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Barry S. Myers

Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Box 90083, Durham, NC 27708
Box 90281, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Laboratory Evaluation of Shell Add-On Products for American Football Helmets for Professional Linemen.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · October 2021 The Guardian Cap NXT (GC NXT) and the ProTech Helmet Cap (ProTech) are commercially available aftermarket products designed to augment the energy attenuation characteristics of American football helmets. The ability of these helmet shell add-on products to ... Full text Cite

Surface Contact Features, Impact Obliquity, and Preimpact Rotational Motion in Concussive Helmet-to-Ground Impacts: Assessment via a New Impact Test Device.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2020 This paper reports the development of a test device for replicating unique features of concussion-causing helmet-to-ground impacts. Helmet-to-ground impacts are characterized by an oblique impact velocity vector, preimpact rotational motion of the helmeted ... Full text Cite

Development and Evaluation of a Test Method for Assessing the Performance of American Football Helmets.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2020 As more is learned about injury mechanisms of concussion and scenarios under which injuries are sustained in football games, methods used to evaluate protective equipment must adapt. A combination of video review, videogrammetry, and laboratory reconstruct ... Full text Cite

Comparison of Laboratory and On-Field Performance of American Football Helmets.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2020 The relationship between laboratory and on-field performance of football helmets was assessed for 31 football helmet models selected from those worn by players in the 2015-2019 National Football League (NFL) seasons. Linear impactor tests were conducted wi ... Full text Cite

Laboratory Reconstructions of Concussive Helmet-to-Helmet Impacts in the National Football League.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2020 Seventeen concussive helmet-to-helmet impacts occurring in National Football League (NFL) games were analyzed using video footage and reconstructed by launching helmeted crash test dummies into each other in a laboratory. Helmet motion on-field and in the ... Full text Cite

Position-Specific Circumstances of Concussions in the NFL: Toward the Development of Position-Specific Helmets.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2020 Consideration of position-specific features of the NFL concussion environment could enable improved risk mitigation through the design of position-specific helmets to improve self-protection as well as protection for the other player with whom the contact ... Full text Cite

The biomechanics of concussive helmet-to-ground impacts in the National Football league.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · January 2020 This paper presents a detailed characterization of helmet-to-ground impacts in the National Football League. Video analysis was performed for 16 head-to-ground impacts that caused concussions. Average resultant closing velocity was 8.3 m/s at an angle near ... Full text Cite

The response of the pediatric head to impacts onto a rigid surface.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · August 2019 The study of pediatric head injury relies heavily on the use of finite element models and child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). However, these tools, in the context of pediatric head injury, have yet to be validated due to a paucity of pediatric head ... Full text Cite

On the relative importance of bending and compression in cervical spine bilateral facet dislocation.

Journal Article Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) · April 2019 BackgroundCervical bilateral facet dislocations are among the most devastating spine injuries in terms of likelihood of severe neurological sequelae. More than half of patients with tetraparesis had sustained some form of bilateral facet fracture ... Full text Cite

Video Analysis of Reported Concussion Events in the National Football League During the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 Seasons.

Journal Article The American journal of sports medicine · December 2018 BackgroundConcussions in American football remain a high priority of sports injury prevention programs. Detailed video review provides important information on causation, the outcomes of rule changes, and guidance on future injury prevention strat ... Full text Cite

Understanding venture capital in the health industry

Chapter · January 1, 2018 For health care industry technologies, grants and other nondilutive funding sources are useful to fuel initial translational efforts, but rapid, significant product advancement typically requires larger infusions of capital. One source of such funding is V ... Full text Cite

The compressive stiffness of human pediatric heads.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · November 2015 Head injury is a persistent and costly problem for both children and adults. Globally, approximately 10 million people are hospitalized each year for head injuries. Knowing the structural properties of the head is important for modeling the response of the ... Full text Cite

Pediatric Coronal Suture Fiber Alignment and the Effect of Interdigitation on Coronal Suture Mechanical Properties.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · September 2015 The morphological and mechanical properties of the pediatric skull are important in understanding pediatric head injury biomechanics. Although previous studies have analyzed the morphology of cranial sutures, none has done so in pediatric specimens nor hav ... Full text Cite

Neck injury biomechanics

Book · January 1, 2015 This chapter summarizes the research on the biomechanical responses of the neck in a form that will be useful in design of protective systems and in the development of societal strategies to reduce the number of cervical spine injuries. Neck injuries are d ... Full text Cite

The response of the adult and ATD heads to impacts onto a rigid surface.

Journal Article Accident; analysis and prevention · November 2014 Given the high incidence of TBI, head injury has been studied extensively using both cadavers and anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). However, few studies have benchmarked the response of ATD heads against human data. Hence, the objective of this study is ... Full text Cite

The influence of muscle modeling methods and paths on head and neck response

Conference 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, WCCM 2014, 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics, ECCM 2014 and 6th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ECFD 2014 · July 1, 2014 For inertial loading in frontal impacts, the effects of the neck muscles are profound, and impact the accuracy of computational and physical surrogates. Previous studies have shown two important aspects of muscle modeling in adult computational models are ... Cite

Three-dimensional adult male head and skull contours.

