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Sharyn Anne Endow

Professor of Cell Biology
Cell Biology
Duke Box 3709, Dept Cell Biology, Durham, NC 27710
247 Sands Bldg, 303 Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


Mitochondria-enriched protrusions are associated with brain and intestinal stem cells in Drosophila.

Journal Article Commun Biol · November 22, 2019 Brain stem cells stop dividing in late Drosophila embryos and begin dividing again in early larvae after feeding induces reactivation. Quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs) display an unusual cytoplasmic protrusion that is no longer present in reactivated NS ... Full text Link to item Cite

An estimate to the first approximation of microtubule rupture force.

Journal Article Eur Biophys J · September 2019 Microtubule mechanical properties are essential for understanding basic cellular processes, including cell motility and division, but the forces that result in microtubule rupture or breakage have not yet been measured directly. These forces are essential ... Full text Link to item Cite

CRL4Mahj E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes neural stem cell reactivation.

Journal Article PLoS Biol · June 2019 The ability of neural stem cells (NSCs) to transit between quiescence and proliferation is crucial for brain development and homeostasis. Drosophila Hippo pathway maintains NSC quiescence, but its regulation during brain development remains unknown. Here, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mitochondria-enriched protrusions are associated with brain and intestinal stem cells in Drosophila.

Journal Article Commun Biol · 2019 Brain stem cells stop dividing in late Drosophila embryos and begin dividing again in early larvae after feeding induces reactivation. Quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs) display an unusual cytoplasmic protrusion that is no longer present in reactivated NS ... Full text Link to item Cite

Structural basis of small molecule ATPase inhibition of a human mitotic kinesin motor protein.

Journal Article Sci Rep · November 9, 2017 Kinesin microtubule motor proteins play essential roles in division, including attaching chromosomes to spindles and crosslinking microtubules for spindle assembly. Human kinesin-14 KIFC1 is unique in that cancer cells with amplified centrosomes are depend ... Full text Link to item Cite

Arl2- and Msps-dependent microtubule growth governs asymmetric division.

Journal Article J Cell Biol · March 14, 2016 Asymmetric division of neural stem cells is a fundamental strategy to balance their self-renewal and differentiation. It is long thought that microtubules are not essential for cell polarity in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila melanogaster neuroblasts (N ... Full text Link to item Cite

The kinesin-13 KLP10A motor regulates oocyte spindle length and affects EB1 binding without altering microtubule growth rates.

Journal Article Biol Open · June 6, 2014 Kinesin-13 motors are unusual in that they do not walk along microtubules, but instead diffuse to the ends, where they remove tubulin dimers, regulating microtubule dynamics. Here we show that Drosophila kinesin-13 klp10A regulates oocyte meiosis I spindle ... Full text Link to item Cite

A remarkable career in science-Joseph G. Gall.

Journal Article Chromosome Res · July 2013 A festive group of ∼150 current and former students, postdoctoral and other associates, and colleagues gathered during the weekend of April 12-14, 2013 to celebrate Joe Gall's 85th birthday. The gathering, hosted by the Carnegie Institution for Science, De ... Full text Link to item Cite

Force generation by kinesin and myosin cytoskeletal motor proteins.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · January 1, 2013 Kinesins and myosins hydrolyze ATP, producing force that drives spindle assembly, vesicle transport and muscle contraction. How do motors do this? Here we discuss mechanisms of motor force transduction, based on their mechanochemical cycles and conformatio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increased Mechanical Output by a Kinesin Mutant

Conference Biophysical Journal · January 2013 Full text Cite

Altered nucleotide-microtubule coupling and increased mechanical output by a kinesin mutant.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2012 Kinesin motors hydrolyze ATP to produce force and do work in the cell--how the motors do this is not fully understood, but is thought to depend on the coupling of ATP hydrolysis to microtubule binding by the motor. Transmittal of conformational changes fro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neck-motor interactions trigger rotation of the kinesin stalk.

Journal Article Sci Rep · 2012 Rotation of the coiled-coil stalk of the kinesin-14 motors is thought to drive displacements or steps by the motor along microtubules, but the structural changes that trigger stalk rotation and the nucleotide state in which it occurs are not certain. Here ... Full text Link to item Cite

Two-state displacement by the kinesin-14 Ncd stalk.

