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Adrian Bejan

J.A. Jones Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Thomas Lord Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
148A Engineering Bldg, Box 90300, Durham, NC 27708-0300
148A Engineering Bldg, Box 90300, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Animal design advantage from the analogy between friction and body heat loss.

Journal Article Bio Systems · January 2024 When a fluid accelerates as it sweeps a solid surface there are two consequences: the friction and the heat transfer (thermal contact) between fluid and solid increase simultaneously. This is known as the universal analogy between fluid friction and heat t ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary design with freedom - Fin shapes and entrance length channels for heat sinks

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · October 1, 2023 The new direction traced in this article is to vary freely and simultaneously the fin and flow channel aspect ratios in the search for the complete high-density heat transfer flow architecture. We show that when the combined solid and fluid volume is speci ... Full text Cite

The principle underlying all evolution, biological, geophysical, social and technological.

Journal Article Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences · August 2023 This article addresses the main research areas identified in the call for contributions to this special issue. With examples from published articles and books, the present article shows that all the identified areas are already covered by the universal pri ... Full text Cite

Locomotion rhythm makes power and speed.

Journal Article Scientific reports · August 2023 This article addresses two questions, why certain animals (frogs, breaststroke swimmers, hovering fliers, jellyfish) push rapidly against the surrounding fluid and then reach forward slowly, and whether this rhythm of propulsion is a manifestation of the u ... Full text Cite

Development and CT image-domain validation of a computational lung lesion model for use in virtual imaging trials.

Journal Article Med Phys · July 2023 PURPOSE: Computational abnormalities (e.g., lesion models) for use in medical imaging simulation studies are frequently generated using data collected from clinical images. Although this approach allows for highly-customizable lesion detectability studies ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perfection is the enemy of evolution.

Journal Article Bio Systems · July 2023 The universal phenomenon of evolution consists of change after change in flow configuration in a time direction that is perceptible to the observer. This reality clashes with the doctrine of precise optima, minima, and maxima, now rigidly in place because ... Full text Cite

Constructal design evolution versus topology optimization

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · February 1, 2023 Full text Cite

Evolutionary design for sustainability during climate change

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · December 1, 2022 This article reveals the thermodynamics of human sustainability on earth: (i) Production of power increases and, necessarily, the consumption of source energy increases (fuel, food, area covered by solar panels and windmills). Greater efficiency and energy ... Full text Cite

Ventilation through a single port

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · November 1, 2022 This is a fundamental study of the periodic in & out flow through a single orifice into an enclosure. The purpose of the ‘breathing’ flow is to refresh the enclosure air. The injected air differs from the original enclosure air with respect to concentratio ... Full text Cite

Evolution, physics, and education.

Journal Article Bio Systems · June 2022 Evolution is a universal phenomenon of nature, bio, and non-bio. Evolution belongs in physics and general education. This step clarifies and enhances the transmission and retention of knowledge. Teaching and learning are the mental activity of grasping a n ... Full text Cite

Virus spreading and heat spreading

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · April 1, 2022 Here we propose a heat transfer framework for how human-to-human interaction spreads everything on the landscape: disease, goods, knowledge, news, technology, science, language and culture. We show that the phenomenon of “human spreading” shares key featur ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary design: Heat and fluid flow together

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · March 1, 2022 This article sheds light on the fundamental physics that accounts for the similar behaviors of heat transfer and fluid friction as the configuration of the convective flow system changes. Three methods are used, and as the methods change so does the config ... Full text Cite

Time and beauty: Why time flies and beauty never dies

Book · February 15, 2022 Time and beauty are two of our most visceral perceptions. Yet, their nature is seldom questioned. In this ground-breaking new work, Adrian Bejan - a true 'original' among physicists - explains, in a scholarly yet colorful style, the scientific basis for th ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary Aeroelastic Design of Flying-Wing Cross Section

Journal Article AIAA Journal · February 1, 2022 The uniform distribution of stresses in flying-wing aircraft improves the aeroelastic flight envelope. In this paper, we document the effect of wing cross-section configuration on the stress distribution and flutter characteristics of a flying-wing aircraf ... Full text Cite

Aeroelastic Stability and Flow of Stresses in Wing Cross-Section

Conference AIAA Science and Technology Forum and Exposition, AIAA SciTech Forum 2022 · January 1, 2022 The aeroelastic flight envelops of flying wing aircraft can be extended with a better flow of stresses in the structure. In the present study, we investigate the effect of cross-section configuration on the stress distribution and aeroelastic behavior of a ... Full text Cite

AN EVOLUTIONARY AEROELASTIC DESIGN APPROACH FOR SPARS AND RIBS OF FLYING WING AIRCRAFT

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 2022 The purpose of this paper is to examine how rib configurations and spar configurations influence flying wing stability. Flying wing aircraft exhibit enhanced flutter characteristics when stresses flow smoothly through the wing. We prevent stress strangulat ... Full text Cite

Tree flows through hierarchical slits and orifices

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · November 1, 2021 This is a fundamental theoretical and numerical study of the evolution of tree-shaped flow on one side of the heat transfer surface of a ‘dendritic’ heat exchanger. The flow is shaped by step changes in the dimensions of the available openings. The archite ... Full text Cite

Heat sinks with minichannels and flow distributors based on constructal law

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2021 The power and speed of computers processors have grown significantly, implying that a big amount of heat must be removed for better performance. A computational thermo-hydrodynamic analysis for six different non-conventional heat sinks with mini flow chann ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary design of composite structures for thermal conductance and strength

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2021 This is a study of the evolving design of a composite material with inserts that are free to be configured and distributed through the base material. Several classes of shapes of inserts are considered competitively: parallel plates, staggered plates, fork ... Full text Cite

Nationalism and forgetfulness in the spreading of thermal sciences

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · May 1, 2021 This is a review of several key ideas and pioneers in the founding history of thermodynamics, fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Ideas treated in detail are the mechanical equivalent of heat, the difference between heat transfer and work transfer, the Navie ... Full text Open Access Cite

Animal design advantage from the analogy between friction and body heat loss.

Journal Article Bio Systems · January 2024 When a fluid accelerates as it sweeps a solid surface there are two consequences: the friction and the heat transfer (thermal contact) between fluid and solid increase simultaneously. This is known as the universal analogy between fluid friction and heat t ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary design with freedom - Fin shapes and entrance length channels for heat sinks

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · October 1, 2023 The new direction traced in this article is to vary freely and simultaneously the fin and flow channel aspect ratios in the search for the complete high-density heat transfer flow architecture. We show that when the combined solid and fluid volume is speci ... Full text Cite

The principle underlying all evolution, biological, geophysical, social and technological.

Journal Article Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences · August 2023 This article addresses the main research areas identified in the call for contributions to this special issue. With examples from published articles and books, the present article shows that all the identified areas are already covered by the universal pri ... Full text Cite

Locomotion rhythm makes power and speed.

Journal Article Scientific reports · August 2023 This article addresses two questions, why certain animals (frogs, breaststroke swimmers, hovering fliers, jellyfish) push rapidly against the surrounding fluid and then reach forward slowly, and whether this rhythm of propulsion is a manifestation of the u ... Full text Cite

Development and CT image-domain validation of a computational lung lesion model for use in virtual imaging trials.

Journal Article Med Phys · July 2023 PURPOSE: Computational abnormalities (e.g., lesion models) for use in medical imaging simulation studies are frequently generated using data collected from clinical images. Although this approach allows for highly-customizable lesion detectability studies ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perfection is the enemy of evolution.

Journal Article Bio Systems · July 2023 The universal phenomenon of evolution consists of change after change in flow configuration in a time direction that is perceptible to the observer. This reality clashes with the doctrine of precise optima, minima, and maxima, now rigidly in place because ... Full text Cite

Constructal design evolution versus topology optimization

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · February 1, 2023 Full text Cite

Evolutionary design for sustainability during climate change

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · December 1, 2022 This article reveals the thermodynamics of human sustainability on earth: (i) Production of power increases and, necessarily, the consumption of source energy increases (fuel, food, area covered by solar panels and windmills). Greater efficiency and energy ... Full text Cite

Ventilation through a single port

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · November 1, 2022 This is a fundamental study of the periodic in & out flow through a single orifice into an enclosure. The purpose of the ‘breathing’ flow is to refresh the enclosure air. The injected air differs from the original enclosure air with respect to concentratio ... Full text Cite

Evolution, physics, and education.

Journal Article Bio Systems · June 2022 Evolution is a universal phenomenon of nature, bio, and non-bio. Evolution belongs in physics and general education. This step clarifies and enhances the transmission and retention of knowledge. Teaching and learning are the mental activity of grasping a n ... Full text Cite

Virus spreading and heat spreading

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · April 1, 2022 Here we propose a heat transfer framework for how human-to-human interaction spreads everything on the landscape: disease, goods, knowledge, news, technology, science, language and culture. We show that the phenomenon of “human spreading” shares key featur ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary design: Heat and fluid flow together

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · March 1, 2022 This article sheds light on the fundamental physics that accounts for the similar behaviors of heat transfer and fluid friction as the configuration of the convective flow system changes. Three methods are used, and as the methods change so does the config ... Full text Cite

Time and beauty: Why time flies and beauty never dies

Book · February 15, 2022 Time and beauty are two of our most visceral perceptions. Yet, their nature is seldom questioned. In this ground-breaking new work, Adrian Bejan - a true 'original' among physicists - explains, in a scholarly yet colorful style, the scientific basis for th ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary Aeroelastic Design of Flying-Wing Cross Section

Journal Article AIAA Journal · February 1, 2022 The uniform distribution of stresses in flying-wing aircraft improves the aeroelastic flight envelope. In this paper, we document the effect of wing cross-section configuration on the stress distribution and flutter characteristics of a flying-wing aircraf ... Full text Cite

Aeroelastic Stability and Flow of Stresses in Wing Cross-Section

Conference AIAA Science and Technology Forum and Exposition, AIAA SciTech Forum 2022 · January 1, 2022 The aeroelastic flight envelops of flying wing aircraft can be extended with a better flow of stresses in the structure. In the present study, we investigate the effect of cross-section configuration on the stress distribution and aeroelastic behavior of a ... Full text Cite

AN EVOLUTIONARY AEROELASTIC DESIGN APPROACH FOR SPARS AND RIBS OF FLYING WING AIRCRAFT

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 2022 The purpose of this paper is to examine how rib configurations and spar configurations influence flying wing stability. Flying wing aircraft exhibit enhanced flutter characteristics when stresses flow smoothly through the wing. We prevent stress strangulat ... Full text Cite

Tree flows through hierarchical slits and orifices

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · November 1, 2021 This is a fundamental theoretical and numerical study of the evolution of tree-shaped flow on one side of the heat transfer surface of a ‘dendritic’ heat exchanger. The flow is shaped by step changes in the dimensions of the available openings. The archite ... Full text Cite

Heat sinks with minichannels and flow distributors based on constructal law

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2021 The power and speed of computers processors have grown significantly, implying that a big amount of heat must be removed for better performance. A computational thermo-hydrodynamic analysis for six different non-conventional heat sinks with mini flow chann ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary design of composite structures for thermal conductance and strength

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2021 This is a study of the evolving design of a composite material with inserts that are free to be configured and distributed through the base material. Several classes of shapes of inserts are considered competitively: parallel plates, staggered plates, fork ... Full text Cite

Nationalism and forgetfulness in the spreading of thermal sciences

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · May 1, 2021 This is a review of several key ideas and pioneers in the founding history of thermodynamics, fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Ideas treated in detail are the mechanical equivalent of heat, the difference between heat transfer and work transfer, the Navie ... Full text Open Access Cite

Cell and extracellular matrix growth theory and its implications for tumorigenesis.

Journal Article Biosystems · March 2021 Cells associated with an abnormal (cancerous) growth exchange flows, morph freely and grow hand-in-glove with their immediate environment, the extracellular matrix (ECM). The cell structure experiences two mass flows in counterflow. Flowing into the struct ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Artificial intelligence evolution in smart buildings for energy efficiency

Journal Article Applied Sciences (Switzerland) · January 2, 2021 The emerging concept of smart buildings, which requires the incorporation of sensors and big data (BD) and utilizes artificial intelligence (AI), promises to usher in a new age of urban energy efficiency. By using AI technologies in smart buildings, energy ... Full text Open Access Cite

Purpose in thermodynamics

Journal Article Energies · January 2, 2021 This is a review of the concepts of purpose, direction, and objective in the discipline of thermodynamics, which is a pillar of physics, natural sciences, life science, and engineering science. Reviewed is the relentless evolution of this discipline toward ... Full text Open Access Cite

Inflected wings in flight: Uniform flow of stresses makes strong and light wings for stable flight.

Journal Article Journal of theoretical biology · January 2021 Flying animals morph and flex their wings during their flight. Their wings morph with the turbulent flow created around them. The wings of modern airplanes do not have this ability. In this study we show that the ability to flex the wings leads to greater ... Full text Open Access Cite

Morphing the design to go with the times

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2021 The recorded history of technology and science and art shows that the evolutionary path of design is toward a greater number of dimensions, more degrees of freedom, and greater performance, efficiency and economy. Until now, designs have evolved in steps f ... Full text Open Access Cite

Professor Satish G. Kandlikar on His 70th Birthday

Journal Article Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications · December 1, 2020 Full text Cite

Design, additive manufacturing, and performance of heat exchanger with a novel flow-path architecture

Journal Article Applied Thermal Engineering · November 5, 2020 A novel heat exchanger architecture was investigated, in which each fluid partway transitions through the heat exchanger from tube-flow to shell-flow, or from shell-flow to tube-flow. The heat exchangers (HX) consisted of two plenums filled with tube bundl ... Full text Cite

Boundary layers from constructal law

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · October 1, 2020 This article communicates a new problem and solution: Fluid is initially motionless in a rectangular space the shape of which is free to vary. A blade enters along one of the sides of the rectangle, moves at constant speed, and sets the fluid in motion by ... Full text Cite

University Rankings: Quality, Size and Permanence

Journal Article European Review · August 1, 2020 Featured Publication Why are the rankings of universities not changing? Why is the demographic composition of top universities the same? In this review, these questions are addressed based on physics. Although size matters, higher ranks do not correlate with bigger sizes. The ... Full text Cite

AI and freedom for evolution in energy science

Journal Article Energy and AI · August 1, 2020 Full text Cite

Freedom and evolution in the dynamics of social systems.

Journal Article Bio Systems · July 2020 This is a review of recent work on how the physics of evolution accounts for the origin, changes and future of social systems. Evolution means the changes (spatial, temporal) that happen with discernible direction in time. Changes are everywhere because ph ... Full text Cite

Human evolution is biological & technological evolution.

Journal Article Bio Systems · July 2020 We are the human & machine species. The homo is just the inner part. The evolution of the human & machine species is oriented in time from the naked man to the man with progressively more powerful add-ons (artifacts, contrivances, devices, machines, scienc ... Full text Cite

Homage to a Legendary Dynamicist on His Seventy-Fifth Birthday

Journal Article Journal of Fluids Engineering · July 1, 2020 Full text Cite

Energy theory of periodic economic growth

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · June 10, 2020 Featured Publication This article shows that the sudden end of economic expansion (movement, wealth) emerges as a natural, physical feature of the spreading movement, which has access to power (money), freedom to morph, and power storage (savings) for future movement on even g ... Full text Cite

Discipline in thermodynamics

Journal Article Energies · May 1, 2020 Featured Publication Thermodynamics is a discipline, with unambiguous concepts, words, laws and usefulness. Today it is in danger of becoming a Tower of Babel. Its key words are being pasted brazenly on new concepts, to promote them with no respect for their proper meaning. In ... Full text Cite

In Memoriam: Professor Ephraim Maurice Sparrow

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · April 1, 2020 Full text Cite

Convergent Evolution of Boats with Sails.

Journal Article Scientific reports · February 2020 This article unveils the geometric characteristics of boats with sails of many sizes, covering the range 102-105 kg. Data from one hundred boat models are collected and tabulated. The data show distinct trends of convergent evolution ... Full text Cite

Professor somchai wongwises on his 60th birthday

Journal Article Journal of Thermal Engineering · January 1, 2020 Full text Cite

Freedom and evolution: Hierarchy in nature, society and science

Book · December 6, 2019 Featured Publication The book begins with familiar designs found all around and inside us (such as the 'trees' of river basins, human lungs, blood and city traffic). It then shows how all flow systems are driven by power from natural engines everywhere, and how they are endles ... Full text Cite

Current trends in constructal law and evolutionary design

Journal Article Heat Transfer - Asian Research · December 1, 2019 The constructal law was postulated in 1996 as the law of physics that accounts for the phenomenon of time evolution of configuration in all flow systems that have the freedom to morph: animate and inanimate, human made and not human made, social and indivi ... Full text Cite

Evolutionary design with freedom: Time dependent heat spreading

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · November 1, 2019 This paper illustrates the method of evolutionary design with freedom by considering the problem of determining the distribution of the thickness of a high-conductivity layer (heat spreader) installed on a conducting wall. Heating comes from a steady line ... Full text Cite

In memoriam: Ephraim M. Sparrow (May 27, 1928–August 1, 2019)

Journal Article Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals · October 3, 2019 Full text Cite

Heat tubes: Conduction and convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 1, 2019 This note offers a clear view of heat transfer fundamentals in terms of ‘heat tubes’, which are macroscopic architectures for the flow of energy through complex energy systems. The note focuses on heat tubes with conduction and convection, although heat tu ... Full text Cite

Counter cross-flow evaporator geometries for supercritical organic Rankine cycles

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2019 With recent advancements in advanced manufacturing techniques, it is now possible to fabricate complex geometries that take advantage of well known principles of heat transfer. Therefore, unconventional configurations to enhance effectiveness beyond conven ... Full text Cite

The evolution of air and maritime transport

Journal Article Applied Physics Reviews · June 1, 2019 The literature reviewed in this article shows that the evolution of vehicles is in line with the evolution of animal locomotion and that it is predictable from the constructal law of design and evolution in nature. The evolution of ships and airplanes illu ... Full text Cite

Why the Days Seem Shorter as We Get Older

Journal Article European Review · May 1, 2019 Featured Publication Why does it feel that the time passes faster as we get older? What is the physical basis for the impression that some days are slower than others? Why do we tend to focus on the unusual (the surprise), not on the ever present? This article unveils the phys ... Full text Cite

Professor Sadik Kakaç on His 85th Birthday

Journal Article Heat and Mass Transfer/Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung · April 11, 2019 Full text Cite

Thermodynamics of heating

Journal Article Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences · March 1, 2019 Heat transfer is a mature science, and so is thermodynamics. They are almost 200 years old having developed largely independently until the 1980s. Maturity comes from the usefulness and success of the thermal sciences. This review uses the thermodynamics o ... Full text Cite

Constructal approach in aeroelastic design and analysis of flying wing aircraft

Conference AIAA Scitech 2019 Forum · January 1, 2019 A high-aspect ratio aircraft exhibits primarily a nonlinear aeroelastic behavior, and a change in the geometric features of the structure could drastically alter the aeroelastic stability of the system. Here, we show how a certain design parameter would in ... Full text Cite

Constructal design of aircraft: Flow of stresses and aeroelastic stability

Journal Article AIAA Journal · January 1, 2019 Body-freedom flutter characteristics of flying wing aircraft vary with engine placement. Here, we show why a certain design parameter (engine placement) influences the aeroelastic flight envelope of the aircraft. The approach is based on the constructal la ... Full text Cite

BUCKLING FLOWS

Journal Article MECHANICAL ENGINEERING · 2019 Cite

Evolutionary design of conducting layers with fins and freedom

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · November 1, 2018 Here we show that the morphology of a conducting wall can be ‘evolved’ by design so that its ability to enhance thermal contact with the ambient is maximized. Free to morph is the entire configuration of the conducting volume of the wall: the wall thicknes ... Full text Cite

On celebration of Professor Abdulmajeed A. Mohamad’s 65th birthday

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · November 2018 Full text Cite

The Physics Law of Evolution

Journal Article Inference: International Review of Science · October 19, 2018 Our nature is continuous and morphing, not infinitesimal, discrete, and still. With the law of evolution, physics accounts for form and the time direction in evolving macroscopic structures everywhere. ... Full text Cite

Social organization: The thermodynamic basis

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · October 10, 2018 Featured Publication Why do individuals come to live (to move) together, to organize? Here, we propose that organization is a reflection of the physics reality (bio and nonbio) that it takes less power (useful energy, fuel, food, and exergy) to move 1 unit of mass in bulk than ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamics today

Journal Article Energy · October 1, 2018 In this paper I use the example set by Prof. Jan Szargut as point of reference for a brief look at the current state of thermodynamics—the doctrine, its reach and importance. I start with my first encounter with Prof. Jan Szargut in 1979, and I show how hi ... Full text Cite

Medical imaging dose optimisation from ground up: expert opinion of an international summit.

Journal Article J Radiol Prot · September 2018 As in any medical intervention, there is either a known or an anticipated benefit to the patient from undergoing a medical imaging procedure. This benefit is generally significant, as demonstrated by the manner in which medical imaging has transformed clin ... Full text Link to item Cite

The fastest animals and vehicles are neither the biggest nor the fastest over lifetime.

Journal Article Scientific reports · August 2018 Here we show how the size of a body affects its maximum average speed of movement through its environment. The theoretical challenge was to predict that 'outliers' must exist, such as the cheetah for terrestrial animals and the jet fighter for airplanes. W ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory in heat transfer

Chapter · July 5, 2018 The Constructal Law is the law of physics that accounts for the universal phenomenon of evolution of flow configuration in nature. Evolution and the Constructal Law unite all the "live" systems, bio and nonbio, which are characterized by flow and freedom t ... Full text Cite

Personal aircraft: Why the revolution won't happen

Journal Article Aerospace America · May 1, 2018 Cite

Without engineering, civilization do

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · May 1, 2018 Full text Cite

Novel evaporator architecture with entrance-length crossflow-paths for supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · April 1, 2018 In this paper, a novel geometry is proposed for evaporators that are used in Supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles. The proposed geometry consists of successive plenums at several length-scale levels, creating a multi-scale heat exchanger (HX). The channels ... Full text Cite

The evolutionary design of cooling a plate with one stream

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2018 Here we show the performance of a cooling system consisting of one stream that morphs while embedded in a square plate heated uniformly. Several configurations are considered in order to establish the evolutionary direction in which the thermal performance ... Full text Cite

Constructal law, twenty years after

Journal Article Proceedings of the Romanian Academy Series A - Mathematics Physics Technical Sciences Information Science · January 1, 2018 Cite

Horizontal extent of the urban heat dome flow.