Journal Article Traffic injury prevention · January 2014 ObjectiveTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, affecting millions of people annually. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element models (FEMs) provide a means of understanding factors leading to TBI, potentially ... Full text Cite

Pediatric head and neck dynamics in frontal impact: analysis of important mechanical factors and proposed neck performance corridors for 6- and 10-year-old ATDs.

Journal Article Traffic injury prevention · January 2014 ObjectiveTraumatic injuries are the leading cause of death of children aged 1-19 in the United States and are principally caused by motor vehicle collisions, with the head being the primary region injured. The neck, though not commonly injured, go ... Full text Cite

Attenuation of blast pressure behind ballistic protective vests.

Journal Article Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention · February 2013 BackgroundClinical studies increasingly report brain injury and not pulmonary injury following blast exposures, despite the increased frequency of exposure to explosive devices. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of personal body a ... Full text Cite

Laboratory Evaluation of Shell Add-On Products for American Football Helmets for Professional Linemen.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · October 2021 The Guardian Cap NXT (GC NXT) and the ProTech Helmet Cap (ProTech) are commercially available aftermarket products designed to augment the energy attenuation characteristics of American football helmets. The ability of these helmet shell add-on products to ... Full text Cite

Surface Contact Features, Impact Obliquity, and Preimpact Rotational Motion in Concussive Helmet-to-Ground Impacts: Assessment via a New Impact Test Device.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2020 This paper reports the development of a test device for replicating unique features of concussion-causing helmet-to-ground impacts. Helmet-to-ground impacts are characterized by an oblique impact velocity vector, preimpact rotational motion of the helmeted ... Full text Cite

Development and Evaluation of a Test Method for Assessing the Performance of American Football Helmets.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2020 As more is learned about injury mechanisms of concussion and scenarios under which injuries are sustained in football games, methods used to evaluate protective equipment must adapt. A combination of video review, videogrammetry, and laboratory reconstruct ... Full text Cite

Comparison of Laboratory and On-Field Performance of American Football Helmets.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2020 The relationship between laboratory and on-field performance of football helmets was assessed for 31 football helmet models selected from those worn by players in the 2015-2019 National Football League (NFL) seasons. Linear impactor tests were conducted wi ... Full text Cite

Laboratory Reconstructions of Concussive Helmet-to-Helmet Impacts in the National Football League.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2020 Seventeen concussive helmet-to-helmet impacts occurring in National Football League (NFL) games were analyzed using video footage and reconstructed by launching helmeted crash test dummies into each other in a laboratory. Helmet motion on-field and in the ... Full text Cite

Position-Specific Circumstances of Concussions in the NFL: Toward the Development of Position-Specific Helmets.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2020 Consideration of position-specific features of the NFL concussion environment could enable improved risk mitigation through the design of position-specific helmets to improve self-protection as well as protection for the other player with whom the contact ... Full text Cite

The biomechanics of concussive helmet-to-ground impacts in the National Football league.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · January 2020 This paper presents a detailed characterization of helmet-to-ground impacts in the National Football League. Video analysis was performed for 16 head-to-ground impacts that caused concussions. Average resultant closing velocity was 8.3 m/s at an angle near ... Full text Cite

The response of the pediatric head to impacts onto a rigid surface.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · August 2019 The study of pediatric head injury relies heavily on the use of finite element models and child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). However, these tools, in the context of pediatric head injury, have yet to be validated due to a paucity of pediatric head ... Full text Cite

On the relative importance of bending and compression in cervical spine bilateral facet dislocation.

Journal Article Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) · April 2019 BackgroundCervical bilateral facet dislocations are among the most devastating spine injuries in terms of likelihood of severe neurological sequelae. More than half of patients with tetraparesis had sustained some form of bilateral facet fracture ... Full text Cite

Video Analysis of Reported Concussion Events in the National Football League During the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 Seasons.

Journal Article The American journal of sports medicine · December 2018 BackgroundConcussions in American football remain a high priority of sports injury prevention programs. Detailed video review provides important information on causation, the outcomes of rule changes, and guidance on future injury prevention strat ... Full text Cite

Understanding venture capital in the health industry

Chapter · January 1, 2018 For health care industry technologies, grants and other nondilutive funding sources are useful to fuel initial translational efforts, but rapid, significant product advancement typically requires larger infusions of capital. One source of such funding is V ... Full text Cite

The compressive stiffness of human pediatric heads.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · November 2015 Head injury is a persistent and costly problem for both children and adults. Globally, approximately 10 million people are hospitalized each year for head injuries. Knowing the structural properties of the head is important for modeling the response of the ... Full text Cite

Pediatric Coronal Suture Fiber Alignment and the Effect of Interdigitation on Coronal Suture Mechanical Properties.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · September 2015 The morphological and mechanical properties of the pediatric skull are important in understanding pediatric head injury biomechanics. Although previous studies have analyzed the morphology of cranial sutures, none has done so in pediatric specimens nor hav ... Full text Cite

Neck injury biomechanics

Book · January 1, 2015 This chapter summarizes the research on the biomechanical responses of the neck in a form that will be useful in design of protective systems and in the development of societal strategies to reduce the number of cervical spine injuries. Neck injuries are d ... Full text Cite

The response of the adult and ATD heads to impacts onto a rigid surface.

