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Carol Dukes Hamilton

Professor Emeritus of Medicine
Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Duke Box 102359, Durham, NC 27710
315 Trent Drive, Hanes House, Room 160, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


The China tuberculosis clinical trials consortium network: a model for international TB clinical trials capacity building.

Journal Article Infect Dis Poverty · May 15, 2020 BACKGROUND: With the second largest tuberculosis (TB) burden globally, China is committed to actively engage in international TB clinical trials to contribute to global TB research. However, lack of research capacity among local sites has been identified a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Over- and under-treatment of TB patients in Eastern China: an analysis based on health insurance claims data.

Journal Article Trop Med Int Health · September 2019 OBJECTIVE: Poor compliance with existing guidelines for tuberculosis (TB) care and treatment is an issue of concern in China. We assessed health service use by TB patients over the entire treatment process and compared it to the recommended guidelines. MET ... Full text Link to item Cite

Building capacity for advances in tuberculosis research; proceedings of the third RePORT international meeting.

Conference Tuberculosis (Edinb) · December 2018 RePORT International is a global network of research sites in India, Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, China, and the Philippines dedicated to collaborative tuberculosis research in the context of HIV. A standardized research protocol (the Common Protocol) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Using theory of change frameworks to develop evaluation strategies for research engagement: results of a pre-pilot study.

Journal Article J Int AIDS Soc · October 2018 INTRODUCTION: Inadequate community and stakeholder engagement can lead to accusations that research is unethical and can delay or slow research or translation of results to practice. Such experiences have led major funders as well as regulatory and advisor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in Prevalence of Advanced HIV Disease at Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment - 10 Countries, 2004-2015.

Journal Article MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep · June 2, 2017 Monitoring prevalence of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease (i.e., CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL) among persons starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to understand ART program outcomes, inform HIV prevention strategy, and fo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Factors associated with non-completion of follow-up: 33-month latent tuberculous infection treatment trial.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · March 1, 2017 SETTING: A post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized, open-label clinical trial that enrolled 8053 participants from the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Spain. OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with non-completion of study follow-up (NCF) in a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Advances in basic and translational tuberculosis research: Proceedings of the first meeting of RePORT international.

Conference Tuberculosis (Edinb) · January 2017 RePORT International is a collaborative research network of investigators from multiple countries and institutions with the goal of establishing a bio-repository of specimens and clinical data for the study of active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI). Duri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Developing a Framework for Evaluating Ethical Outcomes of Good Participatory Practices in TB Clinical Drug Trials.

Journal Article J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics · July 2016 Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for TB Drug Trials (GPP-TB) were issued in 2012, based on similar guidelines for HIV prevention and reflecting growing acceptance of the importance of community engagement and participatory strategies in clinical rese ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adjuvant Corticosteroid Treatment in Adults With Influenza A (H7N9) Viral Pneumonia.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · June 2016 OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of adjuvant corticosteroids administered to patients hospitalized with influenza A (H7N9) viral pneumonia. DESIGN: The effects of adjuvant corticosteroids on mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression and a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tackling the unknowns of short-course rifapentine-based treatment for active tuberculosis: a decision analysis.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · June 2016 BACKGROUND: Shorter treatment regimens for tuberculosis (TB) are deemed vital for advancing TB control. Murine studies have suggested potential new regimens; however, Phase II human studies of these drug combinations have not shown clear improvement in 2-m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lower Levels of Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment Among Men with HIV Compared with Women - 12 Countries, 2002-2013.

Journal Article MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep · November 27, 2015 Equitable access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for men and women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a principle endorsed by most countries and funding bodies, including the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS (acquired immunodefici ... Full text Link to item Cite

RePORT International: Advancing Tuberculosis Biomarker Research Through Global Collaboration.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 15, 2015 Progress in tuberculosis clinical research is hampered by a lack of reliable biomarkers that predict progression from latent to active tuberculosis, and subsequent cure, relapse, or failure. Regional Prospective Observational Research in Tuberculosis (RePO ... Full text Link to item Cite

Flu-like and Other Systemic Drug Reactions Among Persons Receiving Weekly Rifapentine Plus Isoniazid or Daily Isoniazid for Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in the PREVENT Tuberculosis Study.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 15, 2015 BACKGROUND: Weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid for 3 months (3HP) is as effective as daily isoniazid for 9 months (9H) for latent tuberculosis infection in high-risk persons, but there have been reports of possible flu-like syndrome. METHODS: We identified ... Full text Link to item Cite

Expanding tuberculosis case notification among marginalized groups in Bangladesh through peer sputum collection.