Journal Article Scientific reports · September 2017 Urban heat dome flow, which is also referred to as urban heat island circulation, is important for urban ventilation and pollutant transport between adjacent cities when the background wind is weak or absent. A "dome-shaped" profile can form at the upper b ... Full text Cite

Professor John W. Rose BScEng PhD DScEng(Lond) CEng FIMechE FASME on his 80th birthday

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 2017 Full text Cite

The constructal size of a heat exchanger

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · August 14, 2017 The architecture of heat exchangers is a classical subject that has been studied extensively in the past. In this paper, we address the fundamental question of what the size of the heat exchanger should be, in addition to what architectural features it sho ... Full text Cite

Hierarchy in air travel: Few large and many small

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 14, 2017 Here, we document the diversity of commercial aircraft models and bodies in use during the past five decades. Special emphasis is on the models that have moved humanity across the globe during the past three decades. The first objective is to show that the ... Full text Cite

Wealth inequality: The physics basis

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · March 28, 2017 "Inequality" is a common observation about us, as members of society. In this article, we unify physics with economics by showing that the distribution of wealth is related proportionally to the movement of all the streams of a live society. The hierarchic ... Full text Open Access Cite

Evolution in thermodynamics

Journal Article Applied Physics Reviews · March 1, 2017 Featured Publication This review covers two aspects of “evolution” in thermodynamics. First, with the constructal law, thermodynamics is becoming the domain of physics that accounts for the phenomenon of evolution in nature, in general. Second, thermodynamics (and science gene ... Full text Cite

Evolution as physics: The human & machine species

Journal Article European Review · February 1, 2017 Humans and technology are not in symbiosis. They are one species, not two. Humans, enveloped in artefacts of many kinds and ages (from writing, to airplanes), are evolving as one species, the 'human & machine species'. This evolution is visible and recorde ... Full text Open Access Cite

Evolution and the city

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · February 1, 2017 Full text Open Access Cite

Economies of scale: The physics basis

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 28, 2017 Featured Publication Why is size so important? Why are “economies of scale” a universal feature of all flow systems, animate, inanimate, and human made? The empirical evidence is clear: the bigger are more efficient carriers (per unit) than the smaller. This natural tendency i ... Full text Cite

Thermal analysis in a triple-layered skin structure with embedded vasculature, tumor, and gold nanoshells

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2017 Obtaining accurate temperature distributions in living tissue related to hyperthermia skin cancer treatment without using an intruding sensor is a challenge. Here, we report a mathematical model that can accurately determine the temperature distribution in ... Full text Open Access Cite

Entrance-length dendritic plate heat exchangers

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2017 Here we explore the idea that the highest heat transfer rate between two fluids in a given volume is achieved when plate channel lengths are given by the thermal entrance length, i.e., when the thermal boundary layers meet at the exit of each channel. The ... Full text Open Access Cite

EVOLUTION AS PHYSICS

Conference CONSTRUCTAL LAW & SECOND LAW CONFERENCE (CLC2017) · January 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

Convection in porous media

Book · January 1, 2017 This updated edition of a widely admired text provides a user-friendly introduction to the field that requires only routine mathematics. The book starts with the elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, and covers a wide range of applications from fi ... Full text Cite

Prof. Em. Dr.-Ing. Dr.-Ing. E.h. mult. Franz Mayinger on His 85th Birthday

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · November 1, 2016 Full text Cite

Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics

Book · September 20, 2016 An advanced, practical approach to the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics bridges the gap between engineering applications and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Going beyond the basic coverage offered by ... Full text Cite

Arrays of flow channels with heat transfer embedded in conducting walls

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · August 1, 2016 Here we illustrate the free search for the optimal geometry of flow channel cross-sections that meet two objectives simultaneously: reduced resistances to heat transfer and fluid flow. The element cross section and the wall material are fixed, while the sh ... Full text Open Access Cite

Counterflow heat exchanger with core and plenums at both ends

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · August 1, 2016 This paper illustrates the morphing of flow architecture toward greater performance in a counterflow heat exchanger. The architecture consists of two plenums with a core of counterflow channels between them. Each stream enters one plenum and then flows in ... Full text Open Access Cite

Constructal design of salt-gradient solar pond fields

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · August 1, 2016 Salt-gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) are water bodies that capture and accumulate large amounts of solar energy. The design of an SGSP field has never been analyzed in terms of studying the optimal number of solar ponds that must be built to maximize the usef ... Full text Open Access Cite

Constructal design for convection melting of a phase change body

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · August 1, 2016 This paper documents a numerical study of time-dependent melting dominated by natural convection in a cylinder filled with a phase change material. In accord with constructal design, the search is for effective heat-flow architectures. The volume-constrain ... Full text Cite

The evolution of helicopters

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 7, 2016 Here, we show that during their half-century history, helicopters have been evolving into geometrically similar architectures with surprisingly sharp correlations between dimensions, performance, and body size. For example, proportionalities emerge between ... Full text Open Access Cite

The Physics of Life The Evolution of Everything

Book · May 24, 2016 Featured Publication An empowering new view of the nature of physics and the constant evolution of our physical and social world ... Cite

Distributed energy storage: Time-dependent tree flow design

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · May 14, 2016 This article proposes "distributed energy storage" as a basic design problem of distributing energy storage material on an area. The energy flows by fluid flow from a concentrated source to points (users) distributed equidistantly on the area. The flow is ... Full text Cite

Life and evolution as physics.

Journal Article Communicative & integrative biology · May 2016 What is evolution and why does it exist in the biological, geophysical and technological realms - in short, everywhere? Why is there a time direction - a time arrow - in the changes we know are happening every moment and everywhere? Why is the present diff ... Full text Open Access Cite

ACCELERATED EVOLUTION

Journal Article MECHANICAL ENGINEERING · April 1, 2016 Open Access Link to item Cite

Acceleration evoluted

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · April 1, 2016 Full text Cite

The physics origin of the hierarchy of bodies in space

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · March 7, 2016 Here we show that bodies of the same size suspended uniformly in space constitute a system (a "suspension") in a state of uniform volumetric tension because of mass-to-mass forces of attraction. The system "snaps" hierarchically, and evolves faster to a st ... Full text Open Access Cite

Professor Arcot R. Balakrishnan on his 65th birthday

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · March 2016 Full text Cite

Complexity, organization, evolution, and constructal law

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · February 21, 2016 Physics is concise, simple, unambiguous, and constantly improving. Yet, confusion reigns in the field especially with respect to complexity and the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we step back and take a look at these notions - their meaning a ... Full text Cite

Rolling stones and turbulent eddies: why the bigger live longer and travel farther.

Journal Article Scientific reports · February 2016 Here we report the discovery that even the simplest, oldest and most prevalent forms of evolutionary movement--rolling bodies and whirls of turbulence--exhibit the same body-size effect on life time and life travel as the evolutionary movement united by th ... Full text Open Access Cite

Constructal thermodynamics

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Technology · January 30, 2016 Full text Cite

Letter to the editor of renewable and sustainable energy reviews

Journal Article Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews · January 1, 2016 Full text Open Access Cite

Constructal thermodynamics

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Technology · January 1, 2016 Thermodynamics is brief, simple, unambiguous and improving. Yet, confusion reigns in the field. The word "entropy" is pasted on almost any new thing, without any respect for its proper definition in thermodynamics. Every author bows to his own maximum or m ... Full text Open Access Cite

Evolution of airplanes, and what price speed?

Journal Article AIAA Journal · January 1, 2016 The constructal theory of flight accounts not only for speed, body size, and medium density r but also for physical parameters that are an integral part of the derivation of these equations in their original sources. One parameter is the Reynolds number, w ... Full text Cite

Novel evaporator geometries based on entrance-length flowpaths for geothermal binary power plants

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 2016 In this paper, a novel geometry is proposed for evaporators that are used in Organic Rankine Cycles. The proposed geometry consists of employing successive plenums at several lengthscale levels, creating a multi-scale heat exchanger. The channels at the lo ... Full text Cite

Flow architectures for ground-coupled heat pumps

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 2016 In this paper we report the main advances made by our research group on the heat transfer performance of complex stream architectures embedded in a conducting solid. The immediate application of this review work deals with groundcoupled heat pumps. Various ... Full text Cite

Guest Editorial

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 2016 Cite

Sustainability: The Water and Energy Problem, and the Natural Design Solution

Journal Article European Review · September 22, 2015 People like to say that energy and water are two problems, two vital commodities in short supply. Here I draw attention to the emerging literature and physics principle (constructal law) that provide the scientific foundation for sustainability. I show tha ... Full text Open Access Cite

Constructal design of gas-cooled electric power generators, self-pumping and atmospheric circulation

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · August 24, 2015 Rotating electric machines generate heat volumetrically, and are cooled by forced convection aided by the self-pumping effect. In this paper we focus on the fundamental relationship between the internal flow architecture of the gas cooled winding and its t ... Full text Open Access Cite

The robustness of the permeability of constructal tree-shaped fissures

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 6, 2015 Here we develop analytically the formulas for effective permeability in several configurations using the closed-form description of tree networks designed to provide flow access. The objective was to find the relation between the permeability and porosity ... Full text Open Access Cite

Energy design for dense neighborhoods: One heat pump rejects heat, the other absorbs heat from the same loop

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · June 29, 2015 This paper documents the joint performance of heat pumps that are served by a common loop buried in the ground, and which operate simultaneously: one heat pump absorbs heat from the buried loop whereas the other one rejects heat. A background flow is circu ... Full text Open Access Cite

Morphing tree structures for latent thermal energy storage

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · June 14, 2015 Here, we report the numerical study of time dependent storage of energy by melting a phase change material. The heating is provided along invading lines, which change from single-line invasion to tree-shaped invasion. The numerical simulations show that th ... Full text Open Access Cite

Technology evolution, from the constructal law: Heat transfer designs

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · June 10, 2015 People like to say that we cannot witness evolution because it occurred over a timescale immensely greater than human experience. Here, we show that it is possible to witness, explain, and predict evolution by focusing on technology evolution. We review th ... Full text Cite

Constructal Law: Optimization as Design Evolution

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · June 1, 2015 Here, I review the physics meaning of optimization, knowledge and design evolution, and why these concepts and human activities are profoundly useful for human life. A law of physics is a concise statement that summarizes a phenomenon that occurs in nature ... Full text Open Access Cite

Cerebral oxygenation and optimal vascular brain organization.

Journal Article Journal of the Royal Society, Interface · June 2015 The cerebral vascular network has evolved in such a way so as to minimize transport time and energy expenditure. This is accomplished by a subtle combination of the optimal arrangement of arteries, arterioles and capillaries and the transport mechanisms of ... Full text Open Access Cite

Why humans build fires shaped the same way.

Journal Article Scientific reports · June 2015 Featured Publication Here we see why humans unwittingly build fires that look the same: edifices of fuel, as tall as they are wide. The pile of fuel is permeable, air invades it by natural convection and drives the combustion. I show that the hottest pile of burning fuel occur ... Full text Cite

The evolutionary design of condensers

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · March 28, 2015 Condensers are flow architectures needed to provide high rates of condensation (or cooling) per unit volume, in enclosures with fixed volume. Their design has not changed from configurations consisting of the banks of horizontal tubes. In this paper, we ou ... Full text Open Access Cite

Constructal design of evacuation from a three-dimensional living space

Journal Article Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications · March 15, 2015 This paper demonstrates the fundamental relation that exists between the configuration of a three-dimensional living space and the time needed for the evacuation of all the inhabitants. The evacuation is treated as a physical flow system consisting of pede ... Full text Open Access Cite

in memoriam

Journal Article Heat Transfer Engineering · March 4, 2015 Full text Open Access Cite

Exergy Analysis, Entropy Generation Minimization, and the Constructal Law

Journal Article · February 20, 2015 AbstractThis chapter reviews three methods that account for much of the newer work in engineering thermodynamics and thermal design and optimization. The method of exergy analysis rests on thermodynamics alone. E ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamics Fundamentals

Journal Article · February 20, 2015 AbstractThis chapter reviews the first and second laws of thermodynamics and their implications in mechanical engineering. It reviews the analytical aspects (the formulas) of engineering thermodynamics primarily ... Full text Cite

Vascularization for cooling and reduced thermal stresses

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2015 This paper documents the effect of thermal expansion on a vascularized plate that is heated and loaded mechanically. Vascular cooling channels embedded in a circular plate provide cooling and mechanical strength. The coolant enters the plate from the cente ... Full text Open Access Cite

Constructal design of latent thermal energy storage with vertical spiral heaters

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2015 This paper reports a numerical and analytical study of time dependent storage of energy by melting a phase change material in a cylindrical tank. In the first part of the study the heater was a vertical spiral tube positioned coaxially with the tank. In th ... Full text Cite

Heatlines (1983) versus synergy (1998)

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2015 A picture is worth a thousand words. This article is about a picture known as "heatlines" since 1983, and "synergy" since 1998. Both concepts, heatlines and synergy, are about visualizing the physics of convection, which is the combination (superposition) ... Full text Open Access Cite

Thermal coupling between a helical pipe and a conducting volume

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2015 Here we document the effect of flow configuration on the heat transfer performance of a helically shaped pipe embedded in a cylindrical conducting volume. The helix is wrapped on an imaginary cylinder. Several configurations of helices with fixed volume of ... Full text Open Access Cite

Every snowflake is not unique

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · January 1, 2015 Full text Cite

Comment on "Application of entransy analysis in self-heat recuperation technology"

Journal Article Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research · November 26, 2014 Full text Cite

A bird? A plane? It's all evolution

Journal Article Aerospace America · November 1, 2014 Cite

The S curve of energy storage by melting

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · September 21, 2014 This is a treatment of the phenomenon of energy storage by melting in an enclosure where the heating is provided by an invading line of higher temperature. We show that the melting process consists of two phases: "invasion" thermal diffusion along the inva ... Full text Cite

The Evolution of Airplanes

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 22, 2014 The prevailing view is that we cannot witness biological evolution because it occurred on a time scale immensely greater than our lifetime. Here, we show that we can witness evolution in our lifetime by watching the evolution of the flying human-and-machin ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Power from a hot gas stream with superheater and reheater in parallel

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2014 In this paper we determine the fundamental relation between global performance and flow configuration (constructal design) in the case of steam power generation with superheater and reheater placed in parallel in the same stream of hot gases of combustion. ... Full text Cite

Vascular design for reducing hot spots and stresses

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · May 7, 2014 This paper is a proposal to embed tree-shaped vasculatures in a wall designed such that the wall withstands without excessive hot spots and peak stresses the intense heating and pressure that impinge on it. The vasculature is a quilt of square-shaped panel ... Full text Cite

"entransy," and its lack of content in physics

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · May 1, 2014 Here, I show that "entransy" has no meaning in physics, because, at bottom, it rests on the false claim that in order to transfer heat to a solid body of thermodynamic temperature T, the heat transfer must be proportional to T. Entransy "dissipation" is a ... Full text Cite

Evolution: why all plumes and jets evolve to round cross sections.

Journal Article Scientific reports · April 2014 Turbulent curtains of smoke rise initially as flat plumes and, above a certain height, they become round plumes. The same evolution of cross-sectional shape is exhibited by jets issuing from flat nozzles. Here we predict based on principle that all such fl ... Full text Cite

Distribution of size in multi-evaporator air conditioning systems

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · April 1, 2014 This paper reports the thermodynamic optimization of air conditioning systems with one or more evaporators, for one or more rooms. First, the paper shows that the minimization of the total power requirement leads to the same results as the minimization of ... Full text Cite

Constructal Underground Designs for Ground-Coupled Heat Pumps

Journal Article Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · February 1, 2014 In this paper, we review the main advances made by our research group on the heat transfer performance of complex flow architectures embedded in a conducting solid. The immediate applications of this work include the design of ground-coupled heat pumps, se ... Full text Cite

Maxwell's demons everywhere: evolving design as the arrow of time.

Journal Article Scientific reports · February 2014 Featured Publication Science holds that the arrow of time in nature is imprinted on one-way (irreversible) phenomena, and is accounted for by the second law of thermodynamics. Here I show that the arrow of time is painted much more visibly on another self-standing phenomenon: ... Full text Cite

Phase change heat storage in an enclosure with vertical pipe in the center

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2014 This paper documents the fundamentals of heat storage by melting a phase-change material inside a cylindrical enclosure with a vertical heated pipe on its axis. The phenomenon is studied analytically and numerically. The analysis consists of the scale anal ... Full text Cite

Assemblies of heat pumps served by a single underground heat exchanger

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2014 In this paper we document the relationship between complex flow architecture and global performance for assemblies of heat pumps coupled thermally with the ground through a single U-shaped loop with circulating fluid. The assemblies vary according to heat ... Full text Cite

Thermal coupling between a spiral pipe and a conducting volume

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2014 Here we document the effect of flow configuration on the heat transfer performance of a spiral shaped pipe embedded in a cylindrical conducting volume. We considered several configurations with fixed volumes of fluid and solid. First, we optimized the geom ... Full text Cite

Double tree structure in a conducting body

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2014 In this paper we consider the fundamental problem of how to design the spacing between two plane and parallel tree structures buried in and transferring heat to a conducting medium. The Y and T tree-shaped structures are configured as two palms facing each ... Full text Cite

Ecohydrological flow networks in the subsurface

Journal Article Ecohydrology · January 1, 2014 Preferential flow in hillslope systems through subsurface networks developed from a range of botanical, faunal and geophysical processes have been observed and inferred for decades and may provide a large component of the bulk transport of water and solute ... Full text Cite

Constructal design of thermoelectric power packages

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2014 In this paper we consider the complete thermofluid design and performance of a thermoelectric module. We increase the temperature difference that must be maintained across the module, and at the same time we reduce the pumping power required by the streams ... Full text Cite

Constructal design of regenerators

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · October 10, 2013 This paper documents the fundamental problem of designing a porous flow architecture that meets the requirements of facilitating flow access while storing and releasing heat to a flowing fluid. Examples of such designs are regenerators that operate cyclica ... Full text Cite

Step-ping on the water

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · October 1, 2013 Full text Cite

Power from a hot gas stream with multiple superheaters and reheaters

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 9, 2013 In this paper we explore the opportunity to maximize the production of power in a steam-turbine power plant by properly configuring the hardware at the interface between the stream of hot gas produced by the furnace and the steam that circulates through th ... Full text Cite

Constructal design of a comb-like channel network for self-healing and self-cooling

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 3, 2013 The present work shows how to minimize the global pressure drop in a comb-like channel network with self-healing and self-cooling functionalities implementing the concept of constructal design. A thick channel distributes the fluid flow to many thin channe ... Full text Cite

The constructal evolution of sports with throwing motion: Baseball, golf, hockey and boxing

Journal Article International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics · August 26, 2013 Here we show that the trends in four sports are united by the evolutionary constructal design of all animal locomotion. The trend is toward greater efficiency in the falling-forward movement of the body, and this is why the evolution of the throwing motion ... Full text Cite

The evolution of long distance running and swimming

Journal Article International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics · August 26, 2013 The modern evolution of long distance running and swimming is documented statistically: body mass (M), height (H), slenderness (S), and winning speed (V). In long distance running (10,000 m), M, H, and S are decreasing: these trends contradict the trends i ... Full text Cite

流れとかたち 万物のデザインを決める新たな物理法則

Book · August 22, 2013 樹木、河川、動物の身体構造、稲妻、スポーツの記録、社会の階層制、経済、グローバリゼーション、黄金比、空港施設、道路網、メディア、文化、教育―生物・無生物を問わず ... ... Cite

One underground heat exchanger for multiple heat pumps

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 31, 2013 A heat pump that is coupled thermally with the ground extracts heat from the soil in winter, and discharges heat in the summer. The coupling is made through a buried heat exchanger. In this paper we explore the idea of using a single heat exchanger that se ... Full text Cite

The emergence of design in pedestrian dynamics: locomotion, self-organization, walking paths and constructal law.

Journal Article Physics of life reviews · June 2013 Gait is inherent to human life and hence its importance is often overlooked. But walking remains the most basic form of transportation and almost all journeys begin and end with a walk, regardless of the modes used in-between. Gaining a good understanding ... Full text Cite

Constructal paddle design with "fingers"

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · May 21, 2013 Here, we show how the performance of a paddle that pushes a fluid can be increased by making parallel slits through it. The slit spacing is varied to see its effect on the drag force and the maximum stress in the paddle. The effect of water speed and paddl ... Full text Cite

Effect of size on ground-coupled heat pump performance

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · May 20, 2013 Here we document and explain interactions between two thermodynamic trends that determine the optimum performance of refrigeration and heat pump systems. We show analytically why the performance of the system must increase with the size of the installation ... Full text Cite

Underground heat flow patterns for dense neighborhoods with heat pumps

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · April 22, 2013 In this paper we consider the placement of buildings with ground coupled heat pumps on a densely populated area. The assemblies of pipes that constitute the ground heat exchangers occupy volumes that are shaped as parallelepipeds, the short dimension of wh ... Full text Cite

Constructal law of design and evolution: Physics, biology, technology, and society

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · April 1, 2013 This is a review of the theoretical and applied progress made based on the Constructal law of design and evolution in nature, with emphasis on the last decade. The Constructal law is the law of physics that accounts for the natural tendency of all flow sys ... Full text Cite

Convection Heat Transfer: Fourth Edition

Journal Article Convection Heat Transfer: Fourth Edition · March 29, 2013 A new edition of the bestseller on convection heat transfer A revised edition of the industry classic, Convection Heat Transfer, Fourth Edition, chronicles how the field of heat transfer has grown and prospered over the last two decades. This new edition i ... Full text Cite

Convection Heat Transfer

Book · March 28, 2013 He continues this book's long-standing role as an inspiring, optimal study tool by providing: Coverage of how convection affects performance, and how convective flows can be configured so that performance is enhanced How convective ... ... Cite

Porous and Complex Flow Structures in Modern Technologies

Book · March 9, 2013 This volume includes examples, a large number of current references and an extensive glossary of symbols. ... Cite

Professor Bud Peterson on his 60th birthday

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · March 1, 2013 Full text Cite

Constructal distribution of multi-layer insulation

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · February 1, 2013 Here, we show how to distribute multiple layers of insulation along a nonisothermal enclosure so that the total heat loss is minimal. The types and total amounts of insulation materials are fixed. Variables are the thicknesses of the insulation layers, the ... Full text Cite

Special issue: Thermodynamic optimization, exergy analysis, and constructal design

Journal Article Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering · February 1, 2013 Full text Cite

Entropy generation minimization, exergy analysis, and the constructal law

Journal Article Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering · February 1, 2013 This is a review of the evolution of thermodynamics during the past four decades, from classical (engineering) thermodynamics, to thermodynamic optimization, entropy generation minimization, exergy analysis, and most recently the constructal law of design ... Full text Cite

Constructal design of pedestrian evacuation from an area

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 21, 2013 Pedestrian movement occurs in evolutionary patterns the effect of which is to facilitate the access of people into and out of living spaces (areas, volumes). In this paper, we rely on the philosophy of Constructal design as applied physics, in order to unc ... Full text Cite

Constructal flow orientation in conjugate cooling channels with internal heat generation

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 15, 2013 This paper presents the development of the three-dimensional flow architecture of conjugate cooling channels in forced convection with internal heat generation within the solid for an array of circular cooling channels with different flow orientation. Thre ... Full text Cite

Design in Nature How the Constructal Law Governs Evolution in Biology, Physics, Technology, and Social Organizations

Book · January 8, 2013 Reveals how recurring patterns in nature are accounted for by a single governing principle of physics, explaining how all designs in the world from biological life to inanimate systems evolve in a sequence of ever-improving designs that ... ... Cite

Technology Evolution, from the Constructal Law

Journal Article · January 1, 2013 The constructal law of design evolution is the law of physics that expresses the natural tendency of all flow systems, bio and nonbio, to morph into configurations that provide greater flow access over time. River basins, animal locomotion and migratory ro ... Full text Cite

Convection in porous media

Book · January 1, 2013 Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routin ... Full text Cite

Trees and serpentines in a conducting body

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2013 Here we document comparatively the performance of three flow architectures for heat transfer between a buried flow structure and a conducting medium: trees with Y-shaped bifurcations, trees with T-shaped bifurcations, and classical U-shaped and serpentine ... Full text Cite

Why solidification has an S-shaped history.

Journal Article Scientific reports · 2013 Here we show theoretically that the history of solid growth during "rapid" solidification must be S-shaped, in accord with the constructal law of design in nature. In the beginning the rate of solidification increases and after reaching a maximum it decrea ... Full text Cite

Distribution of size in multi-evaporator air conditioning systems

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · 2013 Cite

Constructal design of underground heat sources or sinks for the annual cycle

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · December 1, 2012 Here we show that the heat transfer between a pipe assembly and the soil during the annual temperature cycle of a heat pump depends on the configuration of the flow system. We rely on constructal design to find the flow architecture (spacings, shapes) such ... Full text Cite

Vascularization for cooling a plate heated by a randomly moving source

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · October 15, 2012 Here, we show that a plate heated by a moving beam can be cooled effectively by fluid that flows through a vasculature of channels embedded in the plate. The vascular designs studied are radial, grid and hybrid (radial grid). The peak temperature of the pl ... Full text Cite

The constructal-law physics of why swimmers must spread their fingers and toes.

Journal Article Journal of theoretical biology · September 2012 Here we show theoretically that swimming animals and athletes gain an advantage in force and speed by spreading their fingers and toes optimally. The larger force means larger body mass lifted and greater speed, in accord with the constructal theory of all ... Full text Cite

The natural design of hierarchy: Basketball versus academics

Journal Article International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics · August 10, 2012 The power-law correlation between frequency and rank is a physics characteristic of natural flow systems (river basins, demography) in accordance with the constructal law. Here we show that this robust characteristic is a consequence of their design as are ... Full text Cite

Freely morphing tree structures in a conducting body

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · August 1, 2012 Here we determine the tree-shaped structure that facilitates heat transfer between it and the solid body in which it is embedded. The vascular design evolves toward configurations that provide progressively greater heat transfer per unit volume. Two solid ... Full text Cite

Design in nature

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · June 1, 2012 Full text Cite

The steepest S curve of spreading and collecting flows: Discovering the invading tree, not assuming it

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · May 15, 2012 Spreading and collecting flows are united by the flow design known as the S-curve: when plotted versus time, the size of the domain that is filled or emptied has a history that is shaped as an S. Here, we show that the fastest spreading or collecting (i.e. ... Full text Cite

The S-curves are everywhere

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · May 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Constructal design for pedestrian movement in living spaces: Evacuation configurations

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · March 1, 2012 Here we show that the configuration of an inhabited area controls the time required by all the pedestrians to vacate the space. From the minimization of the global evacuation time emerges the optimal configuration of the area. This is a fundamental princip ... Full text Cite

Serpentine thermal coupling between a stream and a conducting body

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · February 15, 2012 Here we document the effect of flow configuration on the heat transfer performance of a serpentine shaped stream embedded in a conducting solid. Several configurations with fixed volume of fluid are considered: U-shaped with varying spacing between the par ... Full text Cite

Design in Nature How the Constructal Law Governs Evolution in Biology, Physics, Technology, and Social Organization

Book · January 2012 Reveals how recurring patterns in nature are accounted for by a single governing principle of physics, explaining how all designs in the world from biological life to inanimate systems evolve in a sequence of ever-improving designs that ... ... Cite

Why we want power: Economics is physics

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · 2012 Featured Publication Full text Cite

Constructal design of distributed energy systems: Solar power and water desalination

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2012 Here we show the fundamental tradeoffs that underpin the design of a distributed energy system with two objectives: the production and distribution of electric power driven by solar heating, and desalinated water produced by consuming solar power. We show ... Full text Cite

The physics of spreading ideas

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · 2012 Featured Publication Here we show that the main features of citations history (S-shaped curve, increasing h index, decreasing m quotient) are predictable with the constructal law of how an idea flows over a populated territory. It flows in two ways: fast and long, as "convecti ... Full text Cite

Tree-shaped fluid flow and heat storage in a conducting solid

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 2012 This paper documents the time-dependent thermal interaction between a fluid stream configured as a plane tree of varying complexity embedded in a conducting solid with finite volume and insulated boundaries. The time scales of the convection-conduction phe ... Full text Cite

Why the bigger live longer and travel farther: animals, vehicles, rivers and the winds.

