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Population Pharmacokinetics and Exploratory Pharmacodynamics of Lorazepam in Pediatric Status Epilepticus.

Publication ,  Journal Article
Gonzalez, D; Chamberlain, JM; Guptill, JT; Cohen-Wolkowiez, M; Harper, B; Zhao, J; Capparelli, EV ...
Published in: Clin Pharmacokinet
August 2017

BACKGROUND: Lorazepam is one of the preferred agents used for intravenous treatment of status epilepticus (SE). We combined data from two pediatric clinical trials to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of intravenous lorazepam in infants and children aged 3 months to 17 years with active SE or a history of SE. METHODS: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model for lorazepam using the NONMEM software. We then assessed exploratory exposure-response relationships using the overall efficacy and safety study endpoints, and performed dosing simulations. RESULTS: A total of 145 patients contributed 439 pharmacokinetic samples. The median (range) age and dose were 5.4 years (0.3-17.8) and 0.10 mg/kg (0.02-0.18), respectively. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with allometric scaling described the data well. In addition to total body weight (WT), younger age was associated with slightly higher weight-normalized clearance (CL). The following relationships characterized the typical values for the central compartment volume (V1), CL, peripheral compartment volume (V2), and intercompartmental CL (Q), using individual subject WT (kg) and age (years): V1 (L) = 0.879*WT; CL (L/h) = 0.115*(Age/4.7)0.133*WT0.75; V2 (L) = 0.542*V1; Q (L/h) = 1.45*WT0.75. No pharmacokinetic parameters were associated with clinical outcomes. Simulations suggest uniform pediatric dosing (0.1 mg/kg, to a maximum of 4 mg) can be used to achieve concentrations of 50-100 ng/mL in children with SE, which have been previously associated with effective seizure control. CONCLUSIONS: The population pharmacokinetics of lorazepam were successfully described using a sparse sampling approach and a two-compartment model in pediatric patients with active SE.

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Published In

Clin Pharmacokinet

DOI

EISSN

1179-1926

Publication Date

August 2017

Volume

56

Issue

8

Start / End Page

941 / 951

Location

Switzerland

Related Subject Headings

  • Status Epilepticus
  • Software
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pharmacology & Pharmacy
  • Models, Biological
  • Male
  • Lorazepam
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Infant
  • Humans
 

Citation

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ICMJE
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Gonzalez, D., Chamberlain, J. M., Guptill, J. T., Cohen-Wolkowiez, M., Harper, B., Zhao, J., … Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act – Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee, . (2017). Population Pharmacokinetics and Exploratory Pharmacodynamics of Lorazepam in Pediatric Status Epilepticus. Clin Pharmacokinet, 56(8), 941–951. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40262-016-0486-0
Gonzalez, Daniel, James M. Chamberlain, Jeffrey T. Guptill, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Barrie Harper, Jian Zhao, Edmund V. Capparelli, and Edmund V. Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act – Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee. “Population Pharmacokinetics and Exploratory Pharmacodynamics of Lorazepam in Pediatric Status Epilepticus.Clin Pharmacokinet 56, no. 8 (August 2017): 941–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40262-016-0486-0.
Gonzalez D, Chamberlain JM, Guptill JT, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Harper B, Zhao J, et al. Population Pharmacokinetics and Exploratory Pharmacodynamics of Lorazepam in Pediatric Status Epilepticus. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2017 Aug;56(8):941–51.
Gonzalez, Daniel, et al. “Population Pharmacokinetics and Exploratory Pharmacodynamics of Lorazepam in Pediatric Status Epilepticus.Clin Pharmacokinet, vol. 56, no. 8, Aug. 2017, pp. 941–51. Pubmed, doi:10.1007/s40262-016-0486-0.
Gonzalez D, Chamberlain JM, Guptill JT, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Harper B, Zhao J, Capparelli EV, Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act – Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee. Population Pharmacokinetics and Exploratory Pharmacodynamics of Lorazepam in Pediatric Status Epilepticus. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2017 Aug;56(8):941–951.
Journal cover image

Published In

Clin Pharmacokinet

DOI

EISSN

1179-1926

Publication Date

August 2017

Volume

56

Issue

8

Start / End Page

941 / 951

Location

Switzerland

Related Subject Headings

  • Status Epilepticus
  • Software
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pharmacology & Pharmacy
  • Models, Biological
  • Male
  • Lorazepam
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Infant
  • Humans