Journal Article Biophys Chem · March 2011 The nonprocessive kinesin-14 Ncd motor binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP, undergoing a single displacement before releasing the microtubule. A lever-like rotation of the coiled-coil stalk is thought to drive Ncd displacements or steps along microtub ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anastral spindle assembly and γ-tubulin in Drosophila oocytes.

Journal Article BMC Cell Biol · January 5, 2011 BACKGROUND: Anastral spindles assemble by a mechanism that involves microtubule nucleation and growth from chromatin. It is still uncertain whether γ-tubulin, a microtubule nucleator essential for mitotic spindle assembly and maintenance, plays a role. Not ... Full text Link to item Cite

Kinesins at a glance (Journal of Cell Science 123, (3420-3423))

Journal Article Journal of Cell Science · November 15, 2010 Full text Cite

Kinesins at a glance.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · October 15, 2010 Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A kinesin motor in a force-producing conformation.

Journal Article BMC Struct Biol · July 5, 2010 BACKGROUND: Kinesin motors hydrolyze ATP to produce force and move along microtubules, converting chemical energy into work by a mechanism that is only poorly understood. Key transitions and intermediate states in the process are still structurally unchara ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Mitochondria-enriched protrusions are associated with brain and intestinal stem cells in Drosophila.

Journal Article Commun Biol · November 22, 2019 Brain stem cells stop dividing in late Drosophila embryos and begin dividing again in early larvae after feeding induces reactivation. Quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs) display an unusual cytoplasmic protrusion that is no longer present in reactivated NS ... Full text Link to item Cite

An estimate to the first approximation of microtubule rupture force.

Journal Article Eur Biophys J · September 2019 Microtubule mechanical properties are essential for understanding basic cellular processes, including cell motility and division, but the forces that result in microtubule rupture or breakage have not yet been measured directly. These forces are essential ... Full text Link to item Cite

CRL4Mahj E3 ubiquitin ligase promotes neural stem cell reactivation.

Journal Article PLoS Biol · June 2019 The ability of neural stem cells (NSCs) to transit between quiescence and proliferation is crucial for brain development and homeostasis. Drosophila Hippo pathway maintains NSC quiescence, but its regulation during brain development remains unknown. Here, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mitochondria-enriched protrusions are associated with brain and intestinal stem cells in Drosophila.

Journal Article Commun Biol · 2019 Brain stem cells stop dividing in late Drosophila embryos and begin dividing again in early larvae after feeding induces reactivation. Quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs) display an unusual cytoplasmic protrusion that is no longer present in reactivated NS ... Full text Link to item Cite

Structural basis of small molecule ATPase inhibition of a human mitotic kinesin motor protein.

Journal Article Sci Rep · November 9, 2017 Kinesin microtubule motor proteins play essential roles in division, including attaching chromosomes to spindles and crosslinking microtubules for spindle assembly. Human kinesin-14 KIFC1 is unique in that cancer cells with amplified centrosomes are depend ... Full text Link to item Cite

Arl2- and Msps-dependent microtubule growth governs asymmetric division.

Journal Article J Cell Biol · March 14, 2016 Asymmetric division of neural stem cells is a fundamental strategy to balance their self-renewal and differentiation. It is long thought that microtubules are not essential for cell polarity in asymmetrically dividing Drosophila melanogaster neuroblasts (N ... Full text Link to item Cite

The kinesin-13 KLP10A motor regulates oocyte spindle length and affects EB1 binding without altering microtubule growth rates.

Journal Article Biol Open · June 6, 2014 Kinesin-13 motors are unusual in that they do not walk along microtubules, but instead diffuse to the ends, where they remove tubulin dimers, regulating microtubule dynamics. Here we show that Drosophila kinesin-13 klp10A regulates oocyte meiosis I spindle ... Full text Link to item Cite

A remarkable career in science-Joseph G. Gall.

