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David C. Rubin

Juanita M. Kreps Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience
Psychology & Neuroscience
Box 90086, Durham, NC 27708-0086
240 Reuben--Cooke Bldg, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Measuring narrative identity: rater coding versus questionnaire-based approaches.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · May 2024 Narrative identity - how individuals narrate their lived and remembered past - is usually assessed via independent rater coding, but new methods relying on self-report have been introduced. To test the assumption that different methods assess aspects of th ... Full text Cite

Collectives Closer to the Self Are Anticipated to Have a Brighter Future: Self-Enhancement in Collective Cognition

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: General · March 28, 2024 Collective future thinking is a budding research field concerned with the act of imagining possible events in the future of a collective—typically one’s nation. Prior research has shown that people imagine more positive than negative events in the personal ... Full text Cite

Narrative identity does not predict well-being when controlling for emotional valence.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · September 2023 Narrative identity refers to a person's internalized and evolving life story. It is a rapidly growing research field, motivated by studies showing a unique association with well-being. Here we show that this association disappears when controlling for the ... Full text Cite

Using shame to extend Martin Conway's self-memory system.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · July 2023 We extend Conway's self-memory system by adding theory and data from shame, an emotion that disrupts the internalised ideals of society needed for a positive self-concept. The event that caused 273 undergraduates their greatest amount of shame was analyzed ... Full text Cite

Tonic immobility (freezing) during sexual and physical assaults produces stronger memory effects than other characteristics of the assaults.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · May 2023 Tonic immobility (TI) is a phylogenetically conserved, passive, obligatory defense mechanism commonly engaged during sexual and physical assaults. During TI, people become immobile while remaining conscious and later reexperience intrusive memories of both ... Full text Cite

Autobiographical memory and the self on the psychosis continuum: investigating their relationship with positive- and negative-like symptoms.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · April 2023 Autobiographical memory is severely impaired in schizophrenia, but previous work has largely treated both as unitary concepts. Here, we examined how various dimensions of autobiographical memory relate to different aspects of psychosis. Participants were r ... Full text Cite

Digital daydreaming: Introducing the spontaneous smartphone checking scale

Journal Article Applied Cognitive Psychology · January 1, 2023 Smartphones are a ubiquitous part of many people's lives, but little is known about their impact on everyday thought processes. Here we introduce the spontaneous smartphone checking scale (SSCS)—which measures the tendency to direct attention toward one's ... Full text Cite

The Properties of Involuntary and Voluntary Autobiographical Memories in Chinese Patients with Depression and Healthy Individuals

Journal Article Cognitive Therapy and Research · January 1, 2023 Background: Research on depression has largely focused on negative intrusive memories with little research on general involuntary memories as they occur in everyday life. In addition, all studies have been conducted on Western participants, and there are n ... Full text Cite

Are memories of sexual trauma fragmented? A post publication discussion among Richard J. McNally, Dorthe Berntsen, Chris R. Brewin and David C. Rubin.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · May 2022 Following the publication of his article on whether memories of trauma in sexual assault victims are fragmented (McNally, 2022), McNally moderated a discussion between Chris R. Brewin and David C. Rubin/Dorthe Berntsen whose perspectives on memory fragment ... Full text Cite

A conceptual space for episodic and semantic memory.

Journal Article Memory & cognition · April 2022 I propose a model that places episodic, semantic, and other commonly studied forms of memory into the same conceptual space. The space is defined by three dimensions required for Tulving's episodic and semantic memory. An implicit-explicit dimension contra ... Full text Cite

Individual Differences in Autobiographical Memory: The Autobiographical Recollection Test Predicts Ratings of Specific Memories Across Cueing Conditions

Journal Article Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition · January 1, 2022 The Autobiographical Recollection Test (ART; Berntsen et al., 2019) measures individual differences in autobiographical memory. We here examined whether the ART correlates with characteristics of people’s specific autobiographical memories. Participants (N ... Full text Cite

Properties of autobiographical memories are reliable and stable individual differences.