Journal Article Accident; analysis and prevention · November 2014 Given the high incidence of TBI, head injury has been studied extensively using both cadavers and anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). However, few studies have benchmarked the response of ATD heads against human data. Hence, the objective of this study is ... Full text Cite

The influence of muscle modeling methods and paths on head and neck response

Conference 11th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, WCCM 2014, 5th European Conference on Computational Mechanics, ECCM 2014 and 6th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ECFD 2014 · July 1, 2014 For inertial loading in frontal impacts, the effects of the neck muscles are profound, and impact the accuracy of computational and physical surrogates. Previous studies have shown two important aspects of muscle modeling in adult computational models are ... Cite

Three-dimensional adult male head and skull contours.

Journal Article Traffic injury prevention · January 2014 ObjectiveTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, affecting millions of people annually. Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element models (FEMs) provide a means of understanding factors leading to TBI, potentially ... Full text Cite

Pediatric head and neck dynamics in frontal impact: analysis of important mechanical factors and proposed neck performance corridors for 6- and 10-year-old ATDs.

Journal Article Traffic injury prevention · January 2014 ObjectiveTraumatic injuries are the leading cause of death of children aged 1-19 in the United States and are principally caused by motor vehicle collisions, with the head being the primary region injured. The neck, though not commonly injured, go ... Full text Cite

Attenuation of blast pressure behind ballistic protective vests.

Journal Article Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention · February 2013 BackgroundClinical studies increasingly report brain injury and not pulmonary injury following blast exposures, despite the increased frequency of exposure to explosive devices. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of personal body a ... Full text Cite

Tensile failure properties of the perinatal, neonatal, and pediatric cadaveric cervical spine.

Journal Article Spine (Phila Pa 1976) · January 1, 2013 STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical tensile testing of perinatal, neonatal, and pediatric cadaveric cervical spines to failure. OBJECTIVE: To assess the tensile failure properties of the cervical spine from birth to adulthood. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Pediatric ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mesh considerations for finite element blast modelling in biomechanics.

Journal Article Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering · January 2013 Finite element (FE) modelling is a popular tool for studying human body response to blast exposure. However, blast modelling is a complex problem owing to more numerous fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) and the high-frequency loading that accompanies bla ... Full text Cite

Importance of muscle activations for biofidelic pediatric neck response in computational models.

Journal Article Traffic injury prevention · January 2013 ObjectiveDuring dynamic injury scenarios, such as motor vehicle crashes, neck biomechanics contribute to head excursion and acceleration, influencing head injuries. One important tool in understanding head and neck dynamics is computational modeli ... Full text Cite

Impact properties of adult and ATD heads

Conference 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury · October 29, 2012 Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes 1.1 million trips to the hospital each year in the US, with 235,000 of these injuries requiring admissions. Given the importance of TBI, head injury has been studied extensively using both cadavers and anthropomorphic te ... Cite

The mechanical and morphological properties of 6 year-old cranial bone.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · October 2012 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity for children in the United States. The unavailability of pediatric cadavers makes it difficult to study and characterize the mechanical behavior of the pediatric skull. Computer bas ... Full text Cite

Development of a finite element model for blast brain injury and the effects of CSF cavitation.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · July 2012 Blast-related traumatic brain injury is the most prevalent injury for combat personnel seen in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, yet as a research community,we still do not fully understand the detailed etiology and pathology of this injury. F ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of pediatric skull fracture imaging techniques.

Journal Article Forensic Sci Int · January 10, 2012 Radiologic imaging is crucial in the diagnosis of skull fracture, but there is some doubt as to whether different imaging modalities can accurately identify fractures present on a human skull. While studies have been performed to evaluate the efficacy of r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Musculoskeletal cell mechanics

Chapter · January 1, 2012 Musculoskeletal mechanics occur over many length scales, from macroscopic muscle extension and weight-bearing bone compression to microscopic muscle bers, down to the cytoskeleton that supports the bone cell structure and facilitates muscle cell contractio ... Full text Cite

Pediatric Head Contours and Inertial Properties for ATD Design

Conference SAE Technical Papers · November 3, 2010 Child head trauma in the United States is responsible for 30% of all childhood injury deaths with costs estimated at $10 billion per year. The common tools for studying this problem are the child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). The headform sizes and ... Full text Cite

Pediatric head contours and inertial properties for ATD design.

Journal Article Stapp Car Crash J · November 2010 Child head trauma in the United States is responsible for 30% of all childhood injury deaths with costs estimated at $10 billion per year. The common tools for studying this problem are the child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). The headform sizes and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Viscoelastic properties of Hybrid III head skin

Journal Article SAE Technical Papers · January 1, 2010 The biofidelity of the Hybrid III headform in impact is largely dependent on local head geometry and viscoelastic mechanical properties of its polymer skin. Accordingly, for accurate simulation of the ATD headform in computational models, a quantitative un ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of ear-mounted sensors for determining impact head acceleration

Journal Article International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury - 2009 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury, Proceedings · December 1, 2009 The objective of this study was to compare the coupling of ear-mounted accelerometers with the head during moderate rate and high rate impacts. Impact tests were performed on PMHS equipped with ear-mounted accelerometers and head-mounted accelerometers usi ... Cite

Tension and combined tension-extension structural response and tolerance properties of the human male ligamentous cervical spine.