Journal Article Chromosome Res · July 2013 A festive group of ∼150 current and former students, postdoctoral and other associates, and colleagues gathered during the weekend of April 12-14, 2013 to celebrate Joe Gall's 85th birthday. The gathering, hosted by the Carnegie Institution for Science, De ... Full text Link to item Cite

Force generation by kinesin and myosin cytoskeletal motor proteins.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · January 1, 2013 Kinesins and myosins hydrolyze ATP, producing force that drives spindle assembly, vesicle transport and muscle contraction. How do motors do this? Here we discuss mechanisms of motor force transduction, based on their mechanochemical cycles and conformatio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increased Mechanical Output by a Kinesin Mutant

Conference Biophysical Journal · January 2013 Full text Cite

Altered nucleotide-microtubule coupling and increased mechanical output by a kinesin mutant.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2012 Kinesin motors hydrolyze ATP to produce force and do work in the cell--how the motors do this is not fully understood, but is thought to depend on the coupling of ATP hydrolysis to microtubule binding by the motor. Transmittal of conformational changes fro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neck-motor interactions trigger rotation of the kinesin stalk.

Journal Article Sci Rep · 2012 Rotation of the coiled-coil stalk of the kinesin-14 motors is thought to drive displacements or steps by the motor along microtubules, but the structural changes that trigger stalk rotation and the nucleotide state in which it occurs are not certain. Here ... Full text Link to item Cite

Two-state displacement by the kinesin-14 Ncd stalk.

Journal Article Biophys Chem · March 2011 The nonprocessive kinesin-14 Ncd motor binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP, undergoing a single displacement before releasing the microtubule. A lever-like rotation of the coiled-coil stalk is thought to drive Ncd displacements or steps along microtub ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anastral spindle assembly and γ-tubulin in Drosophila oocytes.

Journal Article BMC Cell Biol · January 5, 2011 BACKGROUND: Anastral spindles assemble by a mechanism that involves microtubule nucleation and growth from chromatin. It is still uncertain whether γ-tubulin, a microtubule nucleator essential for mitotic spindle assembly and maintenance, plays a role. Not ... Full text Link to item Cite

Kinesins at a glance (Journal of Cell Science 123, (3420-3423))

Journal Article Journal of Cell Science · November 15, 2010 Full text Cite

Kinesins at a glance.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · October 15, 2010 Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A kinesin motor in a force-producing conformation.

Journal Article BMC Struct Biol · July 5, 2010 BACKGROUND: Kinesin motors hydrolyze ATP to produce force and move along microtubules, converting chemical energy into work by a mechanism that is only poorly understood. Key transitions and intermediate states in the process are still structurally unchara ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Spindle function in yeast: a human motor to the rescue.

Journal Article Cell Cycle · November 1, 2009 Link to item Cite

Anastral spindle assembly: a mathematical model.

Journal Article Biophys J · October 21, 2009 Assembly of an anastral spindle was modeled as a two-stage process: first, the aggregation of microtubule foci or asters around the chromosomes, and second, the elongation of cross-linked microtubules and onset of bipolarity. Several possibilities involvin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microtubule Binding and Rotation of the Kinesin-14 Stalk

Conference Biophysical Journal · February 2009 Full text Cite

Mature Drosophila meiosis I spindles comprise microtubules of mixed polarity.

Journal Article Curr Biol · January 27, 2009 New information has been obtained recently regarding microtubule organization in Xenopus extract spindles. These spindles assemble in vitro by chromatin-mediated microtubule nucleation and consist of randomly interspersed long and short microtubules with m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ncd motor binding and transport in the spindle.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · November 15, 2008 The Ncd kinesin-14 motor is required for meiotic spindle assembly in Drosophila oocytes and produces force in mitotic spindles that opposes other motors. Despite extensive studies, the way the motor binds to the spindle to perform its functions is not well ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fluorescence recovery kinetic analysis of gamma-tubulin binding to the mitotic spindle.

Journal Article Biophys J · September 15, 2008 Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching has been widely used to study dynamic processes in the cell, but less frequently to analyze binding interactions and extract binding constants. Here we use it to analyze gamma-tubulin binding to the mitotic spindl ... Full text Link to item Cite

A microtubule-destabilizing kinesin motor regulates spindle length and anchoring in oocytes.

Journal Article J Cell Biol · February 11, 2008 The kinesin-13 motor, KLP10A, destabilizes microtubules at their minus ends in mitosis and binds to polymerizing plus ends in interphase, regulating spindle and microtubule dynamics. Little is known about kinesin-13 motors in meiosis. In this study, we rep ... Full text Link to item Cite

Large conformational changes in a kinesin motor catalyzed by interaction with microtubules.