Journal Article Public Health Action · June 21, 2015 Case notification rates of tuberculosis (TB) in Bangladesh remain poor despite a high burden of disease. Peer sputum collection among underserved populations was implemented to expand case notification and to provide socially empowering roles in society fo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antiretroviral therapy enrollment characteristics and outcomes among HIV-infected adolescents and young adults compared with older adults--seven African countries, 2004-2013.

Journal Article MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep · November 28, 2014 Although scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2005 has contributed to declines of about 30% in the global annual number of human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related deaths and declines in global HIV incidence, estimated annual HIV-related deaths among ... Link to item Cite

Intermittent tuberculosis treatment for patients with isoniazid intolerance or drug resistance.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · May 2014 SETTING: Twenty tuberculosis (TB) clinics in the United States and Canada. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 6-month intermittent regimen of rifampin (RMP), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (EMB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neg ... Full text Link to item Cite

A randomized controlled trial of standard versus intensified tuberculosis diagnostics on treatment decisions by physicians in Northern Tanzania.

Journal Article BMC Infect Dis · February 20, 2014 BACKGROUND: Routine tuberculosis culture remains unavailable in many high-burden areas, including Tanzania. This study sought to determine the impact of providing mycobacterial culture results over standard of care [unconcentrated acid-fast (AFB) smears] o ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A randomized controlled trial of standard versus intensified tuberculosis diagnostics on treatment decisions by physicians in Northern Tanzania

Journal Article BMC Infectious Diseases · February 20, 2014 Background: Routine tuberculosis culture remains unavailable in many high-burden areas, including Tanzania. This study sought to determine the impact of providing mycobacterial culture results over standard of care [unconcentrated acid-fast (AFB) smears] o ... Full text Cite

The China tuberculosis clinical trials consortium network: a model for international TB clinical trials capacity building.

Journal Article Infect Dis Poverty · May 15, 2020 BACKGROUND: With the second largest tuberculosis (TB) burden globally, China is committed to actively engage in international TB clinical trials to contribute to global TB research. However, lack of research capacity among local sites has been identified a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Over- and under-treatment of TB patients in Eastern China: an analysis based on health insurance claims data.

Journal Article Trop Med Int Health · September 2019 OBJECTIVE: Poor compliance with existing guidelines for tuberculosis (TB) care and treatment is an issue of concern in China. We assessed health service use by TB patients over the entire treatment process and compared it to the recommended guidelines. MET ... Full text Link to item Cite

Building capacity for advances in tuberculosis research; proceedings of the third RePORT international meeting.

Conference Tuberculosis (Edinb) · December 2018 RePORT International is a global network of research sites in India, Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, China, and the Philippines dedicated to collaborative tuberculosis research in the context of HIV. A standardized research protocol (the Common Protocol) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Using theory of change frameworks to develop evaluation strategies for research engagement: results of a pre-pilot study.

Journal Article J Int AIDS Soc · October 2018 INTRODUCTION: Inadequate community and stakeholder engagement can lead to accusations that research is unethical and can delay or slow research or translation of results to practice. Such experiences have led major funders as well as regulatory and advisor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in Prevalence of Advanced HIV Disease at Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment - 10 Countries, 2004-2015.

Journal Article MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep · June 2, 2017 Monitoring prevalence of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease (i.e., CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL) among persons starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to understand ART program outcomes, inform HIV prevention strategy, and fo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Factors associated with non-completion of follow-up: 33-month latent tuberculous infection treatment trial.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · March 1, 2017 SETTING: A post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomized, open-label clinical trial that enrolled 8053 participants from the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Spain. OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with non-completion of study follow-up (NCF) in a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Advances in basic and translational tuberculosis research: Proceedings of the first meeting of RePORT international.

