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Sara Elizabeth Miller

Professor in Pathology
Pathology
Duke Box 3712, Durham, NC 27710
40 Medicine Circle, DHS 3083 - Yellow Zone, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


Detection and identification of coronaviruses in human tissues using electron microscopy.

Journal Article Microsc Res Tech · July 2022 The identification of viral particles within a tissue specimen requires specific knowledge of viral ultrastructure and replication, as well as a thorough familiarity with normal subcellular organelles. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (S ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rejuvenation of neutrophils and their extracellular vesicles is associated with enhanced aged fracture healing.

Journal Article Aging Cell · July 2022 Tissue repair is negatively affected by advanced age. Recent evidence indicates that hematopoietic cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are modulators of regenerative capacity. Here, we report that plasma EVs carrying specific surface markers indicate ... Full text Link to item Cite

SARS-CoV-2 Immunohistochemistry In Placenta.

Journal Article Int J Surg Pathol · June 2022 Compared to the parental SARS-CoV-2 virus, infections by the now dominant Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 appear to be more common and more severe in pregnant women. The need for a robust, cheap, and quick method for diagnosing placental infection by SARS-CoV- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lipid and Nucleocapsid N-Protein Accumulation in COVID-19 Patient Lung and Infected Cells.

Journal Article Microbiol Spectr · February 23, 2022 The pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global outbreak and prompted an enormous research effort. Still, the subcellular localization of the coronavirus in lungs of COVID-19 patients is not well underst ... Full text Link to item Cite

Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome candidate gene CLVS1 regulates podocyte oxidative stress and endocytosis.

Journal Article JCI Insight · January 25, 2022 We performed next-generation sequencing in patients with familial steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and identified a homozygous segregating variant (p.H310Y) in the gene encoding clavesin-1 (CLVS1) in a consanguineous family with 3 affected indiv ... Full text Link to item Cite

Renal Considerations in COVID-19: Biology, Pathology, and Pathophysiology.

Journal Article ASAIO J · October 1, 2021 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged into a worldwide pandemic of epic proportion. Beyond pulmonary involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a significant subset of patients experiences acute kidney injury. Pa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Histopathological findings and clinicopathologic correlation in COVID-19: a systematic review.

Journal Article Mod Pathol · September 2021 The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has had devastating effects on global health and worldwide economy. Despite an initial reluctance to perform autopsies due to concerns for aerosolization of viral particles, a large ... Full text Link to item Cite

NGF-TrkA signaling dictates neural ingrowth and aberrant osteochondral differentiation after soft tissue trauma.

Journal Article Nat Commun · August 16, 2021 Pain is a central feature of soft tissue trauma, which under certain contexts, results in aberrant osteochondral differentiation of tissue-specific stem cells. Here, the role of sensory nerve fibers in this abnormal cell fate decision is investigated using ... Full text Link to item Cite

Post-COVID-19 Syndrome (Long Haul Syndrome): Description of a Multidisciplinary Clinic at Mayo Clinic and Characteristics of the Initial Patient Cohort.

Journal Article Mayo Clin Proc · July 2021 OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of a series of patients reporting prolonged symptoms after an infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study describes the multidisciplinary COVID-19 Activity Rehabilitation Progr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Best practices for correctly identifying coronavirus by transmission electron microscopy.

Journal Article Kidney Int · April 2021 This guidance provides clear, concise strategies for identifying coronaviruses by transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections of tissues or infected tissue cultures. These include a description of virus morphology as well as cell organelles that ... Full text Link to item Cite

Difficulties in Differentiating Coronaviruses from Subcellular Structures in Human Tissues by Electron Microscopy.

Journal Article Emerg Infect Dis · April 2021 Efforts to combat the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have placed a renewed focus on the use of transmission electron microscopy for identifying coronavirus in tissues. In attem ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hunting coronavirus by transmission electron microscopy - a guide to SARS-CoV-2-associated ultrastructural pathology in COVID-19 tissues.

Journal Article Histopathology · February 2021 Transmission electron microscopy has become a valuable tool to investigate tissues of COVID-19 patients because it allows visualisation of SARS-CoV-2, but the 'virus-like particles' described in several organs have been highly contested. Because most elect ... Full text Link to item Cite

SARS-CoV-2 has not been detected directly by electron microscopy in the endothelium of chilblain lesions.

Journal Article Br J Dermatol · January 2021 Linked Article: Colmenero et al. Br J Dermatol 2020; 183:729–737. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Visualization of SARS-CoV-2 in the Lung.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · December 31, 2020 Full text Link to item Cite

SARS-CoV-2 causes a specific dysfunction of the kidney proximal tubule.

