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Tazeen Hasan Jafar

Research Professor of Global Health
Duke Global Health Institute

Selected Publications


Cost-Effectiveness of a Multicomponent Primary Care Intervention for Hypertension.

Journal Article J Am Heart Assoc · April 16, 2024 BACKGROUND: The SingHypertension primary care clinic intervention, which consisted of clinician training in hypertension management, subsidized single-pill combination medications, nurse-delivered motivational conversations and telephone follow-ups, improv ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ambulatory blood pressure levels in individuals with uncontrolled clinic hypertension across Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

Journal Article J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) · April 2024 Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia. The authors aimed to assess the cross-country differences in 24-h ambulatory, daytime, and nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP) among rural population with uncontrolled clin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Social Determinants of Health and Disparities in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Diseases.

Journal Article Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) · March 2024 High blood pressure causes over 10 million preventable deaths annually globally. Populations in low- and middle-income countries suffer the most, experiencing increased uncontrolled blood pressure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. Despite improvemen ... Full text Cite

Heterogeneity by age and gender in the association of kidney function with mortality among patients with diabetes - analysis of diabetes registry in Singapore.

Journal Article BMC Nephrol · January 17, 2024 BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the three-way interaction among age, gender, and kidney function on the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, patients a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lifestyle management of hypertension: International Society of Hypertension position paper endorsed by the World Hypertension League and European Society of Hypertension.

Journal Article Journal of hypertension · January 2024 Hypertension, defined as persistently elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at least 90 mmHg (International Society of Hypertension guidelines), affects over 1.5 billion people worldwide. Hypertension is ass ... Full text Cite

Kidney function trajectories, associated factors, and outcomes in multiethnic Asian patients with type 2 diabetes.

Journal Article Journal of diabetes · January 2024 BackgroundWe examined the trajectory of estimated glomerular filtrate rate (eGFR), associated risk factors, and its relationship with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) among a multiethnic patient population with type 2 diabetes in Singapore.Meth ... Full text Cite

Real-World Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Levels and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes-Results From a Large Registry Cohort in Asia.

Journal Article Journal of the American Heart Association · December 2023 BackgroundElevated blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. However, there is ongoing debate whether intensive BP lowering may paradoxically increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially in ... Full text Cite

Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Albuminuria, and Adverse Outcomes: An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis.

Journal Article JAMA · October 2023 ImportanceChronic kidney disease (low estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or albuminuria) affects approximately 14% of adults in the US.ObjectiveTo evaluate associations of lower eGFR based on creatinine alone, lower eGFR based on ... Full text Cite

A meta-analysis of GFR slope as a surrogate endpoint for kidney failure.

Journal Article Nature medicine · July 2023 Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline is causally associated with kidney failure and is a candidate surrogate endpoint for clinical trials of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Analyses across a diverse spectrum of interventions and populations i ... Full text Cite

Impact of COVID-19 on perceived wellbeing, self-management and views of novel modalities of care among medically vulnerable patients in Singapore.

Journal Article Chronic Illn · June 2023 OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the impact of COVID-19 measures on wellbeing and self-management in medically vulnerable non-COVID patients and their views of novel modalities of care in Singapore. METHODS: Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Change in Albuminuria and GFR Slope as Joint Surrogate End Points for Kidney Failure: Implications for Phase 2 Clinical Trials in CKD.

Journal Article Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN · June 2023 Significance statementChanges in albuminuria and GFR slope are individually used as surrogate end points in clinical trials of CKD progression, and studies have demonstrated that each is associated with treatment effects on clinical end points. In ... Full text Cite

It is strongly recommended to not conduct, fund, or publish research studies that use spot urine samples with estimating equations to assess individuals' sodium (salt) intake in association with health outcomes: a policy statement of the World Hypertension League, International Society of Hypertension and Resolve to Save Lives.

Journal Article Journal of hypertension · May 2023 Spot urine samples with estimating equations have been used to assess individuals' sodium (salt) intake in association with health outcomes. There is large random and systematic error in estimating sodium intake using this method and spurious health outcom ... Full text Cite

Sex disparity in left ventricular hypertrophy in South Asians with hypertension: influence of central obesity and high blood pressure.

Journal Article J Hum Hypertens · April 2023 Women have been reported to be at greater risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) than men in South Asia, but whether the sex disparity is affected by central obesity and blood pressure has not been well studied. We examined prospectively the interactio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Addressing global disparities in blood pressure control: perspectives of the International Society of Hypertension.

Journal Article Cardiovascular research · March 2023 AbstractRaised blood pressure (BP) is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. Yet, its global prevalence is increasing, and it remains poorly detected, treated, and controlled in both high- and low-resource settings. From the perspect ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of Variation in the Performance of GFR Slope as a Surrogate End Point for Kidney Failure in Clinical Trials that Differ by Severity of CKD.

Journal Article Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN · February 2023 BackgroundThe GFR slope has been evaluated as a surrogate end point for kidney failure in meta-analyses on a broad collection of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in CKD. These analyses evaluate how accurately a treatment effect on GFR slope pre ... Full text Cite

Including measures of chronic kidney disease to improve cardiovascular risk prediction by SCORE2 and SCORE2-OP.

Journal Article European journal of preventive cardiology · January 2023 AimsThe 2021 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention categorizes moderate and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) as high and very-high CVD risk status regardless of other factors like age and does ... Full text Cite

Defining measures of kidney function in observational studies using routine health care data: methodological and reporting considerations.

Journal Article Kidney international · January 2023 The availability of electronic health records and access to a large number of routine measurements of serum creatinine and urinary albumin enhance the possibilities for epidemiologic research in kidney disease. However, the frequency of health care use and ... Full text Cite

Range and Consistency of Cardiovascular Outcomes Reported by Clinical Trials in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review.

Journal Article Transplantation direct · January 2023 Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Trial evidence to improve cardiovascular outcomes is limited by inconsistent reporting of outcomes, which may also lack patient-relevance. This study aimed ... Full text Cite

Cost-Effectiveness of a Multicomponent Primary Care Intervention for Hypertension.

Journal Article J Am Heart Assoc · April 16, 2024 BACKGROUND: The SingHypertension primary care clinic intervention, which consisted of clinician training in hypertension management, subsidized single-pill combination medications, nurse-delivered motivational conversations and telephone follow-ups, improv ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ambulatory blood pressure levels in individuals with uncontrolled clinic hypertension across Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

Journal Article J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) · April 2024 Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia. The authors aimed to assess the cross-country differences in 24-h ambulatory, daytime, and nighttime systolic blood pressure (SBP) among rural population with uncontrolled clin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Social Determinants of Health and Disparities in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Diseases.

Journal Article Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) · March 2024 High blood pressure causes over 10 million preventable deaths annually globally. Populations in low- and middle-income countries suffer the most, experiencing increased uncontrolled blood pressure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths. Despite improvemen ... Full text Cite

Heterogeneity by age and gender in the association of kidney function with mortality among patients with diabetes - analysis of diabetes registry in Singapore.

Journal Article BMC Nephrol · January 17, 2024 BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the three-way interaction among age, gender, and kidney function on the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, patients a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lifestyle management of hypertension: International Society of Hypertension position paper endorsed by the World Hypertension League and European Society of Hypertension.

Journal Article Journal of hypertension · January 2024 Hypertension, defined as persistently elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at least 90 mmHg (International Society of Hypertension guidelines), affects over 1.5 billion people worldwide. Hypertension is ass ... Full text Cite

Kidney function trajectories, associated factors, and outcomes in multiethnic Asian patients with type 2 diabetes.

Journal Article Journal of diabetes · January 2024 BackgroundWe examined the trajectory of estimated glomerular filtrate rate (eGFR), associated risk factors, and its relationship with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) among a multiethnic patient population with type 2 diabetes in Singapore.Meth ... Full text Cite

Real-World Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Levels and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes-Results From a Large Registry Cohort in Asia.