Conference Tuberculosis (Edinb) · January 2017 RePORT International is a collaborative research network of investigators from multiple countries and institutions with the goal of establishing a bio-repository of specimens and clinical data for the study of active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI). Duri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Developing a Framework for Evaluating Ethical Outcomes of Good Participatory Practices in TB Clinical Drug Trials.

Journal Article J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics · July 2016 Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for TB Drug Trials (GPP-TB) were issued in 2012, based on similar guidelines for HIV prevention and reflecting growing acceptance of the importance of community engagement and participatory strategies in clinical rese ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adjuvant Corticosteroid Treatment in Adults With Influenza A (H7N9) Viral Pneumonia.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · June 2016 OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of adjuvant corticosteroids administered to patients hospitalized with influenza A (H7N9) viral pneumonia. DESIGN: The effects of adjuvant corticosteroids on mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression and a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tackling the unknowns of short-course rifapentine-based treatment for active tuberculosis: a decision analysis.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · June 2016 BACKGROUND: Shorter treatment regimens for tuberculosis (TB) are deemed vital for advancing TB control. Murine studies have suggested potential new regimens; however, Phase II human studies of these drug combinations have not shown clear improvement in 2-m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lower Levels of Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment Among Men with HIV Compared with Women - 12 Countries, 2002-2013.

Journal Article MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep · November 27, 2015 Equitable access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for men and women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a principle endorsed by most countries and funding bodies, including the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS (acquired immunodefici ... Full text Link to item Cite

RePORT International: Advancing Tuberculosis Biomarker Research Through Global Collaboration.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 15, 2015 Progress in tuberculosis clinical research is hampered by a lack of reliable biomarkers that predict progression from latent to active tuberculosis, and subsequent cure, relapse, or failure. Regional Prospective Observational Research in Tuberculosis (RePO ... Full text Link to item Cite

Flu-like and Other Systemic Drug Reactions Among Persons Receiving Weekly Rifapentine Plus Isoniazid or Daily Isoniazid for Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in the PREVENT Tuberculosis Study.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 15, 2015 BACKGROUND: Weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid for 3 months (3HP) is as effective as daily isoniazid for 9 months (9H) for latent tuberculosis infection in high-risk persons, but there have been reports of possible flu-like syndrome. METHODS: We identified ... Full text Link to item Cite

Expanding tuberculosis case notification among marginalized groups in Bangladesh through peer sputum collection.

Journal Article Public Health Action · June 21, 2015 Case notification rates of tuberculosis (TB) in Bangladesh remain poor despite a high burden of disease. Peer sputum collection among underserved populations was implemented to expand case notification and to provide socially empowering roles in society fo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antiretroviral therapy enrollment characteristics and outcomes among HIV-infected adolescents and young adults compared with older adults--seven African countries, 2004-2013.

Journal Article MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep · November 28, 2014 Although scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2005 has contributed to declines of about 30% in the global annual number of human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related deaths and declines in global HIV incidence, estimated annual HIV-related deaths among ... Link to item Cite

Intermittent tuberculosis treatment for patients with isoniazid intolerance or drug resistance.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · May 2014 SETTING: Twenty tuberculosis (TB) clinics in the United States and Canada. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 6-month intermittent regimen of rifampin (RMP), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (EMB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neg ... Full text Link to item Cite

A randomized controlled trial of standard versus intensified tuberculosis diagnostics on treatment decisions by physicians in Northern Tanzania.

Journal Article BMC Infect Dis · February 20, 2014 BACKGROUND: Routine tuberculosis culture remains unavailable in many high-burden areas, including Tanzania. This study sought to determine the impact of providing mycobacterial culture results over standard of care [unconcentrated acid-fast (AFB) smears] o ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A randomized controlled trial of standard versus intensified tuberculosis diagnostics on treatment decisions by physicians in Northern Tanzania

Journal Article BMC Infectious Diseases · February 20, 2014 Background: Routine tuberculosis culture remains unavailable in many high-burden areas, including Tanzania. This study sought to determine the impact of providing mycobacterial culture results over standard of care [unconcentrated acid-fast (AFB) smears] o ... Full text Cite

Differences between HIV-Infected men and women in antiretroviral therapy outcomes - six African countries, 2004-2012.