Journal Article J Biomech Eng · August 2009 Tensile loading of the human cervical spine results from noncontact inertial loading of the head as well as mandibular and craniofacial impacts. Current vehicle safety standards include a neck injury criterion based on beam theory that uses a linear combin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tensile Mechanical Properties of the Perinatal and Pediatric PMHS Osteoligamentous Cervical Spine

Conference SAE Technical Papers · November 3, 2008 Pediatric cervical spine biomechanics have been under-researched due to the limited availability of pediatric post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). Scaled data based on human adult and juvenile animal studies have been utilized to augment the limited pediatri ... Full text Cite

Tensile mechanical properties of the perinatal and pediatric PMHS osteoligamentous cervical spine.

Journal Article Stapp car crash journal · November 2008 Pediatric cervical spine biomechanics have been under-researched due to the limited availability of pediatric post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). Scaled data based on human adult and juvenile animal studies have been utilized to augment the limited pediatri ... Full text Cite

The influence of reduced friction on head injury metrics in helmeted head impacts.

Journal Article Traffic Inj Prev · October 2008 OBJECTIVE: Reducing surface friction has been shown to reduce head injury risk in some scenarios. However, rigid body mechanics suggests that other scenarios may exist in which reducing surface friction increases head injury risk. The goal of this study is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Head-turned postures increase the risk of cervical facet capsule injury during whiplash.

Journal Article Spine · July 2008 Study designIn vitro experiments using cadaveric cervical spine motion segments to quantify facet capsular ligament strain during whiplash-like loading.ObjectiveTo quantify facet capsule strains during whiplash-like loading with an axial ... Full text Cite

A kinematic and anthropometric study of the upper cervical spine and the occipital condyles.

Journal Article J Biomech · 2007 The center of rotation (COR) of the upper cervical spine (UCS) is an important biomechanical landmark that is used to determine upper neck moment, particularly when evaluating injury risk in the automotive environment. However, neither the location of the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Flexion and extension structural properties and strengths for male cervical spine segments.

Journal Article J Biomech · 2007 New vehicle safety standards are designed to limit the amount of neck tension and extension seen by out-of-position motor vehicle occupants during airbag deployments. The criteria used to assess airbag injury risk are currently based on volunteer data and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Shaken baby syndrome: a flawed biomechanical analysis.

Journal Article Forensic science international · December 2006 Full text Cite

Comparative Structural Neck Responses of the THOR-NT, Hybrid III, and Human in Combined Tension-Bending and Pure Bending

Conference SAE Technical Papers · November 6, 2006 This study evaluated the biofidelity of both the Hybrid III and the THOR-NT anthropomorphic test device (ATD) necks in quasistatic tension-bending and pure-bending by comparing the responses of both the ATDs with results from validated computational models ... Full text Cite

Variation of Neck Muscle Strength Along the Human Cervical Spine

Conference SAE Technical Papers · November 1, 2004 The aim of this study was to describe and explain the variation of neck muscle strength along the cervical spine. A three-dimensional model of the head-neck complex was developed to test the hypothesis that the moment-generating capacity of the neck muscul ... Full text Cite

Mechanical properties and anthropometry of the human infant head.

Journal Article Stapp car crash journal · November 2004 The adult head has been studied extensively and computationally modeled for impact, however there have been few studies that attempt to quantify the mechanical properties of the pediatric skull. Likewise, little documentation of pediatric anthropometry exi ... Full text Cite

The influence of seatback characteristics on cervical injury risk in severe rear impacts.

Journal Article Accident; analysis and prevention · July 2004 The determination of the optimum seatback characteristics for the mitigation of serious and catastrophic neck injury during high-speed rear-end collisions remains a topic of continued investigation. Despite a number of prior research efforts, both field da ... Full text Cite

The human cervical spine in tension: effects of frame and fixation compliance on structural responses.

Journal Article Traffic injury prevention · June 2004 There is little data available on the responses of the human cervical spine to tensile loading. Such tests are mechanistically and technically challenging due to the variety of end conditions that need to be imposed and the difficulty of strong specimen fi ... Full text Cite

Neck strains and sprains among motor vehicle occupants-United States, 2000.

Journal Article Accident; analysis and prevention · January 2004 ContextMotor vehicle (MV)-related injury is a leading cause of death and emergency department visits in the US. Information has been limited regarding the magnitude and types of injuries suffered by the survivors of MV crashes.ObjectiveTo ... Full text Cite

Improved estimation of human neck tensile tolerance: reducing the range of reported tolerance using anthropometrically correct muscles and optimized physiologic initial conditions.

Journal Article Stapp car crash journal · October 2003 Unlike other modes of loading, the tolerance of the human neck in tension depends heavily on the load bearing capabilities of the muscles of the neck. Because of limitations in animal models, human cadaver, and volunteer studies, computational modeling of ... Full text Cite

Rapid neck muscle adaptation alters the head kinematics of aware and unaware subjects undergoing multiple whiplash-like perturbations.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · April 2003 To examine whether habituation confounds the study of whiplash injury using human subjects, we quantified changes in the magnitude and temporal development of the neck muscle electromyogram and peak linear and angular head/torso kinematics of subjects expo ... Full text Cite

Awareness affects the response of human subjects exposed to a single whiplash-like perturbation.