Journal Article Kidney Int · November 2020 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is commonly associated with kidney damage, and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is highly expressed in the proximal tubule cells. Whether patients with COVID-19 present specific manifest ... Full text Link to item Cite

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ) lineage tracing highlights perivascular cell to myofibroblast transdifferentiation during post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

Journal Article J Orthop Res · November 2020 Pericytes ubiquitously surround capillaries and microvessels within vascularized tissues and have diverse functions after tissue injury. In addition to regulation of angiogenesis and tissue regeneration after injury, pericytes also contribute to organ fibr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perivascular Fibro-Adipogenic Progenitor Tracing during Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis.

Journal Article Am J Pathol · September 2020 Perivascular mural cells surround capillaries and microvessels and have diverse regenerative or fibrotic functions after tissue injury. Subsynovial fibrosis is a well-known pathologic feature of osteoarthritis, yet transgenic animals for use in visualizing ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endogenous CCN family member WISP1 inhibits trauma-induced heterotopic ossification.

Journal Article JCI Insight · July 9, 2020 Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as abnormal differentiation of local stromal cells of mesenchymal origin, resulting in pathologic cartilage and bone matrix deposition. Cyr61, CTGF, Nov (CCN) family members are matricellular proteins that have dive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Detection and identification of coronaviruses in human tissues using electron microscopy.

Journal Article Microsc Res Tech · July 2022 The identification of viral particles within a tissue specimen requires specific knowledge of viral ultrastructure and replication, as well as a thorough familiarity with normal subcellular organelles. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (S ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rejuvenation of neutrophils and their extracellular vesicles is associated with enhanced aged fracture healing.

Journal Article Aging Cell · July 2022 Tissue repair is negatively affected by advanced age. Recent evidence indicates that hematopoietic cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are modulators of regenerative capacity. Here, we report that plasma EVs carrying specific surface markers indicate ... Full text Link to item Cite

SARS-CoV-2 Immunohistochemistry In Placenta.

Journal Article Int J Surg Pathol · June 2022 Compared to the parental SARS-CoV-2 virus, infections by the now dominant Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 appear to be more common and more severe in pregnant women. The need for a robust, cheap, and quick method for diagnosing placental infection by SARS-CoV- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lipid and Nucleocapsid N-Protein Accumulation in COVID-19 Patient Lung and Infected Cells.

Journal Article Microbiol Spectr · February 23, 2022 The pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global outbreak and prompted an enormous research effort. Still, the subcellular localization of the coronavirus in lungs of COVID-19 patients is not well underst ... Full text Link to item Cite

Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome candidate gene CLVS1 regulates podocyte oxidative stress and endocytosis.

Journal Article JCI Insight · January 25, 2022 We performed next-generation sequencing in patients with familial steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and identified a homozygous segregating variant (p.H310Y) in the gene encoding clavesin-1 (CLVS1) in a consanguineous family with 3 affected indiv ... Full text Link to item Cite

Renal Considerations in COVID-19: Biology, Pathology, and Pathophysiology.

Journal Article ASAIO J · October 1, 2021 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged into a worldwide pandemic of epic proportion. Beyond pulmonary involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a significant subset of patients experiences acute kidney injury. Pa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Histopathological findings and clinicopathologic correlation in COVID-19: a systematic review.

Journal Article Mod Pathol · September 2021 The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has had devastating effects on global health and worldwide economy. Despite an initial reluctance to perform autopsies due to concerns for aerosolization of viral particles, a large ... Full text Link to item Cite

NGF-TrkA signaling dictates neural ingrowth and aberrant osteochondral differentiation after soft tissue trauma.

Journal Article Nat Commun · August 16, 2021 Pain is a central feature of soft tissue trauma, which under certain contexts, results in aberrant osteochondral differentiation of tissue-specific stem cells. Here, the role of sensory nerve fibers in this abnormal cell fate decision is investigated using ... Full text Link to item Cite

Post-COVID-19 Syndrome (Long Haul Syndrome): Description of a Multidisciplinary Clinic at Mayo Clinic and Characteristics of the Initial Patient Cohort.

Journal Article Mayo Clin Proc · July 2021 OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of a series of patients reporting prolonged symptoms after an infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study describes the multidisciplinary COVID-19 Activity Rehabilitation Progr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Best practices for correctly identifying coronavirus by transmission electron microscopy.

Journal Article Kidney Int · April 2021 This guidance provides clear, concise strategies for identifying coronaviruses by transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections of tissues or infected tissue cultures. These include a description of virus morphology as well as cell organelles that ... Full text Link to item Cite

Difficulties in Differentiating Coronaviruses from Subcellular Structures in Human Tissues by Electron Microscopy.

Journal Article Emerg Infect Dis · April 2021 Efforts to combat the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have placed a renewed focus on the use of transmission electron microscopy for identifying coronavirus in tissues. In attem ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hunting coronavirus by transmission electron microscopy - a guide to SARS-CoV-2-associated ultrastructural pathology in COVID-19 tissues.