Journal Article Mol Cell · September 15, 2006 Kinesin motor proteins release nucleotide upon interaction with microtubules (MTs), then bind and hydrolyze ATP to move along the MT. Although crystal structures of kinesin motors bound to nucleotides have been solved, nucleotide-free structures have not. ... Full text Link to item Cite

A bidirectional kinesin motor in live Drosophila embryos.

Journal Article Traffic · November 2005 Spindle assembly and elongation involve poleward and away-from-the-pole forces produced by microtubule dynamics and spindle-associated motors. Here, we show that a bidirectional Drosophila Kinesin-14 motor that moves either to the microtubule plus or minus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Kar3 interaction with Cik1 alters motor structure and function.

Journal Article EMBO J · September 21, 2005 Kar3, a kinesin-14 motor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for mitosis and karyogamy, reportedly interacts with Cik1, a nonmotor protein, via its central, predicted coiled coil. Despite this, neither Kar3 nor Cik1 homodimers have been observed in vivo. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assembly pathway of the anastral Drosophila oocyte meiosis I spindle.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · April 15, 2005 Oocyte meiotic spindles of many species are anastral and lack centrosomes to nucleate microtubules. Assembly of anastral spindles occurs by a pathway that differs from that of most mitotic spindles. Here we analyze assembly of the Drosophila oocyte meiosis ... Full text Link to item Cite

A standardized kinesin nomenclature.

Journal Article J Cell Biol · October 11, 2004 In recent years the kinesin superfamily has become so large that several different naming schemes have emerged, leading to confusion and miscommunication. Here, we set forth a standardized kinesin nomenclature based on 14 family designations. The scheme un ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rapid double 8-nm steps by a kinesin mutant.

Journal Article EMBO J · August 4, 2004 The mechanism by which conventional kinesin walks along microtubules is poorly understood, but may involve alternate binding to the microtubule and hydrolysis of ATP by the two heads. Here we report a single amino-acid change that affects stepping by the m ... Full text Link to item Cite

A new structural state of myosin.

Journal Article Trends Biochem Sci · March 2004 The mechanism by which motor proteins hydrolyze ATP and move along cytoskeletal filaments is still unknown. One approach to deciphering the mechanism is to correlate steps of ATP hydrolysis with structural states of the motors to determine the changes the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Erratum: A new kinesin tree (Journal of Cell Science (2004) vol. 117 (3-7))

Journal Article Journal of Cell Science · February 15, 2004 Cite

A new kinesin tree.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · January 1, 2004 Full text Link to item Cite

Kinesin motors as molecular machines.

Journal Article Bioessays · December 2003 Molecular motor proteins, fueled by energy from ATP hydrolysis, move along actin filaments or microtubules, performing work in the cell. The kinesin microtubule motors transport vesicles or organelles, assemble bipolar spindles or depolymerize microtubules ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rotation of the stalk/neck and one head in a new crystal structure of the kinesin motor protein, Ncd.

Journal Article EMBO J · October 15, 2003 Molecular motors undergo conformational changes to produce force and move along cytoskeletal filaments. Structural changes have been detected in kinesin motors; however, further changes are expected because previous crystal structures are in the same or cl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Joseph G. Gall

Journal Article Journal of Cell Science · October 1, 2003 Full text Cite

Processive and nonprocessive models of kinesin movement.

Journal Article Annu Rev Physiol · 2003 Conventional kinesin is the prototypic member of a family of diverse proteins that use the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis to generate force and move along microtubules. These proteins, which are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, have been ... Full text Link to item Cite

Directionality and processivity of molecular motors.

Journal Article Curr Opin Cell Biol · February 2002 Analysis of a mutant with altered directionality has led to new insights into motor directionality. The prediction from current models for processivity of a two-heads-bound state has been confirmed by electron microscopy for myosin V and by unbinding exper ... Full text Link to item Cite

Kinesin: switch I & II and the motor mechanism.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · January 1, 2002 New crystal structures of the kinesin motors differ from previously described motor-ADP atomic models, showing striking changes both in the switch I region near the nucleotide-binding cleft and in the switch II or 'relay' helix at the filament-binding face ... Full text Link to item Cite

A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase.

Journal Article EMBO J · June 1, 2001 Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases th ... Full text Link to item Cite

A kinesin family tree.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · November 2000 Full text Link to item Cite

A mutant of the motor protein kinesin that moves in both directions on microtubules.