Journal Article Cognition · May 2021 Autobiographical memory research typically focuses on individual memories with variability in individual participants' responses serving as error variance. Integrating individual-difference and experimental approaches demonstrated that properties of autobi ... Full text Cite

Individual Differences in Autobiographical Memory: The Autobiographical Recollection Test Predicts Ratings of Specific Memories Across Cueing Conditions

Journal Article Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition · January 1, 2021 The Autobiographical Recollection Test (ART; Berntsen et al., 2019) measures individual differences in autobiographical memory. We here examined whether the ART correlates with characteristics of people's specific autobiographical memories. Participants (N ... Full text Cite

Self-Concept Focus: A Tendency to Perceive Autobiographical Events as Central to Identity

Journal Article Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition · December 1, 2020 Self-Concept Focus is a 15-item measure of the disposition to make autobiographical memories central to one's self-concept and thus to rehearse them more frequently. In studies with 400 MTurk workers and 299 undergraduates, Self-Concept Focus had high reli ... Full text Cite

The ability to recall scenes is a stable individual difference: Evidence from autobiographical remembering.

Journal Article Cognition · April 2020 Four behavioral studies (ns ~ 200 to 400) extended neural studies of ventral stream damage and fMRI activation and behavioral studies of scene recall conducted on individual memories to individual differences in normal populations. Ratings of scene and con ... Full text Cite

Academic Forgetting

Journal Article Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition · March 1, 2020 Full text Cite

The Autobiographical Recollection Test (ART): A Measure of Individual Differences in Autobiographical Memory.

Journal Article Journal of applied research in memory and cognition · September 2019 We introduce the Autobiographical Recollection Test (ART) to examine individual differences in how well people think they remember personal events. The ART comprises seven theoretically motivated and empirically supported interrelated aspects of recollecti ... Full text Cite

Scenes enable a sense of reliving: Implications for autobiographical memory.

Journal Article · February 2019 Autobiographical memory has been defined by the phenomenological properties of reliving, vividness, and belief that an event occurred. Neuropsychological damage that results in the inability to recall the layout of a scene also results in amnesia suggestin ... Full text Open Access Cite

Self-narrative focus in autobiographical events: The effect of time, emotion, and individual differences.

Journal Article · January 2019 Individuals may take a self-narrative focus on the meaning of personal events in their life story, rather than viewing the events in isolation. Using the Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen & Rubin in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 219-231, 2006) ... Full text Open Access Cite

Measuring narrative identity: rater coding versus questionnaire-based approaches.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · May 2024 Narrative identity - how individuals narrate their lived and remembered past - is usually assessed via independent rater coding, but new methods relying on self-report have been introduced. To test the assumption that different methods assess aspects of th ... Full text Cite

Collectives Closer to the Self Are Anticipated to Have a Brighter Future: Self-Enhancement in Collective Cognition

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: General · March 28, 2024 Collective future thinking is a budding research field concerned with the act of imagining possible events in the future of a collective—typically one’s nation. Prior research has shown that people imagine more positive than negative events in the personal ... Full text Cite

Narrative identity does not predict well-being when controlling for emotional valence.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · September 2023 Narrative identity refers to a person's internalized and evolving life story. It is a rapidly growing research field, motivated by studies showing a unique association with well-being. Here we show that this association disappears when controlling for the ... Full text Cite

Using shame to extend Martin Conway's self-memory system.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · July 2023 We extend Conway's self-memory system by adding theory and data from shame, an emotion that disrupts the internalised ideals of society needed for a positive self-concept. The event that caused 273 undergraduates their greatest amount of shame was analyzed ... Full text Cite

Tonic immobility (freezing) during sexual and physical assaults produces stronger memory effects than other characteristics of the assaults.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · May 2023 Tonic immobility (TI) is a phylogenetically conserved, passive, obligatory defense mechanism commonly engaged during sexual and physical assaults. During TI, people become immobile while remaining conscious and later reexperience intrusive memories of both ... Full text Cite

Autobiographical memory and the self on the psychosis continuum: investigating their relationship with positive- and negative-like symptoms.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · April 2023 Autobiographical memory is severely impaired in schizophrenia, but previous work has largely treated both as unitary concepts. Here, we examined how various dimensions of autobiographical memory relate to different aspects of psychosis. Participants were r ... Full text Cite

Digital daydreaming: Introducing the spontaneous smartphone checking scale

Journal Article Applied Cognitive Psychology · January 1, 2023 Smartphones are a ubiquitous part of many people's lives, but little is known about their impact on everyday thought processes. Here we introduce the spontaneous smartphone checking scale (SSCS)—which measures the tendency to direct attention toward one's ... Full text Cite

The Properties of Involuntary and Voluntary Autobiographical Memories in Chinese Patients with Depression and Healthy Individuals

Journal Article Cognitive Therapy and Research · January 1, 2023 Background: Research on depression has largely focused on negative intrusive memories with little research on general involuntary memories as they occur in everyday life. In addition, all studies have been conducted on Western participants, and there are n ... Full text Cite

Are memories of sexual trauma fragmented? A post publication discussion among Richard J. McNally, Dorthe Berntsen, Chris R. Brewin and David C. Rubin.