Journal Article MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep · November 29, 2013 Evaluation of differences between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men and women in antiretroviral therapy (ART) enrollment characteristics and outcomes might identify opportunities to improve ART program patient outcomes and prevention impact. ... Link to item Cite

Reply to Seddon, Schaaf, and Hesseling.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · January 2013 Full text Link to item Cite

Old drugs, new purpose: retooling existing drugs for optimized treatment of resistant tuberculosis.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 2012 Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis is hindered by the high toxicity and poor efficacy of second-line drugs. New compounds must be used together with existing drugs, yet clinical trials to optimize combinations of drugs for drug-resistant tuberculosis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical research and development of tuberculosis diagnostics: moving from silos to synergy.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · May 15, 2012 The development, evaluation, and implementation of new and improved diagnostics have been identified as critical needs by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis researchers and clinicians alike. These needs exist in international and domestic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Strategies for treating latent multiple-drug resistant tuberculosis: a decision analysis.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2012 BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for latent multiple-drug resistant tuberculosis infection remains unclear. In anticipation of future clinical trials, we modeled the expected performance of six potential regimens for treatment of latent multiple-drug resi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

MCP1 SNPs and pulmonary tuberculosis in cohorts from West Africa, the USA and Argentina: lack of association or epistasis with IL12B polymorphisms.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2012 The monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that plays an important role in the recruitment of monocytes to M. tuberculosis infection sites, and previous studies have reported that genetic variants in MCP1 are associated with differential sus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Three months of rifapentine and isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · December 8, 2011 BACKGROUND: Treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an essential component of tuberculosis control and elimination. The current standard regimen of isoniazid for 9 months is efficacious but is limited by toxicity and low rates of treatm ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perspective: The case for research justice: inclusion of patients with limited English proficiency in clinical research.

Journal Article Acad Med · March 2011 Persons with limited English proficiency (LEP) constitute a growing portion of the U.S. population, yet they are underrepresented in clinical research. This inherently limits the societal benefits of the research and its generalizability to ethnic populati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interleukin 12B (IL12B) genetic variation and pulmonary tuberculosis: a study of cohorts from The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, United States and Argentina.

Journal Article PLoS One · February 9, 2011 We examined whether polymorphisms in interleukin-12B (IL12B) associate with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in two West African populations (from The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau) and in two independent populations from North and South America. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mortality before or during treatment among tuberculosis patients in North Carolina, 1993-2003.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · February 2011 SETTING: North Carolina, United States. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the demographic and behavioral risk factors associated with death among tuberculosis (TB) patients in North Carolina. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort of all TB patients reported in North Caroli ... Link to item Cite

Potential economic viability of two proposed rifapentine-based regimens for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2011 RATIONALE: Rifapentine-based regimens for treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are being considered for future clinical trials, but even if they prove effective, high drug costs may limit their economic viability. OBJECTIVES: To inform clinical tr ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Effect of improving the quality of radiographic interpretation on the ability to predict pulmonary tuberculosis relapse.

Journal Article Acad Radiol · February 2010 RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Chest radiographic findings are important for diagnosis and management of tuberculosis. The reliability of these findings is therefore of interest. We sought to describe interobserver reliability of chest radiographic findings in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Variants in toll-like receptors 2 and 9 influence susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Caucasians, African-Americans, and West Africans.

Journal Article Hum Genet · January 2010 Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem and a source of preventable deaths each year, with 8.8 million new cases of TB and 1.6 million deaths worldwide in 2005. Approximately, 10% of infected individuals develop pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Standardising clinical data elements

Journal Article International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine · January 1, 2010 We report the development and implementation of a methodology for standardising clinical data elements. The methodology, piloted using Tuberculosis (TB) and Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) domains, relies on clinicians for natural language definitions and o ... Full text Cite

NOS2A, TLR4, and IFNGR1 interactions influence pulmonary tuberculosis susceptibility in African-Americans.