Journal Article Sci Rep · 2012 Featured Publication Here we show that constructal-law physics unifies the design of animate and inanimate movement by requiring that larger bodies move farther, and their movement on the landscape last longer. The life span of mammals must scale as the body mass (M) raised to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Climate change, in the framework of the constructal law

Journal Article INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GLOBAL WARMING · 2012 Featured Publication Full text Cite

A Sarmatian grave with gold adornments found at Sânnicolau Mare - Selişte (Timiş county)

Journal Article Analele Banatului: Arheologie - Istorie · December 1, 2011 The present study is aimed at bringing to the public and specialists' attention an archaeological discovery made in 2005, which is of great importance to the complex issue of Sarmatian settlement on the lower course of the Mureş river. The archaeological l ... Cite

The constructal law and the evolution of design in nature.

Journal Article Physics of life reviews · October 2011 The constructal law accounts for the universal phenomenon of generation and evolution of design (configuration, shape, structure, pattern, rhythm). This phenomenon is observed across the board, in animate, inanimate and human systems. The constructal law s ... Full text Cite

Professor Amir Faghri on his 60th birthday

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · October 2011 Full text Cite

Hybrid grid and tree structures for cooling and mechanical strength

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · September 15, 2011 In this paper, we show how vascular design controls the cooling and mechanical performance of a solid square slab heated uniformly and loaded with uniform pressure. The vascular structure is a combination of one grid and several peripheral trees. The desig ... Full text Cite

Configuration of heat sources or sinks in a finite volume

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 15, 2011 This work documents the design method of allocating channels that serve as heat sources or heat sinks in a conducting body. First, we develop a numerical model to find the optimum channel spacing for specified properties of the surrounding medium, the time ... Full text Cite

Vascularization for cooling and mechanical strength

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2011 In this paper we explore the use of vascular design that provides cooling and mechanical strength at the same time. We illustrate the concept with a circular plate vascularized with embedded channels. The cooling fluid enters to the plate from the center o ... Full text Cite

Steam generator structure: Continuous model and constructal design

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · March 25, 2011 This study shows that the main features of a steam generator can be determined based on the method of constructal design. The generator is endowed with freedom to morph, and then is optimized by putting the right components in the right places. The number ... Full text Cite

The effect of size on efficiency: Power plants and vascular designs

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · March 1, 2011 In this paper we use thermodynamics to show why larger flow systems are more efficient than smaller flow systems. This trend is visible across the board, from power generation and refrigeration, to vascular design and animal design. The reason is that larg ... Full text Cite

Stressing the science of engineering

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · January 1, 2011 Full text Cite

The constructal law origin of the logistics S curve

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · 2011 Featured Publication The S curve is one of the most common phenomena in nature: the spreading of populations, tumors, contaminants, innovations, economic activity. Here we show that this phenomenon can be predicted entirely by recognizing in it a flow. The flow is not by diffu ... Full text Cite

Constructal design of distributed cooling on the landscape

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · January 1, 2011 Here we constructal design to determine the area size (or number of users N) to be allocated to a central refrigeration plant, and to configure the distribution network for the distributed cooling system. The main objective is to maximize the net cooling c ... Full text Cite

Animals spinning their wheels

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · January 1, 2011 Full text Cite

The constructal law and the design of the Biosphere: Nature and globalization

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 2011 "Design in nature" is a topic of growing interest throughout science. The constructal law is the physics law of design generation and evolution in nature: "for a flow system to persist in time (to live), it must evolve such that it provides easier and easi ... Full text Cite

Few large and many small: Hierarchy in movement on earth

Journal Article International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics · December 27, 2010 Movement on earth is effected by bodies (e.g. river channels, animals, vehicles) of seemingly random scales, large and small. Here we use the constructal law and the design of 'distributed energy systems' to show that the large must be few and the small ma ... Full text Cite

Distributed energy tapestry for heating the landscape

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 15, 2010 Here we show that the production and use of heating on an area must be distributed in clusters organized such that the losses associated with centers of production are balanced by the losses associated with distribution lines. The energy needs increase in ... Full text Cite

Vascular design of constructal structures with low flow resistance and nonuniformity

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · December 1, 2010 Here we explore new vascular designs for volumetric bathing of smart structures with volumetric functionalities (cooling, self healing). One stream bathes the volume, and the vasculature is configured as two trees matched canopy to canopy. Several architec ... Full text Cite

Maximum heat transfer from multi-scale fins arranged in a row with non-uniform geometry

Journal Article 2010 14th International Heat Transfer Conference, IHTC 14 · December 1, 2010 This paper described numerical the procedure used to determine the optimum configuration of two rows of pin fins so that the total heat transfer rate is maximized. The heat transfer across the fins is by laminar forced convection bathed by a free-stream th ... Full text Cite

Constructal distribution of solar chimney power plants: Few large and many small

Journal Article International Journal of Green Energy · November 1, 2010 In this paper, we show how to use constructal design to distribute solar chimney power production on available land area most efficiently. The solar chimney design is used as an example of solar-driven power plant. We found that the power generated per uni ... Full text Cite

Constructal multi-tube configuration for natural and forced convection in cross-flow

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · November 1, 2010 This paper shows how the configuration of a heat exchanger with fixed size controls the global performance. The cold-side fluid is driven by natural convection in vertical round tubes connected via two plenums. The hot-side fluid flows perpendicularly to t ... Full text Cite

Fluid flow and heat transfer in vascularized cooling plates

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 1, 2010 In this study, the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of new vascular designs for the volumetric bathing of the smart structures were investigated numerically by addressing three-dimensional continuity, momentum, and energy conservation as a conjugat ... Full text Cite

The "flow of stresses" concept: The analogy between mechanical strength and heat convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 1, 2010 Here we show that there is a complete analogy between the configuring of heat and fluid flow and the configuring of the "flow of stresses". The common principle is the avoidance of flow strangulations. This endows the flow systems (fluid, heat, stresses) w ... Full text Cite

Natural constructal emergence of vascular design with turbulent flow

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · June 1, 2010 Here, we show that vascular design emerges naturally when a volume is bathed by a single stream in turbulent flow. The stream enters the volume, spreads itself to bathe the volume, and then reconstitutes itself as a single stream before it exits the volume ... Full text Open Access Cite

Constructal dendritic configuration for the radiation heating of a solid stream

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · June 1, 2010 Here we show that the configuration of a slender enclosure can be optimized such that the radiation heating of a stream of solid is performed with minimal fuel consumption at the global level. The solid moves longitudinally at constant rate through the enc ... Full text Open Access Cite

Constructal multi-scale pin-fins

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2010 In this paper we use constructal theory to determine the configuration of two rows of pin-fins so that the total heat transfer rate is maximized. The heat transfer across the fins is by laminar forced convection bathed by a free-stream that is uniform and ... Full text Cite

The constructal law of design and evolution in nature.

Journal Article Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences · May 2010 Constructal theory is the view that (i) the generation of images of design (pattern, rhythm) in nature is a phenomenon of physics and (ii) this phenomenon is covered by a principle (the constructal law): 'for a finite-size flow system to persist in time (t ... Full text Cite

Constructal architecture for heating a stream by convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · April 1, 2010 In this paper we consider the fundamental problem of how to heat a stream to a specified exit temperature such that the overall fuel consumption is minimal. As illustration, we consider metal slabs that move at constant speed through a very slender enclosu ... Full text Cite

Vascular structures for volumetric cooling and mechanical strength

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · March 15, 2010 When solid material is removed in order to create flow channels in a load carrying structure, the strength of the structure decreases. On the other hand, a structure with channels is lighter and easier to transport as part of a vehicle. Here, we show that ... Full text Open Access Cite

Constructal solar chimney configuration

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 15, 2010 In this study, we describe the constructal-theory search for the geometry of a solar chimney. The objective is to increase the power production over the area occupied by the plant. The ratio height/radius, maximum mass flow rate and maximum power under the ... Full text Cite

The constructal-law origin of the wheel, size, and skeleton in animal design

Journal Article American Journal of Physics · 2010 Featured Publication This paper shows that the emergence of body organs is predictable as an integral part of the design for moving animal mass more easily on Earth, in accord with the constructal law of design in nature: For a finite-size open system to persist in time (to li ... Full text Cite

The evolution of speed in athletics: Why the fastest runners are black and swimmers white

Journal Article International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics · 2010 Featured Publication Here we explain a much avoided phenomenon in the evolution of speed sports for men and women: The world records in running tend to be set by black athletes and in swimming by white athletes. We show that this phenomenon is predictable from physics. Locomot ... Full text Cite

Vascular countercurrent network for 3-D triple-layered skin structure with radiation heating

Journal Article Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications · January 1, 2010 A mathematical model for skin burn injury induced by radiation heating, where the skin was considered to be a 3-D triple-layered structure with embedded three-level dendritic countercurrent vascular network, has been developed. Since there are up to seven ... Full text Cite

Two hierarchies in science: The free flow of ideas and the academy

Journal Article International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics · December 1, 2009 Here I show that the pattern of generation of science is in disaccord with the pattern of admission to the academy. The contrast between the two patterns is illustrated with two rankings: the most highly cited authors in all US engineering and the members ... Full text Cite

The golden ratio predicted : Vision , cognition and locomotionotion as a single designin nature

Journal Article International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics · December 1, 2009 Shapes with length/height ratios (L/H) close to 3/2 are everywhere and give the impression that they are being 'designed' to match the golden ratio (φ = 1.618). Here I show that these shapes emerge as part of an evolutionary phenomenon that facilitates the ... Full text Cite

Distribution of size in steam turbine power plants

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · December 1, 2009 This paper shows that the mass inventory for steam turbines can be distributed between high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) turbines such that the global performance of the power plant is maximal. This is demonstrated for two design classes. For an HP ... Full text Cite

Transient behavior of vascularized walls exposed to sudden heating

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · November 1, 2009 Vascular flow architectures are proposed for controlling the temperature of walls that are subjected suddenly to intense heating from one side. After a short delay, single-phase coolant starts flowing from the other side, and fights off the heating effect. ... Full text Cite

Design with constructal theory: Vascularized composites for volumetric cooling

Journal Article ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings · September 21, 2009 Constructal theory complements the analysis of thermodynamic systems by focusing on the flow configuration of the system, and on the relationship between configuration (design) and global performance. The design progress made in this emerging field is revi ... Full text Cite

Leaflike architecture for cooling a flat body

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · September 9, 2009 The generation of heat in high-density electronics is concentrated in spots, not uniform. Here we account for this fundamental aspect as a phenomenon of heat conduction in a flat body, from a concentrated heat source to surface dissipation of heat to an ex ... Full text Cite

Tree-shaped vascular wall designs for localized intense cooling

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 1, 2009 This paper is a proposal to embed tree-shaped vasculatures in a wall designed such that the wall withstands without excessive hot spots the intense heating that impinges on it. The vasculature is a quilt of square-shaped panels, each panel having a tree va ... Full text Cite

Vascularization with line-to-line trees in counterflow heat exchange

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 1, 2009 Here we report the heat and fluid flow characteristics of counterflow heat exchangers with tree-shaped line-to-line flow channels. The flow structures of the hot and cold sides are sequences of point-to-line trees that alternate with upside-down trees. The ... Full text Cite

The transient response of vascular composites cooled with grids and radial channels

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 1, 2009 Here we develop vasculatures for smart materials with volumetric cooling capability under time-varying conditions. The objective is for the vascularized composite to survive without coolant flow such that its peak temperature does not overshoot the maximum ... Full text Cite

The evolution of speed, size and shape in modern athletics.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · August 2009 In the present study, we show that the fastest runners and swimmers are becoming not only faster but also heavier, taller and more slender. During the past century, the world record speeds for 100 m-freestyle and 100 m-dash have increased with body mass (M ... Full text Cite

Constructal ducts with wrinkled entrances

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 1, 2009 This paper reports an increase in the heat transfer rate density by using wrinkled entrance regions in ducts with laminar flow. The heat transfer rate density is increased by taking advantage of the presence of relative isothermal fluid in the entrance reg ... Full text Cite

Science and technology as evolving flow architectures

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · June 3, 2009 This essay traces the evolution of thermodynamics from its origins to ad hoc applications of thermodynamic optimization (entropy generation minimization) and the principle-based generation of flow configuration in nonequilibrium systems (constructal theory ... Full text Cite

The constructal unification of biological and geophysical design.

Journal Article Physics of life reviews · June 2009 Here we show that the emergence of scaling laws in inanimate (geophysical) flow systems is analogous to the emergence of allometric laws in animate (biological) flow systems, and that features of evolutionary "design" in nature can be predicted based on a ... Full text Cite

Transient cooling response of smart vascular materials for self-cooling

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · April 9, 2009 Here we report the transient cooling performance of a body vascularized with tree-shaped channels supplied with coolant, which flows from one side of the body to the other. The vasculature consists of trees that alternate with upside down trees. Heat is ge ... Full text Cite

Constructal steam generator architecture

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · April 1, 2009 This paper shows that the architecture of a steam generator for a power plant can be deduced on the basis of the constructal law. According to constructal theory, the flow architecture emerges in time such that it provides progressively greater access to i ... Full text Cite

Vascular structures with flow uniformity and small resistance

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · March 1, 2009 The drive toward vascular smart materials calls for novel flow architectures that bathe and serve entire volumes and areas as uniformly as possible. Here, we show that vascular designs consisting of trees matched canopy to canopy can be configured so that ... Full text Cite

The principle that generates dissimilar patterns inside aggregates of organisms

Journal Article Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications · March 1, 2009 Pattern formation and self-organization are phenomena that occur across the board, in animate and inanimate systems. In this paper, we rely on the constructal law to explain the generation of patterns (shapes, structures) in aggregates of organisms-pedestr ... Full text Cite

Vascularized smart materials: Designed porous media for self-healing and self-cooling

Journal Article Journal of Porous Media · February 16, 2009 Constructal theory regards the generation of flow configuration as a natural (physics) phenomenon, and attributes this phenomenon to a physics principle (the constructal law): For a flow system to persist in time (to survive), it must evolve in such a way ... Full text Cite

Vascular materials cooled with grids and radial channels

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · February 1, 2009 Vascularized materials are a new generation of smart-material concepts that offer novel volumetric functionalities such as self-cooling, self-healing, renewal, cleansing, and "designed" transport properties (permeability, effective thermal conductivity). I ... Full text Cite

Constructal tree-shaped microchannel networks for maximizing the saturated critical heat flux

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · February 1, 2009 A constructal tree-shaped microchannel network for maximizing the saturated critical heat flux in a disc-shaped planar body has been investigated. n0 radial channels touch the center and np channels touch the periphery. Designs with no pairing level (n0 = ... Full text Cite

Elemental T and Y shapes of tree networks of ducts with various cross-sectional shapes

Journal Article Journal of Hydraulic Engineering · January 29, 2009 This paper reports optimal bifurcation shapes (T and Y) in turbulent regime of tree-shaped flows. Unlike earlier studies of T and Y constructs, here the effect of pressure losses at the junction is taken into account, and the wall roughness and duct cross- ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamics Fundamentals

Journal Article · January 8, 2009 Full text Cite

Constructal Theory and Design

Conference CONSTRUCTAL HUMAN DYNAMICS, SECURITY AND SUSTAINABILITY · January 1, 2009 Full text Link to item Cite

Constructal Human Dynamics, Security and Sustainability

Book · January 1, 2009 In this book, these objectives are approached based on constructal theory, which means to design such projects as global flow architectures that are alive with movement of personnel, equipment, information, education, etc. ... Cite

Constructal Flow of Education and Research

Conference CONSTRUCTAL HUMAN DYNAMICS, SECURITY AND SUSTAINABILITY · 2009 Full text Cite

Global distributed energy systems

Journal Article WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment · January 1, 2009 In this paper the global design of energy production, distribution and sustainability is approached based on constructal theory. The global energy system is viewed as a conglomerate of flow systems morphing in time such that it provides greater and greater ... Full text Cite

Vascular design for thermal management of heated structures

Journal Article Aeronautical Journal · January 1, 2009 Vascular structures are contemplated for cooling the skins and leading surfaces of future high speed aircraft. This paper evaluates the proposal to cool with a flow architecture shaped as trees (dendritic) a parallelepipedic body that is heated uniformly. ... Full text Cite

Constructal design of vascular porous materials and electrokinetic mass transfer

Journal Article Transport in Porous Media · January 1, 2009 According to constructal theory, the "generation of flow configuration" is a universal phenomenon in physics. This phenomenon is covered by the constructal law: "For a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live) it must evolve such that it provide ... Full text Cite

Dendritic vascularization for countering intense heating from the side

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · December 1, 2008 This paper is a proposal to vascularize a solid wall with transverse tree-shaped channels with fluid flow from side to side. The purpose of the fluid flow is to intercept in counterflow the solid heat conduction caused by an intense heat flux that lands on ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory and design of vascular structures

Journal Article 10th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference, EPTC 2008 · December 1, 2008 This paper reports original work on the development of vascular flow architectures for cooling flat bodies that are heated uniformly by electronics. This is the latest work in applying constructal theory to the conceptual development of architectures for h ... Full text Cite

Constructal self-organization of research: Empire building versus the individual investigator

Journal Article International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics · December 1, 2008 "Empire building" is a phenomenon that dominates today's research landscape. Large groups, national priorities and research centers dwarf the spontaneous individual investigators. Administrators and the thirst for higher rankings encourage this trend. Yet, ... Full text Cite

A mathematical model for skin burn injury induced by radiation heating

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · November 1, 2008 We modify the Pennes model by taking into account the thermal relaxation time of biological tissue. Specifically, we employ the Maxwell-Cattaneo thermal flux law, in conjunction with the fourth power law, to model the effects of high thermal radiation on s ... Full text Cite

Unifying constructal theory of tree roots, canopies and forests.

Journal Article Journal of theoretical biology · October 2008 Here, we show that the most basic features of tree and forest architecture can be put on a unifying theoretical basis, which is provided by the constructal law. Key is the integrative approach to understanding the emergence of "designedness" in nature. Tre ... Full text Cite

Discussion on "frontiers of the second law"

Journal Article AIP Conference Proceedings · September 26, 2008 This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations - each reported as a separate article in the presen ... Full text Cite

The constructal law of "designedness" in nature

Journal Article AIP Conference Proceedings · September 26, 2008 The laws of classical thermodynamics refer to systems as black boxes, without configuration. Nature is different: it has "designedness" everywhere and at all scales (pattern, configuration, rhythm). The generation of configuration is a phenomenon of all ph ... Full text Cite

Discussion on "The second law and energy"

Journal Article AIP Conference Proceedings · September 26, 2008 This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 5, 2007) following the short, presentations - each reported as a separate article in the prese ... Full text Cite

Design with Constructal Theory

Journal Article · September 9, 2008 This book shows how you can use the method of constructal theory to design human-made systems in order to reduce trial and error and increase the system performance. ... Cite

Design with Constructal Theory

Journal Article Design with Constructal Theory · August 28, 2008 Design course on the universal principle of configurations in nature and engineering-the constructal law. Design with Constructal Theory offers a revolutionary new approach based on physics for understanding and predicting the designs that arise in nature ... Full text Cite

The emergence of vascular design in three dimensions

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 10, 2008 Nature shows that fluids bathe the animal body as trees matched canopy to canopy. The entering streams invade the body as river deltas and the reconstituted streams sweep and exit the body as river basins. Why should this be so? Why is animal vascularizati ... Full text Cite

Vascularized svelte (compact) flow architectures

Journal Article ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings · May 29, 2008 In this paper we describe a new concept for vascularizing the flow architectures of compact devices. Vascularization is achieved by using tree-shaped (dendritic) flow passages on both sides of the heat transfer surface. For each side, we propose to use an ... Full text Cite

Vascularization with trees matched canopy to canopy: Diagonal channels with multiple sizes

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · April 1, 2008 The vascularization of smart materials with self-healing functionality requires the distribution of fluids continuously and uniformly throughout the material volume. This paper shows how to configure the architecture such that the single stream that flows ... Full text Cite

Vascularized multi-functional materials and structures

Journal Article Advanced Materials Research · January 1, 2008 Here we draw attention to the development of smart materials with embedded vasculatures that provide multiple functionality: volumetric cooling, self-healing, mechanical strength, etc. Vascularization is achieved by using tree-shaped (dendritic) and grid-s ... Full text Cite

Why university rankings do not change: Education as a natural hierarchical flow architecture

Journal Article International Journal of Design and Nature · December 1, 2007 In this article we rely on constructal theory to show that the hierarchy of universities is rigid, and that the explanation lies in the nature of education (science, news, information) as a natural flow system that bathes the globe most effectively. The ar ... Full text Cite

Constructal conjugate heat transfer in three-dimensional cooling channels

Journal Article Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer · December 1, 2007 This paper reports on three-dimensional geometric optimization of heat sinks and cooling channels where the objective is to maximize the global thermal conductance (minimize the thermal resistance), subject to two global constraints: fixed total volume and ... Full text Cite

Parabolic scaling of tree-shaped constructal network

Journal Article Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications · October 15, 2007 We investigate the multi-scale structure of a tree network obtained by constructal theory and we propose a new geometrical framework to quantify deviations from scale invariance observed in many fields of physics and life sciences. We compare a constructal ... Full text Cite

Vascularization with grids of channels: Multiple scales, loops and body shapes

Journal Article Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics · August 8, 2007 Grid-shaped and tree-shaped flow architectures are being generated for use in vascularized materials with multiple functionality (self-healing, self-cooling, etc), based on the principle of the constructal law of evolutionary increase of flow access throug ... Full text Cite

Vascularized materials with heating from one side and coolant forced from the other side

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · August 1, 2007 The vascularization of smart materials with the property of localized self-cooling is investigated here on the basis of a simple configuration. A solid body (slab) is subjected to intense heat flux from one side; temperatures are controlled by pumping a co ... Full text Cite

The many and the few

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · July 1, 2007 The views of Adrian Bejan about the principles of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, discovered by Sadi Carnot, are discussed. The principle defines that everything flows one way, from high to low, such as water flows through a pipe from high pressure to lo ... Cite

Vascularization with trees that alternate with upside-down trees

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · May 21, 2007 This article describes the generation of dendritic flow architectures that provide maximum side-to-side flow access, across a vascularized body. The flow architecture consists of trees that alternate with upside-down trees (a,b,a,b,). If in tree " a " the ... Full text Cite

Conditionally-sampled turbulent and nonturbulent measurements of entropy generation rate in the transition region of boundary layers

Journal Article Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · May 1, 2007 Conditionally-sampled boundary layer data for an accelerating transitional boundary layer have been analyzed to calculate the entropy generation rate in the transition region. By weighing the nondimensional dissipation coefficient for the laminar-condition ... Full text Cite

Constructal tree-shaped flow structures

Journal Article Applied Thermal Engineering · March 1, 2007 This paper is an introduction to a new trend in the conceptual design of energy systems: the generation of flow configuration based on the "constructal" principle that the global performance is maximized by balancing and arranging the various flow resistan ... Full text Cite

Vascularized svelte (compact) flow architectures

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 2007 In this paper we describe a new concept for vascularizing the flow architectures of compact devices. Vascularization is achieved by using tree-shaped (dendritic) flow passages on both sides of the heat transfer surface. For each side, we propose to use an ... Full text Cite

Optimal temperature distribution in a 3D triple-layered skin structure embedded with artery and vein vasculature and induced by electromagnetic radiation

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · 2007 In hyperthermia cancer treatments, a crucial problem is keeping the temperature of the normal tissue surrounding the tumor below a certain threshold so as not to cause damage to the tissue. Thus, obtaining a temperature field of the entire treatment region ... Full text Link to item Cite