Journal Article Spine · April 2003 Study designHuman subjects were exposed experimentally to a single whiplash-like perturbation.ObjectiveTo determine how awareness of the presence and timing of a whiplash-like perturbation affects the onset and amplitude of the neck muscl ... Full text Cite

Patterns of tumor spread and risk of fracture and epidural impingement in metastatic vertebrae.

Journal Article J Spinal Disord Tech · February 2003 Among patients with vertebral metastases, the identification of candidates for surgical stabilization has a limited basis in evidence. We retrospectively studied patterns of tumor spread (n = 756 vertebrae) and predictors of fracture and epidural impingeme ... Full text Link to item Cite

Importance of nonlinear and multivariable flexibility coefficients in the prediction of human cervical spine motion.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanical engineering · October 2002 The flexibility matrix currently forms the basis for multibody dynamics models of cervical spine motion. While studies have aimed to determine cervical motion segment behavior, their accuracy and utility have been limited by both experimental and analytica ... Full text Cite

Comparative strengths and structural properties of the upper and lower cervical spine in flexion and extension.

Journal Article J Biomech · June 2002 The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the upper cervical spine is weaker than the lower cervical spine in pure flexion and extension bending, which may explain the propensity for upper cervical spine injuries in airbag deployments. An ad ... Full text Link to item Cite

The influence of surface padding properties on head and neck injury risk.

Journal Article J Biomech Eng · October 2001 A validated computational head-neck model was used to understand the mechanical relationships between surface padding characteristics and injury risk during impacts near the head vertex. The study demonstrated that injury risk can be decreased by maximizin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mechanical evidence of cervical facet capsule injury during whiplash: a cadaveric study using combined shear, compression, and extension loading.

Journal Article Spine · October 2001 Study designA comparison of cervical facet capsule strain fields in cadaveric motion segments exposed to whiplash-like loads and failure loads.ObjectivesTo compare the maximum principal strain in the facet capsular ligament under combined ... Full text Cite

An anatomical investigation of the human cervical facet capsule, quantifying muscle insertion area.

Journal Article J Anat · April 2001 Facet capsule injury has been hypothesised as a mechanism for neck pain. While qualitative studies have demonstrated the proximity of neck muscles to the cervical facet capsule, the magnitude of their forces remains unknown owing to a lack of quantitative ... Full text Link to item Cite

An anatomical investigation of the human cervical facet capsule, quantifying muscle insertion area

Journal Article Journal of Anatomy · 2001 Facet capsule injury has been hypothesised as a mechanism for neck pain. While qualitative studies have demonstrated the proximity of neck muscles to the cervical facet capsule, the magnitude of their forces remains unknown owing to a lack of quantitative ... Full text Cite

A biomechanical, radiologic, and clinical comparison of outcome after multilevel cervical laminectomy or laminoplasty in the rabbit.

Journal Article Spine (Phila Pa 1976) · November 15, 2000 STUDY DESIGN: A rabbit model was used to compare clinical outcome, radiographic changes, and biomechanical flexibility after cervical laminectomy and open-door laminoplasty. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that radiographic changes and biomecha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human Cervical Motion Segment Flexibility and Facet Capsular Ligament Strain under Combined Posterior Shear, Extension and Axial Compression

Conference SAE Technical Papers · November 1, 2000 The cervical facet capsular ligaments are thought to be an important anatomical site of whiplash injury, although the mechanism by which these structures may be injured during whiplash remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to quantify the interver ... Full text Cite

Experimental and computational characterization of three-dimensional cervical spine flexibility.

Journal Article Stapp car crash journal · November 2000 Cervical spine behavior for generalized loading is often characterized using a full three-dimensional flexibility matrix. While experimental studies have been aimed at determining cervical motion segment behavior, their accuracy and utility have been limit ... Full text Cite

The cervical facet capsule and its role in whiplash injury: a biomechanical investigation.

Journal Article Spine (Phila Pa 1976) · May 15, 2000 STUDY DESIGN: Cervical facet capsular strains were determined during bending and at failure in the human cadaver. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of an axial pretorque on facet capsular strains and estimate the risk for subcatastrophic capsular injury d ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical outcome scales for use in a rabbit model of cervical myelopathy.

Journal Article J Spinal Disord · April 2000 This study determined the ability of an upper extremity Tarlov scale, a lower extremity Tarlov scale, and the Durham scale to predict the development of myelopathy and the likelihood of survival in a rabbit model of surgical treatments for cervical spondyl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quantifying skeletal muscle properties in cadaveric test specimens: effects of mechanical loading, postmortem time, and freezer storage.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanical engineering · February 2000 Investigators currently lack the data necessary to define the state of skeletal muscle properties within cadaveric specimens. The purpose of this study is to define the temporal changes in the postmortem properties of skeletal muscle as a function of mecha ... Full text Cite

Inertial properties and loading rates affect buckling modes and injury mechanisms in the cervical spine.