Journal Article Journal of the American Heart Association · December 2023 BackgroundElevated blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. However, there is ongoing debate whether intensive BP lowering may paradoxically increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially in ... Full text Cite

Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Albuminuria, and Adverse Outcomes: An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis.

Journal Article JAMA · October 2023 ImportanceChronic kidney disease (low estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or albuminuria) affects approximately 14% of adults in the US.ObjectiveTo evaluate associations of lower eGFR based on creatinine alone, lower eGFR based on ... Full text Cite

A meta-analysis of GFR slope as a surrogate endpoint for kidney failure.

Journal Article Nature medicine · July 2023 Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline is causally associated with kidney failure and is a candidate surrogate endpoint for clinical trials of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Analyses across a diverse spectrum of interventions and populations i ... Full text Cite

Impact of COVID-19 on perceived wellbeing, self-management and views of novel modalities of care among medically vulnerable patients in Singapore.

Journal Article Chronic Illn · June 2023 OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the impact of COVID-19 measures on wellbeing and self-management in medically vulnerable non-COVID patients and their views of novel modalities of care in Singapore. METHODS: Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Change in Albuminuria and GFR Slope as Joint Surrogate End Points for Kidney Failure: Implications for Phase 2 Clinical Trials in CKD.

Journal Article Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN · June 2023 Significance statementChanges in albuminuria and GFR slope are individually used as surrogate end points in clinical trials of CKD progression, and studies have demonstrated that each is associated with treatment effects on clinical end points. In ... Full text Cite

It is strongly recommended to not conduct, fund, or publish research studies that use spot urine samples with estimating equations to assess individuals' sodium (salt) intake in association with health outcomes: a policy statement of the World Hypertension League, International Society of Hypertension and Resolve to Save Lives.

Journal Article Journal of hypertension · May 2023 Spot urine samples with estimating equations have been used to assess individuals' sodium (salt) intake in association with health outcomes. There is large random and systematic error in estimating sodium intake using this method and spurious health outcom ... Full text Cite

Sex disparity in left ventricular hypertrophy in South Asians with hypertension: influence of central obesity and high blood pressure.

Journal Article J Hum Hypertens · April 2023 Women have been reported to be at greater risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) than men in South Asia, but whether the sex disparity is affected by central obesity and blood pressure has not been well studied. We examined prospectively the interactio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Addressing global disparities in blood pressure control: perspectives of the International Society of Hypertension.

Journal Article Cardiovascular research · March 2023 AbstractRaised blood pressure (BP) is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. Yet, its global prevalence is increasing, and it remains poorly detected, treated, and controlled in both high- and low-resource settings. From the perspect ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of Variation in the Performance of GFR Slope as a Surrogate End Point for Kidney Failure in Clinical Trials that Differ by Severity of CKD.

Journal Article Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN · February 2023 BackgroundThe GFR slope has been evaluated as a surrogate end point for kidney failure in meta-analyses on a broad collection of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in CKD. These analyses evaluate how accurately a treatment effect on GFR slope pre ... Full text Cite

Including measures of chronic kidney disease to improve cardiovascular risk prediction by SCORE2 and SCORE2-OP.

Journal Article European journal of preventive cardiology · January 2023 AimsThe 2021 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention categorizes moderate and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) as high and very-high CVD risk status regardless of other factors like age and does ... Full text Cite

Defining measures of kidney function in observational studies using routine health care data: methodological and reporting considerations.

Journal Article Kidney international · January 2023 The availability of electronic health records and access to a large number of routine measurements of serum creatinine and urinary albumin enhance the possibilities for epidemiologic research in kidney disease. However, the frequency of health care use and ... Full text Cite

Range and Consistency of Cardiovascular Outcomes Reported by Clinical Trials in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review.

Journal Article Transplantation direct · January 2023 Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Trial evidence to improve cardiovascular outcomes is limited by inconsistent reporting of outcomes, which may also lack patient-relevance. This study aimed ... Full text Cite

Post-intervention acceptability of multicomponent intervention for management of hypertension in rural Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka- a qualitative study.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2023 BackgroundCOBRA-BPS (Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation-Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka), a multicomponent, community health-worker (CHW)-led hypertension management program, has been shown to be effective in rural communities in South ... Full text Cite

Longitudinal HbA1c trajectory modelling reveals the association of HbA1c and risk of hospitalization for heart failure for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2023 BackgroundInconsistent conclusions in past studies on the association between poor glycaemic control and the risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) have been reported largely due to the analysis of non-trajectory-based HbA1c values. Traje ... Full text Cite

Opportunities and challenges to non-communicable disease (NCD) research and training in Pakistan: a qualitative study from Pakistan.

Journal Article BMJ Open · December 19, 2022 INTRODUCTION: Most of the global non-communicable disease (NCD)-related death burden is borne by low and middle-income countries (LMICs). In LMICs like Pakistan, however, a major gap in responding to NCDs is a lack of high-quality research leading to polic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Baseline characteristics of participants in the Pre-Diabetes Interventions and Continued Tracking to Ease-out Diabetes (Pre-DICTED) Program.

Journal Article BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care · October 2022 OBJECTIVE: The Pre-Diabetes Interventions and Continued Tracking to Ease-out Diabetes (Pre-DICTED) Program is a diabetes prevention trial comparing the diabetes conversion rate at 3 years between the intervention group, which receives the incentivized life ... Full text Link to item Cite

May Measurement Month: results of 12 national blood pressure screening programmes between 2017 and 2019.

Journal Article European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology · September 2022 Full text Cite

Association of Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure With All-Cause Mortality Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Prospective Observational Study.

Journal Article Journal of aging and health · August 2022 ObjectivesTo assess the association of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with mortality among older adults in Singapore.MethodsAssociation of SBP and DBP measured in 2009 for 4443 older adults (69.5±7.4 year ... Full text Cite

Integration of a multicomponent intervention for hypertension into primary healthcare services in Singapore-A cluster randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article PLoS Med · June 2022 BACKGROUND: Despite availability of clinical practice guidelines for hypertension management, blood pressure (BP) control remains sub-optimal (<30%) even in high-income countries. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a potentially scalable multic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Village doctors managing hypertension in rural China.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · May 2022 Full text Cite

Effectiveness and acceptability of a multidisciplinary approach in improving the care of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease: a pilot study.

Journal Article International urology and nephrology · April 2022 ObjectiveThis study aimed at determining the feasibility of conducting a large-scale pragmatic effectiveness study on the implementation of multidisciplinary care (MDC) program for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods Full text Cite

Healthcare professionals' perspectives on facilitators of and barriers to CKD management in primary care: a qualitative study in Singapore clinics.

Journal Article BMC health services research · April 2022 IntroductionThe burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising globally including in Singapore. Primary care is the first point of contact for most patients with early stages of CKD. However, several barriers to optimal CKD management exist. Kno ... Full text Cite

Ethnic variation, socioeconomic status, and factors associated with cardio-metabolic multi-morbidity among uncontrolled hypertension in multiethnic Singapore.

Journal Article Journal of human hypertension · February 2022 Identifying patients with hypertension at high risk of cardio-metabolic multi-morbidity (CMM) is key for intervention. We examined the independent association of CMM with ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) among patients with uncontrolled hypertensio ... Full text Cite

Acute Treatment Effects on GFR in Randomized Clinical Trials of Kidney Disease Progression.

Journal Article Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN · February 2022 BackgroundAcute changes in GFR can occur after initiation of interventions targeting progression of CKD. These acute changes complicate the interpretation of long-term treatment effects.MethodsTo assess the magnitude and consistency of ac ... Full text Cite

Psychological distress and associated factors among kidney transplant recipients and living kidney donors during COVID-19.