Construcral theory and its relevance to green energy

Journal Article International Journal of Green Energy · January 1, 2007 Constructal theory is the thought that the generation of flow configurations is a phenomenon of physics. Flow configuration, such as the trees of river basins, lungs and city traffic unite the natural with the engineered, and the animate with the inanimate ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory of pattern formation

Journal Article Hydrology and Earth System Sciences · January 1, 2007 This review article shows that the occurrence of macroscopic flow configuration is a universal natural phenomenon that can be explained and predicted on the basis of a principle of physics (the constructal law): "For a flow system to persist in time (to su ... Full text Cite

The constructal law in nature and society

Conference Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics · January 1, 2007 Full text Cite

Preface

Journal Article Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics · January 1, 2007 Cite

Dendritic solidification morphology viewed from the perspective of constructal theory

Journal Article Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics · December 21, 2006 In this paper we focus on the application of the constructal theory in predicting the dendritic solid structure. First we analyse the marginal stability criterion from the perspective of the constructal principle. Having as a guiding principle the construc ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of tree-shaped flow geometries with constant channel wall temperature

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · December 1, 2006 In this paper, we optimize the performance of several classes of simple flow systems consisting of T- and Y-shaped assemblies of ducts, channels and streams. In each case, the objective is to identify the geometric configuration that maximizes performance ... Full text Cite

Heterogeneous porous media as multiscale structures for maximum flow access

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 2006 Natural porous structures are heterogeneous with multiple scales that are distributed nonuniformly. Few large pores (fissures, channels, and cracks) are accompanied by numerous finer channels. Can this type of flow architecture be attributed to a principle ... Full text Cite

Application of constructal theory to prediction of boundary layer transition onset

Journal Article Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo · November 14, 2006 Accurate transition onset modeling is a fundamental part of modern turbomachinery designs, where bypass transition is the dominant mechanism of transition to turbulence. Despite this situation a range of transition onset models exist primarily based upon b ... Full text Cite

Constructal tree-shaped parallel flow heat exchangers

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · November 1, 2006 The paper reports the performance of balanced two-stream parallel flow heat exchangers, in which each stream flows as a tree network through its allotted space. The two trees are in parallel flow, and are arranged like two palms pressed against each other. ... Full text Cite

Vascularized materials: Tree-shaped flow architectures matched canopy to canopy

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · October 9, 2006 In this paper we develop flow architectures for "vascularizing" smart materials that have self-healing capabilities. The flow architectures are configured as two trees matched canopy to canopy. A single stream flows through both trees and bathes every subv ... Full text Cite

Optimal temperature distribution in a three-dimensional triple-layered skin structure embedded with artery and vein vasculature

Journal Article Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications · October 1, 2006 In recent years there has been interest in research related to hyperthermia combined with radiation and cytotoxic drugs to enhance the killing of tumors. When heating the tumor tissue, the crucial problem is keeping the temperature of the normal tissue sur ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory of generation of configuration in nature and engineering

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · September 11, 2006 Constructal theory is the view that the generation of flow configuration is a physics phenomenon that can be based on a physics principle (the constructal law): "For a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to survive) its configuration must evolve in ... Full text Cite

Dendritic counterflow heat exchanger experiments

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · September 1, 2006 In this paper we report experimentally the hydraulic and thermal behavior of a balanced counterflow heat exchanger in which each stream flows through a tree-shaped structure covering a circular area. The tree structure is the same on both sides of the heat ... Full text Cite

Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics

Book · August 18, 2006 A brand-new, thought-provoking edition of the unmatched resource on engineering thermodynamics Adrian Bejan's Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics established itself as the definitive volume on this challenging subject. ... Cite

Tree-shaped flow structures with local junction losses

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · August 1, 2006 This paper is a fundamental study of the effect of junction losses on the optimized geometry of tree-shaped flows. Several classes of flows are investigated systematically in a T-shaped construct with fixed internal and external size: laminar with non-negl ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory of pattern formation

Journal Article · July 19, 2006 Abstract. This review article shows that the occurrence of macroscopic flow configuration is a universal natural phenomenon that can be explained and predicted on the basis of a principle of physics (the constructal law): "For a flow system to pers ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory of droplet impact geometry

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 1, 2006 In this paper we rely on the constructal law of maximization of flow access in order to construct a theory of geometry generation (selection, evolution) during molten droplet impact. We show that immediately after impact the liquid spreads inviscidly as a ... Full text Cite

Conduction tree networks with loops for cooling a heat generating volume

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 1, 2006 Tree-shaped networks are now being considered as small-scale architectures for high-densities in electronics cooling and fuel cells design. This paper documents the optimization of tree-shaped inserts of high thermal conductivity. The new feature is the pr ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory of global circulation and climate

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2006 The constructal law states that every flow system evolves in time so that it develops the flow architecture that maximizes flow access under the constraints posed to the flow. Earlier applications of the constructal law recommended it as a self-standing la ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory of particle agglomeration and design of air-cleaning devices

Journal Article Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics · May 21, 2006 In this paper we propose a constructal approach to understanding and predicting the morphology of agglomerates of aerosol particles and also to the design of air-cleaning devices. We show that particle agglomeration begins in spherical shape and switches t ... Full text Cite

Optimal temperature distribution in a three dimensional triple-layered skin structure with embedded vasculature

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · May 15, 2006 In recent years there has been interest in research related to hyperthermia combined with radiation and cytotoxic drugs to enhance the killing of tumors. When heating the tumor tissue, the crucial problem is keeping the temperature of the normal tissue sur ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of tree-shaped flow geometries

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · May 1, 2006 In this paper we optimize the performance of several classes of simple flow systems consisting of T- and Y-shaped assemblies of ducts, channels and streams. In each case, the objective is to identify the geometric configuration that maximizes performance s ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamics Fundamentals

Journal Article · February 16, 2006 Full text Cite

Design with constructal theory

Journal Article International Journal of Engineering Education · February 13, 2006 This paper outlines a new 4th-year undergraduate course on the generation of system configuration (geometry, architecture, and drawing) during the maximization of performance of flow systems. The configuration is free to morph. Real systems are destined to ... Cite

Vascularized materials: Grids of channels and trees matched canopy to canopy

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES · 2006 This is a fundamental study of how to discover the optimal flow architecture to vascularize a volume so that fluid flow and function (e.g. cooling, sensing, maintenance, repair, healing) reaches every point of the material. The presentation is made by disc ... Cite

Pushing off - Response

Journal Article AMERICAN SCIENTIST · 2006 Cite

Constructal theory of design in engineering and nature

Journal Article Thermal Science · 2006 This is a brief introduction to an engineering theory on the origin and generation of geometric form in all flow systems: the animate, the in animate and the engineered. The theory is named constructal, and is based on the thought that it is natura ... Full text Cite

Energy: Editorial Introduction

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 2006 Full text Cite

Optimal distribution of cooling during gas compression

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 2006 This paper describes the optimization of the distribution of heat transfer (cooling) during the process of gas compression. The coolant is a stream of cold liquid. There is a fundamental tradeoff between the savings in compressor power, which are due to di ... Full text Cite

Networks of channels for self-healing composite materials

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · 2006 This is a fundamental study of how to vascularize a self-healing composite material so that healing fluid reaches all the crack sites that may occur randomly through the material. The network of channels is built into the material and is filled with pressu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Constructal multi-scale structures for maximal heat transfer density

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 2006 This paper reviews recent constructal-theory advances: the optimal distribution of discrete heat sources cooled by laminar natural convection. Three scenarios are investigated: (i) many small heat sources mounted on a vertical wall, (i) a few small finite- ... Full text Cite

Vascularized networks with two optimized channel sizes

Journal Article Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics · 2006 This paper reports the development of optimal vascularization for supplying self-healing smart materials with liquid that fills and seals the cracks that may occur throughout their volume. The vascularization consists of two-dimensional grids of interconne ... Full text Link to item Cite

Constructing animal locomotion from new thermodynamics theory

Journal Article American Scientist · January 1, 2006 A thermodynamic approach is used to predict the complex features of animal design. Evidence is given that if evolution were rewound, and if runners, swimmers and fliers appeared again, the process should consistently produce the same types of speeds, and s ... Full text Cite

Numerical analysis of a tree-shaped cooling structure for a 2-D Slab: A validation of a "constructally optimal" configuration

Journal Article Proceedings of 8th Biennial ASME Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, ESDA2006 · January 1, 2006 A 2-d rectangular slab, internally cooled by circular tubes of different diameters, is used as a benchmark to perform a numerical thermal optimization procedure on a heat transfer configuration obtained by "constructal" considerations. Three different geom ... Full text Cite

Unifying constructal theory for scale effects in running, swimming and flying.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · January 2006 Biologists have treated the view that fundamental differences exist between running, flying and swimming as evident, because the forms of locomotion and the animals are so different: limbs and wings vs body undulations, neutrally buoyant vs weighted bodies ... Full text Cite

Geometric optimization of channels for laminar forced convection in a volume with maximal heat transfer density

Conference ECOS 2006 - Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems · January 1, 2006 This paper develops analytically the optimal sizes (hydraulic diameters) of parallel channels that penetrate and cool a volume with uniformly distributed internal heat generation. The coolant is single phase, and the flow is laminar. The total volume and t ... Cite

Optimal ground tube length for cooling of electronics shelters

Journal Article Heat Transfer Engineering · December 1, 2005 This paper presents a theoretical, numerical, and experimental study to investigate the possibility of optimizing the configuration (geometry) of underground heat exchangers for maximum heat transfer. The first part of the study identifies a novel fundamen ... Full text Cite

Sveltness, freedom to morph, and the constructal design of multi-scale flow structures

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES · December 1, 2005 This paper reviews recent progress on constructal theory and design. The emphasis is on the development of multi-scale, nonuniformly distributed flow structures that offer increased compactness (e.g., heat transfer density). Examples are counterflow heat e ... Full text Cite

Svelteness, freedom to morph, and constructal multi-scale flow structures

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · December 1, 2005 This paper reviews recent progress on constructal theory and design. The emphasis is on the development of multi-scale, nonuniformly distributed flow structures that offer increased compactness (e.g., heat transfer density). Examples are counterflow heat e ... Full text Cite

Emergence of asymmetry in constructal tree flow networks

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · November 15, 2005 In this paper, we demonstrate that asymmetry in fluid distribution tree networks emerges from power requirement minimization, under global volume constraint. We have discovered several levels of asymmetry in optimal trees: different pipe lengths at the sam ... Full text Cite

Tree-shaped flow architectures: Strategies for increasing optimization speed and accuracy

Journal Article Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications · November 1, 2005 This article is about novel applications of computational heat transfer and fluid dynamics: the optimization and design of complex tree-shaped flow structures for cooling high-density heat-generating volumes (e.g., electronics). The focus is on computation ... Full text Cite

Journal of Mechanical Engineering: Editorial

Journal Article Strojniski Vestnik/Journal of Mechanical Engineering · October 31, 2005 Cite

Constructal multi-scale cylinders with natural convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · October 1, 2005 This paper shows that in a space filled with assemblies of cylinders cooled by natural convection the heat transfer density can be increased progressively by the use of cylinders of several sizes, and the optimal placement of each cylinder in the assembly. ... Full text Cite

Constructal PEM fuel cell stack design

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · October 1, 2005 This paper describes a structured procedure to optimize the internal structure (relative sizes, spacings), single cells thickness, and external shape (aspect ratios) of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack so that net power is maximized. ... Full text Cite

A Constructal Approach to the Optimal Design of Photovoltaic Cells

Journal Article International Journal of Green Energy · July 2005 Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization and constructal design

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · June 10, 2005 Full text Cite

Constructal multi-scale and multi-objective structures

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · June 10, 2005 This is a review of recent progress on constructal design made in two directions: multi-scale flow structures, and multi-objective design. The first direction is associated with the maximization of heat transfer rate density in a fixed volume in the limit ... Full text Cite

Constructal multi-scale structures with asymmetric heat sources of finite thickness

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2005 This paper details the generation of multi-scale flow structure in a package with heat sources. The model is based on abandoning two common assumptions (1) the assumption that there are many channels (components) in the package, which is traditionally made ... Full text Cite

The constructal law of organization in nature: tree-shaped flows and body size.

Journal Article The Journal of experimental biology · May 2005 The constructal law is the statement that for a flow system to persist in time it must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to its currents. This is the law of configuration generation, or the law of design. The theoretical developments revi ... Full text Cite

Distribution of heat sources in vertical open channels with natural convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · April 1, 2005 In this paper we use the constructal method to determine the optimal distribution and sizes of discrete heat sources in a vertical open channel cooled by natural convection. Two classes of geometries are considered: (i) heat sources with fixed size and fix ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of global circulation and climate

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · March 25, 2005 The constructal law of generation of flow structure is used to predict the main features of global circulation and climate. The flow structure is the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. This feature is modelled as convection loops, and added to the earth ... Full text Cite

Constructal multi-scale cylinders in cross-flow

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · March 1, 2005 This paper reports a new concept for maximizing heat transfer density in assemblies of cylinders in cross-flow: the use of cylinders of several sizes, and the optimal placement of each cylinder in the assembly. The heat transfer is by laminar forced convec ... Full text Cite

Tree-shaped structures for cold storage

Journal Article International Journal of Refrigeration · March 1, 2005 This paper explores the application of constructal design to tree-shaped networks for cold storage. The objective is the maximization of ice production per unit volume, for specified operating conditions (temperature difference, pressure drop, storage time ... Full text Cite

Constructal multi-scale structure for maximal heat transfer density in natural convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · February 1, 2005 In this paper we investigate a new design concept for generating multi-scale structures in natural convection with the objective of maximizing the heat transfer density, or the heat transfer rate per unit of volume. The flow volume is filled with vertical ... Full text Cite

Self-optimizing DHTs using request profiling

Conference PRINCIPLES OF DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS · 2005 Cite

CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN AND THERMODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION

Journal Article · January 1, 2005 This is a review of the main features of current activity in engineering thermodynamics research. It starts with the fundamentals of why processes and devices are ineficient: irreversibility, entropy generation (as distinct from the property entropy), exer ... Full text Cite

Constructing a theory for scaling and more (multiple letters)

Journal Article Physics Today · January 1, 2005 Full text Cite

Tree networks for minimal pumping power

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · January 1, 2005 In this paper the optimization of fluid networks is based on the minimization of pumping power requirement. The total pipe network volume is constrained. It is shown that only in special cases the minimization of pumping power leads to the same architectur ... Full text Cite

Constructual theory of energy-system and flow configurations

Journal Article Int. J. Exergy (Switzerland) · 2005 This paper outlines the place occupied by the constructual law in thermodynamics, and provides a vision of the future development of energy engineering as a transdisciplinary science of systems of systems. Natural and man-made flow systems do not exist in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tree-shaped networks with loops

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2005 Dendritic flow architectures are being contemplated for thermal designs that provide high heat transfer densities for the cooling of electronics. Optimized tree networks maximize the flow access between one point (source, sink) and an infinity of points (l ... Full text Cite

Journal of Mechanical Engineering: Editorial

Journal Article Strojniski Vestnik/Journal of Mechanical Engineering · 2005 Cite

THE OPTIMAL SHAPE FOR A UNIT PEM FUEL CELL

Journal Article ASME 2005 3rd International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, FUELCELL 2005 · January 1, 2005 This paper develops a mathematical model and a structured procedure to optimize the internal structure (relative sizes, spacings) and external shape (aspect ratios) of a unit PEM fuel cell so that net power is maximized. The optimization of flow geometry i ... Full text Cite

Optimal spacings for mixed convection

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · December 1, 2004 This paper completes the description of geometry optimization in stacks of parallel plates that generate heat. The spacing between plates, or the number of plates in a fixed volume, has been maximized in two limits: pure natural convection and pure forced ... Full text Cite

Maximal heat transfer density: Plates with multiple lengths in forced convection

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · December 1, 2004 This paper shows that in a space filled with heat generating parallel plates and laminar forced convection, the heat transfer density can be increased beyond the level known for parallel plates with optimal spacing. The technique consists of inserting in e ... Full text Cite

Constructal heat trees at micro and nanoscales

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · November 15, 2004 We consider the problem of cooling a two-dimensional heat generating conducting volume with one heat sink, such that the smallest features of the internal structure are so small that the conventional description of conduction breaks down. The effective the ... Full text Cite

Constructal flow structure for a PEM fuel cell

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 1, 2004 This paper introduces a model and a structured procedure to optimize the internal structure (relative sizes, spacings) and external shape (aspect ratios) of a unit PEM fuel cell so that net power is maximized. The optimization of flow geometry is conducted ... Full text Cite

Disc cooled with high-conductivity inserts that extend inward from the perimeter

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 1, 2004 This paper considers the fundamental problem of how to shape rectangular high-conductivity inserts (fins) that are mounted on the rim of and protrude into a disc-shaped body that generates heat. The objective is to minimize the global thermal resistance by ... Full text Cite

Constructal multi-scale tree-shaped heat exchangers

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · August 1, 2004 The conceptual design and performance of balanced two-stream counterflow heat exchangers was discussed. The relationships between effectiveness and number of heat transfer units for several tree-counterflow configurations were developed. It was found that ... Full text Cite

Designed porous media: Maximal heat transfer density at decreasing length scales

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 1, 2004 This paper addresses the fundamental problem of maximizing the heat transfer rate density in a fixed volume in the limit of decreasing length scales. In this limit boundary layers disappear, optimized channels are no longer slender, and existing results fo ... Full text Cite

Maximum heat transfer rate density in two-dimensional minichannels and microchannels

Journal Article Microscale Thermophysical Engineering · July 1, 2004 The objective of the present article is to compare previous experimental data of Gao et al. to the predictions of Bejan and Sciubba's analysis on the optimal spacing for maximum heat transfer from a package of parallel plates. Experimental investigations o ... Full text Cite

The constructal law and the thermodynamics of flow systems with configuration

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 1, 2004 In this paper we develop an analytical and graphical formulation of the constructal law of maximization of flow access in systems with heat and fluid flow irreversibilities and freedom to change configuration. The flow system has global performance (e.g., ... Full text Cite

Combined 'heat flow and strength' optimization of geometry: Mechanical structures most resistant to thermal attack

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 1, 2004 This paper outlines a new direction for fundamental heat transfer: a multidisciplinary approach (combined heat transfer and strength of materials) in the conceptual design of structures that have two functions, mechanical strength and resistance (survival) ... Full text Cite

Inverted fins: Geometric optimization of the intrusion into a conducting wall

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · June 1, 2004 In this paper we consider the optimization of the shape of a cavity that intrudes into a solid conducting wall. This intrusion may be regarded as a "negative fin", i.e., the outside-in version of a conductive fin the shape of which is to be optimized. The ... Full text Cite

Three-dimensional optimization of staggered finned circular and elliptic tubes in forced convection

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · May 1, 2004 This paper presents a three-dimensional numerical and experimental geometric optimization study to maximize the total heat transfer rate between a bundle of finned tubes in a given volume and external flow, for staggered arrangements of circular and ellipt ... Full text Cite

Constructal thermal optimization of an electromagnet

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · April 1, 2004 This paper addresses the fundamental problem of optimizing the geometry of an electromagnet by maximizing at the same time its magnetic performance and thermal performance. The solenoid has a cylindrical shape and a uniform current density. Cooling discs m ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of internal structure in a fuel cell

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · March 25, 2004 This paper shows that the internal structure (relative sizes, spacings) of a fuel cell can be optimized so that performance is maximized at the global level. The optimization of flow geometry begins at the smallest (elemental) level, where the fuel cell is ... Full text Cite

Maximal heat transfer density in vertical morphing channels with natural convection

Journal Article Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications · January 16, 2004 In this article we show numerically that the entire flow geometry of a vertical diverging or converging channel with laminar natural convection can be optimized for maximal heat transfer rate density (total heat transfer rate per unit of flow system volume ... Full text Cite

Tree-shaped flow structures: are both thermal-resistance and flow-resistance minimisations necessary?

Journal Article International Journal of Exergy · January 1, 2004 Constructal theory is applied to the cooling of a disc where heat is uniformly generated. The disc size and the total volume occupied by the ducts (distributing the flow from the centre to the periphery) are constrained. It is shown that when the objective ... Full text Cite

Designed porous media

Conference EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES IN POROUS MEDIA · 2004 Cite

Fundamentals of scale analysis, heatline visualization, and the intersection of asymptotes

Conference EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES IN POROUS MEDIA · 2004 Cite

Optimally staggered finned circular and elliptic tubes in forced convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2004 This work presents a numerical and experimental geometric optimization study to maximize the total heat transfer rate between a bundle of finned or non-finned tubes in a given volume and a given external flow both for circular and elliptic arrangements, fo ... Full text Cite

Irreversibility in energy processes: non-dimensional quantification and balance

Journal Article J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. (Germany) · 2004 The concept of thermodynamic efficiency (ratio of real cycle efficiency by Carnot efficiency) is well-known. The concept of numbers of entropy-production and of exergy-loss proposed by A. Bejan are also known, but rarely used. The present study firstly evi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dendritic fins optimization for a coaxial two-stream heat exchanger

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2004 This paper documents the fundamental relation between the maximization of global performance and the maleable (morphing) architecture of a flow system with global constraints. The example is the coaxial two-stream heat exchanger with flow through a porous ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of radial MHD flow between parallel circular disks

Journal Article J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. (Germany) · 2004 The radial flow between two parallel circular disks is investigated with the aim to determine the optimum convective heat transfer conditions at the external disk surfaces in order to minimize the intrinsic irreversibilities. A general situation is conside ... Full text Link to item Cite

A course on flow-system configuration and multi-scale design

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES · 2004 This paper brings to the attention of the AES community our experience with developing and trying out a new course that focuses on the generation of system configuration (geometry, architecture, and drawing) during the optimization of performance. The conf ... Cite

Heat and technology: Foreword

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Technology · January 1, 2004 Cite

Tree-shaped flow structures for human-scale and small-scales applications

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Technology · January 1, 2004 Tree-shaped networks provide maximum access for currents flowing between discrete points (sources, sinks) and infinite numbers of points (lines, areas, volumes). This is a growing area of research. The first part of this paper reviews the main features and ... Cite

Equilibrium and nonequilibrium flow system architectures

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Technology · January 1, 2004 This paper reviews the progress made on the development of constructal tree networks: step by step improvements in global performance (e.g., global flow resistance) subject to global constraints (e.g., size of flow territory, total tube volume). This leads ... Cite

Optimal distribution of discrete heat sources on a wall with natural convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2004 This paper is an application of the constructal method to the discovery of the optimal distribution of discrete heat sources cooled by laminar natural convection. The global objective is to maximize the global conductance between the wall and the fluid, or ... Full text Cite

Optimal distribution of discrete heat sources on a plate with laminar forced convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2004 In this paper constructal theory is applied to the fundamental problem of how to arrange discrete heat sources on a wall cooled by forced convection. The global objective is to maximize the conductance between the discrete heated wall and the fluid. This i ... Full text Cite

Multiple length scales for maximal heat transfer density in forced and natural convection

Journal Article Proceedings of the ASME Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering Summer Conference 2004, HT/FED 2004 · January 1, 2004 The present paper is a review of a new conceptual design for the maximization of heat transfer density (i.e., heat transfer rate per unit of volume) in channels installed in a fixed volume. The volume is filled optimally with parallel equidistant heated bl ... Full text Cite

FUEL CELLS CONSTRUCTAL OPTIMIZATION AND RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES

Journal Article ASME 2004 2nd International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, FUELCELL 2004 · January 1, 2004 The hydrogen economy is a possible alternative to the current oil based global economy. The technology to build and operate fuel cells is well advanced. However, cost is the reason why fuel cells are not being installed wherever there is a need for more po ... Full text Cite

Designed porous and multi-scale flow structures

Journal Article Institute of Physics Conference Series · December 1, 2003 Flows through porous media have been studied extensively during the past two decades. This lecture reviews an emerging body of work centered on the idea that the porous structure (spacings, arrangements) can be optimized such that the global flow system ac ... Cite

Constructal geometry and operation of adsorption processes

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · October 1, 2003 This paper shows that the temporal and spatial structure of adsorption-desorption processes can be optimized for maximal packing of mass transfer into a fixed space, and for minimal overall pumping power. In the first part of the paper, simple models demon ... Full text Cite

Designed porous media: Optimally nonuniform flow structures connecting one point with more points

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · September 1, 2003 This paper shows analytically and numerically how an originally uniform flow structure transforms itself into a nonuniform one when the objective is to minimize global flow losses. The flow connects one point (source, sink) to a number of points (sinks, so ... Full text Cite

Special issue on heat and mass transfer in porous media

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · August 2003 Full text Cite

Simple methods for convection in porous media: Scale analysis and the intersection of asymptotes

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · August 1, 2003 This article outlines the basic rules and promise of two of the simplest methods for solving problems of convection in porous media. First, scale analysis is the method that produces order-of-magnitude results and trends (scaling laws) for concrete and app ... Full text Cite