Journal Article Hum Genet · November 2009 Tuberculosis (TB) has substantial mortality worldwide with 5-10% of those exposed progressing to active TB disease. Studies in mice and humans indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) molecule plays an important role in immune response to T ... Full text Link to item Cite

Missed opportunities for diagnosis of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in Moshi, Tanzania.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · October 2009 SETTING: A community-based voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) center in Moshi, Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To compare rates of prior human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among clients with and without previous tuberculosis (TB) treatment, and HIV seropo ... Link to item Cite

HIV-specific health care utilization and mortality among tuberculosis/HIV coinfected persons.

Journal Article AIDS Patient Care STDS · October 2009 Persons coinfected with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are at high risk of death, in part due to suboptimal utilization of HIV-specific health care. We sought to better understand HIV-associated health care utilization and mortality in a retrospective cohort of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of SLC11A1 with tuberculosis and interactions with NOS2A and TLR2 in African-Americans and Caucasians.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · September 2009 SETTING: Host defense factors may influence the development of active tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To test variants in solute carrier family 11A, member 1 (SLC11A1), for an association with TB. METHODS: A mixed case-control study of TB cases, relatives or ... Link to item Cite

Substitution of moxifloxacin for isoniazid during intensive phase treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · August 1, 2009 RATIONALE: Moxifloxacin has potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and in a mouse model of antituberculosis (TB) chemotherapy, but data regarding its activity in humans are limited. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compare the antimicr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Costs and cost-effectiveness of four treatment regimens for latent tuberculosis infection.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · June 1, 2009 RATIONALE: Isoniazid given daily for 9 months is the standard treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), but its effectiveness is limited by poor completion rates. Shorter course regimens and regimens using directly observed therapy result in impr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimycobacterial drugs in patients with both tuberculosis and advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Journal Article Pharmacotherapy · May 2009 STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of therapeutic drug monitoring for adjusting low serum antimycobacterial concentrations in patients with both tuberculosis and advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. DA ... Full text Link to item Cite

Alcohol use and clinical manifestations of tuberculosis.

Journal Article J Infect · May 2009 OBJECTIVES: Excess alcohol use represents a significant challenge in tuberculosis control. Whether alcohol use enhances transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not known. METHODS: We analyzed North Carolina, USA surveillance data for all adult (>14 y ... Full text Link to item Cite

Distributing US health aid.

Journal Article JAMA · April 1, 2009 Full text Link to item Cite

Alcohol use and clinical manifestations of tuberculosis.

Journal Article J Infect · November 2008 OBJECTIVES: Excess alcohol use represents a significant challenge in tuberculosis control. Whether alcohol use enhances transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not known. METHODS: We analyzed North Carolina, USA surveillance data for all adult (> 14 ... Full text Link to item Cite

The value of end-of-treatment chest radiograph in predicting pulmonary tuberculosis relapse.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · September 2008 SETTING: Patients with cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) on baseline chest radiograph (CXR) who remain culture-positive after 8 weeks of treatment are at high risk of relapse. The role of end-of-treatment (EOT) CXR in predicting relapse is unclear. OBJE ... Link to item Cite

Association between 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer sequence groups of Mycobacterium avium complex and pulmonary disease.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · August 2008 Organisms within the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) may have differential virulence. We compared 33 subjects with MAC pulmonary disease to 75 subjects with a single positive culture without disease. M. avium isolates were significantly more likely to be ... Full text Link to item Cite

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and foreign birth in North Carolina, 1993 - 2006.

Journal Article BMC Public Health · April 4, 2008 BACKGROUND: The proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) reported in the United States has been gradually increasing. HIV infection and foreign birth are increasingly associated with tuberculosis and understanding their effect on the clinical prese ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: are we learning from history or repeating it?

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 1, 2007 Tuberculosis (TB) is an enormous global public health problem. Cases of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) are being reported in increasing numbers across the globe. A large outbreak of XDR-TB associated with rapid and nearly universal mortality has be ... Full text Link to item Cite

The virologic, immunologic, and clinical effects of interleukin 2 with potent antiretroviral therapy in patients with moderately advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection: a randomized controlled clinical trial--AIDS Clinical Trials Group 328.