Journal Article Histopathology · February 2021 Transmission electron microscopy has become a valuable tool to investigate tissues of COVID-19 patients because it allows visualisation of SARS-CoV-2, but the 'virus-like particles' described in several organs have been highly contested. Because most elect ... Full text Link to item Cite

SARS-CoV-2 has not been detected directly by electron microscopy in the endothelium of chilblain lesions.

Journal Article Br J Dermatol · January 2021 Linked Article: Colmenero et al. Br J Dermatol 2020; 183:729–737. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Visualization of SARS-CoV-2 in the Lung.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · December 31, 2020 Full text Link to item Cite

SARS-CoV-2 causes a specific dysfunction of the kidney proximal tubule.

Journal Article Kidney Int · November 2020 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is commonly associated with kidney damage, and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is highly expressed in the proximal tubule cells. Whether patients with COVID-19 present specific manifest ... Full text Link to item Cite

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ) lineage tracing highlights perivascular cell to myofibroblast transdifferentiation during post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

Journal Article J Orthop Res · November 2020 Pericytes ubiquitously surround capillaries and microvessels within vascularized tissues and have diverse functions after tissue injury. In addition to regulation of angiogenesis and tissue regeneration after injury, pericytes also contribute to organ fibr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perivascular Fibro-Adipogenic Progenitor Tracing during Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis.

Journal Article Am J Pathol · September 2020 Perivascular mural cells surround capillaries and microvessels and have diverse regenerative or fibrotic functions after tissue injury. Subsynovial fibrosis is a well-known pathologic feature of osteoarthritis, yet transgenic animals for use in visualizing ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endogenous CCN family member WISP1 inhibits trauma-induced heterotopic ossification.

Journal Article JCI Insight · July 9, 2020 Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as abnormal differentiation of local stromal cells of mesenchymal origin, resulting in pathologic cartilage and bone matrix deposition. Cyr61, CTGF, Nov (CCN) family members are matricellular proteins that have dive ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Neurotrophic Mechanism Directs Sensory Nerve Transit in Cranial Bone.

Journal Article Cell Rep · May 26, 2020 The flat bones of the skull are densely innervated during development, but little is known regarding their role during repair. We describe a neurotrophic mechanism that directs sensory nerve transit in the mouse calvaria. Patent cranial suture mesenchyme r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of Human Tissue Microarray to Human Pericyte Transcriptome Yields Novel Perivascular Cell Markers.

Journal Article Stem Cells Dev · September 15, 2019 Human perivascular progenitor cells, including pericytes, are well-described multipotent mesenchymal cells giving rise to mesenchymal stem cells in culture. Despite the unique location of pericytes, specific antigens to distinguish human pericytes from oth ... Full text Link to item Cite

Heterotopic Ossification: A Comprehensive Review

Journal Article JBMR Plus · April 1, 2019 Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a diverse pathologic process, defined as the formation of extraskeletal bone in muscle and soft tissues. HO can be conceptualized as a tissue repair process gone awry and is a common complication of trauma and surgery. This ... Full text Cite

Mitochondria-enriched protrusions are associated with brain and intestinal stem cells in Drosophila.

Journal Article Commun Biol · 2019 Brain stem cells stop dividing in late Drosophila embryos and begin dividing again in early larvae after feeding induces reactivation. Quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs) display an unusual cytoplasmic protrusion that is no longer present in reactivated NS ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ultrastructural Analysis of Vesicular Transport in Electrotransfection.

Journal Article Microsc Microanal · October 2018 Emerging evidence from various studies indicates that plasmid DNA (pDNA) is internalized by cells through an endocytosis-like process when it is used for electrotransfection. To provide morphological evidence of the process, we investigated ultrastructures ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sheath Cell Invasion and Trans-differentiation Repair Mechanical Damage Caused by Loss of Caveolae in the Zebrafish Notochord.

Journal Article Curr Biol · July 10, 2017 The notochord, a conserved axial structure required for embryonic axis elongation and spine development, consists of giant vacuolated cells surrounded by an epithelial sheath [1-3]. During morphogenesis, vacuolated cells maintain their structural integrity ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hemorrhagic Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Nephritis: An Unusual Cause of Acute Allograft Dysfunction.

Journal Article Am J Transplant · January 2017 Interstitial nephritis due to viruses is well-described after solid organ transplantation. Viruses implicated include cytomegalovirus; BK polyomavirus; Epstein-Barr virus; and, less commonly, adenovirus. We describe a rare case of hemorrhagic allograft nep ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Macrophage Epithelial Reprogramming Underlies Mycobacterial Granuloma Formation and Promotes Infection.

Journal Article Immunity · October 18, 2016 Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in humans triggers formation of granulomas, which are tightly organized immune cell aggregates that are the central structure of tuberculosis. Infected and uninfected macrophages interdigitate, assuming an altered, flat ... Full text Link to item Cite

EM Detection of Viruses in Organ Transplant Patients

Journal Article Microscopy and Microanalysis · January 1, 2015 Full text Cite

Expression of a mitochondrial progesterone receptor in human spermatozoa correlates with a progestin-dependent increase in mitochondrial membrane potential.