Constructal tree-shaped two-phase flow for cooling a surface

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · July 1, 2003 This paper documents the strong relation that exists between the changing architecture of a complex flow system and the maximization of global performance under constraints. The system is a surface with uniform heating per unit area, which is cooled by a n ... Full text Cite

Flows in environmental fluids and porous media

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · July 1, 2003 This paper reviews some of the most basic flows that effect the dispersal of heat and mass in environmental configurations. Two important classes of environmental flows are discussed: free turbulent flows (shear layers, jets, plumes and wakes) and free flo ... Full text Cite

Heat Transfer Handbook

Book · June 30, 2003 Standout features of the handbook include the most comprehensive coverage available on contact resistance, and well-conceived, timely material on heat transfer in electronic components. ... Cite

Optimization of tree-shaped flow distribution structures over a disc-shaped area

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · June 25, 2003 In this paper, we review the fundamental problem of how to design a flow path with minimum overall resistance between one point (O) and many points situated equidistantly on a circle centred at O. This is a fundamental problem in energy engineering: the di ... Full text Cite

Optimal internal structure of volumes cooled by single-phase forced and natural convection

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Packaging, Transactions of the ASME · June 1, 2003 This article is a principle-based review of a growing body of fundamental research that documents the opportunity for optimizing geometrically the cooling of spaces (e.g., electronics packages) that generate heat volumetrically. The chief result of geometr ... Full text Cite

Constructal comment on a Fermat-type principle for heat flow

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · May 2003 Full text Cite

Integral measures of electric power distribution networks: Load-length curves and line-network multipliers

Journal Article Energy Conversion and Management · May 1, 2003 This paper describes an integral (macroscopic) approach to the evaluation and maximization of performance in the design of networks for the distribution of electric power. The method recognizes the hierarchical structure of tree shaped networks and account ... Full text Cite

Constructal tree shaped networks for the distribution of electrical power

Journal Article Energy Conversion and Management · April 1, 2003 In this paper, we extend to the design of electric power distribution networks the constructal method of deducing the multiple dimensions of the network from the maximization of global system performance. Unlike earlier constructal designs of tree shaped n ... Full text Cite

System-level optimization of the sizes of organs for heat and fluid flow systems

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · April 1, 2003 In this paper we show that the sizes (weights) of heat and fluid flow systems that function on board vehicles such as aircraft can be derived from the maximization of overall (system level) performance. The total weight of the aircraft dictates its fuel re ... Full text Cite

Constructal tree-shaped paths for conduction and convection

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · March 25, 2003 This lecture reviews a series of recent results based on the geometric minimization of the resistance to flow between one point (source, sink) and a volume or an area (an infinity of points). Optimization is achieved by varying the geometric features of th ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory: Tree-shaped flows and energy systems for aircraft

Journal Article Journal of Aircraft · January 1, 2003 Attention is drawn to constructal theory and design, which relies on global maximization of performance in the pursuit of flow system architecture. Exergy analysis establishes the theoretical performance limit. Thermodynamic optimization (or entropy genera ... Full text Cite

Minimum power requirement for environmental control of aircraft

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 2003 This paper addresses two basic issues in the thermodynamic optimization of environmental control systems (ECS) for aircraft: realistic limits for the minimal power requirement, and design features that facilitate operation at minimal power consumption. Fou ... Full text Cite

Fitting the duct to the "body" of the convective flow

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2003 This paper is a proposal to design flow structures with maximal heat transfer rate per unit volume, by shaping each duct so that it fits optimally on the body of the convective flow. Optimally shaped ducts can be assembled into larger constructs. Two examp ... Full text Cite

Constructal multi-scale structure for maximal heat transfer density

Journal Article Acta Mechanica · January 1, 2003 This paper presents a new concept for generating the multi-scale structure of a finite-size flow system that has maximum heat transfer density-maximum heat transfer rate installed in a fixed volume. Laminar forced convection and parallel isothermal blades ... Full text Cite

Dendritic heat convection on a disc

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2003 In this paper we develop the optimal tree-shaped flow paths for cooling a disc-shaped body by convection. Heat is generated uniformly over the disc area. The coolant enters through the center of the disc, and exits through ports positioned equidistantly al ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic formulation of the constructal law

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES · January 1, 2003 In this paper we develop an analytical and graphical formulation of the constructal law of maximization of flow access in systems with heat and fluid flow irreversibilities and freedom to change configuration. The flow system has global objective (e.g., mi ... Full text Cite

Maximum heat transfer rate density in two-dimensional minichannels and microchannels

Journal Article International Conference on Microchannels and Minichannels · January 1, 2003 Experimental investigations of the flow and the associated heat transfer were conducted in two-dimensional microchannels in order to test possible size effects on the laws of hydrodynamics and heat transfer and to infer optimal conditions of use from the m ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory of organization in nature: Dendritic flows, allometric laws and flight

Journal Article Design and Nature · December 1, 2002 This paper draws attention to the 1996 constructal theory of the generation of geometric form in flow systems. Flow architecture can be reasoned on the basis of principle: the maximization of global performance subject to finite-size constraints. One examp ... Cite

The optimal shape of the interface between two conductive bodies with minimal thermal resistance

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · December 1, 2002 This paper considers the fundamental problem of optimizing the geometry of the interface between two conductive bodies, with the objective of minimizing the thermal resistance. The interface geometry is free to change. For simplicity, the geometry is assum ... Full text Cite

Optimal tree-shaped networks for fluid flow in a disc-shaped body

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · December 1, 2002 In this paper we consider the fundamental problem of how to design a flow path with minimum overall resistance between one point (O) and many points situated equidistantly on a circle centered at O. The flow may proceed in either direction, from the center ... Full text Cite

Dendritic constructal heat exchanger with small-scale crossflows and larger-scales counterflows

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 9, 2002 This paper describes the constructal route to the conceptual design of a two-stream heat exchanger with maximal heat transfer rate per unit volume. The flow structure has multiple scales. The smallest (elemental) scale consists of parallel-plates channels ... Full text Cite

CONSTRUCTAL THEORY: FROM ENGINEERING DESIGN TO PREDICTING SHAPE AND STRUCTURE IN NATURE

Journal Article Revista de Engenharia Térmica · June 30, 2002 This is a review of two new and important developments in thermal science. First, there exist fundamental optima in the constitution and operation of flow (nonequilibrium) systems, man-made and natural. These optima can be identified based on the s ... Full text Cite

Foreword

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · June 10, 2002 Full text Cite

Fundamentals of exergy analysis, entropy generation minimization, and the generation of flow architecture

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · June 10, 2002 This paper outlines the fundamentals of the methods of exergy analysis and entropy generation minimization (or thermodynamic optimization-the minimization of exergy destruction). The paper begins with a review of the concept of irreversibility, entropy gen ... Full text Cite

Combined 'flow and strength' geometric optimization: Internal structure in a vertical insulating wall with air cavities and prescribed strength

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · May 27, 2002 This paper addresses the fundamental problem of optimizing the internal structure of a vertical wall that must meet two requirements, thermal insulation and mechanical strength. The wall is a composite of solid material (e.g., brick) and parallel air caver ... Full text Cite

Tree-shaped flow structures designed by minimizing path lengths

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · May 27, 2002 This paper outlines a direct route to the construction of effective tree-shaped flow structures. Dendritic flow structures dominate the design of natural and engineered flow systems, especially in thermal and fluid systems. The starting point is the optimi ... Full text Cite

Constructal design for cooling a disc-shaped area by conduction

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · February 18, 2002 This paper describes a hierarchical strategy to developing the optimal internal structure of a round heat-generating body cooled at its center with the help of optimally distributed inserts of high-conductivity material. The sequence begins with optimizing ... Full text Cite

Non-Equilibrium Patterns in the Space of the Stock Market Prices

Journal Article Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics · January 19, 2002 Full text Cite

Theme issue on heat and fluid flow

Journal Article ARABIAN JOURNAL FOR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING · 2002 Cite

Fundamentals of tree-shaped networks of insulated pipes for hot water and exergy

Journal Article Exergy, An International Journal · January 2002 Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of flow architecture: Dendritic structures and optimal sizes of components

Journal Article ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings · January 1, 2002 This paper reports two new advances on constructal design, or the generation of flow architecture in the pursuit of global thermodynamic performance subject to constraints. This is thermodynamic optimization with an emphasis on its product: flow geometry, ... Full text Cite

Theme issue on heat and fluid flow

Journal Article Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering · January 1, 2002 Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of flow architecture: Dendritic structures and optimal sizes of components

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES · 2002 Cite

Development of tree-shaped flows by adding new users to existing networks of hot water pipes

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · December 18, 2001 This paper describes the optimization of a tree-shaped system of insulated pipes for the distribution of a stream of hot water over an area. The area is covered uniformly by users who must receive the same flow rate of hot water. The network of pipes is de ... Full text Cite

Entropy generation minimization: The method and its applications

Journal Article Strojniski Vestnik/Journal of Mechanical Engineering · December 1, 2001 This lecture outlines the basis for the entropy generation minimization method, and a series of key applications in power generation, refrigeration, and exergy conservation. The lecture begins with a review of the concept of irreversibility, entropy genera ... Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of finned crossflow heat exchangers for aircraft environmental control systems

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · December 1, 2001 This paper shows that the main geometric features of a flow component can be deduced from the thermodynamic optimization of the global performance of the largest flow system that incorporates the component. This approach represents a departure from the usu ... Full text Cite

Constructal placement of high-conductivity inserts in a slab: Optimal design of "Roughness"

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · December 1, 2001 This paper addresses the fundamental problem of how to facilitate the flow of heat across a conducting slab heated from one side. Available for distribution through the system is a small amount of high-conductivity material. The constructal method consists ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of heat-transfer equipment configuration in an environmental control system

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · October 25, 2001 In this paper, we show that many features of a heat transfer installation can be deduced from the maximization of the global performance of the greater system that employs the installation. The heat transfer installation is a series of two cross-flow heat ... Full text Cite

Constructal optimization of nonuniformly distributed tree-shaped flow structures for conduction

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 18, 2001 Constructal tree designs are hierarchical high-conductivity paths that minimize the global resistance between an entire volume and one point. In past work, the structure was optimized as a sequence of building blocks (volume sizes), which started with the ... Full text Cite

Integrative thermodynamic optimization of the environmental control system of an aircraft

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · August 21, 2001 In this paper we propose to optimize the geometric configuration of a component by maximizing the global thermodynamic performance of the much larger system that contains the component. This "integrative" approach departs from current thermodynamic optimiz ... Full text Cite

Integrative thermodynamic optimization of the crossflow heat exchanger for an aircraft environmental control system

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · August 1, 2001 This paper documents the process of determining the internal geometric configuration of a component by optimizing the global performance of the installation that uses the component. The example chosen is the crossflow heat exchanger used in the environment ... Full text Cite

CONSTRUCTAL THEORY: FROM ENGINEERING DESIGN TO PREDICTING SHAPE AND STRUCTURE IN NATURE

Journal Article Revista de Engenharia Térmica · June 30, 2001 This is a review of two new and important developments in thermal science. First, there exist fundamental optima in the constitution and operation of flow (nonequilibrium) systems, man-made and natural. These optima can be identified based on the ... Full text Cite

Tree-shaped insulated designs for the uniform distribution of hot water over an area

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · June 19, 2001 This paper is a study of the optimal geometric layout of schemes for distributing hot water uniformly over an area. Constrained are the amount of insulation material, the volume of all the pipes, and the amount of pipe wall material. Unknown are the distri ... Full text Cite

The extraction of power from a hot stream

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · May 1, 2001 The solution to the problem of maximizing the extraction of exergy from a stream of hot gas showed that the hot stream must be cooled in a counterflow heat exchanger with optimal imbalance of capacity rates, i.e. with an optimal capacity rate on the cold s ... Full text Cite

Geometric optimization of periodic flow and heat transfer in a volume cooled by parallel tubes

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · April 1, 2001 This paper addresses the fundamental problem of maximizing the thermal contact between an entire heat-generating volume and a pulsating stream of coolant that bathes the volume. The coolant flows through an array of round and equidistant tubes. Two laminar ... Full text Cite

The tree of convective heat streams: Its thermal insulation function and the predicted 3/4-power relation between body heat loss and body size

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · February 27, 2001 Two parallel fluid streams in counterflow and in close thermal contact convect an energy current longitudinally, in the direction of the warmer stream. This paper describes the flow of convective heat currents through two identical tree networks superimpos ... Full text Cite

Message from the Honorary Editor

Journal Article Exergy, An International Journal · January 2001 Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of geometry in engineering flow systems

Journal Article Exergy, An International Journal · January 2001 Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of flow geometry in mechanical and civil engineering

Journal Article Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics · January 1, 2001 Recent developments in thermodynamic optimization are reviewed by focusing on the generation of optimal geometric form (shape, structure, topology) in flow systems. The flow configuration is free to vary. The principle that generates geometric form is the ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of geometric structure in the counterflow heat exchanger for an environmental control system

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 2001 This paper shows that the internal geometric configuration of a component can be deduced by optimizing the global performance of the installation that uses the component. The example chosen is the counterflow heat exchanger that serves as condenser in a va ... Full text Cite

Architecture from exergy-based global optimization: Tree-shaped flows and energy systems for aircraft

Journal Article 8th Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization · December 1, 2000 This paper draws attention to an emerging body of work that relies on exergy analysis and thermodynamic optimization in the pursuit of flow system architecture. Exergy analysis establishes the theoretical performance limit. Thermodynamic optimization (or e ... Cite

Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature

Book · October 16, 2000 Featured Publication This 2000 book explores the similarities between shape and structure in engineered and natural systems. ... Cite

Convective trees of fluid channels for volumetric cooling

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · September 1, 2000 This paper describes the geometric optimization of the internal structure of a volume that generates heat at every point and is cooled by a single stream. According to the constructal method, the optimization of the cooling design is organized in a sequenc ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory of economics structure generation in space and time

Journal Article Energy Conversion and Management · September 1, 2000 This paper extends to economics the constructal theory of generation of shape and structure in natural flow systems that connect one point to a finite size area or volume. It is shown that by invoking the principle of cost minimization in the transport of ... Full text Cite

From heat transfer principles to shape and structure in nature: Constructal theory

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · August 1, 2000 This lecture reviews a relatively recent body of heat transfer work that bases on a deterministic (constructal) principle the occurrence of geometric form in systems with internal flows. The same principle of global optimization subject to constraints allo ... Full text Cite

Constructal T-shaped fins

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · June 15, 2000 This paper reports the geometric (constructal) optimization of T-shaped fin assemblies, where the objective is to maximize the global thermal conductance of the assembly, subject to total volume and fin-material constraints. Assemblies of plate fins and cy ... Full text Cite

Untitled

Journal Article JOURNAL OF POROUS MEDIA · 2000 Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of the match between two streams with phase change

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 2000 The optimum thermodynamic match between two streams at different temperatures is determined by maximizing the power generation (or minimizing the entropy generation) associated solely with the stream-to-stream interaction. Each stream experiences a change ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory of economics

Journal Article Applied Energy · January 1, 2000 This paper extends to economics of the constructal theory of generation of shape and structure in natural flow systems that connect one point to a finite size area or volume. By invoking the principle of cost minimization in the transport of goods between ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of geometry in environmental control systems for aircraft

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Technology · January 1, 2000 This review draws attention to an emerging body of work that relies on global thermodynamic optimization in the pursuit of flow system architecture. Exergy analysis establishes the theoretical performance limit. Thermodynamic optimization (or entropy gener ... Cite

Power extraction from a hot stream in the presence of phase change

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2000 This paper considers the basic thermodynamic optimization problem of extracting the most power from a stream of hot exhaust when the contact heat transfer area is fixed. It shows that when the receiving (cold) stream boils in the counterflow heat exchanger ... Cite

Cylindrical trees of pin fins

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 2000 In this paper, we extend the constructal optimization method to cylindrical assemblies of pin fins. The assembly is arranged as a tree with one stem and many radial branches. The optimization consists of maximizing the global conductance subject to fixed t ... Full text Cite

Entropy generation minimization in parallel-plates counterflow heat exchangers

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · 2000 This paper shows that the main architectural features of a counterflow heat exchanger can be determined based on thermodynamic optimization subject to volume constraint. It is assumed that the channels are formed by parallel plates, the two fluids are idea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Constructal theory of economics

Journal Article Applied Energy · 2000 This paper extends to economics of the constructal theory of generation of shape and structure in natural flow systems that connect one point to a finite size area or volume. By invoking the principle of cost minimization in the transport of goods between ... Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of geometry: T- and Y-shaped constructs of fluid streams

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · January 1, 2000 This paper presents a series of examples in which the global performance of flow systems is optimized subject to global constraints. The flow systems are assemblies of ducts, channels and streams shaped as T5, Y5 and crosses. In pure fluid flow, thermodyna ... Full text Cite

Three-dimensional tree constructs of "constant" thermal resistance

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 15, 1999 This article extends to three-dimensional heat flow the constructal method of minimizing geometrically the thermal resistance between a heat-generating volume and one point. Optimized is the geometry of each volume element, and the shape and distribution o ... Full text Cite

Role for exergy analysis and optimization in aircraft energy-system design

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES · December 1, 1999 This paper outlines a newly emerging body of work that relies on exergy analysis and thermodynamic optimization in the design of energy systems for modern aircraft. Exergy analysis establishes the theoretical performance limit. The minimization of exergy d ... Cite

Power extraction from a hot stream in the presence of phase change

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · October 28, 1999 This paper considers the basic thermodynamic optimization problem of extracting the most power from a stream of hot exhaust when the contact heat transfer area is fixed. It shows that when the receiving (cold) stream boils in the counterflow heat exchanger ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization alternatives: Minimization of physical size subject to fixed power

Journal Article International Journal of Energy Research · October 25, 1999 This paper explores alternatives to the usual thermodynamic optimization formulation, where the thermodynamic performance of a system is improved subject to physical size constraints (e.g., entropy generation minimization). The alternative is to minimize t ... Full text Cite

Constructal trees of circular fins for conductive and convective heat transfer

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · October 1, 1999 This paper extends to three dimensions and to convective heat transfer the constructal method of minimizing the thermal resistance between a volume and one point. In the first part of the paper, the heat flow mechanism is conduction, and the heat generatin ... Full text Cite

Conduction trees with spacings at the tips

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · October 1, 1999 This paper documents two methods of improving the performance of volume-to-point tree networks for two-dimensional heat conduction. These improvements are offered relative to the design produced by the constructal method, in which optimized volume elements ... Full text Cite

Constructal-theory tree networks of "constant" thermal resistance

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 15, 1999 In this article we show that the global thermal resistance to flow between a volume and one point can be reduced to unprecedented levels by shaping the external boundary of each volume element. This degree of freedom is optimized, next to internal features ... Full text Cite

Convection in Porous Media 2nd edition

Book · 1999 This book provides a user-friendly introduction to convection in porous media, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors with applications in building insulation, energy storage, nuclear-waste disposal, coal and ... ... Cite

A ROLE FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION IN AIRCRAFT ENERGY-SYSTEM DESIGN

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 1999 This paper outlines a newly emerging body of work that relies on exergy analysis and thermodynamic optimization in the design of energy systems for modem aircraft. Exergy analysis establishes the theoretical performance limit. The minimization of exergy de ... Full text Cite

Vortex tube optimization theory

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 1999 The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube splits a single high pressure stream of gas into cold and warm streams. Simple models for the vortex tube combined with regenerative precooling are given from which an optimization can be undertaken. Two such optimizations are ... Full text Cite

Constructal trees of convective fins

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1999 This paper extends to the field of convective heat transfer the constructal theory of optimizing the access of a current that flows between one point and a finite-size volume, when the volume size is constrained. The volume is bathed by a uniform stream. A ... Full text Cite

The First NATO Advanced Study Institute on Thermodynamic Optimization (Neptun, Romania, 1998)

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 1999 The first ever NATO Advanced Study Institute devoted to 'Thermodynamics and the Optimization of Complex Energy Systems' was held in July 1998 in Neptun, Romania. The ASI unified the field by bringing together leading researchers from engineering and physic ... Full text Cite

Two constructal routes to minimal heat flow resistance via greater internal complexity

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1999 This paper shows that the geometry of the heat flow path between a volume and one point can be optimized in two fundamentally different ways. In the "growth" method of the original constructal theory the structure is optimized starting from the smallest vo ... Full text Cite

How nature takes shape: Extensions of constructal theory to ducts, rivers, turbulence, cracks, dendritic crystals and spatial economics

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · January 1, 1999 The constructal theory of the origin of geometrical form in natural flow (open) systems began with the discovery that, contrary to the established view, the tree network can be deduced from a single principle: the geometric minimization of resistance in vo ... Full text Cite

Optimisation of film condensation with periodic wall cleaning

Journal Article International Journal of Thermal Sciences · January 1, 1999 This is a theoretical and experimental study of the time-optimisation of condensation on a vertical wall when the film is removed periodically by a mechanical device. The objective is to fine-tune the periodic process so that the production of condensate a ... Full text Cite

Tree networks for flows in composite porous media

Journal Article Journal of Porous Media · January 1, 1999 This article reports a numerical study of the geometric minimization of the resistance to Darcy flow between a finite-size volume and one point. The volume is two dimensional and contains materials with several permeabilities. The optimization starts with ... Full text Cite

Self-organization of the internal flow geometry in convective heat transfer

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Heat Transfer Division, (Publication) HTD · December 1, 1998 In this paper, "constructal theory" is used to predict the formation of geometric shape and structure in finite-size fluid systems subjected to heating from below. Two classes of systems are considered: (1) single-phase fluid layers and (2) fully developed ... Cite

Constructal tree networks for the time-dependent discharge of a finite-size volume to one point

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · September 15, 1998 This paper shows that the time needed to discharge a volume to a concentrated sink can be minimized by making appropriate changes in the geometry of the flow path. The time-dependent flow of heat between a volume and one point is chosen for illustration, h ... Full text Cite

Streets tree networks and urban growth: Optimal geometry for quickest access between a finite-size volume and one point

Journal Article Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications · June 15, 1998 The geometric form of the tree network is deduced from a single mechanism. The discovery that the shape of a heat-generating volume can be optimized to minimize the thermal resistance between the volume and a point heat sink, is used to solve the kinematic ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization in heat transfer

Conference HEAT TRANSFER 1998, VOL 1 · 1998 Cite

Constructal optimization of paths for heat transfer

Conference MATHEMATICS OF HEAT TRANSFER · 1998 Cite

Constructal three-dimensional trees for conduction between a volume and one point

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1998 This paper extends to three-dimensional heat conduction the geometric "constructal" method of minimizing the overall thermal resistance between a finite-size volume and a small heat sink. The volume contains (i) low-conductivity material that generates hea ... Full text Cite

Exergy analysis of energy conversion during the thermal interaction between hot particles and water

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 1998 Exergy analysis is applied to sudden thermal interaction between a molten metal (mm) and water (mw). The melt experiences cooling, solidification and subcooling. The water is pressurized at constant volume. It is found that the exergetic efficiency is of t ... Full text Cite

On the thermodynamic optimization of power plants with heat transfer and fluid flow irreversibilities

Journal Article Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1998 This note addresses the current debate on the correctness of power plant models and analyses of the type published by Curzon and Ahlborn (1975) among others. Such models are based on the highly questionable assumption that the heat input is freely availabl ... Full text Cite

Evolution of a mixture of hot particles. steam, and water immersed in a water pool

Journal Article Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications · January 1, 1998 This article describes numerically the time evolution of an expanding mixture of hot spherical particles, steam, and water. It is assumed that at time t = 0 the mixture components are distributed uniformly through Ike mixture volume. The mixture expands ag ... Full text Cite

Maximum power from a hot stream

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1998 This paper reports the solution to the fundamental problem of how to maximize the mechanical power extracted from a hot single-phase stream when the total heat transfer area bathed by the stream is constrained. It is shown that the optimization has two deg ... Full text Cite

Equipartition, optimal allocation, and the constructal approach to predicting organization in nature

Journal Article Revue Generale de Thermique · January 1, 1998 This is a review of recent engineering developments in thermodynamic optimization, which shed light on a universal design principle that accounts for macroscopic organization in nature. It is shown that the optimal performance of a finite-size system with ... Full text Cite

Questions in fluid mechanics: Natural tree-shaped flows

Journal Article Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1998 Full text Cite

Deterministic tree networks for river drainage basins

Journal Article Fractals · January 1, 1998 This paper shows that the dendritic patterns formed by low-resistance channels in a river drainage basin are reproducible and can be deduced from a single principle that acts at every step in the development of the pattern: the constrained minimization of ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory of natural crack pattern formation for fastest cooling

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1998 The constructal theory of the origin of geometrical form in natural flow systems is used to predict the formation of crack patterns in solids subjected to volumetric cooling by convection. The approach is purely theoretical (deterministic), because it star ... Full text Cite