Journal Article J Biomech · February 2000 Cervical spine injuries continue to be a costly societal problem. Future advancements in injury prevention depend on improved physical and computational models which, in turn, are predicated on a better understanding of the responses of the neck during dyn ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cervical facet joint mechanics: Its application to whiplash injury

Journal Article Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings · December 1, 1999 Epidemiological and clinical studies have identified the cervical facet capsule as a potential site of whiplash injury and prerotation of the head and neck as a risk factor for whiplash injury. However, biomechanical data related to the cervical facet caps ... Cite

Mechanical investigation of the role of the cervical facet capsule in whiplash injury

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Bioengineering Division (Publication) BED · December 1, 1999 In this study, an attempt was made to characterize the full field facet capsular ligament strains during pure bending moments in the sagittal plane and in the presence of a pretorque. Measurements of capsular strains at failure were compared to the strains ... Cite

Surface friction in near-vertex head and neck impact increases risk of injury.

Journal Article J Biomech · March 1999 A computational head-neck model was developed to test the hypothesis that increases in friction between the head and impact surface will increase head and neck injury risk during near-axial impact. The model consisted of rigid vertebrae interconnected by a ... Full text Link to item Cite

The influence of strain rate on the passive and stimulated engineering stress--large strain behavior of the rabbit tibialis anterior muscle.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanical engineering · February 1998 The passive and stimulated engineering stress-large strain mechanical properties of skeletal muscle were measured at the midbelly of the rabbit tibialis anterior. The purpose of these experiments was to provide previously unavailable constitutive informati ... Full text Cite

The effect of postmortem time and freezer storage on the mechanical properties of skeletal muscle

Journal Article SAE Technical Papers · January 1, 1998 Investigators currently lack the data necessary to define the state of skeletal muscle properties within the cadaver. The purpose of this study is to define the temporal changes in the postmortem properties of skeletal muscle as a function of mechanical lo ... Full text Cite

Computational modeling of axial neck impact: Influence of head motion and cervical spine buckling on dynamic behavior

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Applied Mechanics Division, AMD · December 1, 1997 A computational head-neck model was developed to better understand the influence of head motion and cervical spine buckling on dynamic responses to near-vertex head impact. The model consisted of rigid vertebrae interconnected by assemblies of nonlinear sp ... Cite

Experimental flexibility measurements for the development of a computational head-neck model validated for near-vertex head impact

Journal Article Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings · November 1, 1997 A computational head-neck model was developed to more efficiently study dynamic responses of the head and neck to near-vertex head impact. The model consisted of rigid vertebrae interconnected by assemblies of nonlinear springs and dashpots, and a finite e ... Cite

The effects of padded surfaces on the risk for cervical spine injury.

Journal Article Spine (Phila Pa 1976) · October 15, 1997 STUDY DESIGN: This is an in vitro study comparing cervical spine injuries produced in rigid head impacts and in padded head impacts. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that deformable impact surfaces pose a greater risk for cervical spine injury than rigid ... Full text Link to item Cite

An improved method for finite element mesh generation of geometrically complex structures with application to the skullbase.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · October 1997 An automated method has been developed to generate finite element meshes of geometrically complex structures from CT images using solely hexahedral elements. This technique improves upon previous voxel-based mesh reconstruction approaches by smoothing the ... Full text Cite

The biomechanics of cervical spine injury and implications for injury prevention.

Journal Article Medicine and science in sports and exercise · July 1997 Most catastrophic cervical spinal injuries occur as a result of head impacts in which the head stops and the neck is forced to stop the moving torso. In these situations the neck is sufficiently fragile that injuries have been reported at velocities as low ... Full text Cite

The biomechanics of cervical spine injury and implications for injury prevention

Journal Article Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise · July 1, 1997 Most catastrophic cervical spinal injuries occur as a result of head impacts in which the head stops and the neck is forced to stop the moving torso. In these situations the neck is sufficiently fragile that injuries have been reported at velocities as low ... Cite

Strength and stability of posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Comparison of titanium fiber mesh implant and tricortical bone graft.

Journal Article Spine (Phila Pa 1976) · June 1, 1997 STUDY DESIGN: A paired comparison was done of the bending flexibility and compression strength of tricortical bone graft and titanium fiber mesh implants in a human cadaver model of posterior lumbar interbody fusion. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that ... Full text Link to item Cite

CERVICAL SPINE BUCKLING: THE EFFECTS OF VERTEBRAL MASS AND LOADING RATE

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 1997 The importance of buckling during compressive loading of the cervical spine was suggested by Torg (1985) and has been subsequently demonstrated both quasi-statically2 and dynamically3. The complex deformations resulting from first and second order cervical ... Full text Cite

COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF AXIAL NECK IMPACT: INFLUENCE OF HEAD MOTION AND CERVICAL SPINE BUCKLING ON DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 1997 A computational head-neck model was developed to better understand the influence of head motion and cervical spine buckling on dynamic responses to near-vertex head impact. The model consisted of rigid vertebrae interconnected by assemblies of nonlinear sp ... Full text Cite

Cervical spine buckling: The effects of vertebral mass and loading rate

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Bioengineering Division (Publication) BED · 1997 Cite