Journal Article BMC nephrology · February 2022 BackgroundThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant psychological distress globally. Our study assessed the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors during COVID-19 pandemic among kidney transplant ... Full text Cite

Spillover Effects of COVID-19 on Essential Chronic Care and Ways to Foster Health System Resilience to Support Vulnerable Non-COVID Patients: A Multistakeholder Study.

Journal Article J Am Med Dir Assoc · January 2022 OBJECTIVES: Little empirical research exists on how key stakeholders involved in the provision of care for chronic conditions and policy planning perceive the indirect or "spillover" effects of the COVID-19 on non-COVID patients. This study aims to explore ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Chronic kidney disease biomarkers and mortality among older adults: A comparison study of survey samples in China and the United States.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2022 OBJECTIVES: Among older adults in China and the US, we aimed to compare the biomarkers of chronic-kidney-diseases (CKD), factors associated with CKD, and the correlation between CKD and mortality. SETTING: China and the US. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Strengthening urban primary healthcare service delivery using electronic health technologies: A qualitative study in urban Nepal.

Journal Article Digital health · January 2022 BackgroundNepal is a South Asian country with a high burden of non-communicable diseases. Electronic health technologies are a promising strategy to mitigate the rising burden of non-communicable diseases by strengthening primary healthcare center ... Full text Cite

Hypertension in Women: A South-Asian Perspective.

Journal Article Front Cardiovasc Med · 2022 INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is an important contributor to cardiovascular disease related morbidity and mortality. Despite the magnitude of its negative impact on cardiovascular outcomes, treatment and control of hypertension remain suboptimal in both men a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patient Decision Aid Development for Older Adults With End-Stage Kidney Disease in Singapore.

Journal Article Kidney Int Rep · November 2021 INTRODUCTION: In managing end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), older adults face a decision regarding whether to undergo dialysis or manage symptoms through kidney supportive care (KSC). This article describes the development of a patient decision aid (PDA) th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of a Multicomponent Intervention on Antihypertensive Medication Intensification in Rural South Asia: Post Hoc Analysis of a Cluster RCT.

Journal Article American journal of hypertension · September 2021 BackgroundInadequate treatment of hypertension is a widespread problem, especially in South Asian countries where cardiovascular disease mortality rates are high. We aimed to explore the effect of a multicomponent intervention (MCI) on antihyperte ... Full text Cite

The Pre-Diabetes Interventions and Continued Tracking to Ease-out Diabetes (Pre-DICTED) program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article Trials · August 6, 2021 BACKGROUND: Community-based diabetes prevention programs varied widely in effectiveness, and the intervention strategy consisting of lifestyle interventions, stepwise addition of metformin, and financial incentives has not been studied in real-world clinic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Chronic kidney disease.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · August 2021 Chronic kidney disease is a progressive disease with no cure and high morbidity and mortality that occurs commonly in the general adult population, especially in people with diabetes and hypertension. Preservation of kidney function can improve outcomes an ... Full text Cite

Socioeconomic status and ethnic variation associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with uncontrolled hypertension in Singapore.

Journal Article BMJ open diabetes research & care · July 2021 IntroductionThe burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related vascular complications is particularly high in Asians and ethnic minorities living in the West. However, the association of T2DM with socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity ha ... Full text Cite

Budget impact and cost-effectiveness analyses of the COBRA-BPS multicomponent hypertension management programme in rural communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

Journal Article Lancet Glob Health · May 2021 BACKGROUND: COBRA-BPS (Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation-Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka), a multi-component hypertension management programme that is led by community health workers, has been shown to be efficacious at reducing systolic blood ... Full text Link to item Cite

May Measurement Month 2019: results of blood pressure screening from 47 countries.

Journal Article European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology · May 2021 Full text Cite

Performance and Determinants of Serum Creatinine and Cystatin C-Based GFR Estimating Equations in South Asians.

Journal Article Kidney Int Rep · April 2021 INTRODUCTION: The creatinine-based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equation was calibrated for the general Pakistan population (eGFRcr-PK) to eliminate bias and improve accuracy. Cysta ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Good Start to Lowering BP and CVD Risk in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Journal Article Journal of the American College of Cardiology · April 2021 Full text Cite

Healthful dietary patterns and risk of end-stage kidney disease: the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Journal Article The American journal of clinical nutrition · March 2021 BackgroundAlthough adherence to healthful dietary patterns has been associated with a lower risk of kidney function decline in Western populations, evidence in Asian populations remains scanty.ObjectivesWe examined predefined dietary patt ... Full text Cite

Dietary Intakes of Trace Elements and the Risk of Kidney Cancer: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Journal Article Nutrition and cancer · January 2021 Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated separately that patients with kidney stone may have higher dietary intake of zinc and higher risk of developing kidney cancer. We prospectively assessed the associations of dietary zinc and other ... Full text Cite

Prescribing Patterns of Antihypertensive Medications in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

Journal Article Asia Pac J Public Health · January 2021 Hypertension is highly prevalent, but its pharmacological management has not been well evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This review examined the prescribing patterns of antihypertensives in LMICs. Data were extracted from a total of 2 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Statistical analysis plan for management of hypertension and multiple risk factors to enhance cardiovascular health in Singapore: the SingHypertension pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article Trials · January 2021 IntroductionCardiovascular disease (O'Lone E, Viecelli AK, Craig JC, Tong A, Sautenet B, Herrington WG, et al., Am J Kidney Dis 76(1):109-20, 2020) remains the leading cause of death in Singapore. Uncontrolled hypertension confers the highest attr ... Full text Cite

Trends in cardiovascular risk factors and treatment goals in patients with diabetes in Singapore-analysis of the SingHealth Diabetes Registry.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2021 BackgroundAsian populations are at high risk of diabetes and related vascular complications. We examined risk factor control, preventive care, and disparities in these trends among adults with diabetes in Singapore.MethodsThe sample inclu ... Full text Cite

The Implementation of a Primary Care-Based Integrated Mobile Health Intervention for Stroke Management in Rural China: Mixed-Methods Process Evaluation.

Journal Article Front Public Health · 2021 Background: There is a lack of evidence concerning the effective implementation of strategies for stroke prevention and management, particularly in resource-limited settings. A primary-care-based integrated mobile health intervention (SINEMA intervention) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Healthcare professionals' perceptions of the role of a multidisciplinary approach in improving the care of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

Journal Article International urology and nephrology · December 2020 ObjectiveTo explore and understand the experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) delivering care in a multidisciplinary care (MDC) clinic for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.MethodsThis is a qualitative study based on ... Full text Cite

Identifying critically important cardiovascular outcomes for trials in hemodialysis: an international survey with patients, caregivers and health professionals.

Journal Article Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association · October 2020 BackgroundCardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in people on hemodialysis (HD). Cardiovascular outcomes are reported infrequently and inconsistently across trials in HD. This study aimed to identify the pri ... Full text Cite

Perceived barriers and facilitators to chronic kidney disease care among patients in Singapore: a qualitative study.

Journal Article BMJ open · October 2020 ObjectiveTo outline the facilitators and barriers to patients' self-management of predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD).DesignQualitative.SettingThree polyclinics in a public primary care institution in Singapore.Participa ... Full text Cite

Incorporating kidney disease measures into cardiovascular risk prediction: Development and validation in 9 million adults from 72 datasets.

Journal Article EClinicalMedicine · October 2020 BackgroundChronic kidney disease (CKD) measures (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and albuminuria) are frequently assessed in clinical practice and improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet most major clinical ... Full text Cite

The impact of diabetes on the association between alcohol intake and the risk of end-stage kidney disease in the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Journal Article Journal of diabetes · August 2020 BackgroundThe relationship between alcohol intake and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) risk is controversial. Moreover, while evidence has shown that the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis may be modified by diabetes, whether this app ... Full text Cite

Establishing Core Cardiovascular Outcome Measures for Trials in Hemodialysis: Report of an International Consensus Workshop.