Constructal optimization of internal flow geometry in convection

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1998 In this paper "constructal theory" is used to predict the formation of geometric shape and structure in finite-size fluid systems subjected to heating from below. Two classes of system are considered as tests: (i) single-phase fluid layers, and (ii) porous ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of a gas turbine power plant with pressure drop irreversibilities

Journal Article Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1998 In this paper we show that the thermodynamic performance of a gas turbine power plant can he optimized by adjusting the flow rate and the distribution of pressure losses along the flow path. Specifically, we show that the power output has a maximum with re ... Full text Cite

Constructal theory: From thermodynamic and geometric optimization to predicting shape in nature

Journal Article Energy Conversion and Management · January 1, 1998 This is a review of recent theoretical developments toward predicting macroscopic organization (the occurrence of shape and structure) in natural flow systems, animate and inanimate. The starting point is the question of how to optimize the access between ... Full text Cite

The constructal law of structure formation in natural systems with internal flows

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES · December 1, 1997 This paper outlines a series of recent developments that provide a theoretical basis for the formation of shape and structure in nonequilibrium (flow) systems subjected to overall constraints. It is shown that geometrical form can be deduced from a single ... Cite

How nature takes shape

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · October 1, 1997 Engineers simultaneously applied the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat and mass transfer to construct models that account for the inherent irreversibility of processes executed by a system, natural or man-made, and its components. Thi ... Cite

Constructal tree networks for heat transfer

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 1, 1997 This paper addresses the fundamental problem of how to connect a heat generating volume to a point heat sink by using a finite amount of high-conductivity material that can be distributed through the volume. The problem is one of optimizing the access (or ... Full text Cite

Advanced engineering thermodynamics

Book · 1997 The first edition of this leading text helped change the way thermodynamics is taught. ... Cite

Milestones for Professor W. J. Minkowycz and Numerical Heat Transfer

Journal Article NUMERICAL HEAT TRANSFER PART A-APPLICATIONS · 1997 Cite

Milestones for professor W. J. Minkowycz and Numerical Heat Transfer

Journal Article NUMERICAL HEAT TRANSFER PART B-FUNDAMENTALS · 1997 Cite

THE CONSTRUCTAL LAW OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN NATURAL SYSTEMS WITH INTERNAL FLOWS

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 1997 This paper outlines a series of recent developments that provide a theoretical basis for the formation of shape and structure in nonequilibrium (flow) systems subjected to overall constraints. It is shown that geometrical form can be deduced from a single ... Full text Cite

Optimization of pulsating heating in pool boiling

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1997 This paper describes an experimental and theoretical study of the periodic on and off heating of water on a horizontal surface. The heat transfer is effected by natural convection and isolated bubbles. The experiments cover the heat flux range 33-154 kW/m2 ... Full text Cite

Fundamental optima in thermal science

Journal Article International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education · 1997 Cite

Optimal geometric arrangement of staggered plates in forced convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1997 This paper reports the results of an experimental and numerical study of the optimal geometric arrangement of staggered parallel plates in a fixed volume with forced convection heat transfer. The objective of the geometric optimization effort is to maximiz ... Full text Cite

Constructal-theory network of conducting paths for cooling a heat generating volume

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1997 This paper develops a solution to the fundamental problem of how to collect and 'channel' to one point the heat generated volumetrically in a low conductivity volume of given size. The amount of high conductivity material that is available for building cha ... Full text Cite

Constructal tree network for fluid flow between a finite-size volume and one source or sink

Journal Article Revue Generale de Thermique · January 1, 1997 The 'constructal theory' of formation of structure in nature is extended to fluid-flow systems. The fluid flow path between one point and a finite-size volume (an infinite number of points) is optimized by minimizing the overall flow resistance when the fl ... Full text Cite

Deterministic tree networks for fluid flow: Geometry for minimal flow resistance between a volume and one point

Journal Article Fractals · January 1, 1997 The function of many natural flow systems is to connect by a fluid flow a finite-size volume and one point. This paper outlines a strategy for constructing the architecture of the volume-to-point path such that the flow resistance is minimal (constructal t ... Full text Cite

On the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion during the expansion of a mixture of hot particles, steam and liquid water

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 1997 When an amount of high-temperature molten material is suddenly and finely mixed within a body of liquid water, the ensuing mixture expands because of the volumetric generation of steam. At the same time, the expanding mixture is accelerated away from the s ... Full text Cite

Optimal geometric arrangement of staggered vertical plates in natural convection

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1997 This paper documents the geometric optimization of an assembly of staggered vertical plates that are installed in a fixed volume. The heat transfer is by laminar natural convection. The objective is to maximize the overall thermal conductance between the a ... Full text Cite

Maximum work from an electric battery model

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 1997 We address the fundamental problem of determining the optimal history (regime of operation) of a battery so that the work output is maximum. The essential features of the problem are: (i) the life of the battery is constrained, (ii) the battery has an inte ... Full text Cite

Theory of organization in nature: Pulsating physiological processes

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1997 This paper shows that thermodynamic optimization provides a common theoretical basis for the existence of the finely tuned frequencies of pulsating processes of animals. In respiration and circulation, the minimization of mechanical power consumption subje ... Full text Cite

Constructal tree networks for heat transfer

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · 1997 This paper addresses the fundamental problem of how to connect a heat generating volume to a point heat sink by using a finite amount of high-conductivity material that can be distributed through the volume. The problem is one of optimizing the access (or ... Cite

Notes on the history of the method of entropy generation minimization (finite time thermodynamics)

Journal Article Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics · December 1, 1996 Cite

Entropy generation minimization: The new thermodynamics of finite-size devices and finite-time processes

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · February 1, 1996 Entropy generation minimization (finite time thermodynamics, or thermodynamic optimization) is the method that combines into simple models the most basic concepts of heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics. These simple models are used in the op ... Full text Cite

Thermal Design and Optimization

Book · 1996 This book is one of the few sources available that addresses the recommendations of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology for new courses in design engineering. ... Cite

Transferência de calor

Book · 1996 Este livro, dedicado a um primeiro curso sobre transferência de calor, apresenta a matéria de um modo rigoroso mas interessante, e enfatiza as relações existentes entre a transferência de calor e as outras disciplinas dos Cursos de ... ... Cite

Street network theory of organization in nature

Journal Article Journal of Advanced Transportation · January 1, 1996 This paper outlines a completely deterministic("constructal") theory of why quasi-similar street patterns exist, how they form, and how they grow in time. The function of the street network is to connect a finite area to a single destination point. The new ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of solar-driven refrigerators

Journal Article Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1996 This paper describes the thermodynamic optimization of a class of refrigerators without work input, which are driven by heat transfer from a solar collector. The model consists of a finite-size solar collector with heat loss to the ambient, and a refrigera ... Full text Cite

The optimal spacing of cylinders in free-stream cross-flow forced convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1996 This is an experimental, numerical and analytical study of the optimal spacing between cylinders in cross-flow forced convection. The cylinder array occupies a fixed volume and is exposed to a free stream of given velocity and temperature. The optimal cyli ... Full text Cite

Analogy between electrical machines and heat transfer-irreversible heat engines

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1996 This paper extends to electrical machines the thermodynamics and heat transfer optimization approach that has been developed for heat engines. Four models of thermodynamically irreversible electrical motors with heat transfer to the ambient are proposed an ... Full text Cite

A model for heat transfer in a honey bee swarm

Journal Article Chemical Engineering Science · January 1, 1996 A swarm is a temporary structure formed when several thousand honey bees leave their hive and settle on some object such as the branch of a tree. They remain in this position until a suitable site for a new home is located by the scout bees. A continuum mo ... Full text Cite

Optimal spacing between pin fins with impinging flow

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1996 This is an experimental numerical and theoretical study of the heat transfer on a pin-finned plate exposed to an impinging air stream. The pin fins are aligned with the air approach velocity. The base plate and the fin cross section are square. It is demon ... Full text Cite

Heat sinks with sloped plate fins in natural and forced convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1996 This is an experimental and numerical study of natural convection and forced convection air cooling of plate finned heat sinks. The study documents quantitatively two effects: (1) the orientation of the fin array relative to the gravitational field in natu ... Full text Cite

Time-dependent interaction between water at supercritical pressures and a hot surface

Journal Article Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications · January 1, 1996 This article presents a numerical study of the thermal and fluid flow interaction driven by the sudden contact between saturated liquid water (373 K) and a hot (2300 K) spherical or plane surface. It is shown that under these conditions the sudden contact ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of cooling techniques for electronic packages

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1996 This paper describes several fundamental trade offs that govern the optimization of cooling techniques for heat generating electric devices. Five basic cooling configurations are optimized. It is shown that in forced air cooling above room temperature the ... Full text Cite

Models of power plants that generate minimum entropy while operating at maximum power

Journal Article American Journal of Physics · January 1, 1996 Chambadal, Novikov, Curzon and Ahlborn have shown that the efficiency of an irreversible heat engine at maximum power output is 1-(TL/TH)1/2. This article describes several heat engine models in which the same efficiency formula can be derived by minimizin ... Full text Cite

Cooling of a two-dimensional space with one or more streams making one or more passes

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1996 This is a study of a fundamental problem in electronic cooling; namely, conduction in a two-dimensional (2-D) domain cooled by one or more streams that make one or more passes. The fundamental objective is to determine the relation between the chosen cooli ... Full text Cite

Maximum power from fluid flow

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1996 The heat transfer principle of power maximization in power plants with heat transfer irreversibilities is extended to fluid flow. It is shown that when a stream flows between two pressure reservoirs (P1 > P2) across linear flow resistances, a piston delive ... Full text Cite

The equivalence of maximum power and Minimum entropy generation rate in the optimization of power plants

Journal Article Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1996 It is shown that to maximize the power output of a power plant is equivalent to minimizing the total entropy generation rate associated with the power plant. This equivalence is illustrated by using two of the oldest and simplest models of power plants wit ... Full text Cite

Entropy Generation Minimization The Method of Thermodynamic Optimization of Finite-Size Systems and Finite-Time Processes

Book · October 20, 1995 This book presents the diverse and rapidly expanding field of Entropy Generation Minimization (EGM), the method of thermodynamic optimization of real devices. ... Cite

Convection heat transfer

Book · 1995 This new edition balances traditionally rival corners of convection teaching and research, such as forced and natural convection, laminar and turbulent flows, fluids and fluid-saturated porous media, as well as theory and empiricism. ... Cite

Booknotes

Journal Article European Journal of Engineering Education · January 1, 1995 Full text Cite

Heat transfer, second edition

Journal Article · January 1, 1995 Reflecting real-life thermal engineering, this comprehensive text takes an interdisciplinary approach to the subject of heat transfer. The author stresses the relationship to other engineering disciplines, such as thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, and th ... Cite

Forced convection from a surface covered with flexible fibers

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1995 The heat transfer, friction and mechanical (elastic) interaction between an external laminar flow and a solid surface covered by a layer of fibers is investigated numerically. The flow is initially perpendicular to the surface, and the fibers can bend. The ... Full text Cite

The optimal spacing for cylinders in crossflow forced convection

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1995 Full text Cite

Convection heat transfer, second edition

Journal Article Applied Mechanics Reviews · 1995 Cite

Fundamentals of ice making by convection cooling followed by contact melting

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1995 In this paper we show that the production of ice by convection cooling followed by contact melting can be maximized by properly selecting the frequency of the intermittent freezing and removal cycle. In the first part of the paper, this principle is illust ... Full text Cite

Optimal allocation of a heat-exchanger inventory in heat driven refrigerators

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1995 This paper reports the thermodynamic optimization (or entropy generation minimization) of a heat-driven refrigeration plant, that is, a refrigerator without work input, which is driven by a heat source. The treatment accounts for the heat transfer irrevers ... Full text Cite

Free stream cooling of a stack of parallel plates

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · 1995 This paper addresses the fundamental heat transfer augmentation question of how to arrange a stack of parallel plates (e.g. fins of heat sink, printed circuit boards) in a free stream such that the thermal resistance between the stack and the stream is min ... Full text Link to item Cite

Two design aspects of defrosting refrigerators

Journal Article International Journal of Refrigeration · January 1, 1995 This paper shows that the intermittent operation of a defrosting vapour-compression-cycle refrigerator can be optimized with respect to: (1) the frequency of on/off operation, and (2) the way in which the supply of heat exchanger surface is divided between ... Full text Cite

Optimization of pulsating heaters in forced convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1995 This is a theoretical, numerical and experimental study that shows how to optimize the performance of on and off pulsating heaters in forced convection. Scale analysis shows that there exists an optimal heat pulse interval or frequency that maximizes the o ... Full text Cite

The optimal spacing between horizontal cylinders in a fixed volume cooled by natural convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1995 This is a theoretical, numerical and experimental study of how to select the spacing (S) between horizontal cylinders in an array with laminar natural convection, such that the total heat transfer (q) between the array and the ambient is maximized. The vol ... Full text Cite

Optimization principle for natural convection pulsating heating

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1995 This is a theoretical, numerical, and experimental study of natural convection heat transfer from an immersed surface with intermittent uniform heat flux. Scale analysis predicts that the “on” time interval can be optimized such that the overall Nusselt nu ... Full text Cite

Nonsimilar solutions for mixed convection on a wedge embedded in a porous medium

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1995 The problem of mixed convection on a wedge in a saturated porous medium is analyzed using the Darcy flow formulation and three different methods of solution. Nonsimilar solutions are obtained for several wedge angles. The nonsimilarity technique is applied ... Full text Cite

Cooling of stacks of plates shielded by porous screens

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · 1995 This paper addresses the question of how to cool a stack of parallel, heat-generating boards when the flow is impeded by electromagnetic screens placed upstream and downstream of the stack. Four separate designs are considered: (1) forced convection coolin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Theory of heat transfer-irreversible power plants-II. The optimal allocation of heat exchange equipment

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1995 This paper shows that the power output of various power plant configurations can be maximized by properly dividing the fixed inventory of heat exchange equipment among the heat transfer components of each plant. This conclusion is built over a sequence of ... Full text Cite

Heat transfer, second edition

Journal Article · January 1, 1995 Reflecting real-life thermal engineering, this comprehensive text takes an interdisciplinary approach to the subject of heat transfer. The author stresses the relationship to other engineering disciplines, such as thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, and th ... Cite

Unanswered questions in heat transfer research: technological limitations in the characterization of heat transfer at interfaces

Journal Article Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers · December 1, 1994 An area that has received considerable attention is the time-dependent heat transfer between two surfaces placed suddenly in contact. Recently, an entirely new area is centered around the question of what happens when at least one of the surfaces is initia ... Cite

Entropy generation through heat and fluid flow

Book · 1994 Good,No Highlights,No Markup,all pages are intact, Slight Shelfwear,may have the corners slightly dented, may have slight color changes/slightly damaged spine. ... Cite

Engineering advances on finite-time thermodynamics

Journal Article American Journal of Physics · January 1, 1994 Full text Cite

Plate fins with variable thickness and height for air-cooled electronic modules

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1994 This paper shows that the hot spot temperature of an electronic module with finned air heat sink can be reduced by allowing the fin thickness and height to increase in the flow direction x. The hot spot temperature decreases by about 15% if the thickness o ... Full text Cite

Optimal spacing of parallel boards with discrete heat sources cooled by laminar forced convection

Journal Article Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications · January 1, 1994 This paper shows numerically how to select the optimal spacing between boards mounted in a stack of specified volume, so that the overall thermai conductance between the stack and the forced coolant is maximum. Several configurations are considered: boards ... Full text Cite

The optimal spacing of a stack of plates cooled by turbulent forced convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1994 Full text Cite

When to defrost a refrigerator, and when to remove the scale from the heat exchanger of a power plant

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1994 This paper demonstrates the existence of an optimal on/off sequence for operating a household refrigerator that accumulates ice on its evaporator coils. Experimentally it is shown that the rate of ice formation is constant in time. The optimal (intermitten ... Full text Cite

Two fundamental problems of refrigerator thermal insulation design

Journal Article Heat Transfer Engineering · January 1, 1994 This article presents the solutions to two fundamental problems in the design of the insulation for a refrigerator. The first problem is how to incorporate the new generation of non-CFC materials in a composite layer that also contains polyurethane foam. T ... Full text Cite

Heatline visualization of forced convection in porous media

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1994 The patterns of heatlines reported in this paper illustrate for the first time the true path of convective heat transfer through a saturated porous medium. Heatline patterns are reported for the following fundamental configurations: the boundary layer near ... Full text Cite

The melting of an ice shell on a heated horizontal cylinder

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1994 This paper describes the fundamentals of melting when a shell of phase-change material rides on a heated horizontal cylinder. In the first part of the paper, contact melting theory is used to predict the history of the melting process and, in particular, t ... Full text Cite

Correlation of optimal sizes of bodies with external forced convection heat transfer

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1994 This paper shows how to correlate the optimal sizes of bodies with specified external forced convection heat transfer, when the objective is to minimize 1) the total rate of entropy generation, or 2) the total cost. Specific results are reported for the cy ... Full text Cite

Forced convection in banks of inclined cylinders at low Reynolds numbers

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1994 This study documents the pressure drop and heat transfer through bundles of parallel cylinders in a domain that has been overlooked, namely, low Reynolds numbers, arrays that are long in the direction of flow such that the flow is hydraulically and thermal ... Full text Cite

Plate fins with variable thickness and height for air-cooled electronic modules

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · 1994 This paper shows that the hot spot temperature of an electronic module with finned air heat sink can be reduced by allowing the fin thickness and height to increase in the flow direction x. The hot spot temperature decreases by about 15% if the thickness o ... Cite

Contact Melting Heat Transfer and Lubrication

Journal Article Advances in Heat Transfer · January 1, 1994 The subject of this chapter is the relatively recent work on melting and lubrication at the interface between two solid parts, one of which is at its melting point. It is an area of research that began in heat transfer, with studies of contact melting insi ... Full text Cite

UNTITLED

Journal Article JOURNAL OF INVASIVE CARDIOLOGY · January 1, 1994 Link to item Cite

Authors’ Closure

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1993 Full text Cite

Heat Transfer

Book · January 1, 1993 Full text Cite

OPTIMAL GEOMETRY OF CONVECTION COOLED ELECTRONIC PACKAGES

Conference TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN THERMAL ENGINEERING, VOLS 1 AND 2 · 1993 Cite

Melting around a shaft rotating in a phase-change material

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1993 In this paper we describe the thin-film melting of a block of solid phase-change material (the bearing) around a rotating cylinder (the shaft). We determine the relation between the force applied on the shaft and the speed with which the shaft migrates int ... Full text Cite

Heat transfer

Journal Article Applied Mechanics Reviews · 1993 Cite

The resonance of natural convection in an enclosure heated periodically from the side

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1993 This is a numerical and theoretical investigation of natural convection in a two-dimensional square enclosure with one side cold and isothermal, and the other side heated with pulsating heat flux. It is shown numerically that the buoyancy induced circulati ... Full text Cite

Power and refrigeration plants for minimum heat exchanger inventory

Journal Article Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1993 Full text Cite

Heatline visualization of forced convection laminar boundary layers

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1993 This paper reports in closed form the similarity heatfunctions H for laminar boundary layer flow on a flat wall. Plots of the constant-H lines ('heatlines') show that the path of convection from a hot free stream to a cold wall is unlike the path of convec ... Full text Cite

The optimal cooling of a stack of heat generating boards with fixed pressure drop, flowrate or pumping power

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1993 In this paper, we show analytically how to optimize the spacing between heat generating boards in a stack cooled by single-phase laminar forced convection. The thickness of each board is not negligible. The theoretical results for optimal spacing and maxim ... Full text Cite

Optimal arrays of pin fins and plate fins in laminar forced convection

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1993 This paper reports the optimal geometry of an array of fins that minimizes the thermal resistance between the substrate and the flow forced through the fins. The flow regime is laminar. Two fin types are considered: round pin fins, and staggered parallel-p ... Full text Cite

Cooling of a heat-generating board inside a parallel-plate channel

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · 1993 This paper addresses the fundamental question of how to position a heat-generating board inside a parallel-plate channel, where it is cooled by forced convection. It is shown that when the board substrate is a relatively good thermal conductor, the best bo ... Full text Link to item Cite

How to distribute a finite amount of insulation on a wall with nonuniform temperature

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1993 This paper shows that it is possible to distribute a finite amount of insulation in an optimal way that minimizes the overall heat transfer rate from a nonisothermal wall to the ambient. The optimal insulation thickness for a plane wall varies as the squar ... Full text Cite

Spaces filled with fluid and fibers coated with a phase- change material

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1993 Thermally active fabrics and insulations consist of fibers coated with phase-change materials and surrounded by air. This paper constructs a homogeneous porous medium model for melting and solidification in spaces filled with thermally active fibers. Three ... Full text Cite

Contact melting during sliding on ice

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1993 This paper describes the water film that is formed as ice melts under a two-dimensional solid slider. The analysis is based on the contact melting theory, and accounts for the coupling between the heat transfer across the water film and the fluid mechanics ... Full text Cite

Lubrication by close-contact melting

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Heat Transfer Division, (Publication) HTD · December 1, 1992 This invited paper reviews the current research on close-contact melting heat transfer, and the relevance of this work to understanding and predicting melt lubrication. Contact melting and lubrication is a relatively complicated phenomenon, because it comb ... Cite

Comment on "natural convection from isothermal plates embedded in thermally stratified porous media"

Journal Article Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer · January 1, 1992 Full text Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of phase-change energy storage using two or more materials

Journal Article Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1992 This paper documents the relative merits of using more than one type of phasechange material for energy storage. In the case of two phase-change systems in series, which are melted by the same stream of hot fluid, there exists an optimal melting point for ... Full text Cite

Removal of contaminant generated by a discrete source in a slot ventilated enclosure

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1992 This paper reports the results of a numerical study of the time-dependent removal of contaminant from a two-dimensional enclosure with one inlet and one outlet. The contaminant is generated beginning with the time t = 0 by a concentrated source located ins ... Full text Cite

Single correlation for theoretical contact melting results in various geometries

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1992 The melting rates due to close-contact heating of a block of phase-change material have been analyzed in the past based on thin-film lubrication theory in several internal and external configurations. The scale analysis of close-contact melting in a region ... Full text Cite

Natural convection with radiation in a cavity with open top end

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1992 The heat transfer by natural convection and radiation in a two-dimensional cavity with one side heated, one side and bottom insulated, and the top open was investigated numerically. The first part of the study focused on natural convection alone, and concl ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamics of energy extraction from fractured hot dry rock

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1992 It has been proposed to extract energy from the subterranean hot dry rock bed (HDR) by creating one or more narrow fractures in the rock and circulating cold water through the fractures. In time, the temperature of the rock region surrounding the crack dro ... Full text Cite

The pressure melting of ice under a body with flat base

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1992 Full text Cite

The pressure melting of ice due to an embedded cylinder

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1992 Full text Cite

The Prandtl number effect near the onset of Bénard convection in a porous medium

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1992 This note focuses on Kladias and Prasad's claim that the critical Rayleigh number for the onset of Bénard convection in an infinite horizontal porous layer increases as the Prandtl number decreases, and argues that the critical Rayleigh number (Rac) depend ... Full text Cite

The prandtl number effect on melting dominated by natural convection

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1992 Full text Cite

The optimal thickness of a wall with convection on one side

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1992 This paper documents the conjugate heat transfer through a wall with nonuniform thickness, which is lined on one side by a boundary layer. In the first part, variational calculus shows that the total heat transfer rate is minimized w hen the wall thickness ... Full text Cite

Comments on "Coupled heat and mass transfer by natural convection from vertical surfaces in porous media"

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1992 Full text Cite

The optimal spacing of parallel plates cooled by forced convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1992 This paper reports the optimal board-to-board spacing and maximum total heat transfer rate from a stack of parallel boards cooled by laminar forced convection. The optimal spacing is proportional to the board length raised to the power 1/2, the property gr ... Full text Cite

Experimental observations on transition to turbulence in confined coaxial jets and other boundary layer flows

Journal Article · January 1, 1991 Experiments performed demonstrate the transition to turbulent flow of water jets discharging coaxially into a stream confined in a round duct. The critical Reynolds number is shown to be a strong function of velocity ratio. From the flow visualization it i ... Cite

HEAT-TRANSFER FROM A SURFACE COVERED WITH HAIR

Conference CONVECTIVE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN POROUS MEDIA · 1991 Cite

MELTING IN THE PRESENCE OF NATURAL-CONVECTION IN A SATURATED POROUS-MEDIUM

Conference CONVECTIVE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN POROUS MEDIA · 1991 Cite

Thermodynamics of an 'isothermal' flow: the two-dimensional turbulent jet

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1991 This study illustrates the thermodynamic information that is being routinely overlooked by a pure fluid mechanics analysis. The integral analysis of the two-dimensional turbulent jet is used as an example. It is shown that even when the temperature differe ... Full text Cite