Journal Article Nature · August 24, 2000 Molecular motors move directionally to either the plus or the minus end of microtubules or actin filaments. Kinesin moves towards microtubule plus ends, whereas the kinesin-related Ncd motor moves to the minus ends. The 'neck'--the region between the stalk ... Full text Link to item Cite

Molecular motors--a paradigm for mutant analysis.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · April 2000 Molecular motors perform essential functions in the cell and have the potential to provide insights into the basis of many important processes. A unique property of molecular motors is their ability to convert energy from ATP hydrolysis into work, enabling ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of molecular motor directionality.

Journal Article Nat Cell Biol · October 1999 Work over the past two years has led to a breakthrough in our understanding of the molecular basis of the directionality of the kinesin motor proteins. This breakthrough has come first from the reversal of directionality of the kinesin-related motor Ncd, f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microtubule motors in spindle and chromosome motility.

Journal Article Eur J Biochem · May 1999 Many of the kinesin microtubule motor proteins discovered during the past 8-9 years have roles in spindle assembly and function or chromosome movement during meiosis or mitosis. The discovery of kinesin motor proteins with a clear involvement in spindle an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Decoupling of nucleotide- and microtubule-binding sites in a kinesin mutant.

Journal Article Nature · December 10, 1998 Molecular motors require ATP to move along microtubules or actin filaments. To understand how molecular motors function, it is crucial to know how binding of the motor to its filamentous track stimulates the hydrolysis of ATP by the motor, enabling it to m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assembly and dynamics of an anastral:astral spindle: the meiosis II spindle of Drosophila oocytes.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · September 1998 The meiosis II spindle of Drosophila oocytes is distinctive in structure, consisting of two tandem spindles with anastral distal poles and an aster-associated spindle pole body between the central poles. Assembly of the anastral:astral meiosis II spindle o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of kinesin motor polarity.

Journal Article Science · August 21, 1998 The kinesin motor protein family members move along microtubules with characteristic polarity. Chimeric motors containing the stalk and neck of the minus-end-directed motor, Ncd, fused to the motor domain of plus-end-directed kinesin were analyzed. The Ncd ... Full text Link to item Cite

X-ray crystal structure of the yeast Kar3 motor domain complexed with Mg.ADP to 2.3 A resolution.

Journal Article Biochemistry · February 17, 1998 The kinesin family of motor proteins, which contain a conserved motor domain of approximately 350 amino acids, generate movement against microtubules. Over 90 members of this family have been identified, including motors that move toward the minus or plus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reversing a 'backwards' motor

Journal Article BioEssays · February 1, 1998 Ncd, a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein that moves the 'wrong' way on microtubules, towards the minus ends, has now been made to move like kinesin, towards plus ends, by fusing regions from outside the kinesin motor domain to the Ncd motor. Since ... Full text Cite

Spindle dynamics during meiosis in Drosophila oocytes.

Journal Article J Cell Biol · June 16, 1997 Mature oocytes of Drosophila are arrested in metaphase of meiosis I. Upon activation by ovulation or fertilization, oocytes undergo a series of rapid changes that have not been directly visualized previously. We report here the use of the Nonclaret disjunc ... Full text Link to item Cite

In vitro motility of AtKCBP, a calmodulin-binding kinesin protein of Arabidopsis.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · January 7, 1997 AtKCBP is a calcium-dependent calmodulin-binding protein from Arabidopsis that contains a conserved kinesin microtubule motor domain. Calmodulin has been shown previously to bind to heavy chains of the unconventional myosins, where it is required for in vi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enhancement of the ncdD microtubule motor mutant by mutants of alpha Tub67C.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · January 1997 Ncd is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein required for chromosome segregation in Drosophila oocytes and early embryos. In tests for interactions with other proteins, we find that mutants of alpha Tub67C, which affect an oocyte- and early embryo-sp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enhancement of the ncdD microtubule motor mutant by mutants of alpha Tub67C.