Journal Article American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation · July 2020 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affects more than two-thirds of patients receiving hemodialysis and is the leading cause of death in this population, yet CVD outcomes are infrequently and inconsistently reported in trials in patients receiving hemodialysis. A ... Full text Cite

A Community-Based Intervention for Hypertension in Rural South Asia. Reply.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · June 2020 Full text Cite

Engaging village health workers in non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention and control in Vietnam: A qualitative study.

Journal Article Glob Public Health · April 2020 The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) continues to grow in Vietnam, and reducing the burden of NCDs is a national priority. This study explored perspective of community health workers (CHWs), known as Village Health Workers (VHWs) in Vietnam, and ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Community-Based Intervention for Managing Hypertension in Rural South Asia.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · February 20, 2020 BACKGROUND: The burden of hypertension is escalating, and control rates are poor in low- and middle-income countries. Cardiovascular mortality is high in rural areas. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized, controlled trial in rural districts in Bangla ... Full text Link to item Cite

Freestanding Dialysis Facility Quality Incentive Program Scores and Mortality Among Incident Dialysis Patients in the United States.

Journal Article American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation · February 2020 Rationale & objectiveThe Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services introduced the Quality Incentive Program (QIP) along with the bundled payment reform to improve the quality of dialysis care in the United States. The QIP has been criticized for us ... Full text Cite

Access to CKD Care in Rural Communities of India: a qualitative study exploring the barriers and potential facilitators.

Journal Article BMC nephrology · January 2020 BackgroundDespite the high and rising burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in South Asia, factors that influence access to CKD care at the community level have not been studied previously, especially in the rural areas. We conducted a mixed meth ... Full text Cite

Factors associated with psychological distress during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the predominantly general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2020 BackgroundThe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has escalated the burden of psychological distress. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with psychological distress among the predominantly general population during the COVID-19 pande ... Full text Cite

Development of Risk Prediction Equations for Incident Chronic Kidney Disease.

Journal Article JAMA · December 3, 2019 IMPORTANCE: Early identification of individuals at elevated risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) could improve clinical care through enhanced surveillance and better management of underlying health conditions. OBJECTIVE: To develop assessment to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pulse Pressure and the Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease Among Chinese Adults in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Journal Article Journal of the American Heart Association · December 2019 Background Although hypertension is an established risk factor for chronic kidney disease, less is known about the relationship of pulse pressure (PP), a measure of arterial stiffness, with chronic kidney disease. We investigated the association of systoli ... Full text Cite

Validation of the kidney failure risk equation for end-stage kidney disease in Southeast Asia.

Journal Article BMC nephrology · December 2019 BackgroundPatients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE), which predicts ESKD risk among patients with CKD, has not been validated in primary care clinics in ... Full text Cite

Regional variation in chronic kidney disease and associated factors in hypertensive individuals in rural South Asia: findings from control of blood pressure and risk attenuation-Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Journal Article Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association · October 2019 BackgroundWe aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its cross-country variation among hypertensive individuals in rural Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. We also explored the factors associated with CKD in these po ... Full text Cite

Perspectives on decision making amongst older people with end-stage renal disease and caregivers in Singapore: A qualitative study.

Journal Article Health Expect · October 2019 BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing both globally and in Asia. Singapore has the fifth highest incidence of ESRD worldwide, a trend that is predicted to rise. Older patients with ESRD are faced with a choice of haemodialysis, peritonea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patient perspectives on hypertension management in health system of Sri Lanka: a qualitative study.

Journal Article BMJ open · October 2019 IntroductionUncontrolled hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality globally, including low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, pathways for seeking hypertension care and patients' experience with the utilisation of hea ... Full text Cite

Performance of GFR Slope as a Surrogate End Point for Kidney Disease Progression in Clinical Trials: A Statistical Simulation.

Journal Article Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN · September 2019 BackgroundRandomized trials of CKD treatments traditionally use clinical events late in CKD progression as end points. This requires costly studies with large sample sizes and long follow-up. Surrogate end points like GFR slope may speed up the ev ... Full text Cite

Prevalence and correlates of cardiometabolic multimorbidity among hypertensive individuals: a cross-sectional study in rural South Asia-Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Journal Article BMJ open · September 2019 ObjectiveTo determinate the prevalence and correlates of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (CMM), and their cross-country variation among individuals with hypertension residing in rural communities in South Asia.DesignA cross-sectional study ... Full text Cite

Biopsychosocial experiences and coping strategies of elderly ESRD patients: a qualitative study to inform the development of more holistic and person-centred health services in Singapore.

Journal Article BMC Public Health · August 14, 2019 BACKGROUND: As the incidence and prevalence rates of end stage renal disease (ESRD) rise globally, a disproportionate increase has been observed in the elderly population. Singapore has the fifth highest incidence of treated ESRD worldwide, with the upward ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adiposity measures and pre-diabetes or diabetes in adults with hypertension in Singapore polyclinics.

Journal Article Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) · July 2019 Identification of hypertensive patients with pre-diabetes or diabetes is important for timely prevention of complications including vascular disease. We aimed to compare the association and discrimination of central obesity measures (waist circumference [W ... Full text Cite

The Use of Wireless, Smartphone App-Assisted Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Among Hypertensive Patients in Singapore: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

Journal Article JMIR mHealth and uHealth · May 2019 BackgroundReliable home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) is essential to effective hypertension management; however, manual recording is subject to underreporting and inaccuracies. Mobile health technologies hold great potential as HBPM tools, but ... Full text Cite

Family dynamics in a multi-ethnic Asian society: comparison of elderly CKD patients and their family caregivers experience with medical decision making for managing end stage kidney disease.

Journal Article BMC Nephrol · March 1, 2019 BACKGROUND: Elderly end stage kidney patients face a decision concerning whether or not to initiate dialysis. In Asia, this decision is highly influenced by family caregivers. The objective of this paper was to understand patients' experience with and pref ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sleep duration and risk of end-stage renal disease: the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Journal Article Sleep medicine · February 2019 ObjectivesAlthough epidemiological evidence suggests that short sleep duration may affect renal function, the influence of long sleep and risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unclear. We examined the association between sleep duration and ris ... Full text Cite

Long-term incense use and the risk of end-stage renal disease among Chinese in Singapore: the Singapore Chinese health study.

Journal Article BMC nephrology · January 2019 BackgroundExperimental studies have shown that exposure to incense burning may have deleterious effects on kidney function and architecture. However, the association between chronic exposure to incense smoke and risk of end-stage renal disease (ES ... Full text Cite

Patients' experiences on accessing health care services for management of hypertension in rural Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka: A qualitative study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2019 Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and leading cause of premature death globally. In 2008, approximately 40% of adults were diagnosed with hypertension, with more than 1.5 billion people estimated to be affected globally by ... Full text Link to item Cite

Regional Variation in Comorbid Prediabetes and Diabetes and Associated Factors among Hypertensive Individuals in Rural Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

Journal Article Journal of obesity · January 2019 We aimed to explore the cross-country variation in the prevalence of comorbid prediabetes or diabetes and determine the sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors, especially body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, associated with comorbid di ... Full text Cite

Implementing core outcomes in kidney disease: report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology (SONG) implementation workshop.

Journal Article Kidney international · December 2018 There are an estimated 14,000 randomized trials published in chronic kidney disease. The most frequently reported outcomes are biochemical endpoints, rather than clinical and patient-reported outcomes including cardiovascular disease, mortality, and qualit ... Full text Cite

Statistical analysis plan for the control of blood pressure and risk attenuation-rural Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka (COBRA-BPS) trial: a cluster randomized trial for a multicomponent intervention versus usual care in hypertensive patients.