Journal Article Memory (Hove, England) · May 2022 Following the publication of his article on whether memories of trauma in sexual assault victims are fragmented (McNally, 2022), McNally moderated a discussion between Chris R. Brewin and David C. Rubin/Dorthe Berntsen whose perspectives on memory fragment ... Full text Cite

A conceptual space for episodic and semantic memory.

Journal Article Memory & cognition · April 2022 I propose a model that places episodic, semantic, and other commonly studied forms of memory into the same conceptual space. The space is defined by three dimensions required for Tulving's episodic and semantic memory. An implicit-explicit dimension contra ... Full text Cite

Individual Differences in Autobiographical Memory: The Autobiographical Recollection Test Predicts Ratings of Specific Memories Across Cueing Conditions

Journal Article Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition · January 1, 2022 The Autobiographical Recollection Test (ART; Berntsen et al., 2019) measures individual differences in autobiographical memory. We here examined whether the ART correlates with characteristics of people’s specific autobiographical memories. Participants (N ... Full text Cite

Properties of autobiographical memories are reliable and stable individual differences.

Journal Article Cognition · May 2021 Autobiographical memory research typically focuses on individual memories with variability in individual participants' responses serving as error variance. Integrating individual-difference and experimental approaches demonstrated that properties of autobi ... Full text Cite

Individual Differences in Autobiographical Memory: The Autobiographical Recollection Test Predicts Ratings of Specific Memories Across Cueing Conditions

Journal Article Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition · January 1, 2021 The Autobiographical Recollection Test (ART; Berntsen et al., 2019) measures individual differences in autobiographical memory. We here examined whether the ART correlates with characteristics of people's specific autobiographical memories. Participants (N ... Full text Cite

Self-Concept Focus: A Tendency to Perceive Autobiographical Events as Central to Identity

Journal Article Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition · December 1, 2020 Self-Concept Focus is a 15-item measure of the disposition to make autobiographical memories central to one's self-concept and thus to rehearse them more frequently. In studies with 400 MTurk workers and 299 undergraduates, Self-Concept Focus had high reli ... Full text Cite

The ability to recall scenes is a stable individual difference: Evidence from autobiographical remembering.

Journal Article Cognition · April 2020 Four behavioral studies (ns ~ 200 to 400) extended neural studies of ventral stream damage and fMRI activation and behavioral studies of scene recall conducted on individual memories to individual differences in normal populations. Ratings of scene and con ... Full text Cite

Academic Forgetting

Journal Article Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition · March 1, 2020 Full text Cite

The Autobiographical Recollection Test (ART): A Measure of Individual Differences in Autobiographical Memory.

Journal Article Journal of applied research in memory and cognition · September 2019 We introduce the Autobiographical Recollection Test (ART) to examine individual differences in how well people think they remember personal events. The ART comprises seven theoretically motivated and empirically supported interrelated aspects of recollecti ... Full text Cite

Scenes enable a sense of reliving: Implications for autobiographical memory.

Journal Article · February 2019 Autobiographical memory has been defined by the phenomenological properties of reliving, vividness, and belief that an event occurred. Neuropsychological damage that results in the inability to recall the layout of a scene also results in amnesia suggestin ... Full text Open Access Cite

Self-narrative focus in autobiographical events: The effect of time, emotion, and individual differences.

Journal Article · January 2019 Individuals may take a self-narrative focus on the meaning of personal events in their life story, rather than viewing the events in isolation. Using the Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen & Rubin in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 219-231, 2006) ... Full text Open Access Cite

Psychological and clinical correlates of the Centrality of Event Scale: A systematic review.

Journal Article · November 2018 The Centrality of Event Scale (CES) was introduced to examine the extent to which a traumatic or stressful event is perceived as central to an individual's identity and life story, and how this relates to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In a ... Full text Open Access Cite

What psychology and cognitive neuroscience know about the communicative function of memory.

Journal Article The Behavioral and brain sciences · January 2018 Mahr & Csibra (M&C) include interesting ideas about the nature of memory from outside of the field of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. However, the target article's inaccurate claims about those fields limit its usefulness. I briefly review ... Full text Cite

Neural responses to emotional involuntary memories in posttraumatic stress disorder: Differences in timing and activity.