Journal Article Journal of cell science · January 1, 1997 Ncd is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein required for chromosome segregation in Drosophila oocytes and early embryos. In tests for interactions with other proteins, we find that mutants of alpha Tub67C, which affect an oocyte- and early embryo-sp ... Cite

Centrosome and spindle function of the Drosophila Ncd microtubule motor visualized in live embryos using Ncd-GFP fusion proteins.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · October 1996 The Ncd microtubule motor protein is required for meiotic and early mitotic chromosome distribution in Drosophila. Null mutant females expressing the Ncd motor fused to the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP), regulated by the wild-type ncd p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Binding sites on microtubules of kinesin motors of the same or opposite polarity.

Journal Article Biochemistry · August 27, 1996 The kinesin motor proteins translocate toward either the plus or minus end of microtubules (MTs). Competitive microtubule binding assays were carried out with monomeric motor domains of the minus-end-directed nonclaret disjunctional (Ncd) and Kar3 and the ... Full text Link to item Cite

A point mutation in the microtubule binding region of the Ncd motor protein reduces motor velocity.

Journal Article EMBO J · July 1, 1996 Non-claret disjunctional (Ncd) is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein in Drosophila that functions in meiotic spindle assembly in oocytes and spindle pole maintenance in early embryos. The partial loss-of-function mutant ncdD retains mitotic, but n ... Link to item Cite

Kinesin proteins: a phylum of motors for microtubule-based motility.

Journal Article Bioessays · March 1996 The cellular processes of transport, division and, possibly, early development all involve microtubule-based motors. Recent work shows that, unexpectedly, many of these cellular functions are carried out by different types of kinesin and kinesin-related mo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Haploidy and androgenesis in Drosophila.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · December 5, 1995 Adrogenesis, development from paternal but not maternal chromosomes, can be induced to occur in some organisms, including vertebrates, but has only been reported to occur naturally in interspecific hybrids of the Sicilian stick insect. Androgenesis has not ... Full text Link to item Cite

Purification of kinesin-related protein complexes from eggs and embryos.

Journal Article Biophys J · April 1995 We have developed a biochemical screen for the identification of kinesin-related proteins (KRPs) in their natural host cells and the subsequent purification of these KRPs as native, functional multimeric complexes. The screen involves immunoblotting with p ... Link to item Cite

Motor proteins 1: kinesins.

Journal Article Protein Profile · 1995 Progress regarding the kinesins is now being made at a rapid and accelerating rate. The in vivo-functions, and biophysical and enzymatic properties of kinesin itself are being explored at ever increasing levels of detail. The kinesin-related proteins now n ... Link to item Cite

Determinants of motor polarity in the kinesin proteins

Journal Article Biophysical Journal · January 1, 1995 Many of the proteins that are members of the kinesin family of microtubule motor proteins are plus-end motors; however, a few of the kinesin proteins have now been found to be minus-end microtubule motors. Overall structural features of the proteins can be ... Cite

MOTOR PROTEINS .1. KINESINS

Journal Article PROTEIN PROFILE · January 1, 1995 Link to item Cite

Molecular phylogeny of the kinesin family of microtubule motor proteins.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · July 1994 The rapidly expanding kinesin family of microtubule motor proteins includes proteins that are involved in diverse microtubule-based functions in the cell. Phylogenetic analysis of the motor regions of the kinesin proteins reveals at least five clearly defi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Yeast Kar3 is a minus-end microtubule motor protein that destabilizes microtubules preferentially at the minus ends.

Journal Article EMBO J · June 1, 1994 Mutants of the yeast Kar3 protein are defective in nuclear fusion, or karyogamy, during mating and show slow mitotic growth, indicating a requirement for the protein both during mating and in mitosis. DNA sequence analysis predicts that Kar3 is a microtubu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mutants of the Drosophila ncd microtubule motor protein cause centrosomal and spindle pole defects in mitosis.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · April 1994 Nonclaret disjunctional (ncd) is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein required for meiotic and early mitotic chromosome distribution in Drosophila. ncd translocates on microtubules with the opposite polarity to kinesin, toward microtubule minus ends ... Full text Link to item Cite

Motor proteins. 1: kinesins.

Journal Article Protein Profile · 1994 Link to item Cite

Constitutive magnification by the Ybb- chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

Journal Article Genet Res · December 1993 Ybb- is an rDNA-deficient chromosome of Drosophila that has often been used in magnification experiments to induce high-frequency reversion of bobbed (bb) chromosomes. We observed previously that Ybb- causes ring chromosome loss even when the rings are bb+ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meiosis, mitosis and microtubule motors.