Journal Article Trials · November 29, 2018 BACKGROUND: In rural south Asia, hypertension remains a significant public health issue with sub-optimal blood pressure (BP) control rates. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention (MCI) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Omega-3 fatty acids for dialysis vascular access outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Journal Article The Cochrane database of systematic reviews · November 2018 BackgroundMaintaining long-term vascular access patency is necessary for high quality haemodialysis (HD) treatment of patients with the terminal and most serious stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) - end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Oral supplem ... Full text Cite

Determinants of Uncontrolled Hypertension in Rural Communities in South Asia-Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

Journal Article American journal of hypertension · October 2018 BackgroundUncontrolled blood pressure (BP) is a leading risk factor for death and disability in South Asia. We aimed to determine the cross-country variation, and the factors associated with uncontrolled BP among adults treated for hypertension in ... Full text Cite

Consumption of Coffee but Not of Other Caffeine-Containing Beverages Reduces the Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease in the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Journal Article The Journal of nutrition · August 2018 BackgroundCross-sectional studies suggest that coffee drinking is associated with better renal function. However, to our knowledge, no prospective study has examined its relation with the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD).ObjectiveWe ... Full text Cite

Understanding factors that influence the demand for dialysis among elderly in a multi-ethnic Asian society.

Journal Article Health Policy · August 2018 BACKGROUND: Despite literature suggesting conservative management (CM) is a viable option for elderly comorbid ESRD patients, the vast majority in Singapore receive dialysis. We hypothesized that the high demand for dialysis is driven by 1) lack of knowled ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cardiovascular Outcomes Reported in Hemodialysis Trials.

Journal Article Journal of the American College of Cardiology · June 2018 Patients on long-term hemodialysis are at very high risk for cardiovascular disease but are usually excluded from clinical trials conducted in the general population or in at-risk populations. There are no universally agreed cardiovascular outcomes for tri ... Full text Cite

Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants.

Journal Article Int J Epidemiol · June 1, 2018 BACKGROUND: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-press ... Full text Link to item Cite

Management of hypertension and multiple risk factors to enhance cardiovascular health in Singapore: The SingHypertension cluster randomized trial.

Journal Article Trials · March 14, 2018 BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a serious public health problem in Singapore and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) with considerable implications for health-care resources. The goal of the trial is to comp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Factors Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease and Their Clinical Utility in Primary Care Clinics in a Multi-Ethnic Southeast Asian Population.

Journal Article Nephron · January 2018 BackgroundChronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major global public health challenge. We investigated determinants of CKD and their clinical utility in an ethnically diverse Southeast Asian population.MethodsElectronic health records (EHR) of ... Full text Cite

Patient pathways and perceptions of hypertension treatment, management, and control in rural Bangladesh: a qualitative study.

Journal Article Patient preference and adherence · January 2018 PurposeHypertension is an increasing threat to global public health, a leading cause of premature death, and an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Despite evidence on the efficacy of antihypertensive m ... Full text Cite

Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults.

Journal Article Lancet · December 16, 2017 BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI ... Full text Link to item Cite

Albuminuria and kidney function as prognostic marker of left ventricular mass among South Asians with hypertension.

Journal Article Journal of the American Society of Hypertension : JASH · December 2017 We aimed to evaluate the association of albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and changes in these parameters with left ventricular mass index (LVMI) at 7 years in adults with hypertension from communities in Pakistan. A n ... Full text Cite

Multiethnic polygenic risk scores improve risk prediction in diverse populations.

Journal Article Genetic epidemiology · December 2017 Methods for genetic risk prediction have been widely investigated in recent years. However, most available training data involves European samples, and it is currently unclear how to accurately predict disease risk in other populations. Previous studies ha ... Full text Cite

Predictors of low estimated glomerular filtration rate after living kidney donation in a Southeast Asian population from Singapore.

Journal Article Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) · October 2017 AimPost-donation kidney function has not been well characterized in the Southeast Asian population. We studied a retrospective cohort of 174 living kidney donors at Singapore General Hospital between 1976 and 2012, evaluated patterns of change in ... Full text Cite

Increased body mass index is a risk factor for end-stage renal disease in the Chinese Singapore population.

Journal Article Kidney international · October 2017 The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is confounded by co-morbidities associated with both conditions. Furthermore, the association at low range BMI is controversial. We studied this association in the Singapore ... Full text Cite

Multicomponent intervention versus usual care for management of hypertension in rural Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article Trials · June 12, 2017 BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is the leading attributable risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In rural South Asia, hypertension continues to be a significant public health issue with sub-optimal BP control rates. The goal of the trial is to compa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Causal Effect of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 on Coronary Heart Disease.

Journal Article J Am Heart Assoc · May 26, 2017 BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays an essential role in the fibrinolysis system and thrombosis. Population studies have reported that blood PAI-1 levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Howev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Timing of commencement of maintenance dialysis and mortality in young and older adults in Singapore.

Journal Article BMC nephrology · May 2017 BackgroundThe benefit of early dialysis initiation remains controversial with a paucity of data in Asians. Therefore, we undertook this study to investigate the association between timing of initiation of dialysis and mortality in Singapore.Me ... Full text Cite

Identifying Factors That Influence Physicians' Recommendations for Dialysis and Conservative Management in Indonesia.

Journal Article Kidney Int Rep · March 2017 INTRODUCTION: For elderly end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with multiple comorbidities, dialysis may offer little survival benefit compared to conservative management (CM). Yet, many elderly ESRD patients undergo dialysis, partly due to physicians' ... Full text Link to item Cite

Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants.

Journal Article Lancet · January 7, 2017 BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised ... Full text Link to item Cite

Red Meat Intake and Risk of ESRD.

Journal Article Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN · January 2017 Randomized controlled trials suggest that protein restriction may retard the progression of CKD toward ESRD. However, the effects of dietary protein intake level and the food sources of dietary protein on the risk of ESRD in the general population remain u ... Full text Cite

Understanding kidney care needs and implementation strategies in low- and middle-income countries: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

Journal Article Kidney international · December 2016 Evidence-based cinical practice guidelines improve delivery of uniform care to patients with and at risk of developing kidney disease, thereby reducing disease burden and improving outcomes. These guidelines are not well-integrated into care delivery syste ... Full text Cite

Management of patients with diabetes and CKD: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference.

Journal Article Kidney international · December 2016 The prevalence of diabetes around the world has reached epidemic proportions and is projected to increase to 642 million people by 2040. Diabetes is already the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in most developed countries, and the growth in ... Full text Cite

Do dietary patterns explain high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Pakistani urban adults? A cross-sectional study

Journal Article BMC Nutrition · September 20, 2016 Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South Asia is higher than in any other developing countries. The diversity of diets in populations among developing countries may be one explanation for the differences in CVD. This study was ca ... Full text Cite

Control of blood pressure and risk attenuation: a public health intervention in rural Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka: feasibility trial results.

Journal Article J Hypertens · September 2016 BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is the leading attributable risk for cardiovascular disease globally. There is little information on effective and sustainable public health system strategies for managing hypertension in South Asian countries. We condu ... Full text Link to item Cite

A century of trends in adult human height

Journal Article eLife · July 26, 2016 Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1 ... Full text Cite

Management of hypertension and multiple risk factors to enhance cardiovascular health - a feasibility study in Singapore polyclinics.

Journal Article BMC health services research · July 2016 BackgroundHigh blood pressure (BP) is a leading contributor to cardiovascular mortality globally. There is scarcity of information on effective health systems interventions to lower BP and reduce cardiovascular risk in Southeast Asian countries. W ... Full text Cite

Chronic kidney disease in low- and middle-income countries.

Journal Article Nephrol Dial Transplant · June 2016 Most of the global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a result of rapid urbanization in LMICs, a growing number of populations are exposed to numerous environmental toxins, high infectious di ... Full text Link to item Cite

Health Education and General Practitioner Training in Hypertension Management: Long-Term Effects on Kidney Function.

Journal Article Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN · June 2016 Background and objectivesIn the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation trial, a 2×2 factorial design study (2004-2007), the combined home health education and trained general practitioner intervention delivered over 2 years was more effect ... Full text Cite

Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants.