Journal Article · January 2018 Background:Involuntary memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but studies of the neural basis of involuntary memory retrieval in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sparse. The study of the neural correlates of involu ... Full text Open Access Cite

Taking tests in the magnet: Brain mapping standardized tests.

Journal Article · November 2017 Standardized psychometric tests are sophisticated, well-developed, and consequential instruments; test outcomes are taken as facts about people that impact their lives in important ways. As part of an initial demonstration that human brain mapping techniqu ... Full text Open Access Cite

Neuroticism Increases PTSD Symptom Severity by Amplifying the Emotionality, Rehearsal, and Centrality of Trauma Memories.

Journal Article J Pers · October 2017 OBJECTIVE: Although it is well established that neuroticism increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the mechanisms that promote PTSD in individuals with elevated levels of neuroticism. Across two studies, we examin ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

All my children: The roles of semantic category and phonetic similarity in the misnaming of familiar individuals.

Journal Article · October 2016 Despite knowing a familiar individual (such as a daughter) well, anecdotal evidence suggests that naming errors can occur among very familiar individuals. Here, we investigate the conditions surrounding these types of errors, or misnamings, in which a pers ... Full text Open Access Cite

Scientific evidence versus outdated beliefs: A response to Brewin (2016).

Journal Article J Abnorm Psychol · October 2016 We find Brewin's (2016) critiques of the narratives, power, and coherence measures in Rubin et al. (2016) without merit; his suggestions for a "revised formulation" (p. 1015) of coherence are contradicted by data readily available in the target article but ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The effects of song familiarity and age on phenomenological characteristics and neural recruitment during autobiographical memory retrieval.

Journal Article · September 2016 Recent research suggests that emotional music clips can serve as a highly successful tool for eliciting rich autobiographical memories, and that the utility of these cues may be related to their subjective familiarity. The current study was designed to exa ... Full text Open Access Cite

Maladaptive trauma appraisals mediate the relation between attachment anxiety and PTSD symptom severity.

Journal Article Psychol Trauma · May 2016 OBJECTIVE: In a large sample of community-dwelling older adults with histories of exposure to a broad range of traumatic events, we examined the extent to which appraisals of traumatic events mediate the relations between insecure attachment styles and pos ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Visual imagery in autobiographical memory: The role of repeated retrieval in shifting perspective.

Journal Article · May 2016 Recent memories are generally recalled from a first-person perspective whereas older memories are often recalled from a third-person perspective. We investigated how repeated retrieval affects the availability of visual information, and whether it could ex ... Full text Open Access Cite

Recent Advances in Understanding the Reminiscence Bump: The Importance of Cues in Guiding Recall from Autobiographical Memory.

Journal Article · April 1, 2016 The reminiscence bump is the increased proportion of autobiographical memories from youth and early adulthood observed in adults over 40. It is one of the most robust findings in autobiographical memory research. Although described as a single period of in ... Full text Open Access Cite

Accounting for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity With Pre- and Posttrauma Measures: A Longitudinal Study of Older Adults.

Journal Article Clin Psychol Sci · March 2016 Using data from a longitudinal study of community-dwelling older adults, we analyzed the most extensive set of known correlates of PTSD symptoms obtained from a single sample to examine the measures' independent and combined utility in accounting for PTSD ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Participant, rater, and computer measures of coherence in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article J Abnorm Psychol · January 2016 We examined the coherence of trauma memories in a trauma-exposed community sample of 30 adults with and 30 without posttraumatic stress disorder. The groups had similar categories of traumas and were matched on multiple factors that could affect the cohere ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age.

Journal Article · November 2015 We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic meas ... Full text Open Access Cite

Pretraumatic Stress Reactions in Soldiers Deployed to Afghanistan.

Journal Article · September 2015 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a diagnosis related to the past. Pre-traumatic stress reactions, as measured by intrusive involuntary images of possible future stressful events and their associated avoidance and increased arousal, have been overlooked in ... Full text Open Access Cite

The relation between insecure attachment and posttraumatic stress: Early life versus adulthood traumas.

Journal Article Psychol Trauma · July 2015 The present study examined the relations between insecure attachment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among community-dwelling older adults with exposure to a broad range of traumatic events. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance pre ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Event memory: A theory of memory for laboratory, autobiographical, and fictional events.