Journal Article Bioessays · June 1993 A framework for understanding the complex movements of mitosis and meiosis has been provided by the recent discovery of microtubule motor proteins, required for the proper distribution of chromosomes or the structural integrity of the mitotic or meiotic sp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Structural and functional domains of the Drosophila ncd microtubule motor protein.

Journal Article J Biol Chem · April 25, 1993 Nonclaret disjunctional (ncd) is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein that is required for proper chromosome distribution in Drosophila. Despite its sequence similarity to kinesin heavy chain, ncd translocates with the opposite polarity as kinesin, ... Link to item Cite

An N-terminal truncation of the ncd motor protein supports diffusional movement of microtubules in motility assays.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · March 1993 The nonclaret disjunctional (ncd) protein is a kinesin-related microtubule motor protein that is encoded at the claret locus in Drosophila and is required for proper chromosome distribution in meiosis and early mitosis. The protein contains a region with 4 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Chromosome distribution, molecular motors and the claret protein.

Journal Article Trends Genet · February 1993 Recently, proteins have been identified that are required for proper distribution of chromosomes in meiosis and mitosis. Unexpectedly, several of these are microtubule motor proteins. This finding has prompted further investigation into the basis of meioti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meiotic chromosome distribution in Drosophila oocytes: roles of two kinesin-related proteins.

Journal Article Chromosoma · December 1992 Recent new information regarding the proteins required for proper distribution of chromosomes in meiosis has come from studies of Drosophila mutants. These studies reveal that proteins related to the microtubule motor protein, kinesin, function in meiotic ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Drosophila ncd microtubule motor protein is spindle-associated in meiotic and mitotic cells.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · December 1992 The nonclaret disjunctional (ncd) protein is required for normal chromosome distribution in oocytes and early embryos. Mutants of ncd cause frequent nondisjunction and loss of chromosomes, suggesting a role for the protein in spindle function or chromosome ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mutants of the microtubule motor protein, nonclaret disjunctional, affect spindle structure and chromosome movement in meiosis and mitosis.

Journal Article J Cell Sci · March 1992 The Drosophila microtubule motor protein, nonclaret disjunctional (ncd), is required for proper chromosome distribution in meiosis and mitosis. We have examined the meiotic and mitotic divisions in wild-type Drosophila oocytes and early embryos, and the ef ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic approaches to molecular motors.

Journal Article Annu Rev Cell Biol · 1992 Full text Link to item Cite

The emerging kinesin family of microtubule motor proteins.

Journal Article Trends Biochem Sci · June 1991 A family of proteins related to the microtubule motor, kinesin, is emerging. Members of this family, which includes both plus- and minus-end motors, are involved in nuclear functions such as nuclear fusion after karyogamy, spindle pole-body separation and ... Full text Link to item Cite

A multimember kinesin gene family in Drosophila.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · May 15, 1991 Degenerate primers to the kinesin motor domain were used in the polymerase chain reaction to amplify DNA sequences from Drosophila genomic DNA and cDNA libraries. The amplified DNA sequences were hybridized to polytene chromosomes and the map positions of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Separation of meiotic and mitotic effects of claret non-disjunctional on chromosome segregation in Drosophila.

Journal Article EMBO J · February 1991 The claret (ca) locus in Drosophila encodes a kinesin-related motor molecule that is required for proper distribution of chromosomes in meiosis in females and in the early mitotic divisions of the embryo. Here we demonstrate that a mutant allele of claret ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Drosophila claret segregation protein is a minus-end directed motor molecule.

Journal Article Nature · October 25, 1990 A product encoded at the claret locus in Drosophila is needed for normal chromosome segregation in meiosis in females and in early mitotic divisions of the embryo. The predicted amino-acid sequence of the segregation protein was shown recently to be striki ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mediation of meiotic and early mitotic chromosome segregation in Drosophila by a protein related to kinesin.

Journal Article Nature · May 3, 1990 Contrary to the traditional view that microtubules pull chromosomes polewards during the anaphase stage of meiotic and mitotic cell divisions, new evidence suggests that the chromosome movements are driven by a motor located at the kinetochore. The process ... Full text Link to item Cite

The claret locus in Drosophila encodes products required for eyecolor and for meiotic chromosome segregation.