Journal Article Andrology · November 2014 The hyperactivation of human spermatozoa necessary for fertilization requires a substantial increase in cellular energy production. The factors responsible for increasing cellular energy remain poorly defined. This article proposes a role for a novel mitoc ... Full text Link to item Cite

TNXB mutations can cause vesicoureteral reflux.

Journal Article J Am Soc Nephrol · July 2013 Primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the most common congenital anomaly of the kidney and the urinary tract, and it is a major risk factor for pyelonephritic scarring and CKD in children. Although twin studies support the heritability of VUR, specific ge ... Full text Link to item Cite

A truncated progesterone receptor (PR-M) localizes to the mitochondrion and controls cellular respiration.

Journal Article Mol Endocrinol · May 2013 The cDNA for a novel truncated progesterone receptor (PR-M) was previously cloned from human adipose and aortic cDNA libraries. The predicted protein sequence contains 16 unique N-terminal amino acids, encoded by a sequence in the distal third intron of th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Highly conductive carbon nanotube matrix accelerates developmental chloride extrusion in central nervous system neurons by increased expression of chloride transporter KCC2.

Journal Article Small · April 8, 2013 Exceptional mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) have attracted neuroscientists and neural tissue engineers aiming to develop novel devices that interface with nervous tissues. In the central nervous system (CNS), the perinatal ch ... Full text Link to item Cite

Detection of BK polyomavirus after kidney transplantation: a comparison of urine electron microscopy with plasma polymerase chain reaction.

Journal Article Clin Transplant · 2013 BK polyomavirus (BKV) infection continues to be a significant source of allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant recipients. The optimal screening method to detect BKV remains undetermined. In this retrospective analysis of 347 consecutive kidney transpl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Report of a young girl with MYH9 mutation and review of the literature.

Journal Article J Pediatr Hematol Oncol · October 2012 MYH9 mutations cause the inherited macro-thrombocytopenic syndromes of May-Hegglin anomaly, Fechtner syndrome, Sebastian syndrome, and Epstein syndrome, collectively referred to as MYH9-related disease. We present the case of a girl with MYH9-related disea ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Problems and Pitfalls in Diagnostic Electron Microscopy

Journal Article Microscopy and Microanalysis · January 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Modern uses of electron microscopy for detection of viruses.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Rev · October 2009 Electron microscopy, considered by some to be an old technique, is still on the forefront of both clinical viral diagnoses and viral ultrastructure and pathogenesis studies. In the diagnostic setting, it is particularly valuable in the surveillance of emer ... Full text Link to item Cite

Expression of Kingella kingae type IV pili is regulated by sigma54, PilS, and PilR.

Journal Article J Bacteriol · August 2009 Kingella kingae is a member of the Neisseriaceae and is being recognized increasingly as an important cause of serious disease in children. Recent work has demonstrated that K. kingae expresses type IV pili that mediate adherence to respiratory epithelial ... Full text Link to item Cite

Kingella kingae expresses type IV pili that mediate adherence to respiratory epithelial and synovial cells.

Journal Article J Bacteriol · November 2008 Kingella kingae is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the respiratory tract and is a common cause of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Despite the increasing frequency of K. kingae disease, little is known about the mechanism by which this organism ... Full text Link to item Cite

Induction of plasma (TRAIL), TNFR-2, Fas ligand, and plasma microparticles after human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission: implications for HIV-1 vaccine design.

Journal Article J Virol · August 2008 The death of CD4(+) CCR5(+) T cells is a hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We studied the plasma levels of cell death mediators and products--tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), Fas ligand, TNF rec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lemons to lemonade (EM techniques for salvaging suboptimal specimens)

Journal Article Microscopy and Microanalysis · August 1, 2008 Full text Cite

Norwalk virus: how infectious is it?

Journal Article J Med Virol · August 2008 Noroviruses are major agents of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The infectivity of Norwalk virus, the prototype norovirus, has been studied in susceptible human volunteers. A new variant of the hit theory model of microbial infection was developed to esti ... Full text Link to item Cite

CLN3p impacts galactosylceramide transport, raft morphology, and lipid content.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · June 2008 Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) belongs to the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses characterized by blindness/seizures/motor/cognitive decline and early death. JNCL is caused by CLN3 gene mutations that negatively modulate cell growth/apoptosis. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of a novel trimeric autotransporter adhesin in the cryptic genospecies of Haemophilus.

Journal Article J Bacteriol · June 2008 Haemophilus biotype IV strains belonging to the recently recognized Haemophilus cryptic genospecies are an important cause of maternal genital tract and neonatal systemic infections and initiate infection by colonizing the genital or respiratory epithelium ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myotilin overexpression enhances myopathology in the LGMD1A mouse model.