The dynamic responses of the cervical spine: Buckling, end conditions, and tolerance in compressive impacts

Journal Article SAE Technical Papers · January 1, 1997 This study explores the dynamics of head and cervical spine impact with the specific goals of determining the effects of head inertia and impact surface on injury risk. Head impact experiments were performed using unembalmed head and neck specimens from 22 ... Full text Cite

Experimental flexibility measurements for the development of a computational head-neck model validated for near-vertex head impact

Journal Article SAE Technical Papers · January 1, 1997 A computational head-neck model was developed to more efficiently study dynamic responses of the head and neck to near-vertex head impact. The model consisted of rigid vertebrae interconnected by assemblies of nonlinear springs and dashpots, and a finite e ... Full text Cite

The dynamic responses of the cervical spine: Buckling, end conditions, and tolerance in compressive impacts

Journal Article SAE Technical Papers · 1997 This study explores the dynamics of head and cervical spine impact with the specific goals of determining the effects of head inertia and impact surface on injury risk. Head impact experiments were performed using unembalmed head and neck specimens from 22 ... Full text Cite

The role of strength in rising from a chair in the functionally impaired elderly.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · December 1996 Rising from a chair is a task essential for independent living. Many elderly persons have difficult with this task. Previous studies have drawn conflicting conclusions as to the role of strength in limiting the ability to rise from a chair. The purpose of ... Full text Cite

An optical system to determine axial surface strains in skeletal muscle

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Bioengineering Division (Publication) BED · December 1, 1996 Cite

The role of imaging and in situ biomechanical testing in assessing pedicle screw pull-out strength.

Journal Article Spine (Phila Pa 1976) · September 1, 1996 STUDY DESIGN: This study determined the predictive ability of quantitative computed tomography, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, pedicular geometry, and mechanical testing in assessing the strength of pedicle screw fixation in an in vitro mechanical test ... Full text Link to item Cite

Experimental impact injury to the cervical spine: relating motion of the head and the mechanism of injury.

Journal Article J Bone Joint Surg Am · March 1996 The purpose of this study was to analyze, with use of an impact model, the relationships among motion of the head, local deformations of the cervical spine, and the mechanisms of injury; the model consisted of the head and neck of a cadaver. Traditionally, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dynamic responses of the head and cervical spine to axial impact loading.

Journal Article J Biomech · March 1996 This study explores the inertial effects of the head and torso on cervical spine dynamics with the specific goal of determining whether the head mass can provide a constraining cervical spine end condition. The hypothesis was tested using a low friction im ... Full text Link to item Cite

AN OPTICAL SYSTEM TO DETERMINE AXIAL SURFACE STRAINS IN SKELETAL MUSCLE

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 1996 Full text Cite

On the structural and material properties of mammalian skeletal muscle and its relevance to human cervical impact dynamics

Journal Article Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings · November 1, 1995 The absence of data on the material properties of skeletal muscle has resulted in limitations in the utility of human surrogates in evaluating injury potential during head and neck impact. The purpose of this paper is two fold. First, a quasi-linear viscoe ... Cite

Axial strain measurements in skeletal muscle at various strain rates.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanical engineering · August 1995 A noncontact optical system using high speed image analysis to measure local tissue deformations and axial strains along skeletal muscle is described. The spatial resolution of the system was 20 pixels/cm and the accuracy was +/- 0.125 mm. In order to mini ... Full text Cite

Mechanisms of basilar skull fracture.

Journal Article J Neurotrauma · August 1995 Basilar skull fractures comprise a broad category of injuries that have been attributed to a variety of causal mechanisms. The objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the biomechanical mechanisms that result in basilar skull fractures, spe ... Full text Link to item Cite

A model of cortical window healing in the rabbit.

Journal Article Orthopedics · February 1995 A rabbit femur cortical window model was developed to study the time-dependent mechanical and radiographic changes with various treatments of surgically created windows. In the present experiment the time-dependent differences in torsional whole bone stren ... Full text Cite

Measurement of vertebral cortical integrity during pedicle exploration for intrapedicular fixation.

Journal Article Spine (Phila Pa 1976) · January 15, 1995 STUDY DESIGN: This study determined the predictive ability of electrical impedance measurement in detecting cortical perforation in a porcine model of pedicular exploration. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that a large decrease in electrical im ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiology, classification, mechanism, and tolerance of human cervical spine injuries.

Journal Article Critical reviews in biomedical engineering · January 1995 A review of published research is presented to examine human cervical spine injury epidemiology, classification, mechanism, and tolerance. Synthesis of the literature identifies several areas of cervical spine injury biomechanics in which the current under ... Full text Cite

On the structural and material properties of mammalian skeletal muscle and its relevance to human cervical impact dynamics

Journal Article SAE Technical Papers · January 1, 1995 The absence of constitutive data on muscle has limited the development of models of cervical spinal dynamics and our understanding of the forces developed in the cervical spine during impact injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to characterize t ... Full text Cite

Mandibular and basilar skull fracture tolerance

Journal Article Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings · November 1, 1994 The aim of this work is to develop an understanding of the biomechanical mechanisms that result in basilar skull fractures when the head is subject to a mandibular impact. Two experimental studies have been performed in the characterization of the injury m ... Cite