Journal Article EMBO J · December 1, 1989 The claret (ca) locus in Drosophila encodes products that are needed both for wild-type eyecolor and for correct meiotic chromosome segregation. Mutants described previously provide evidence that two mutationally independent coding regions are present at c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mutant alleles of the meiotic locus, mei-9, differ in degree of effects on rod chromosome magnification and ring chromosome transmission in Drosophila.

Journal Article Genet Res · June 1989 Two mutant alleles of the meiotic locus, mei-9, have been examined for their effect on magnification of a rod Xbb chromosome and transmission of a ring Xbb chromosome under magnifying conditions. Our results indicate that the effects of these two mutations ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incomplete Y chromosomes promote magnification in male and female Drosophila.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · April 1987 We have recently shown that magnification, an increase in the number of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in gametes produced by rDNA-deficient flies, can occur in female Drosophila if they have a Y chromosome. We now have tested several X-Y translocation and rec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Magnification of the ribosomal genes in female Drosophila melanogaster.

Journal Article Genetics · November 1986 The genetically induced increase in the number of 18S + 28S ribosomal genes known as magnification has been reported to occur in male Drosophila but has not previously been observed in females. We now report that bobbed magnified (bbm) is recovered in prog ... Full text Link to item Cite

One-step and stepwise magnification of a bobbed lethal chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster.

Journal Article Genetics · October 1986 Bobbed lethal (bbl) chromosomes carry too few ribosomal genes for homozygous flies to be viable. Reversion of bbl chromosomes to bb or nearly bb+ occurs under magnifying conditions at a low frequency in a single generation. These reversions occur too rapid ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ring chromosomes and rDNA magnification in Drosophila.

Journal Article Genetics · December 1984 Tartof showed that ribosomal gene magnification in Drosophila was inhibited in a ring X chromosome. The present studies extend this observation by showing that ring X chromosomes are lost meiotically in male Drosophila undergoing ribosomal gene magnificati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reduction of wild-type X chromosomes with the Ybb− chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster

Journal Article Genetical Research · January 1, 1984 The Ybb− chromosome has been previously shown to induce reduction of X chromosome ribosomal genes in Xbb / Ybb− or Xbb+ / Ybb− flies. These reduction events are presumed to arise as one of the two products of unequal sister chromatid exchanges, which resul ... Full text Cite

Nucleolar dominance in polytene cells of Drosophila.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · July 1983 Previous studies indicate that genes from only one of the cell's nucleolus organizers undergo multiple rounds of DNA replication in polytene cells of Drosophila. This report presents evidence that this effect is mediated by a function that is associated wi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Molecular characterization of ribosomal genes on the Ybb- chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

Journal Article Genetics · September 1982 The question of whether the Ybb- chromosome contains ribosomal genes has been examined by using Southern blot analysis and comparing rDNA hybridization patterns for X/X and X/Ybb- DNA. The results demonstrate that the Ybb- chromosome contains sequences tha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Polytenization of the ribosomal genes on the X and Y chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

Journal Article Genetics · March 1982 It has previously been shown (Endow and Glover 1979), that polytenization of the ribosomal genes in D. melanogaster Ore-R X/Y cells and in hybrid X/X cells (Endow 1980) involves replication of genes predominantly from one of the cell's two nucleolus organi ... Full text Link to item Cite

On ribosomal gene compensation in Drosophila.

Journal Article Cell · November 1980 Recent studies indicate that genes from only one nucleolus organizer undergo replication during polytenization of salivary gland cells of X/Y flies. This report presents evidence that this is also true X/X polytene cells. Interstrain hybrids were construct ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differential replication of ribosomal gene repeats in polytene nuclei of Drosophila.

Journal Article Cell · July 1979 The genes coding for the 18S and 28S rRNAs in D. melanogaster were examined using Southern transfers of DNA from diploid or polytene tissue. A ribosomal gene repeat 12 kb in length is present in DNA from diploid tissue of males and is the major repeat on t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differential replication of satellite DNA in polyploid tissues of Drosophila virilis.

Journal Article Chromosoma · 1975 Satellite DNA amounts were examined in adult tissues of Drosophila virilis, a species whose DNA contains three prominent satellites. Satellite amounts in DNA from six of the seven tissues were lower than in DNA from diploid (adult brain) tissue. Satellite ... Full text Link to item Cite