Journal Article Muscle Nerve · May 2008 Missense mutations in the myotilin gene cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1A (LGMD1A). We set out to examine the effect of overexpression of wild-type myotilin in an LGMD1A mouse model by crossing wild-type and mutant transgenic mice. Compared to s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Deletion of the protein kinase A/protein kinase G target SMTNL1 promotes an exercise-adapted phenotype in vascular smooth muscle.

Journal Article J Biol Chem · April 25, 2008 In vivo protein kinases A and G (PKA and PKG) coordinately phosphorylate a broad range of substrates to mediate their various physiological effects. The functions of many of these substrates have yet to be defined genetically. Herein we show a role for smo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Viral disease

Chapter · January 1, 2008 Ocular viral infections are a particularly complex topic for diagnosticians and clinicians alike. The eye’s component parts, though packed into a space measuring approximately one inch in diameter, are rich in diversity and varied in embryonic origin, invi ... Cite

Viral disease

Chapter · November 1, 2007 Cite

Immunoelectron microscopy

Chapter · December 13, 2006 Cite

Proteomics of cerebral injury in a neonatal model of cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

Journal Article J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg · October 2006 OBJECTIVE: Concern over neurologic injury limits safe duration of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in surgery for congenital cardiac disease. Proteomics is a novel and powerful technique to study global protein changes in a given protein system. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Transgenic mice expressing the myotilin T57I mutation unite the pathology associated with LGMD1A and MFM.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · August 1, 2006 Myotilin is a muscle-specific Z-disc protein with putative roles in myofibril assembly and structural upkeep of the sarcomere. Several myotilin point mutations have been described in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1A (LGMD1A), myofibrill ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of sentinel laboratories by clinicians to evaluate potential bioterrorism and emerging infections.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · May 1, 2006 With the persistent threat of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism, it has become increasingly important that clinicians be able to identify the diseases that might signal the occurrence of these unusual events. Essential to a thoughtful diagnosti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vesicles target toxin delivery into mammalian cells.

Journal Article EMBO J · November 24, 2004 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a prevalent cause of traveler's diarrhea and infant mortality in third-world countries. Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is secreted from ETEC via vesicles composed of outer membrane and periplasm. We investigated the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Surveillance of bioterrorism agents: Considerations for EM laboratories

Journal Article Microscopy and Microanalysis · September 24, 2004 Full text Cite

Proceedings microscopy and microanalysis 2004: Foreword

Journal Article Microscopy and Microanalysis · September 24, 2004 Cite

Risk factors for BK polyomavirus nephritis in renal allograft recipients.

Journal Article Clin Transplant · August 2004 Recurrent episodes of acute rejection (AR) and/or the intense immunosuppression used for their treatment have been proposed as risk factors for BK nephritis (BKN; BK refers to the initials of the first patient from whom this polyomavirus was isolated). To ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immune exclusion and immnune inclusion: A new model of host-bacterial interactions in the gut

Journal Article Clinical and Applied Immunology Reviews · July 1, 2004 It is thought that the primary function of secretory IgA (SIgA) is, in conjunction with the mucus lining of the gut, to prevent translocation of bacteria across the epithelial barrier. In this review, we evaluate the emerging idea that SIgA and the mucus o ... Full text Cite

Microbial biofilms in the gut: visualization by electron microscopy and by acridine orange staining.

Journal Article Ultrastruct Pathol · 2004 The expression of colonization factors by gut bacteria, the growth rate of gut bacteria, and the rate of plasmid exchange by gut bacteria indicate that biofilms are a normal component of bacterial growth in the large bowel. Further, in vitro experiments de ... Link to item Cite

Bioterrorism and electron microscopic differentiation of poxviruses from herpesviruses: dos and don'ts.

Journal Article Ultrastruct Pathol · 2003 Featured Publication With increased threat of terrorism, much attention is being directed toward readiness for biodefense. Smallpox virus, a deadly and much feared organism, is among possible bioterrorism agents. Herpesviruses, such as the one that causes chickenpox and shingl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of the orthopoxvirus p4c gene, which encodes a structural protein that directs intracellular mature virus particles into A-type inclusions.

Journal Article J Virol · November 2002 Featured Publication The orthopoxvirus gene p4c has been identified in the genome of the vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve. This gene encodes the 58-kDa structural protein P4c present on the surfaces of the intracellular mature virus (IMV) particles. The gene is disrupted ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diagnosis of polyomavirus nephritis:: A correlative approach

Journal Article Pathology Case Reviews · January 1, 2002 Full text Cite

Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis associated with Norwalk-like viruses in campus settings.

Journal Article J Am Coll Health · September 2001 Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) are transmitted by fecally contaminated food, water, fomites, and person-to-person contact. They are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis epidemics in industrialized countries. NLV outbreaks are characterized by a 12- to 48- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enhanced green fluorescent protein as a marker for localizing murine cytomegalovirus in acute and latent infection.