Journal Article Lancet · April 9, 2016 BACKGROUND: One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants.

Journal Article Lancet · April 2, 2016 BACKGROUND: Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a comp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function.

Journal Article Nat Commun · January 21, 2016 Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Association of Prehypertension With Meals Eaten Away From Home in Young Adults in Singapore.

Journal Article American journal of hypertension · October 2015 BackgroundElevated blood pressure (BP) during early life years is associated with future risk of hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and lifestyle factors associated with prehyperte ... Full text Cite

Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331,288 participants.

Journal Article Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol · August 2015 BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both ... Full text Link to item Cite

Estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data.

Journal Article The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology · July 2015 BackgroundThe usefulness of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria for prediction of cardiovascular outcomes is controversial. We aimed to assess the addition of creatinine-based eGFR and albuminuria to traditional risk factor ... Full text Cite

Dual RAAS blockade for kidney failure: hope for the future.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · May 2015 Full text Cite

Disparities in worldwide treatment of kidney failure.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · May 2015 Full text Cite

A meta-analysis of gene expression signatures of blood pressure and hypertension.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · March 2015 Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered numerous genetic variants (SNPs) that are associated with blood pressure (BP). Genetic variants may lead to BP changes by acting on intermediate molecular phenotypes such as coded protein sequence or ge ... Full text Link to item Cite

Physical activity and risk of end-stage kidney disease in the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

Journal Article Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) · February 2015 AimTo explore the relationship between physical activity and risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).MethodsWe analysed data on a prospective cohort of 59,552 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. ... Full text Cite

Dietary patterns and their association with hypertension among Pakistani urban adults.

Journal Article Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition · January 2015 Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases affecting more than 25% of adults worldwide. In Pakistan, 33% of the adult population suffers from hypertension. Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the critical role of dietary pattern ... Full text Cite

Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation: Post Trial Follow-Up of Randomized Groups.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2015 BackgroundEvidence on long term effectiveness of public health strategies for lowering blood pressure (BP) is scarce. In the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) Trial, a 2 x 2 factorial, cluster randomized controlled trial, the ... Full text Cite

Standards for the uniform reporting of hypertension in adults using population survey data: recommendations from the World Hypertension League Expert Committee.

Journal Article Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) · November 2014 Surveillance and monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors including raised blood pressure are critical to informing efforts to prevent and control cardiovascular disease. Yet, many countries lack the capacity for adequate national surveillance. Furthermor ... Full text Cite

Omega-3 fatty acids for vascular access outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease

Journal Article Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews · October 23, 2014 This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of omega-3 fatty acids for the maintaining HD vascular access patency in CKD patients. The following will be addressed. To determ ... Full text Cite

Relative risks of chronic kidney disease for mortality and end-stage renal disease across races are similar.

Journal Article Kidney international · October 2014 Some suggest race-specific cutpoints for kidney measures to define and stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), but evidence for race-specific clinical impact is limited. To address this issue, we compared hazard ratios of estimated glomerular filtration rates ... Full text Cite

Cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mortality burden of cardiometabolic risk factors from 1980 to 2010: a comparative risk assessment.

Journal Article The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology · August 2014 BackgroundHigh blood pressure, blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and BMI are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and some of these factors also increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and diabetes. We estimated mortality from cardiovascul ... Full text Cite

Prevalence, determinants, and management of chronic kidney disease in Karachi, Pakistan - a community based cross-sectional study.

Journal Article BMC nephrology · June 2014 BackgroundChronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing being recognized as a global public health problem. However, there is dearth of information on the prevalence, determinants, and management of CKD from low- and middle-income countries. The obje ... Full text Cite

In reply to 'validating GFR estimating samples with clinical outcomes'.

Journal Article American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation · May 2014 Full text Cite

Correlations of skin fold thickness and validation of prediction equations using DEXA as the gold standard for estimation of body fat composition in Pakistani children.

Journal Article BMJ open · April 2014 ObjectiveTo determine the correlation between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and skin fold thickness (SKF) equations for estimation of body fat (BF) composition in secondary school children and validation of prediction equations by Slaugh ... Full text Cite

Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.

Journal Article Nat Genet · March 2014 To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of parental blood pressure with retinal microcirculatory abnormalities indicative of endothelial dysfunction in children.

Journal Article Journal of hypertension · March 2014 ObjectiveMicrocirculatory abnormalities precede the onset of hypertension and may explain its familial nature. We examined the relationship between parental blood pressure (BP) and offspring retinal microvasculature in Pakistani trios [father, mot ... Full text Cite

Estimation of GFR in South Asians: a study from the general population in Pakistan.

Journal Article American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation · January 2014 BackgroundSouth Asians are at high risk for chronic kidney disease. However, unlike those in the United States and United Kingdom, laboratories in South Asian countries do not routinely report estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) when serum ... Full text Cite

Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk: epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · July 2013 Since the first description of the association between chronic kidney disease and heart disease, many epidemiological studies have confirmed and extended this finding. As chronic kidney disease progresses, kidney-specific risk factors for cardiovascular ev ... Full text Cite

School-based physical activity programme in preadolescent girls (9-11 years): a feasibility trial in Karachi, Pakistan.

Journal Article Archives of disease in childhood · July 2013 BackgroundEffective strategies to combat childhood obesity are challenging, especially among South Asian girls. We conducted a pilot cluster trial of a school-based physical activity programme among preadolescent girls to determine the feasibility ... Full text Cite

Health reform in Pakistan: a call to action.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · June 2013 Pakistan's enormous macroeconomic, internal, and human security challenges coexist alongside the opportunity created by a huge desire for change. With democracy taking root and a new constitutionally ushered era in state governance, The Lancet Series about ... Full text Cite

Non-communicable diseases and injuries in Pakistan: strategic priorities.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · June 2013 Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, diabetes, and mental disorders, and injuries have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Tobacco use and hypertension are the leading attr ... Full text Cite

Ethnic differences in the association between blood pressure components and chronic kidney disease in middle aged and older Asian adults.

Journal Article BMC Nephrol · April 17, 2013 BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health problem worldwide. Previous studies have shown an association between blood pressure (BP) and CKD. However, it is not clear if there are ethnic differences in this association. We examin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ethnic variation in the impact of metabolic syndrome components and chronic kidney disease.

Journal Article Maturitas · April 2013 OBJECTIVE: To examine the ethnic differences in the association between metabolic syndrome components and CKD in Asian populations. METHODS: We analyzed data from three independent populations in Singapore representing the three major Asian ethnic groups ( ... Full text Link to item Cite

Smoking and risk of kidney failure in the Singapore Chinese health study.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2013 BackgroundThe relationship between smoking and risk of kidney failure, especially in people of Chinese origin, is not clear. We analyzed data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study to investigate whether smoking increases the risk of kidney failu ... Full text Cite

Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors.

Journal Article Journal of nutritional science · January 2013 Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to ... Full text Cite

A decade after the KDOQI CKD guidelines: a perspective from South Asia.

Journal Article American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation · November 2012 Full text Cite

High normal levels of albuminuria and risk of hypertension in Indo-Asian population.

Journal Article Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association · October 2012 BackgroundUrine albumin excretion in the high normal range [urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) 10-29 mg/g)] predicts hypertension in European-origin populations. However, the prognostic significance of UACR in the high normal range for incid ... Full text Cite

Multiple genetic variants explain measurable variance in type 2 diabetes-related traits in Pakistanis.

Journal Article Diabetologia · August 2012 Aims/hypothesisMultiple genetic variants are associated with type 2 diabetes-related traits in Europeans, but their role in South Asian populations needs further study. We hypothesised that genetic variants associated with diabetes-related traits ... Full text Cite

Comparison of risk prediction using the CKD-EPI equation and the MDRD study equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Journal Article JAMA · May 2012 ContextThe Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation more accurately estimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation using the same variables, especially at ... Full text Cite

Kidney stones and chronic kidney disease

Chapter · January 1, 2012 Chronic kidney disease has become a global public health problem with serious social and economic effects from premature morbidity and deaths. Kidney stone formers are at increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD)“both early and advanced stages”with t ... Full text Cite

Level and determinants of kidney function in a South Asian population in Pakistan.