Improved assessment of lumbar vertebral body strength using supine lateral dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

Journal Article J Bone Miner Res · May 1994 Clinical and biomechanical investigations indicate that assessment of vertebral body bone mineral density (BMD) by anteroposterior dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a useful index of vertebral body strength and fracture risk in osteoporosis. Howeve ... Full text Link to item Cite

Characterization of the passive responses of live skeletal muscle using the quasi-linear theory of viscoelasticity.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · April 1994 The tensile viscoelastic responses of live, innervated rabbit skeletal muscle were measured and characterized using the quasi-linear model of viscoelasticity. The tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of anesthetized New Zealan ... Full text Cite

Mandibular and Basilar skull fracture tolerance

Journal Article SAE Technical Papers · January 1, 1994 Basilar skull fractures comprise a broad category of injuries that have been attributed to a variety of causal mechanisms including mandibular impacts. The objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the biomechanical mechanisms that result in ... Full text Cite

Would revision arthroplasty be facilitated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy? An evaluation including whole bone strength in dogs.

Journal Article Clin Orthop Relat Res · February 1993 Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy has been proposed as a modality to facilitate the removal of bone cement during revision arthroplasty; however, concomitant cortical microfractures have been reported. The current study examines the effect on whole bon ... Link to item Cite

Acute spinal ligament disruption: MR imaging with anatomic correlation.

Journal Article J Magn Reson Imaging · 1993 Disruption of spinal ligaments can lead to instability that jeopardizes the spinal cord and nerve roots. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can directly image spinal ligaments; however, the sensitivity with which this modality demonstrates ligament injury has ... Full text Link to item Cite

Revision arthroplasty facilitated by ultrasonic tool cement removal. An evaluation of whole bone strength in a canine model.

Journal Article The Journal of arthroplasty · December 1992 Ultrasonic driven tools have been developed to facilitate the removal of bone cement during revision arthroplasty. The effect on whole bone strength of cement removal by ultrasonic tools was examined in a canine femur model. Paired, fresh-frozen canine fem ... Full text Cite

LATERAL DUAL ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY - AN IMPROVED METHOD TO ASSESS VERTEBRAL STRENGTH

Journal Article JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH · August 1, 1992 Link to item Cite

Quasi-linear modeling of the viscoelastic responses of the human cervical spine in torsion

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Bioengineering Division (Publication) BED · December 1, 1991 The dynamic torsional responses of the human cadaver cervical spine were measured in vitro. The quasi-linear formulation of time dependent behavior was used to describe these structural responses. The resulting model showed high predictive ability, reachin ... Cite

Influence of end condition on human cervical spine injury mechanisms

Journal Article Proceedings - Society of Automotive Engineers · December 1, 1991 The passive combined flexion and axial loading responses of the unembalmed human cervical spine were measured in a dynamic test environment. The influence of end condition (the degree of constraint imposed on the head by the contact surface) was varied to ... Cite

The role of torsion in cervical spine trauma.

Journal Article Spine (Phila Pa 1976) · August 1991 A dynamic servocontrolled torsion machine has been used to characterize cervical injury due to pure rotation of the head. Resultant force moment, torque, and applied rotation have been measured. Torque applied to the base of the skull resulted in injury to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of end condition on human cervical spine injury mechanisms

Journal Article Proceedings - Society of Automotive Engineers · 1991 The passive combined flexion and axial loading responses of the unembalmed human cervical spine were measured in a dynamic test environment. The influence of end condition (the degree of constraint imposed on the head by the contact surface) was varied to ... Cite

Influence of end condition on human cervical spine injury mechanisms

Journal Article SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) Transactions · 1991 The passive combined flexion and axial loading responses of the unembalmed human cervical spine were measured in a dynamic test environment. The influence of end condition (the degree of constraint imposed on the head by the contact surface) was varied to ... Cite

The viscoelastic responses of the human cervical spine in torsion: experimental limitations of quasi-linear theory, and a method for reducing these effects.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · January 1991 The dynamic torsional viscoelastic responses of the human cadaver cervical spine were measured in vitro. The quasi-linear formulation of time dependent behavior was used to describe and predict the resultant torque as a function of applied angular deflecti ... Full text Cite

Experimental limitations of quasi-linear theory, and a method for reducing these effects

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Bioengineering Division (Publication) BED · December 1, 1990 The quasi-linear model has been applied to predict the in vitro responses of the human cervical spine in torsion. This model was developed by approximating a true relaxation test with a finite rate ramp and hold. The performance of this model was good, rea ... Cite

Responses of the human cervical spine to torsion

Journal Article SAE Technical Papers · January 1, 1989 The passive torsional responses of the human cervical spine were investigated using unembalmed cervical spines in a dynamic test environment. Kinematic constraints were designed to simulate in vivo conditions. A physiologic axis of twist was determined bas ... Full text Cite

Combined bending and axial loading responses of the human cervical spine

Journal Article SAE Technical Papers · January 1, 1988 The lateral, anterior and posterior passive bending responses of the human cervical spine were investigated using unembalmed cervical spinal elements obtained from cadavers. Bending stiffness was measured in six modes ranging from tension-extension through ... Full text Cite