Journal Article J Virol Methods · September 2000 A recombinant murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under control of the native immediate-early 1/3 promoter was constructed to detect directly sites of viral activity in latent and reactivated infections. T ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trichodysplasia spinulosa--a newly described folliculocentric viral infection in an immunocompromised host.

Journal Article J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc · December 1999 This is a case report of an immunocompromised individual who presented with progressive alopecia, friable follicular spinous processes, and erythematous, indurated papules. Examination of skin biopsies using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry reveal ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diagnosis and management of BK polyomavirus interstitial nephritis in renal transplant recipients.

Journal Article Transplantation · November 15, 1999 BACKGROUND: Interstitial nephritis caused by BK polyomavirus is a recognized complication of renal transplantation. A study of renal transplant recipients at Duke University Medical Center was undertaken to evaluate diagnostic modalities and assess clinica ... Full text Link to item Cite

Electron microscopic diagnosis of human flavivirus encephalitis: use of confocal microscopy as an aid.

Journal Article Am J Surg Pathol · October 1999 The distinction between intracranial viral infections and inflammatory conditions requiring immunosuppression is important. Although specific laboratory reagents are readily available for some viruses, diagnosis of arbovirus infection is more difficult. Tr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intermittent perfusion protects the brain during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

Journal Article Ann Thorac Surg · July 1999 BACKGROUND: Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) has been shown to cause impairment in recovery of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolism (CMRO2) proportional to the duration of the DHCA period. This effect on CMRO2 may be a marker for bra ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cryptosporidium, enterocytozoon, and cyclospora infections in pediatric and adult patients with diarrhea in Tanzania.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 1999 Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and cyclosporiasis were studied in four groups of Tanzanian inpatients: adults with AIDS-associated diarrhea, children with chronic diarrhea (of whom 23 of 59 were positive [+] for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of viral infection by confocal microscopy.

Journal Article Methods Enzymol · 1999 Featured Publication Confocal microscopy is a valuable adjunct to electron microscopy in the fields of diagnostic and investigative virology. Confocal imaging can be used to examine large amounts of tissue stained by a variety of methods for evidence of viral infection. Areas ... Full text Link to item Cite

Special techniques in diagnostic electron microscopy.

Journal Article Hum Pathol · December 1998 The power of electron microscopy as a diagnostic tool can be amplified considerably by the application of ancillary preparative and analytic methods. Subcellular chemistry and structure can be examined by various forms of microprobe analysis and by special ... Full text Link to item Cite

Expression of a copper-containing amine oxidase by human ciliary body.

Journal Article Mol Vis · September 8, 1998 PURPOSE: To examine the molecular structure and ultrastructural distribution of a novel amine oxidase in human ciliary body. METHODS: Human ciliary bodies were solubilized with a nonionic detergent. The solubilized material was subjected to affinity chroma ... Link to item Cite

Applications of Correlative Microscopy in Diagnostic and Investigative Pathology

Conference Microscopy and Microanalysis · July 1, 1998 Correlative microscopy is employed in a great variety of settings by both diagnostic and investigative pathologists. Combinations of conventional light microscopy (LM), immunohistology, and electron microscopy (EM) are used in a wide range of diagnostic se ... Full text Cite

The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 is a microtubule-associated protein kinase that phosphorylates tubulin.

Journal Article J Biol Chem · May 15, 1998 The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates and desensitizes agonist-occupied G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here we demonstrate that GRK2 is a microtubule-associated protein and identify tubulin as ... Full text Link to item Cite

Community respiratory viral infection in adult lung transplant recipients.

Journal Article Chest · April 1998 STUDY OBJECTIVE: To define the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and long-term complications of respiratory viral infections in adult lung transplant recipients. DESIGN: Retrospective review of the records of 122 adult lung transplant recipients over ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel large apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins of density 1.006-1.060 g/ml in human cerebrospinal fluid.

Journal Article J Neurochem · March 1998 Although the critical role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) allelic variation in Alzheimer's disease and in the outcome of CNS injury is now recognized, the functions of apoE in the CNS remain obscure, particularly with regard to lipid metabolism. We used densit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Oligomerization of expanded-polyglutamine domain fluorescent fusion proteins in cultured mammalian cells.

Journal Article Biochem Biophys Res Commun · September 18, 1997 Six inherited neurologic diseases, including Huntington's disease, result from the expansion of a CAG domain of the disease genes to produce a domain of more than 40 glutamines in the expressed protein. The mechanism by which expansion of this polyglutamin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Concerted use of immunologic and ultrastructural analyses in diagnostic medicine: immunoelectron microscopy and correlative microscopy.