Journal Article American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation · November 2011 BackgroundPeople of South Asian origin are at high risk of chronic kidney disease. Some have suggested that the usual level of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in South Asians may be lower than in populations of European origin. However, measured ... Full text Cite

Cost-effectiveness of community-based strategies for blood pressure control in a low-income developing country: findings from a cluster-randomized, factorial-controlled trial.

Journal Article Circulation · October 2011 BackgroundEvidence on economically efficient strategies to lower blood pressure (BP) from low- and middle-income countries remains scarce. The Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) trial randomized 1341 hypertensive subjects in 12 ... Full text Cite

Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.

Journal Article Nature · September 11, 2011 Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even sma ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study in individuals of South Asian ancestry identifies six new type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci.

Journal Article Nat Genet · August 28, 2011 We carried out a genome-wide association study of type-2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals of South Asian ancestry. Our discovery set included 5,561 individuals with T2D (cases) and 14,458 controls drawn from studies in London, Pakistan and Singapore. We ident ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adiposity and blood pressure in South Asian children and adolescents in Karachi.

Journal Article American journal of hypertension · August 2011 BackgroundThe association of adiposity during childhood with future risk of elevated blood pressure (BP) in South Asian children is not known. We aimed to investigate the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) with ... Full text Cite

An FTO variant is associated with Type 2 diabetes in South Asian populations after accounting for body mass index and waist circumference.

Journal Article Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association · June 2011 AimsA common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the associatio ... Full text Cite

Control of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease: how low to go?

Journal Article Nephron. Clinical practice · January 2011 Blood pressure (BP) lowering is an important therapeutic goal in patients with diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) for slowing progression and preventing onset of cardiovascular disease. The guidelines for treatment of hypertension in pa ... Full text Cite

Community based lifestyle intervention for blood pressure reduction in children and young adults in developing country: cluster randomised controlled trial.

Journal Article BMJ (Clinical research ed.) · June 2010 ObjectiveTo assess the effectiveness of a community based lifestyle intervention on blood pressure in children and young adults in a developing country setting.DesignCluster randomised controlled trial.Setting12 randomly selected ... Full text Cite

Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · June 2010 BackgroundSubstantial controversy surrounds the use of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria to define chronic kidney disease and assign its stages. We undertook a meta-analysis to assess the independent and combined associat ... Full text Cite

Organ trafficking: global solutions for a global problem.

Journal Article American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation · December 2009 The organ trafficking market is on the rise worldwide. Numerous unfortunate stories of networks of brokers, physicians, and hospitals engaged in illegal trade have been featured in high-profile media. The profitable enterprises facilitating these unregulat ... Full text Cite

Community-based interventions to promote blood pressure control in a developing country: A cluster randomized trial

Journal Article Annals of Internal Medicine · November 3, 2009 Background: Despite convincing evidence that lowering blood pressure decreases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, the hypertension burden remains high and control rates are poor in developing countries. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of 2 comm ... Full text Cite

Public health law in India: a framework for its application as a tool for social change.

Journal Article The National medical journal of India · July 2009 Public health law focuses on the nexus between law, public health and the legal tools applicable to public health issues. Though there have been consistent interventions to address public health concerns in the past, there exists a need for a contemporary ... Cite

Prevalence of microalbuminuria and associated electrocardiographic abnormalities in an Indo-Asian population.

Journal Article Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association · July 2009 BackgroundMicroalbuminuria (MA) is a known predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in European origin populations, but such data are lacking in native Indo-Asian populations, where CVD risks are high. Major electrocardiographic (ECG) changes are ... Full text Cite

Children, obesity, and high blood pressure: Asian populations at high risk.

Journal Article American journal of hypertension · January 2009 Full text Cite

Effect of low vs. high dietary sodium on blood pressure levels in a normotensive Indo-Asian population.

Journal Article American journal of hypertension · November 2008 BackgroundHypertension is a major modifiable risk factor, and while sodium restriction in hypertensive patients appears effective, its role in normotensive individuals remains unclear. We assessed the effect of a low vs. high-sodium diet on blood ... Full text Cite

Variations in levels of blood pressure: of prognostic value or not?

Journal Article American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation · October 2008 Full text Cite

Disproportionately high risk of left ventricular hypertrophy in Indo-Asian women: a call for more studies.

Journal Article Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) · September 2008 ObjectiveIndo-Asians have one of the highest rates of cardiovascular disease worldwide. Estimates and determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in this population are not known. We sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors fo ... Full text Cite

Rise in childhood obesity with persistently high rates of undernutrition among urban school-aged Indo-Asian children.

Journal Article Archives of disease in childhood · May 2008 BackgroundChildhood obesity is an emerging global public health challenge. Evidence for the transition in nutrition in Indo-Asian developing countries is lacking. We conducted these analyses to determine the trends in nutritional status of school- ... Full text Cite

Coronary artery disease epidemic in Pakistan: more electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemia in women than in men.

Journal Article Heart (British Cardiac Society) · April 2008 UnlabelledIndo-Pakistani populations have one of the highest risks of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the world. A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted on 3143 adults aged >or=40 years from 12 randomly selected communities in Ka ... Full text Cite

Effect of general practitioner education on adherence to antihypertensive drugs: cluster randomised controlled trial.

Journal Article BMJ (Clinical research ed.) · November 2007 ObjectiveTo determine the impact of a simple educational package for general practitioners on adherence to antihypertensive drugs.DesignCluster randomised controlled trial.SettingSix randomly selected communities in Karachi, Paki ... Full text Cite

High prevalence of lack of knowledge of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction in Pakistan and its contribution to delayed presentation to the hospital.

Journal Article BMC public health · October 2007 BackgroundWe conducted an observational study to determine the delay in presentation to hospital, and its associates among patients experiencing first Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) in Karachi, Pakistan.MethodsA hospital based cross-se ... Full text Cite

Use of albumin creatinine ratio and urine albumin concentration as a screening test for albuminuria in an Indo-Asian population.

Journal Article Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association · August 2007 BackgroundAlbuminuria (>30 mg/day) based on 24 h urine albumin excretion is one of the criteria for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Differences in urine albumin concentration and creatinine excretion r ... Full text Cite

Progression risk, urinary protein excretion, and treatment effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in nondiabetic kidney disease.

Journal Article Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN · June 2007 It is unclear whether patients with nondiabetic kidney disease benefit from angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy when they are at low risk for disease progression or when they have low urinary protein excretion. With the use of a combined ... Full text Cite

Association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene G894T polymorphism with essential hypertension in an adult Pakistani Pathan population.

Journal Article International journal of cardiology · March 2007 This retrospective, case-control study was carried out to find putative correlations of eNOS G894T polymorphism with essential hypertension (EHT) amongst adult Pakistani Pathans. We investigated a sample population of 332 (154 men, 178 women) comprising gr ... Full text Cite

Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in an Indo-Asian population.

Journal Article CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne · October 2006 BackgroundThe associations of body mass index (BMI) and chronic disease may differ between Indo-Asian and Western populations. We used Indo-Asian-specific definitions of overweight and obesity to determine the prevalence of these problems in Pakis ... Full text Cite

Hepatitis B and C: prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan.

Journal Article BMC infectious diseases · June 2006 BackgroundInfections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC). This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence and identified risk factors associated with He ... Full text Cite

Hypertension and kidney disease in Asia.