Journal Article Arch Intern Med · March 26, 2007 BACKGROUND: Interleukin 2 (IL-2) administration increases CD4 counts in persons with higher counts. This study investigated persons with moderately advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METH ... Full text Link to item Cite

Response [2]

Journal Article Science · February 23, 2007 Cite

Developing drugs for tuberculosis - Response

Journal Article SCIENCE · February 23, 2007 Link to item Cite

Data standards: At the intersection of sites, clinical research networks, and standards development initiatives

Journal Article Drug Information Journal · January 1, 2007 Interactions between the health care and clinical research communities are currently inefficient. The present environment forces unnecessary redundancy, from the capture of patient data in the clinician-patient encounter to multiple uses of that data. Clin ... Full text Cite

Tuberculosis knowledge and attitudes among physicians who treat young children in North Carolina, USA.

Journal Article Int J Tuberc Lung Dis · July 2006 Featured Publication SETTING: North Carolina, USA. OBJECTIVE: To understand physicians' knowledge and attitudes toward the treatment of young children with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in a low-incidence region. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of 525 pediatricians and 5 ... Link to item Cite

Racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric tuberculosis in North Carolina.

Journal Article Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med · June 2006 Featured Publication OBJECTIVES: To investigate an increase in active pediatric tuberculosis (TB) cases in North Carolina from 9 cases in 2001 to 32 cases in 2002, and to pilot test a screening tool for detection of latent TB infection in children. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort ... Full text Link to item Cite

Medicine. A portfolio model of drug development for tuberculosis.

Journal Article Science · March 3, 2006 Featured Publication Full text Link to item Cite

Current issues in global tuberculosis control.

Journal Article Int J Infect Dis · November 2005 Featured Publication Despite attempts to standardize tuberculosis (TB) control strategies, there remains wide variation in the selection and implementation of control strategies within and among nations. Some of this variation is appropriate; based on wide variations in the av ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunosuppression related to collagen-vascular disease or its treatment.

Journal Article Proc Am Thorac Soc · 2005 Featured Publication Collagen-vascular diseases are associated with immune dysregulation and inflammation, leading to tissue destruction or compromise. Immunosuppression is more commonly associated with the drugs used to treat these disorders than with the diseases themselves. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infectious complications of treatment with biologic agents.

Journal Article Curr Opin Rheumatol · July 2004 Featured Publication PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are three tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors on the US and European markets today, and uncommon but devastating infectious complications accompany their use. This review describes the most important pathogen-specific infections ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adolescent sexual health

Journal Article Clinics in Family Practice · January 1, 2004 Family physicians can make a significant impact on the sexual health of adolescents and on their adult lives by increasing the access of teens to health care and then addressing their sexual health needs. Preventive immunizations, direct patient education, ... Full text Cite

Safety of 2 months of rifampin and pyrazinamide for treatment of latent tuberculosis.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · March 15, 2003 Featured Publication An alternative regimen for the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is 2 months of rifampin and pyrazinamide, but some patients have died of hepatitis associated with this therapy. One hundred fourteen patients received rifampin/pyrazinamide in Wake ... Full text Link to item Cite

A randomized comparative study to determine the effect of omeprazole on the peak serum concentration of itraconazole oral solution.

Journal Article J Antimicrob Chemother · February 2003 To determine the effect of omeprazole on peak serum concentrations (C(max)) of itraconazole oral solution (IOS), we carried out a randomized, open-label, prospective, crossover study. Fifteen healthy, non-pregnant adults received a single dose of IOS 400 m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Chronic illness and sexual functioning.

Journal Article Am Fam Physician · January 15, 2003 Chronic illness and its treatments can have a negative impact on sexual functioning. The mechanism of interference may be neurologic, vascular, endocrinologic, musculoskeletal, or psychologic. Patients may mistakenly perceive a medical prohibition to the r ... Link to item Cite

The proactive sexual health history.