Journal Article Immunol Invest · 1997 Electron microscopy (EM) is a valuable tool in diagnostic medicine, and in some cases, can be enhanced by immunological methods. A major medical application of EM, diagnostic virology, can frequently be augmented by employment of immunological reagents. Th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of focal viral infections by confocal microscopy for subsequent ultrastructural analysis.

Journal Article Ultrastruct Pathol · 1997 A correlative microscopy method for the ultrastructural analysis of focal viral tissue infections is presented. Using a confocal scanning laser microscope, foci of infection are identified in tissue sections prior to embedment; a variety of techniques can ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of two subpopulations of rat monocytes expressing disparate molecular forms and quantities of CD43.

Journal Article Cell Immunol · June 1995 Expression of CD43 (leukosialin, sialophorin) by rat blood monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometric, microscopic, and biochemical techniques. Monocytes were identified cytometrically using a combination of light-scatter parameters and binding of the anti- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enteric viruses associated with HIV infection in Tanzanian children with chronic diarrhea.

Journal Article Pediatr AIDS HIV Infect · October 1994 OBJECTIVE: To determine whether specific viruses are associated with HIV infection in Tanzanian children with chronic diarrhea. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Major national teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PATIENTS: Consecutively ad ... Link to item Cite

Characterization of a novel family of ciliary body glycoproteins.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · July 1994 PURPOSE: To isolate and characterize ciliary body epithelial antigens reactive with a monoclonal antibody, 2B4.14.1. METHODS: A mouse monoclonal antibody generated against human corneal endothelium, 2B4.14.1 reacts with nonpigmented epithelium of human and ... Link to item Cite

Generation of reovirus core-like particles in cells infected with hybrid vaccinia viruses that express genome segments L1, L2, L3, and S2.

Journal Article Virology · December 1993 When mouse L fibroblasts are infected with various combinations of recombinant vaccinia viruses possessing thymidine kinase (TK) genes with inserted reovirus genes that encode core components, particles are formed that closely resemble reovirus cores. In c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Eruptive pseudoangiomatosis: a unique childhood exanthem?

Journal Article J Am Acad Dermatol · November 1993 We describe three children with an acute onset and spontaneous resolution of angioma-like papules during an apparent viral illness. A biopsy specimen from one patient revealed a unique histologic appearance that consisted of dilated dermal blood vessels wi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Children's perceptions of responsibility: attitudes while working with peers with disabilities.

Journal Article Percept Mot Skills · April 1993 The purpose of this study was to examine whether participation in a community-based cooperative learning program affected attitudes toward responsibility of 13 talented and gifted students toward 49 peers with disabilities. A survey was administered to mea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Widespread flat warts associated with human papillomavirus type 5: a cutaneous manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Journal Article J Am Acad Dermatol · November 1990 Numerous flat and tinea versicolor-like warts developed on the face, trunk, and upper extremities of a 10-year-old boy with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Nucleic acid analysis of involved skin revealed human papillomavirus type 5, which has somet ... Full text Link to item Cite

Six-year retrospective surveillance of gastroenteritis viruses identified at ten electron microscopy centers in the United States and Canada.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · October 1990 To identify the prevalence, seasonality and demographic characteristics of patients with viral gastroenteritis, we reviewed 6 years of retrospective data on viral agents of gastroenteritis screened by electron microscopy at 10 centers in the United States ... Full text Link to item Cite

Viral infections in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Journal Article J Electron Microsc Tech · January 1988 The following communication is a tripartite synopsis of the role of viral infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The first section describes the impact of viral opportunistic infection in AIDS; for each virus, clinical presentation and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Helminthic infections in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Journal Article J Electron Microsc Tech · January 1988 Strongyloides stercoralis, the only helminthic parasite that can complete its life cycle in the human host, is also the only helminthic parasite that has been reported with any frequency in AIDS patients. Symptoms include hives, skin eruptions, abdominal p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Foreword

Journal Article Journal of Electron Microscopy Technique · January 1, 1988 Full text Cite

Primary actinomycosis of an extremity: a case report and review.

Journal Article Rev Infect Dis · 1987 Primary infection of an extremity is an uncommon feature of actinomycosis and can readily be confused with actinomycetoma caused by aerobic actinomycetes such as Nocardia and Streptomyces. A case of primary actinomycosis of the leg is reported, and 35 case ... Full text Link to item Cite

Detection and identification of viruses by electron microscopy.

Journal Article J Electron Microsc Tech · 1986 Electron microscopy can aid in the rapid diagnosis of viral diseases, as it can be performed in a matter of hours, but on a routine basis it should be used in conjunction with other techniques. Initially, the specimen source and patient symptoms should be ... Full text Link to item Cite

Monoclonal antibodies against human T cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) p24 internal core protein. Use as diagnostic probes and cellular localization of HTLV.