Transient forced convection near a suddenly heated plate in a porous medium

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1991 This paper describes the time evolution of the temperature and heat transfer in the vicinity of a flat wall embedded in a parallel flow through a saturated porous medium. The flow is uniform and steady, while the wall is suddenly subjected to heating or co ... Full text Cite

Predicting the pool fire vortex shedding frequency

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1991 Full text Cite

Efficiency of transient contaminant removal from a slot ventilated enclosure

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1991 This paper reports the results of a fundamental study of the transient removal of a contaminant from a two-dimensional enclosure with one inlet and one outlet. The evolution of the flow and concentration fields are simulated numerically using Jones and Lau ... Full text Cite

Natural convection in a vertical enclosure with internal permeable screen

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1991 This paper documents the thermal insulation effect of a screen installed inside a vertical rectangular enclosure (e.g., double-glazed window). The screen is a Venetian blind system made out of horizontal strips that can be rotated. The focus is on the “clo ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamics of phase-change energy storage: The effects of liquid superheating during melting, and irreversibility during solidification

Journal Article Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1991 This paper considers the question of whether the optimum phase-change temperature for maximum exergy storage is universally equal to the geometric mean of the heat source and environment temperature, Tm= (T∞, Te)1/2. The study consists of three parts. The ... Full text Cite

On the effect of the Prandtl number on the onset of Bénard convection

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1991 This note summarizes the results of a numerical study designed to question (i.e., refute or validate) Chao et al.'s1 and Bertin and Ozoe's2 conclusion that the critical Rayleigh number increases substantially as the Prandtl number becomes very small. The n ... Full text Cite

Natural convection from a vertical surface covered with hair

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1991 Heat transfer through a vertical skin surface covered with perpendicular hair strands of uniform density is investigated numerically. The heat transfer rate is the result of (1) direct heat transfer to the air that makes contact with the skin and (2) the h ... Full text Cite

The effect of shrinkage on the cooking of meat

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1991 In this paper the cooking of meat is modeled as a process of time-dependent conduction through a constant-property medium that shrinks as its temperature increases. The overall shrinkage is the integrated result of shrinking that is distributed volumetrica ... Full text Cite

The ra-pr domain of laminar natural convection in an enclosure heated from the side1

Journal Article Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications · January 1, 1991 The phenomenon of natural convection in a square enclosure heated and cooled in the horizontal direction was investigated numerically in the Prandtl number range 0.01-10 and the Rayleigh number range 102-1011. The numerical method retied on the full govern ... Full text Cite

Second law analysis of energy storage by melting

Journal Article Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering · 1991 Cite

Film condensation on an upward facing plate with free edges

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1991 Full text Cite

Experimental observations on transition to turbulence in confined coaxial jets and other boundary layer flows

Journal Article · January 1, 1991 Experiments performed demonstrate the transition to turbulent flow of water jets discharging coaxially into a stream confined in a round duct. The critical Reynolds number is shown to be a strong function of velocity ratio. From the flow visualization it i ... Cite

Experimental observations on transition to turbulence in confined coaxial jets and other boundary layer flows

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Fluids Engineering Division (Publication) FED · December 1, 1990 Experiments performed demonstrate the transition to turbulent flow of water jets discharging coaxially into a stream confined in a round duct. The critical Reynolds number is shown to be a strong function of velocity ratio. From the flow visualization it i ... Cite

Experimental observations on transition to turbulence in confined coaxial jets and other boundary layer flows

Journal Article · January 1, 1990 Experiments were performed to demonstrate the transition to turbulent flow of water jets discharging coaxially into a stream confined in a round duct. Experimental apparatus consisted of a storage tank, pump, constant head tank to minimize pump transients, ... Cite

2ND LAW ANALYSIS OF ENERGY-STORAGE BY MELTING

Conference FUTURE FOR ENERGY - FLOWERS 90 · 1990 Cite

The geometric similarity of the laminar sections of boundary layer-type flows

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1990 Experimental observations of the shape of the laminar and transition sections of a confined coaxial jet show that the laminar length (L) is always approximately ten times greater than the wavelength of the first sinusoidal deformation of the flow (λ). This ... Full text Cite

Experimental observations on transition to turbulence in confined coaxial jets and other boundary layer flows

Journal Article · January 1, 1990 Experiments were performed to demonstrate the transition to turbulent flow of water jets discharging coaxially into a stream confined in a round duct. Experimental apparatus consisted of a storage tank, pump, constant head tank to minimize pump transients, ... Cite

Solidification in the presence of high Rayleigh number convection in an enclosure cooled from the side

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · 1990 This is an experimental and theoretical study of the process of time-dependent solidification in an enclosed liquid cooled from the side. The form is on the effect of high Rayleigh number convection, and the convection-conduction interaction across the fre ... Full text Link to item Cite

Numerical study of forced convection near a surface covered with hair

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1990 This article reports the results of a numerical study of heat transfer to the air permeating through hair strands covering a flat surface. First, the surface is modeled as isothermal, and second the surface is assumed covered with uniform heat flux. For bo ... Full text Cite

Theory of heat transfer from a surface covered with hair

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1990 This paper describes the fundamental mechanisms of heat transfer through a surface covered with perpendicular hair strands of uniform density. An airflow parallel to the skin seeps through the spaces created between the hair strands. It is shown that the t ... Full text Cite

Thermodynamics of energy storage by melting due to conduction or natural convection

Journal Article Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1990 This paper describes the most basic thermodynamic aspects of the process of energy storage by melting of a phase change material when the energy source is a stream of hot single-phase fluid. The first part of the paper considers the melting process ruled b ... Full text Cite

Optimum hair strand diameter for minimum free-convection heat transfer from a surface covered with hair

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1990 Full text Cite

The horizontal intrusion layer of melt in a saturated porous medium

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1990 This article presents a theory of how the melt region advances as an intrusion layer along the top boundary of a solid phase-change material that is heated from the side. The phase-change material fills the pores of a solid matrix. We show that the thickne ... Full text Cite

Sliding contact melting: The effect of heat transfer in the solid parts

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1990 Full text Cite

Convection from a periodically stretching plane wall

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1990 This paper documents the convection heat transfer enhancement effect that is associated with theperiodic (timewise and spatial) longitudinal stretching of an infinite plane wall bathed by a semi-infinite fluid reservoir. It is shown that the flow field rea ... Full text Cite

Convection in the cavity formed between two cylindrical rollers

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1990 This paper describes the flow and temperature distribution in the hourglass-shaped cavity formed between two rollers and two parallel runner surfaces. The cavity fluid is heated uniformly over the roller surfaces, and cooled along the two runners, which ar ... Full text Cite

Combined Heat and Mass Transfer by Natural Convection in a Porous Medium

Journal Article Advances in Heat Transfer · January 1, 1990 The chapter describes the combined heat and mass-transfer natural convection mechanisms, which are considered an important subfield in contemporary heat and mass-transfer research. This subfield essentially brings together the studies concerned with the co ... Full text Cite

Mass and heat transfer by natural convection above a concentrated source buried at the base of a shallow porous layer

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Fluids Engineering Division (Publication) FED · December 1, 1989 This paper reports a numerical study of the natural convection flows that are induced by a finite source of heat and chemical constituent localized at the bottom wall of a horizontal porous layer. The focus is on the Darcy flow, and heat and mass transfer ... Cite

Buckling flows. Exploring the origins and structure of turbulence

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · November 1, 1989 The author discusses how buckling flow has become a new area in fluid mechanics research because of numerous natural flow phenomena which exhibit geometric features which can be compared with classical buckling of solid elastic columns. The most striking f ... Cite

Minimizing entropy in thermal systems

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · August 1, 1989 Building efficient energy systems means designing for less and less entropy. The engineer must balance the heat-transfer and fluid-flow irreversibilities in even the tiniest components of a system. The minimization of entropy generation is a design philoso ... Cite

Theory of rolling contact heat transfer

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1989 This paper addresses the fundamentals of the phenomenon of steady heat transfer by rolling contact between two bodies at different temperatures. The contact region is modeled according to the classical Hertz theory, by which the bodies undergo elastic defo ... Full text Cite

Theory of melting with natural convection in an enclosed porous medium

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1989 This paper reports a complete theory of the melting that occurs in a confined porous medium saturated with phase-change material and heated from the side. Darcy flow characteristics are assumed for the liquid phase. The solid phase is isothermal and at the ... Full text Cite

The problem of time-dependent natural convection melting with conduction in the solid

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1989 This paper reports a theoretical and experimental study of the effect of solid-side subcooling on the phenomenon of melting by natural convection at the vertical interface between a solid body and a pool of its own liquid. The first part of the study consi ... Full text Cite

Melting in an enclosure heated at constant rate

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1989 This paper describes a two-part study of the time-dependent melting of an enclosed phasechange material heated at a constant rate from the side. The first part describes experimental measurements with n-octadecane conducted in a 74 cm tall enclosure. The h ... Full text Cite

Analysis of melting by natural convection in an enclosure

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1989 This paper reports theoretical solutions for the quasi-steady and time-dependent regimes of melting in the presence of natural convection in an enclosed phase-change material heated from the side. The first part consists of developing two boundary layer so ... Full text Cite

Theory of heat transfer-irreversible refrigeration plants

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1989 This study questions the view that the degree of thennodynamic imperfection (second law efficiency, η11) of the refrigeration and liquefaction plants that have been built does not depend on the refrigeration load temperature Tl. It is shown first that when ... Full text Cite

The fundamentals of sliding contact melting and friction

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1989 This paper focuses on the phenomenon of melting and lubrication by the sliding contact between a phase-change material and a smooth flat slider. The first part of the study considers the limit in which the melting is due primarily to “direct heating, ”that ... Full text Cite

The contact heating and lubricating flow of a body of glass

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1989 This paper describes analytically the process in which a body of glass is heated, softened and eroded ('melted' away) by direct contact with a solid surface of much higher temperature. This surface can slide relative to the body of glass. The glass is mode ... Full text Cite

Modern trends in engineering thermodynamics

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Advanced Energy Systems Division (Publication) AES · December 1, 1988 The modern trends in the field of engineering thermodynamics are reviewed by focusing on six distinct areas: axiomatic formulations, graphic constructions, exergy analysis, thermodynamic design, the science of irreversible power plants, and the intermediat ... Cite

Advanced engineering thermodynamics

Book · October 3, 1988 The most up-to-date treatise on engineering thermodynamics available, incorporating the most complete compilation of original sources in print. ... Cite

SECOND LOOK AT THE SECOND LAW.

Journal Article Mechanical Engineering · May 1, 1988 At first glance, engineering thermodynamics may appear to be a dead discipline, but closer examination reveals a remarkably lively field of study. Its axioms have recently been reformulated in terms of heat transfer instead of mechanics. New graphic constr ... Cite

A 2ND LOOK AT THE 2ND LAW

Journal Article MECHANICAL ENGINEERING · 1988 Cite

Ernst Schmidt's approach to fin optimization: an extension to fins with variable conductivity and the design of ducts for fluid flow

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1988 In the first part of the paper, Ernst Schmidt's intuitive argument for choosing the optimum fin shape for least material is translated into analysis using the method of variational calculus. It is shown that even when the thermal conductivity of the fin is ... Full text Cite

Transient natural convection in a rectangular enclosure with one heated side wall

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1988 This paper describes a numerical and theoretical study of the transient natural convection heating of a two-dimensional rectangular enclosure filled with fluid. The heating is applied suddenly along one of the side walls, while the remaining three walls ar ... Full text Cite

Scaling theory of melting with natural convection in an enclosure

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1988 This study identifies the most basic scales and regimes of the phenomenon of melting with natural convection in an enclosure heated from the side. In the first part of the study the method of scale analysis is used to show that the phenomenon consists of a ... Full text Cite

The process of melting by rolling contact

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1988 This paper describes the fundamentals of the heat transfer melting process occurring in the narrow rolling contact region between a body of phase-change material and a solid body that acts as a heater. The theory is based on the following assumptions : (i) ... Full text Cite

Heat transfer-based reconstruction of the concepts and laws of classical thermodynamics

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1988 As an alternative to the mechanistic point of view expressed in Caratheodory's axioms, it is shown that the laws and concepts of thermodynamics are covered also by two statements made from a purely heat transfer perspective: Axiom I'—The heat transfer is t ... Full text Cite

Transient natural convection heat transfer in a large-diameter cylinder

Journal Article Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science · January 1, 1988 This paper describes an experimental study of transient natural convection heating and cooling of a 30 cm diameter horizontal cylinder filled with water or water-glycerol solutions. The Rayleigh number range covered by these experiments is 8 × 107 -3 × 109 ... Full text Cite

Theory of heat transfer-irreversible power plants

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1988 The observed degree of thermodynamic imperfection of existing power plants is explained based on a steady-state power plant model the irreversibility of which is due to three sources: the hot-end heat exchanger, the cold-end heat exchanger and the heat lea ... Full text Cite

Research into the origins of engineering thermodynamics

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1988 This paper draws attention to a series of misconceptions and misstatements regarding the origin and meaning of some of the most basic concepts of engineering thermodynamics. The six examples exhibited in the paper relate to the concepts of reversibility, e ... Full text Cite

Transient natural convection between two zones in an insulated enclosure

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1988 The natural convection flow and heat transfer between two enclosures that communicate through a vertical opening is studied by considering the evolution of an enclosed fluid in which the left half is originally at a different temperature than the right hal ... Full text Cite

Blending geometry with numerical computation: Charts for the enthalpy, absolute entropy, and flow exergy of 12 gases at low pressures

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1988 This note contains a set of charts for the enthalpy change function Δh(T), the absolute entropy at atmospheric pressure s°(T), and the flow exergy at atmospheric pressure e°x(T) of 12 gases in the ideal-gas limit. The gases considered are CO, CO2, H, H2, H ... Full text Cite

BUCKLING FLOWS: A NEW FRONTIER IN FLUID MECHANICS.

Journal Article Annu Rev Numer Fluid Mech Heat Transfer · December 1, 1987 The objective of this review is to draw attention to recent advances in a relatively new subfield of fluid mechanics research, namely, the study of the buckling or meandering tendency exhibited by some flows at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. Buckling ... Cite

Second law aspects of solar energy conversion

Journal Article Solar Energy Utilization. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute · 1987 The thermodynamics of solar thermal energy conversion installations is reviewed in the spirit of second law analysis. A review of the equilibrium thermodynamics of radiation as a photon gas system, and with an outline of benchmark reversible and irreversib ... Cite

Unification of three different theories concerning the ideal conversion of enclosed radiation

Journal Article Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1987 The discussion of the ideal conversion of enclosed thermal radiation revolves around three different theories, whose earliest proponents were Petela, Spanner, and Jeter, respectively. Each of these theories has been accused to be incorrect. The objective o ... Full text Cite

Combined heat and mass transfer by natural convection in a vertical enclosure

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1987 The phenomenon of natural convection caused by combined temperature and concentration buoyancy effects is studied analytically and numerically in a rectangular slot with uniform heat and mass fluxes along the vertical sides. The analytical part is devoted ... Full text Cite

Heat transfer correlation for benard convection in a fluid saturated porous layer

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1987 Diverse measurements of heat transfer by Benard convection in a fluid saturated porous layer are correlated by considering only the Darcy and Forschheimer asymptotes of the phenomenon. Scale analysis suggests that in the Forschheimer limit the Nusselt numb ... Full text Cite

Mass and heat transfer by high Rayleigh number convection in a porous medium heated from below

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1987 This paper outlines a combined theoretical and numerical study of the mass transfer effected by high Rayleigh number Bénard convection in a two-dimensional saturated porous layer heated from below. The focus of this study is on the Darcy flow, heat transfe ... Full text Cite

The basic scales of natural convection heat and mass transfer in fluids and fluid-saturated porous media

Journal Article International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1987 The parallel structure of the fields of natural convection in fluids and natural convection in porous media is reviewed in terms of the most basic scales of flow, heat and mass transfer. In each field, the review includes single vertical boundary layers, e ... Full text Cite

The thermodynamic design of heat and mass transfer processes and devices

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1987 This review article places in perspective the new work devoted both to the analysis of the thermodynamic irreversibility of heat and mass transfer components and systems and to the design of these devices on the basis of entropy generation minimization. Th ... Full text Cite

The horizontal spreading of thermal and chemical deposits in a porous medium

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1987 This is an analytical and numerical study of the buoyancy-driven horizontal spreading of heat and chemical species through a fluid-saturated porous medium. The buoyancy effect is due to both temperature and concentration gradients. It is shown that when th ... Full text Cite

STRESSING THE 'FREE' IN FREE CONVECTION RESEARCH: THE BASIC SCALES OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN FLUIDS AND FLUID-SATURATED POROUS MEDIA.

Journal Article · January 1, 1987 The parallel structure of the fields of natural convection in fluids and natural convection in porous media is reviewed in terms of the most basic scales of flow, heat and mass transfer. In each field, the review includes single vertical boundary layers, e ... Cite

Letter to the editors

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1987 Full text Cite

Convection driven by the nonuniform absorption of thermal radiation at the free surface of a stagnant pool

Journal Article Numerical Heat Transfer · January 1, 1986 This is a study of the flow driven by the buoyancy effect associated with the non-uniform volumetric absorption of a spatially uniform flux of thermal radiation that impinges on a body of fluid. The nonuniform absorption of radiation is due to the presence ... Full text Cite

Transition to meandering rivulet flow in vertical parallel-plate channels

Journal Article Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1986 Full text Cite

Natural convection in a vertical enclosure filled with water near 4°C

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1986 The natural circulation of near-4°C water in a vertical cavity heated from the side was studied experimentally in a 0,74-m-tall enclosure. The results of a scale analysis were used in order to correlate the overall wall-to-wall heat transfer rate measured ... Full text Cite

Mass and heat transfer by natural convection in a vertical slot filled with porous medium

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1986 This paper reports an analytical and numerical study of natural convection heat and mass transfer through a vertical porous layer subjected to uniform fluxes of heat and mass from the side. The flow is driven by the combined buoyancy effect due to temperat ... Full text Cite

High Rayleigh number convection in a fluid overlaying a porous bed

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1986 A series of numerical experiments concerning the phenomenon of natural convection in a two-layer composite system heated from below is reported. The composite system consists of a fluid layer bounded from below by a porous bed saturated by the same fluid. ... Full text Cite

METHOD OF SCALE ANALYSIS: NATURAL CONVECTION IN POROUS MEDIA.

Journal Article · December 1, 1985 This paper uses the scale analysis methodology in order to review the most basic features of natural convection phenomena driven by buoyancy associated with differential heating from the side. Because of its focus on the scale analysis of flows through por ... Cite

METHOD OF SCALE ANALYSIS: NATURAL CONVECTION IN FLUIDS.

Journal Article · December 1, 1985 The volume of natural convection results accumulated already in the heat transfer literature is discussed. This article discusses the methodology on which these results are based. The methods available to the problem solver in natural convection range all ... Cite

Natural convection in a stably heated corner filled with porous medium

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1985 This is a study of the single-cell natural convection pattern that occurs in a “stably heated” corner in a fluid-saturated porous medium, i.e., in the corner formed between a cold horizontal wall and a hot vertical wall situated above the horizontal wall, ... Full text Cite

Heat and mass transfer by natural convection in a porous medium

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1985 This paper reports a fundamental study of the phenomenon of natural convection heat and mass transfer near a vertical surface embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The buoyancy effect is due to the variation of temperature and concentration across t ... Full text Cite

Second-Law analysis of solar collectors with energy storage capability

Journal Article Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1985 This is an analytical and numerical study of the exergy that can be delivered by a solar collector installation with temporary energy storage capability. In the first part of the study, the method of variational calculus is used to show that under conditio ... Full text Cite

Natural convection in a differentially heated corner region

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · January 1, 1985 This is a fundamental study of the phenomenon of natural convection in the region formed by a vertical warm wall rising above a cold horizontal wall, or in the region between a cold vertical wall extending downward from a warm horizontal surface. The study ... Full text Cite

Natural convection with combined heat and mass transfer buoyancy effects in a porous medium

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1985 This paper describes a comprehensive study of the natural convection phenomenon occurring inside a porous layer with both heat and mass transfer from the side. The natural circulation is driven by a combination of buoyancy effects due to both temperature a ... Full text Cite

Natural convection near a cold plate facing upward in a porous medium

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1985 It is shown that the phenomenon of natural convection driven in a porous medium by a cold plate facing upward or by a warm plate facing downward consists of a finite-length boundary layer flow chopped off by the sharp edges of the plate. The heat and fluid ... Full text Cite

Mass and heat transfer by natural convection in a vertical cavity

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1985 This paper reports a fundamental study of laminar natural convection in a rectangular enclosure with heat and mass transfer from the side, when the bouyancy effect is due to density variations caused by either temperature or concentration variations. In th ... Full text Cite

The departure from Darcy flow in natural convection in a vertical porous layer

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · January 1, 1985 An analytical and numerical study is reported of steady-state natural convection in a two-dimensional porous layer heated from the side. Contrary to previous investigations of the phenomenon, which were all based on the Darcy flow model, a vector generaliz ... Full text Cite

Mass transfer to natural convection boundary layer flow driven by heat transfer

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1985 Full text Cite

The instability of a round jet surrounded by an annular shear layer

Journal Article Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1985 A linear stability analysis of the large-scale structure of a round jet surrounded by an annular shear layer is presented. The study is limited to the developing region near the jet nozzle in the limit Re → ∞, The radial dependence of the amplitudes of gro ... Full text Cite

The instability of a round jet surrounded by an annular shear layer.

Journal Article TRANS. ASME J. FLUIDS ENGNG. · January 1, 1985 Uses a simple stability model to identify some of the global properties of large scale eddies, in particular the radial dependence of the amplitudes of growing disturbances in order to study the extent to which the disturbances penetrate the jet and its su ... Cite

Convection heat transfer

Book · August 28, 1984 Emphasizing the integration of mathematical expressions with clear physical associations, this challenging graduate-level textbook on convective heat and mass transfer reviews the laws of thermodynamics and fluid motions, behavior of ... ... Cite

Experiments on the buckling of thin fluid layers undergoing end-compression

Journal Article Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1984 This paper reports a series of experiments concerning the buckling of a slender fluid layer in a state of longitudinal compression. The experiments consist of floating a layer of highly viscous oil on a pool of water and, manually, compressing the layer fr ... Full text Cite

The boundary layer natural convection regime in a rectangular cavity with uniform heat flux from the side

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1984 This paper summarizes an analytical and numerical study of buoyancy-driven convection in a rectangular cavity filled with fluid. The new feature of this study, suggested by architectural applications of the convection phenomenon, is the presence of constan ... Full text Cite

Natural convection near 4 °C in a horizontal water layer heated from below

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · January 1, 1984 A numerical study of two-dimensional natural convection in a horizontal water layer heated from below is reported. The density maximum associated with water at 3.98°C and atmospheric pressure occurs inside the layer, as the top surface is maintained at 0°C ... Full text Cite

The nondarcy regime for vertical boundary layer natural convection in a porous medium

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1984 This paper reports similarity solutions for vertical boundary layer natural convection near a solid wall adjacent to a fluid-saturated porous medium, in the case where the pore Reynolds number is high enough for the Darcy flow model to break down. Based on ... Full text Cite

Penetrative convection in porous medium bounded by a horizontal wall with hot and cold spots

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1984 This paper reports a series of numerical simulations and a scale analysis of the penetrative convection occurring along the unevenly heated horizontal wall of a semi-infinite porous medium. Modeling the problem as two-dimensional, and assuming that the hor ... Full text Cite

NATURAL CONVECTION NEAR 4 degree C IN A WATER SATURATED POROUS LAYER HEATED FROM BELOW.

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · 1984 The objective of the present study was to document numerically the characteristics of natural circulation in a porous layer heated from below, and in this way to verify the linear stability predictions regarding the onset of convection. Another objective o ... Cite

Natural convection in a porous layer heated and cooled along one vertical side

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1984 This paper describes the heat transfer and fluid flow through a confined porous layer heated and cooled along one of the vertical side walls. In the first part of the study, consideration is given to the case when the side-heating effect is positioned abov ... Full text Cite

Natural convection near 4°C in a water saturated porous layer heated from below

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1984 This paper reports a numerical study of two-dimensional natural convection in a horizontal porous layer heated from below and saturated with cold water. The density maximum of water at 3.98°C and atmospheric pressure occurs inside the layer, as the top sur ... Full text Cite

SECOND-LAW ASPECTS OF HEAT TRANSFER ENGINEERING.