Journal Article Am Fam Physician · November 1, 2002 Family physicians must proactively address the sexual health of their patients. Effective sexual health care should address wellness considerations in addition to infections, contraception, and sexual dysfunction. However, physicians consistently underesti ... Link to item Cite

Reactivation of retinal toxoplasmosis despite evidence of immune response to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 15, 2002 Featured Publication We report a case of retinal toxoplasmosis that occurred in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who had a previous diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis, despite the patient having had a robust immune response to highly active antiretroviral the ... Full text Link to item Cite

A prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the tolerability of rifapentine 600, 900, and 1,200 mg plus isoniazid in the continuation phase of tuberculosis treatment.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · June 1, 2002 Featured Publication Once-weekly rifapentine 600 mg plus isoniazid (INH) during the continuation phase treatment of tuberculosis is associated with a relapse rate higher than that of twice-weekly rifampin plus INH. The safety and tolerability of higher rifapentine doses need t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus testing among patients with tuberculosis in North Carolina.

Journal Article South Med J · February 2002 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is recommended for all patients with tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Surveillance data for all reported cases of TB in North Carolina from 1993 to 1999 were examined to assess HIV testing practices. RESULT ... Link to item Cite

Hospital management of tuberculosis in a region with a low incidence of tuberculosis and a high prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · November 2001 Featured Publication We prospectively assessed the management of patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB) in an area with a high prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and a low incidence of TB. Clinicians' assessments were sensitive for TB but had poor predictive va ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mycobacterium bovis peritonitis mimicking ovarian cancer in a young woman.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 15, 2001 We describe a 27-year-old woman with peritonitis due to Mycobacterium bovis that initially appeared to be ovarian cancer. Clinicians should include this disease in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer and should consider laparoscopic diagnosis in t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antiretroviral therapy effects on genetic and morphologic end points in lymphocytes and sperm of men with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · July 15, 2001 Featured Publication Many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons receive prolonged treatment with DNA-reactive antiretroviral drugs. A prospective study was conducted of 26 HIV-infected men who provided samples before treatment and at multiple times after beginnin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vertical transmission of multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and continued evolution of drug resistance in an HIV-1-infected infant.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · June 1, 2001 Featured Publication To confirm the vertical transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and to assess its impact on further evolution of drug-resistant virus in an infant, proviral DNA amplified from infected peripheral blood mononucl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antepartum or postpartum isoniazid treatment of latent tuberculosis infection.

Journal Article Obstet Gynecol · November 2000 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: To compare health outcomes and costs of different strategies for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in pregnancy. METHODS: Using a Markov decision-analysis model, the following three strategies were evaluated for treatment of latent tube ... Full text Link to item Cite

Excessive use of vancomycin: a successful intervention strategy at an academic medical center.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · January 2000 Featured Publication The project goal was to decrease excessive vancomycin use. Interventions included an educational chart note the first day of therapy, followed by pharmacists discussing the need for continued therapy with patients' physicians. Empirical vancomycin use impr ... Full text Link to item Cite

The use of a transscrotal testosterone delivery system in the treatment of patients with weight loss related to human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Journal Article Am J Med · August 1999 PURPOSE: Weight loss is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) lose body cell mass. Hypogonadism is also common. This study tested the effica ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recent Developments in Epidemiology, Treatment, and Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

Journal Article Curr Infect Dis Rep · April 1999 The resurgence in cases of active tuberculosis in North America in the past decade has prompted increases in funding for tuberculosis treatment, research, and education. As a result, the number of new cases of tuberculosis has declined and cases occur in s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hospital management of patients suspected of pulmonary TB in a high incidence area for MOTT.

Journal Article AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE · March 1, 1999 Link to item Cite

Clostridium septicum myonecrosis presenting as a parapharyngeal abscess in a patient with aplastic anemia.

Journal Article Infection · 1998 The first reported case of Clostridium septicum myonecrosis in an adult with aplastic anemia is described. The patient presented with sepsis, a parapharyngeal abscess that necessitated emergent intubation, and severe intravascular hemolysis attributed to c ... Full text Link to item Cite

A successful program to optimize use of Amphotericin B Lipid Complex (ABLC) at an academic medical center

Journal Article Clinical Infectious Diseases · December 1, 1997 Lipid-based antifungal products have been developed, and some may reduce nephrotoxicily and infusion-related side-effects, compared to standard amphotericin B (AmB). However, questions remain about optimal daily and cumulative dosing strategies, and no pub ... Cite

Improving clinician adherence to vancomycin-use guidelines: Results of a pharmacist-based strategy at an Academic Medical Center

Journal Article Clinical Infectious Diseases · December 1, 1997 Vancomycin (vanc) is the only licensed antibiotic effective against several highly resistant bacteria. Unfortunately, its use has contributed to the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The first VRE was isolated at Duke in 1992; by 1995, 1 ... Cite

Pericardial effusion in AIDS.

