the witness to many questions by the lawyer, ... Full text Cite

Speech style and impression formation in a court setting: The effects of "powerful" and "powerless" speech

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · 1978 On the basis of a previous empirical analysis of speech patterns in court trials, speech styles were identified that covaried with speaker social status and power. The "powerless" style is characterized by the frequent use of such linguistic features as in ... Cite

Reactions to Procedural Models for Adjudicative Conflict Resolution: A Cross-National Study

Journal Article Journal of Conflict Resolution · January 1, 1978 A cross-national experimental study examining perceptions of four procedural models for adjudicative conflict resolution was conducted in four countries—the United States, Britain, France, and West Germany—whose legal procedures are based on differing adju ... Full text Cite

Psychological Perspectives on the Justice System

Journal Article Contemporary Psychology: A Journal of Reviews · September 1977 Full text Cite

Persuasion, Recall and Thoughts

Journal Article Representative Research in Social Psychology · 1976 Cite

Evaluations of group products as a function of expectations of group longevity, outcome of competition, and publicity of evaluations

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · June 1, 1975 Employed a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design to study conditions that influence members' evaluation of their own group's product and that of a competing group. Ss were 336 undergraduates. Group members were told that they either would or would not continue workin ... Full text Cite

The Exercise of Information Influence in Legal Advocacy

Journal Article Journal of Applied Social Psychology · January 1, 1975 The information search and transmission behavior of information‐supplying agents was studied using an experimental analog of a legal situation. An experiment was conducted to test the predictions of social psychological theories concerning the use of infor ... Full text Cite

Reactions of Participants and Observers to Modes of Adjudication

Journal Article Journal of Applied Social Psychology · January 1, 1974 An important aspect of conflict resolution by judgment of a third party is the extent to which participants and observers are satisfied that both the procedure and the outcome are fair and impartial. Male undergraduates participated in a business simulatio ... Full text Cite

Adversary Presentation and Bias in Legal Decision Making

Journal Article Harvard Law Review · 1972 Cite