Journal Article J Exp Med · April 1, 1984 Four monoclonal antibodies, human T cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) 6, 7, 8, and 9, which react with the 24,000 dalton internal core protein of HTLVI, have been developed. These monoclonal antibodies reacted with only HTLV-infected cells and not with a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ultrastructure of AIDS lymph nodes.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · November 10, 1983 Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of human T cell leukemia virus in a Japanese patient with adult T cell leukemia and cutaneous lymphomatous vasculitis.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · April 1983 We have identified a Japanese patient with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) whose T cells in vitro produced the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV). This patient presented with lymphomatous arthritis and leukemia and subsequently developed skin lesions. Skin inv ... Full text Link to item Cite

The immune consequences of trauma.

Journal Article Surg Clin North Am · February 1982 Full text Link to item Cite

A direct comparison of procedures for the detection of mycoplasma in tissue culture.

Journal Article J Immunol Methods · 1980 Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures has been shown to perturb a number of immunologic parameters. Because such contamination is almost always introduced in the laboratory, the immunologist requires a procedure to screen his cell lines frequently for ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aged-related physiological studies comparing Candida albicans chlamydospores to yeasts.

Journal Article Can J Microbiol · June 1979 From electron-microscopical observations, a decreased metabolic activity in 3-day-old Candida albicans chlamydospores was suggested, and progressive deterioration in chlamydospores aged 2-8 months was shown. Oxygen utilization by chlamydospore-pseudomyceli ... Full text Link to item Cite

Isolation of an etiologic agent of acute respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) of turkey poults.

Journal Article Avian Dis · 1979 A small gram-negative motile bacillus was isolated from laboratory poults affected by acute respiratory disease (rhinotracheitis) of turkeys. The bacterium was inoculated intranasally into susceptible day-old poults; the poults developed typical clinical s ... Link to item Cite

Measles virus nucleocapsids: large-scale purification and use in radioimmunoassays.

Journal Article Infect Immun · June 1978 Nucleocapsids in quantities approaching 1 mg were purified from 109 measles virus-infected cells. They contained one polypeptide species with a molecular weight of 59,000. Antiserum was raised in rabbits against purified nucleocapsids and used in a competi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antigenic, chemical, and structural properties of cell walls of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast-form chemotypes 1 and 2 after serial enzymatic hydrolysis.

Journal Article Infect Immun · May 1977 Cell walls of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast-form chemotypes 1 (chem 1) and 2 (chem 2) treated sequentially with several polysaccharolytic enzymes and Pronase yielded soluble, nondialyzable polysaccharides at each step, which were analyzed for monosaccharide ... Full text Link to item Cite

Physicochemical characterization and pathogenicity studies of two turkey adenovirus isolants.

Journal Article Avian Dis · 1977 Two turkey adenoviruses were isolated from poults with respiratory disease, and their physicochemical properties were studied. The virus particles were unenveloped. contained DNA genome, replicated within the nuclei of infected cells, and were icosahedral ... Link to item Cite

Letter: Mutation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · July 29, 1976 Full text Link to item Cite

Degradation of 14C-labeled streptococcal cell walls by egg white lysozyme and lysosomal enzymes.

Journal Article Infect Immun · May 1976 The resistance of native and trypsin-treated [14C] glucose-labeled cell walls to degradation by lysozyme and human lysosomal enzymes was confirmed. In contrast, chemically N-acetylated cell walls undergo significant degradation by these enzymes in the pH r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Scanning electron microscopy studies in muscular dystrophy.

Journal Article Arch Neurol · March 1976 Scanning electron microscopy of unmanipulated erythrocytes from patients with myotonic dystrophy or Duchenne dystrophy and patients who were Duchenne carriers showed a large increase in the number of stomatocytes over the number in normal controls. No spec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Carrier detection in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · January 22, 1976 We measured endogenous phosphorylation of peak II (apparent molecular weight of 220,000 daltons) of the erythrocyte membrane in 21 mothers of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The mean values of mothers with affected sons were significantly increa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Isolation and identification of a turkey respiratory adenovirus.

Journal Article Avian Dis · 1976 A virus with physical and biological characteristics of an adenovirus was isolated from turkey poults with respiratory disease. The virus was ether-resistant and incorporated [3H] thymidine. Electron microscopy revealed virions of icosahedral configuration ... Link to item Cite

Development and germination of Candida albicans chlamydospores in relation to age

Journal Article The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology · January 1, 1975 Chlamydospore-bearing colonies of Candida albicans were placed under nutritive conditions favorable for germination at various stages of colony development. Only young chlamydospores germinated; yet those from 14–20 hr cultures could not be distinguished b ... Full text Cite

Electron microscopy of young Candida albicans chlamydospores.

Journal Article J Bacteriol · September 1974 One- to three-day-old cultures of Candida albicans bearing chlamydospores were grown and harvested by a special technique, free of agar, and prepared for ultramicrotomy and electron microscopy. These young chlamydospores exhibited a subcellular structure s ... Full text Link to item Cite