Journal Article · January 1, 1984 Cite

Natural convection in a partially divided enclosure

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1983 On décrit une étude expérimentale et analytique du phénomène de transfert thermique par convection naturelle dans une enceinte rectangulaire munie d’une cloison interne incomplète. Les expériences sont conduites avec une enceinte remplie d’eau avec des par ... Full text Cite

Buckling of a turbulent jet surrounded by a highly flexible duct

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · January 1, 1983 An experimental and theoretical study of the static buckling of a downward flowing stream surrounded by a highly flexible duct is reported. It is shown analytically that the stream buckles into a meandering shape that depends strongly on the flow velocity ... Full text Cite

Natural convection at the interface between a vertical porous layer and an open space

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1983 This paper examines the interaction by natural convection between a fluid-saturated porous medium and a fluid reservoir separated by a vertical impermeable partition. The two fluid systems are maintained at different temperatures. The analysis is simplifie ... Full text Cite

The buckling of a vertical liquid column

Journal Article Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1983 This paper documents the sinuous flow of a vertical water column which impinges on a horizontal surface. It is shown experimentally that the solid obstacle buckles the column into a plane sinuous (static) shape whose wavelength scales with the local column ... Full text Cite

Exergy conservation in parallel thermal insulation systems

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1983 This paper is a Second-Law study of thermal insulation systems consisting of two 1-dim. insulations in parallel. It is shown that the parallel-insulation model applies to power and refrigeration systems exposed to large absolute temperature ratios. The ins ... Full text Cite

Unsteady natural convection in a porous layer

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · January 1, 1983 The focus of this paper is on the fundamentals of the transient mechanism responsible for the establishment of natural convection in a two-dimensional porous layer confined between isothermal vertical walls and insulated horizontal walls. In the first part ... Full text Cite

Mechanism for transition to turbulence in buoyant plume flow

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1983 On étudie théoriquement et expérimentalement le mécanisme fondamental responsable de la transition dans la convection naturelle d’un panache. Théoriquement, la transition apparaît quand le temps de pénétration visqueuse normale au panache devient comparabl ... Full text Cite

Natural convection experiments in a triangular enclosure

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1983 Full text Cite

Numerical study of transient high rayleigh number convection in an attic-shaped porous layer

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1983 Scaling arguments and numerical analysis are used to document the transient and steady-state regimes of natural convection in a triangular porous layer cooled from above (along the sloping wall). The numerical simulations are conducted in the high Rayleigh ... Full text Cite

Natural convection heat transfer in a porous layer with internal flow obstructions

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1983 Cette étude numérique concerne l’effet des obstructions de l’écoulement interne sur le transfert thermique à travers une couche poreuse bidimensionnelle chauffée latéralement. On considère trois types d’obstruction. Des partitions diathermales horizontales ... Full text Cite

The “Heatline” visualization of convective heat transfer

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1983 Full text Cite

Theoretical considerations of transition to turbulance in natural convection near a vertical wall

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1983 Hydrodynamic stability analysis of an inviscid wall jet shows that instability is possible above a characteristic disturbance wavelength which is proportional to the jet thickness. This scaling is the basis for an argument that transition occurs when the f ... Full text Cite

The fluid dynamics of an attic space

Journal Article Journal of Fluid Mechanics · January 1, 1983 This paper reports a fundamental study of the fluid dynamics inside a triangular (attic-shaped) enclosure with cold upper wall and warm horizontal bottom wall. The study was undertaken in three distinct parts. In the first part, the flow and temperature fi ... Full text Cite

Natural convection in vertically and horizontally layered porous media heated from the side

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1983 On étudie numériquement l’effet d’une perméabilité et d’une diffusivité thermique non uniformes pour un système poreux chauffé latéralement. La première partie de l’étude, section 2, s’intéresse aux systèmes composés de sous-couches verticales. On montre q ... Full text Cite

The boundary layer regime in a porous layer with uniform heat flux from the side

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1983 On donne une solution analytique et numérique de laconvection naturelle dans une couche poreuse rectangulaire chauffée et refroidie avec des flux uniformes le long des parois verticales. On montre analytiquement que, dans le régime de couche limite, l’épai ... Full text Cite

Theory of instantaneous sinuous structure in turbulent buoyant plumes

Journal Article Wärme - und Stoffübertragung · December 1, 1982 This paper reports a theory which explains the flickering motion of turbulent plumes as well as their large-scale sinuous structure. The theory is based on the fact that the inviscid region of the plume (the "plume column") possesses elastic properties ana ... Full text Cite

Entropy generation through heat and fluid flow

Book · September 30, 1982 Featured Publication Good,No Highlights,No Markup,all pages are intact, Slight Shelfwear,may have the corners slightly dented, may have slight color changes/slightly damaged spine. ... Cite

ANOTHER LOOK WORTHWHILE

Journal Article MECHANICAL ENGINEERING · 1982 Cite

Optimum flowrate history for cooldown and energy storage processes

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1982 This paper considers the basic thermal design problem of cooling or heating an object using the minimum amount of working fluid. It is shown analytically that if the duration of the cooling or heating process is fixed, then there exists a unique operating ... Full text Cite

Second-Law Analysis in Heat Transfer and Thermal Design

Journal Article Advances in Heat Transfer · January 1, 1982 This chapter discusses second-law analysis in heat transfer and entropy generation minimization in thermal design. It describes the derivation of the Gouy–Stodola theorem, the basis for entropy generation minimization in the conceptual design of heat trans ... Full text Cite

The nonaxisymmetric (buckling) flow regime of fast capillary jets

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · January 1, 1982 This paper reports an experimental study of the nonaxisymmetric flow of a fast liquid jet discharging into the atmosphere. The nonaxisymmetric shape of the jet was photographed and subjected to a wavelength analysis. The results of the wavelength analysis ... Full text Cite

Natural convection in an attic-shaped space filled with porous material

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1982 This article reports an analytical study of natural convection in a wedge-shaped horizontal space filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium. The study focuses on the detrimental effect of natural convection on the insulation value of an atticshaped porou ... Full text Cite

Extraction of exergy from solar collectors under time-varying conditions

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow · January 1, 1982 Maximization of energy delivery is the fundamental problem in solar collector thermal design. This paper examines the trade-off between the storage and the immediate use of solar exergy, with the objective of maximising the long-term exergy output from a s ... Full text Cite

Theoretical explanation for the incipient formation of meanders in straight rivers

Journal Article Geophysical Research Letters · January 1, 1982 This paper advances a theoretical explanation for the lateral periodicity and geometric similarity of meanders observed in rivers of many sizes. Invoking the static equilibrium of a straight river bed, it is shown analytically that the equilibrium shape of ... Full text Cite

The meandering fall of paper ribbons

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · January 1, 1982 This paper discusses experimental observations of the meandering fall of light-weight tissue paper ribbons. The photographs show that the ribbons assume a sinusoidal shape with a unique wavelength which scales with the thickness of the airstream entrained ... Full text Cite

Fin geometry for minimum entropy generation in forced convection

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1982 This paper establishes a theoretical framework for the minimization of entropy generation (the waste of exergy, or useful energy) in extended surf aces (fins). The entropy generation rate formula for a general fin is derived first. Based on this general re ... Full text Cite

Transient natural conwection experiments in shallow enclosures

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1982 This paper reports experimental observations on transient natural convection in enclosures at high Rayleigh numbers (1.28 × 109, 1.49 × 109) and low aspect ratios (0.0625, 0.112). The phenomenon consists of the establishment of thin intrusion layers along ... Full text Cite

A supply-side approach to energy policy

Journal Article Energy Policy · January 1, 1982 Existing energy policy proposals are approached from a demand-side perspective to solve the immediate problem of meeting existing demands defined by existing technologies. However, a constructive forward-looking policy requires a supply-side perspective. T ... Full text Cite

Heat transfer through single and double vertical walls in natural convection: Theory and experiment

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1981 The heat transfer through vertical partitions surrounded by thermally-stratified fluids is studied theoretically and experimentally. The theory is based on the Oseen linearization method. The analytical results show the effect of thermal stratification on ... Full text Cite

Comments on "Viscous buckling of thin fluid layers"

Journal Article Physics of Fluids · January 1, 1981 Full text Cite

Heat transfer across a vertical impermeable partition imbedded in porous medium

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1981 This article examines the buoyancy induced circulation occurring on both sides of a vertical impermeable partition separating two semi-infinite porous reservoirs maintained at different temperatures. The circulation is found to consist of two counterflowin ... Full text Cite

On the buckling property of inviscid jets and the origin of turbulence

Journal Article Letters in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1981 This letter outlines the analogy which exists between inviscid jets and elastic columns in axial compression. It is shown that straight inviscid jet columns possess the property of sinusoidal infinitesimal buckling. The buckling wavelength scales with the ... Full text Cite

Natural confection in horizontal duct connecting two fluid resertoirs

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1981 The paper reports an experimental study of natural convection between two water reservoirs connected through a two-dimensional horizontal duct. The flow field was visualized and the velocities were measured using the thymol blue pH indicator method. The te ... Full text Cite

Experimental study of high-rayleigh-number convection in a horizontal cavity with different end temperatures

Journal Article Journal of Fluid Mechanics · January 1, 1981 The paper summarizes results from an experimental study of buoyancy-induced motion and heat transfer in a horizontal rectangular cavity with the two vertical ends at different temperatures and the long horizontal walls adiabatic. The cavity height/ length ... Full text Cite

Second law analysis and synthesis of solar collector systems

Journal Article Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME · January 1, 1981 The second law of thermodynamics is used to analyze the potential for exergy conservation in solar collector systems. It is shown that the amount of useful energy (exergy) delivered by solar collector systems is affected by heattransfer irreversibilities o ... Full text Cite

Lateral intrusion of natural convection into a horizontal porous structure

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1981 This article illustrates the fundamental features of lateral penetration of natural convection into a horizontal porous layer in lateral communication with a heat reservoir. It is found that the important group governing the fluid mechanics of the phenomen ... Full text Cite

Penetration of free convection into a lateral cavity

Journal Article Journal of Fluid Mechanics · January 1, 1981 The paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of natural convection in a horizontal cavity which communicates laterally with a large reservoir. The cavity walls and the reservoir are at different temperatures. It is shown theoretically that the f ... Full text Cite

Energy vs the environment

Journal Article Journal of Environmental Economics and Management · January 1, 1981 Optimal development programs that explicitly account for the environment impacts of extracting energy resources are analyzed. Possibilities of storing the resources above ground once it has been extracted are examined When environmental disruption results ... Full text Cite

Numerical study of natural circulation in a horizontal duct with different end-temperatures

Journal Article Wärme- und Stoffübertragung · December 1, 1980 The paper reports a finite difference solution for the natural counterflow generated in a horizontal adiabatic duct with different end-temperatures. Ducts with circular and rectangular cross-section are considered. The natural counterflow is modeled as ful ... Full text Cite

Second law analysis in heat transfer

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 1980 The second law of thermodynamics is used as a basis for evaluating the irreversibility (entropy generation) associated with simple heat transfer processes. In the first part of this paper, the irreversibility production is analyzed from the local level, at ... Full text Cite

2ND LAW ANALYSIS IN HEAT-TRANSFER

Journal Article ENERGY · 1980 Cite

Evaluation of heat transfer augmentation techniques based on their impact on entropy generation

Journal Article Letters in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1980 This letter proposes to use entropy generation as a measure of the relative merit of heat transfer augmentation techniques relative to each other and to the heat exchange apparatus in which they may be incorporated. In this context, heat transfer augmentat ... Full text Cite

End-use matching of solar energy systems

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 1980 The choice among available energy sources for a given task requires technical and economic tradeoffs on the part of the individual investor. From the national perspective, however, the effectiveness with which available energy sources are utilized may well ... Full text Cite

Conservation of available work (exergy) by using promoters of swirl flow in forced convection heat transfer

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 1980 We examine the potential of heat-transfer augmentation techniques to reduce irreversibility (entropy generation, destruction of available work) in equipment for heat exchange. A number of popular swirl flow-promoting techniques is investigated in detail. I ... Full text Cite

Experimental study of natural convection in a horizontal cylinder with different end temperatures

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1980 Le phénomène de convection naturelle dans un tube horizontal avec différentes températures d'extrémité est étudié expérimentalement dans une cavité cylindrique avec un rapport diamètre/longueur égal à 0,112. Le nombre de Rayleigh basé sur le diamètre varie ... Full text Cite

Natural confection on both sides of a vertical wall separating fluids at different temperatures

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1980 This paper describes an analytical study of laminar natural convection on both sides of a vertical conducting wall of finite height separating two semi-infinite fluid reservoirs of different temperatures. The countercurrent boundary layer flow formed on th ... Full text Cite

Natural convection in a vertical cylindrical well filled with porous medium

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1980 Full text Cite

A synthesis of analytical results for natural convection heat transfer across rectangular enclosures

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1980 Full text Cite

The effect of hydrogen bubbles on the thymol blue velocity measurement technique

Journal Article Topics in Catalysis · January 1, 1980 This note describes an experimental study of the damaging effect of hydrogen bubbles on the effectiveness of the thymol blue velocity measurement method. Specifically, we document the effect of flow velocity, cathode voltage, and cathode diameter on bubble ... Full text Cite

Note on Gill's solution for free convection in a vertical enclosure

Journal Article Journal of Fluid Mechanics · January 1, 1979 This paper develops an alternative approach to evaluating the arbitrary constants found in Gill's solution for the boundary-layer free-convection regime in a vertical rectangular enclosure. The new method consists of calculating the net upward flow of ener ... Full text Cite

On the boundary layer regime in a vertical enclosure filled with a porous medium

Journal Article Letters in Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1979 The floating constants in Weber's boundary layer solution for free convection in a differentially heated vertical porous slab are reevaluated with a new approach. This approach uses Weber's solution to calculate the net vertical heat flux which is equated ... Full text Cite

NOTE ON GILL'S SOLUTION FOR FREE CONVECTION IN A VERTICAL ENCLOSURE.

Journal Article J Fluid Mech · 1979 This paper develops an alternative approach to evalating the arbitrary constants found in A. E. Gill's solution for the boundary-layer free-convection regime in a vertical rectangular enclosure. The new method consists of calculating the net upward flow of ... Cite

SECOND LAW ANALYSIS IN HEAT TRANSFER.

Journal Article Energy · January 1, 1979 The second law of thermodynamics is used as a basis for evaluting the irreversibility (entropy generation) associated with simple heat transfer processes. In the first part of this paper, the irreversibility production is analyzed from the local level, at ... Cite

Natural convection in horizontal space bounded by two concentric cylinders with different end temperatures

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1979 The gravity-induced flow in a long horizontal space of annular cross-section insulated laterally and with the two ends maintained at different temperatures was studied analytically. The velocity and temperature distribution in the central portion of the sp ... Full text Cite

A general variational principle for thermal insulation system design

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1979 The paper proposes a conceptually new method for thermal insulation system optimization. The method, based on minimizing thermodynamic irreversibility, consists of externally controlling the variation of heat leak with temperature across the insulation. It ... Full text Cite

Heat transfer by forced and free convection in a horizontal channel with differentially heated ends

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1979 The effect of net longitudinal flow on natural convection in a horizontal cavity with different end temperatures is discussed. The flow is studied using an asymptotic expansion in the aspect ratio A « 1, the Grashof, Prandtl and Peclet numbers being arbitr ... Full text Cite

A study of entropy generation in fundamental convective heat transfer

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1979 The second law aspects of heat transfer by forced convection are illustrated in terms of four fundamental flow configurations: pipe flow, boundary layer over flat plate, single cylinder in cross-flow, flow in the entrance region of a flat rectangular duct. ... Full text Cite

Effect of axial conduction and metal-helium heat transfer on the local stability of superconducting composite media

Journal Article Cryogenics · January 1, 1978 The growth or collapse of a local normal zone in a superconducting winding structure saturated with single phase liquid helium (composite superconductor) is studied analytically. The history of a given temperature disturbance is derived from the solution t ... Full text Cite

Fully developed natural counterflow in a long horizontal pipe with different end temperatures

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1978 The temperature difference applied across the two ends of a horizontal duct generates a natural counterflow in which colder fluid flows along the bottom of the duct towards the warm end while a warmer stream flows in the opposite direction along the top. T ... Full text Cite

Laminar natural convection heat transfer in a horizontal cavity with different end temperatures

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1978 The heat transfer by free convection in a horizontal cavity with adiabatic horizontal walls and differentially heated end walls is studied analytically. The paper develops three models for explaining and predicting the heat transfer mechanism in a cavity w ... Full text Cite

Laminar free convection heat transfer through horizontal duct connecting two fluid reservoirs at different temperatures

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1978 This technical note develops an analytical result for heat transfer by laminar free convection in a long horizontal parallel-plate channel connecting two reservoirs containing the same fluid but kept at different temperatures. The analysis is based on the ... Full text Cite

Natural convection in a horizontal porous medium subjected to an end-to-end temperature difference

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1978 Natural convection in a porous medium filling a slender horizontal space with an end-toend temperature difference is studied analytically. The end-to-end temperature difference gives rise to a horizontal counterflow pattern augmenting the heat transfer rat ... Full text Cite

NATURAL CONVECTION IN AN INFINITE POROUS MEDIUM WITH A CONCENTRATED HEAT SOURCE.

Journal Article Journal of Fluid Mechanics · 1978 The phenomenon of buoyancy-induced convection in an infinite porous medium with a concentrated heat source is studied analytically. The transient and steady-state temperature distribution and flow pattern around the source are deterined using a perturbatio ... Cite

General criterion for rating heat-exchanger performance

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1978 Full text Cite

Two thermodynamic optima in the design of sensible heat units for energy storage

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1978 The paper presents a treatment of sensible heat energy storage units as systems intended to store useful work. An analysis of the thermodynamic irreversibilities associated with storing energy from a hot gas source as sensible heat in huge liquid baths poi ... Full text Cite

Fully developed natural counterflow in a long horizontal pipe with different end temperatures.

Journal Article International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer · January 1, 1978 The temperature difference applied across the two ends of a horizontal duct generates a natural counterflow in which colder fluid along the bottom of the duct towards the warm end while a warmer stream flows in the opposite dierection along the top. The pa ... Cite

Natural convection in an infinite porous medium with a concentrated heat source

Journal Article Journal of Fluid Mechanics · January 1, 1978 The phenomenon of buoyancy-induced convection in an infinite porous medium with a concentrated heat source is studied analytically. The transient and steady-state temperature distribution and flow pattern around the source are determined using a perturbati ... Full text Cite

TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR OF NORMAL ZONES IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPOSITE SUPERCONDUCTORS.

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Paper) · August 15, 1977 Two approximate analytical techniques are developed to investigate the transient behavior of normal zones in superconducting composites. Based on these methods, similar theoretical criteria for the growth or collapse of normal disturbances are derived. The ... Cite

TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR OF NORMAL ZONES IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL COMPOSITE SUPERCONDUCTORS.

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Paper) · January 1, 1977 Two approximate analytical techniques are developed to investigate the transient behavior of normal zones in superconducting composites. Based on these methods, similar theoretical criteria for the growth or collapse of normal disturbances are derived. The ... Cite

FORCE, MASS MORASS

Journal Article MECHANICAL ENGINEERING · 1977 Cite

The concept of irreversibility in heat exchanger design: Counterflow heat exchangers for gas-to-gas applications

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1977 The thermal design of counterflow heat exchangers for gas-to-gas applications is based on the thermodynamic irreversibility rate or useful power no longer available as a result of heat exchanger frictional pressure drops and stream-to-stream temperature di ... Full text Cite

Thermal performance of the rotor of the MIT-EPRI 3 MVA superconducting alternator

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Magnetics · January 1, 1977 The MIT-EPRI 3 MVA superconducting alternator has undergone a number of successful electrical and mechanical tests. During these tests a great deal of information on the thermal performance of the rotor has been collected. This information has not been pre ... Full text Cite

The concept of irreversibility in heat exchanger design: counterflow heat exchangers for gas-to-gas applications

Journal Article Trans. ASME, C, J. Heat Transf. (USA) · 1977 The thermal design of counterflow heat exchangers for gas-to-gas applications is based on the thermodynamic irreversibility rate or useful power no longer available as a result of heat exchanger frictional pressure drops and stream-to-stream temperature di ... Cite

Refrigerator-recirculator systems for large forced-cooled superconducting magnets

Journal Article Cryogenics · January 1, 1977 Forced-cooled superconductors are viewed as a promising alternative in the development of high field superconducting magnets for future fusion devices. The high current density cable superconductor is protected against thermal instabilities by forcing (sin ... Full text Cite

Transient heat conduction in cryogenic current cables following a loss-of-coolant accident

Journal Article Journal of Heat Transfer · January 1, 1977 The current supply cables of large superconducting magnet systems are cooled with an axial stream of cold helium vapor. If the flow of coolant is suddenly interrupted the current cables may overheat and burn up causing extensive damage to the entire system ... Full text Cite

Method for estimating the refrigeration costs of supercritical helium cooled cable superconductors

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Magnetics · January 1, 1977 Refrigeration costs constitute an important aspect of the economics of force-cooled cable superconductors. The refrigerator power required to operate a forced cooled superconducting magnet is analyzed. The paper develops a simple method for estimating the ... Full text Cite

REFRIGERATION FOR FORCED-COOLED LARGE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Paper) · December 1, 1976 Forced-cooled superconductors are viewed as a promising alternative in the development of high field superconducting magnets for future fusion devices. The high current density cabled superconductor is protected against thermal instabilities by forcing (si ... Cite

REFRIGERATION FOR FORCED-COOLED LARGE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Paper) · January 1, 1976 Forced-cooled superconductors are viewed as a promising alternative in the development of high field superconducting magnets for future fusion devices. The high current density cabled superconductor is protected against thermal instabilities by forcing (si ... Cite

REFRIGERATION FOR FORCED-COOLED LARGE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

Conference American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Paper) · January 1, 1976 Forced-cooled superconductors are viewed as a promising alternative in the development of high field superconducting magnets for future fusion devices. The high current density cabled superconductor is protected against thermal instabilities by forcing (si ... Cite

CRYOSTABILIZED SINGLE-PHASE HELIUM COOLED CABLE CONDUCTORS FOR LARGE HIGH FIELD SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

Journal Article · January 1, 1976 In the last two years the authors have developed a new concept of hollow superconductors able to recover from transient instabilities by virtue of on-going single phase cooling. The authors have been able to correlate results between an iterative computer ... Cite

Criterion for burn-up conditions in gas-cooled cryogenic current leads

Journal Article Cryogenics · January 1, 1976 Superconducting magnets are energized through helium vapour-cooled cryogenic current leads operating at high ratios of current to mass flow. The high current operation where lead temperature, runaway, and eventual burn-up are likely to occur is investigate ... Full text Cite

Refrigeration for rotating superconducting windings of large ac electric machines

Journal Article Cryogenics · January 1, 1976 The rotating superconducting windings of large ac machines must be supplied with enough refrigeration at an adequate temperature. The problems associated with bringing liquid helium to the rotating winding structure are analysed. Existing designs as well a ... Full text Cite

SUPERCRITICAL HELIUM COOLED, CABLED, SUPERCONDUCTING HOLLOW CONDUCTORS FOR LARGE HIGH FIELD MAGNETS.

Journal Article · January 1, 1976 Within the last two years the authors have developed a new concept of cabled superconducting hollow conductors able to recover from transient instabilities by virtue of on-going, single-phase helium cooling. The authors have been able to correlate small sc ... Cite

Discrete cooling of low heat leak supports to 4.2 K

Journal Article Cryogenics · January 1, 1975 Full text Cite

HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR VAPOR-COOLED CONDUCTING SUPPORTS OF CRYOSTATS.

Journal Article Adv Cryog Eng · January 1, 1975 The objective of this paper is to establish simple rules for use in the design of gas-cooled conducting supports. The rules should allow design for good thermal performance without unnecessary mechanical complexity. The concept of support of cooling the es ... Cite

Flow instabilities in gas-cooled cryogenic current leads

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Magnetics · January 1, 1975 Gas-cooled cryogenic electric current leads which are operating at high ratios of current to mass flow are commonly used to supply electric current to superconducting magnets. Loss of coolant flow under such operating conditions will result in destruction ... Full text Cite

CORRECTION

Journal Article CRYOGENICS · 1974 Cite

Thermodynamic optimization of mechanical supports for cryogenic apparatus

Journal Article Cryogenics · January 1, 1974 The minimum theoretical refrigerator power for cooling mechanical supports for a cryogenic apparatus is determined with the calculus of variations. A mathematical approach is developed that can be used to evaluate the thermal performance of any mechanical ... Full text Cite

Material selection for the torque tubes of large superconducting rotating machinery

Journal Article Cryogenics · January 1, 1974 This report identifies properties to be considered when selecting materials used in construction of torque tubes for rotating superconducting field windings in electrical machinery. The main design requirements are stated and the groups of material propert ... Full text Cite

SUPERCONDUCTING ALTERNATOR TEST RESULTS.

Journal Article Adv Cryog Eng · January 1, 1974 A research group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, supported by the Edison Electric Institute, has been studying the application of superconductors to the rotating field windings of alternators since early in 1967. Two machines have been constr ... Cite

Introduction

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