Journal Article Circulation · September 16, 1997 Link to item Cite

A patient's guide to safer sex. Reducing the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

Journal Article N C Med J · 1997 In summary, each person must be responsible for his or her own sexual health and, unfortunately, there are some deadly infections in the population these days. We hope this frank discussion of options will help you make smart decisions about your sex life. ... Link to item Cite

Potent inhibition of HIV type 1 infection of mononuclear phagocytes by synthetic peptide analogs of HIV type 1 protease substrates.

Journal Article AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses · June 10, 1996 The HIV-1 genome encodes a protease that is required for viral processing of the precursor polyproteins Pr55gag and Pr160gag-pol. Interference with this process in human lymphocytes inhibits production of infectious virus. We tested the ability of several ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adrenergic desensitization in left ventricle from streptozotocin diabetic swine.

Journal Article J Mol Cell Cardiol · October 1995 Patients with diabetes mellitus that exhibit cardiac pump failure display compromised stroke volume, ejection fraction, and slower rates of rise and fall of left ventricular (LV) dP/dt in the absence of ischemic injury. We hypothesized that diabetic cardio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cellular CD44S as a determinant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and cellular tropism.

Journal Article J Virol · July 1995 CD4 is the predominant cell membrane protein that binds human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 and facilitates HIV-1 infection, but other membrane-associated molecules may be involved in determining HIV-1 cellular infection. Our prior work had s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hospice education about people with AIDS as terminally ill patients: coping with a new epidemic of death.

Journal Article Am J Hosp Palliat Care · 1995 Hospice care for patients with AIDS often differs from care provided to patients with other terminal illnesses, such as cancer. We designed a seminar series to educate regional hospice staff about these differences and subsequently determined if the educat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tuberculous pericarditis in Tanzanian patients with and without HIV infection.

Journal Article Tuber Lung Dis · December 1994 SETTING: Large academic medical center in Tanzania. OBJECTIVES: To determine the etiologies and outcomes of large pericardial effusions in HIV-infected and uninfected patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of patients admitted with new large pericardia ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neopterin production by HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes.

Journal Article J Leukoc Biol · November 1994 Neopterin is a pteridine produced by human mononuclear phagocytes, usually in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) stimulation. Increasing serum levels of neopterin correlate with clinical progression to AIDS in HIV-infected people, but the factors tha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hepatitis B vaccination and booster in predialysis patients: a 4-year analysis.

Journal Article Vaccine · September 1993 Patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis are at increased risk for infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), but response to currently available vaccines is suboptimal. We undertook a 4-year prospective study of the efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in patien ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human monocytes and macrophages does not alter their ability to generate an oxidative burst.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · August 1993 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects mononuclear phagocytes, cells that may serve as a reservoir for viral persistence. Infection with HIV-1 leads to progressive compromise of the immune system, resulting in infections with opportunistic pat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intestinal parasites and HIV infection in Tanzanian children with chronic diarrhea.

Journal Article AIDS · February 1993 OBJECTIVE: To determine whether specific intestinal parasites are associated with HIV infection in Tanzanian children with chronic diarrhea. DESIGN: A prospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Sala ... Full text Link to item Cite

Severe cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions during treatment of tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection in Tanzania.

Journal Article Trop Geogr Med · October 1992 Concurrent infection with HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis is increasingly common in East Africa. In the past, a drug regimen consisting of 2 months of intramuscular streptomycin plus 12 months of isoniazid and thiacetazone has been used in tuberculosi ... Link to item Cite

Effects of estrogen/progestin agents on plasma retinoids and chylomicron remnant metabolism.

Journal Article Contraception · January 1987 Women using estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive agents have a marked decrease in the activity of hepatic triglyceride lipase, an enzyme believed to be involved in the catabolism of lipoprotein remnants. The hypothesis that women receiving these agents ha ... Full text Link to item Cite