Journal Article Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension · May 2006 Purpose of reviewCommunicable diseases were traditionally the major cause of public health concern in Asian countries, most of which were less developed. With industrialization and associated lifestyle changes during the past few decades, however, ... Full text Cite

Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of heart disease among patients with acute myocardial infarction in Karachi, Pakistan: a cross sectional study.

Journal Article BMC cardiovascular disorders · April 2006 BackgroundKnowledge is an important pre-requisite for implementing both primary as well as secondary preventive strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are no estimates of the level of knowledge of risk factor of heart disease in patien ... Full text Cite

The growing burden of chronic kidney disease in Pakistan.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · March 2006 Full text Cite

General medical practitioners in Pakistan fail to educate patients adequately about complications of diabetes. A major cause of concern for a developing country

Journal Article Practical Diabetes International · March 1, 2006 The prevalence of diabetes in Pakistan is one of the highest reported worldwide. Proper education of patients regarding strategies to prevent complications of diabetes is an essential component of good management of diabetes. We conducted this study to det ... Full text Cite

Women in Pakistan have a greater burden of clinical cardiovascular risk factors than men.

Journal Article International journal of cardiology · January 2006 AimsMigrant South Asian population in the West, particularly women, is more predisposed to central obesity and metabolic syndromes than native Caucasians. However, the burden of coexistence of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) ... Full text Cite

Prevalence and determinants of blood pressure screening in Pakistan.

Journal Article Journal of hypertension · November 2005 ObjectiveWe analysed data collected during a nationwide cross-sectional household survey to estimate the prevalence of, and to identify factors associated with, blood pressure screening in Pakistan.DesignA population-based cross-sectional ... Full text Cite

Proteinuria in South Asian children: prevalence and determinants.

Journal Article Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) · October 2005 Proteinuria in children is a marker of kidney disease and atherosclerosis, both which are known predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Recent evidence suggests that migrant South Asian populations living in the West may be at higher risk of kidney disease ... Full text Cite

Heart disease epidemic in Pakistan: women and men at equal risk.

Journal Article American heart journal · August 2005 ObjectiveWe conducted this study to determine the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and its risk factors in Karachi, Pakistan.BackgroundMigrant South Asians residing in the West have one of the highest rates of CAD in the world. ... Full text Cite

Prevalence and predictors of smoking in Pakistan: results of the National Health Survey of Pakistan.

Journal Article European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology · June 2005 ObjectiveWe analysed data collected during a nationwide cross-sectional household survey to estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with smoking in Pakistan.DesignPopulation-based, cross-sectional survey [National Healt ... Full text Cite

Self-rated health in Pakistan: results of a national health survey.

Journal Article BMC public health · May 2005 BackgroundSelf-rated health (SRH) is a robust predictor of mortality. In UK, migrants of South Asian descent, compared to native Caucasian populations, have substantially poorer SRH. Despite its validation among migrant South Asian populations and ... Full text Cite

Serum creatinine as marker of kidney function in South Asians: a study of reduced GFR in adults in Pakistan.

Journal Article Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN · May 2005 Migrant populations of South Asian origin have a higher risk for chronic kidney disease than the native whites. Several formulas have been developed to estimate kidney function from serum creatinine concentration. However, none of these has been validated ... Full text Cite

Serum resistin is not associated with obesity or insulin resistance in humans.

Journal Article European review for medical and pharmacological sciences · May 2005 BackgroundResistin has proposed link with obesity related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The physiologic role of resistin in humans remains unknown. It is suggested that circulating resistin levels are not associated with obesity or insul ... Cite

Children in South Asia have higher body mass-adjusted blood pressure levels than white children in the United States: a comparative study.

Journal Article Circulation · March 2005 BackgroundBlood pressure during childhood is an established predictor of adult blood pressure, which in turn increases mortality as a result of cardiovascular disease. Adult South Asian populations are particularly predisposed to cardiovascular di ... Full text Cite

General practitioners' approach to hypertension in urban Pakistan: disturbing trends in practice.

Journal Article Circulation · March 2005 BackgroundControl of blood pressure (BP) remains suboptimal worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine whether (primary) general practitioners' (GPs) approach to high BP is in accordance with international guidelines.Methods and r ... Full text Cite

Systemic hypertension and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease: the best evidence-based therapeutic approach today.

Journal Article European review for medical and pharmacological sciences · January 2005 Despite the high prevalence and significant morbidity and mortality associated with high chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with hypertension, it remains vastly under-diagnosed and under-treated. Consequently, many patients develop kidney failure req ... Cite

The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors on progression of advanced polycystic kidney disease.

Journal Article Kidney international · January 2005 BackgroundIt is not known whether angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors slow the progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). We performed a patient-level meta-analysis to compare the effect of antihypertensive regimens, including ACE ... Full text Cite

Ethnic differences and determinants of diabetes and central obesity among South Asians of Pakistan.

Journal Article Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association · July 2004 AimsTo study the within ethnic subgroup variations in diabetes and central obesity among South Asians.MethodsData from 9442 individuals age > or = 15 years from the National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP) (1990-1994) were analysed. Diab ... Full text Cite

Risk factors for non-fatal myocardial infarction in young South Asian adults.

Journal Article Heart (British Cardiac Society) · March 2004 ObjectiveTo determine the risk factors for premature myocardial infarction among young South Asians.Design and settingCase-control study in a hospital admitting unselected patients with non-fatal acute myocardial infarction.Methods an ... Full text Cite

The rate of progression of renal disease may not be slower in women compared with men: a patient-level meta-analysis.

Journal Article Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association · October 2003 BackgroundSome studies suggest that progression of renal disease is slower in women than in men. However, other factors that are also associated with progression of renal disease have not always been taken into account. Therefore, we undertook thi ... Full text Cite

Ethnic differences and determinants of proteinuria among South Asian subgroups in Pakistan.

Journal Article Kidney international · October 2003 BackgroundHypertension, diabetes, increasing age, and smoking are known risk factors for proteinuria. Prevalence of proteinuria is high in South Asians. However, ethnic subgroup differences and determinants of proteinuria within the South Asian po ... Full text Cite

Progression of chronic kidney disease: the role of blood pressure control, proteinuria, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition: a patient-level meta-analysis.

Journal Article Annals of internal medicine · August 2003 BackgroundAngiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce blood pressure and urine protein excretion and slow the progression of chronic kidney disease.PurposeTo determine the levels of blood pressure and urine protein excretion ass ... Full text Cite

Constructing a database of individual clinical trials for longitudinal analysis.

Journal Article Controlled clinical trials · June 2003 Individual patient data are often required to evaluate how patient-specific factors modify treatment effects. We describe our experience combining individual patient data from 1946 subjects in 11 randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of angiot ... Full text Cite

Ethnic subgroup differences in hypertension in Pakistan.

Journal Article Journal of hypertension · May 2003 ObjectiveCardiovascular risks are globally elevated in South Asians, but this masks important ethnic subgroup differences in risk factors, such as hypertension, which have not been fully explored. We conducted this study to explore the variations ... Full text Cite

Proteinuria as a modifiable risk factor for the progression of non-diabetic renal disease.

Journal Article Kidney international · September 2001 BackgroundAngiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce urine protein excretion and slow the progression of renal disease. The beneficial effect in slowing the progression of renal disease is greater in patients with higher urine protein e ... Full text Cite

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and progression of nondiabetic renal disease. A meta-analysis of patient-level data.

Journal Article Annals of internal medicine · July 2001 PurposeTo examine the efficacy of ACE inhibitors for treatment of nondiabetic renal disease.Data sources11 randomized, controlled trials comparing the efficacy of antihypertensive regimens including ACE inhibitors to the efficacy of regim ... Full text Cite

The role of systemic hypertension in the progression of nondiabetic renal disease.

Journal Article Kidney international. Supplement · April 2000 BackgroundA role for hypertension in the progression of renal disease has been convincingly shown in experimental animals only. In human studies, the relation between hypertension and progression is difficult to demonstrate due to several confound ... Cite