Journal Article · January 2015 An event memory is a mental construction of a scene recalled as a single occurrence. It therefore requires the hippocampus and ventral visual stream needed for all scene construction. The construction need not come with a sense of reliving or be made by a ... Full text Open Access Cite

Psychology. How quickly we forget.

Journal Article · November 28, 2014 Full text Open Access Cite

The neural basis of involuntary episodic memories.

Journal Article J Cogn Neurosci · October 2014 Voluntary episodic memories require an intentional memory search, whereas involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously without conscious effort. Cognitive neuroscience has largely focused on voluntary memory, leaving the neural mechanisms of in ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Narrative centrality and negative affectivity: independent and interactive contributors to stress reactions.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. General · June 2014 Reactions to stressful negative events have long been studied using approaches based on either the narrative interpretation of the event or the traits of the individual. Here, we integrate these 2 approaches by using individual-differences measures of both ... Full text Open Access Cite

Schema-driven construction of future autobiographical traumatic events: the future is much more troubling than the past.

Journal Article · April 2014 Research on future episodic thought has produced compelling theories and results in cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and clinical psychology. In experiments aimed to integrate these with basic concepts and methods from autobiographical memory ... Full text Open Access Cite

Changes in neuroticism following trauma exposure.

Journal Article J Pers · April 2014 Using longitudinal data, the present study examined change in midlife neuroticism following trauma exposure. Our primary analyses included 670 participants (M(age) = 60.55; 65.22% male, 99.70% Caucasian) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory at ages ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Involuntary Memories and Dissociative Amnesia: Assessing Key Assumptions in PTSD Research.

Journal Article · March 1, 2014 Autobiographical memories of trauma victims are often described as disturbed in two ways. First, the trauma is frequently re-experienced in the form of involuntary, intrusive recollections. Second, the trauma is difficult to recall voluntarily (strategical ... Full text Open Access Cite

Effects of task instruction on autobiographical memory specificity in young and older adults.

Journal Article · 2014 Older adults tend to retrieve autobiographical information that is overly general (i.e., not restricted to a single event, termed the overgenerality effect) relative to young adults' specific memories. A vast majority of studies that have reported overgene ... Full text Open Access Cite

Cumulative exposure to traumatic events in older adults.

Journal Article Aging Ment Health · 2014 OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the impact of cumulative trauma exposure on current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity in a nonclinical sample of adults in their 60s. The predictive utility of cumulative trauma exposure was compar ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on PTSD symptoms and psychosocial functioning among older adults.

Journal Article Dev Psychol · November 2013 The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigat ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The Frequency and Impact of Exposure to Potentially Traumatic Events Over the Life Course.

Journal Article Clin Psychol Sci · October 1, 2013 We examined the frequency and impact of exposure to potentially traumatic events among a nonclinical sample of older adults (n = 3,575), a population typically underrepresented in epidemiological research concerning the prevalence of traumatic events. Curr ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Measuring the Severity of Negative and Traumatic Events.

Journal Article · October 1, 2013 We devised three measures of the general severity of events, which raters applied to participants' narrative descriptions: 1) placing events on a standard normed scale of stressful events, 2) placing events into five bins based on their severity relative t ... Full text Open Access Cite

Neural networks supporting autobiographical memory retrieval in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article · September 2013 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects the functional recruitment and connectivity between neural regions during autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval that overlap with default and control networks. Whether such univariate changes relate to potentia ... Full text Open Access Cite

Peace and war: trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms before, during, and after military deployment in Afghanistan.

Journal Article · December 2012 In the study reported here, we examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 746 Danish soldiers measured on five occasions before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. Using latent class growth analysis, we identified six trajectories ... Full text Open Access Cite

Age-related effects on the neural correlates of autobiographical memory retrieval.

Journal Article · July 2012 Older adults recall less episodically rich autobiographical memories (AM), however, the neural basis of this effect is not clear. Using functional MRI, we examined the effects of age during search and elaboration phases of AM retrieval. Our results suggest ... Full text Open Access Cite

The reminiscence bump in the temporal distribution of the best football players of all time: Pelé, Cruijff or Maradona?

Journal Article · 2012 The reminiscence bump is the tendency to recall more autobiographical memories from adolescence and early adulthood than from adjacent lifetime periods. In this online study, the robustness of the reminiscence bump was examined by looking at participants' ... Full text Open Access Cite

Differential predictability of four dimensions of affect intensity.

Journal Article · 2012 Individual differences in affect intensity are typically assessed with the Affect Intensity Measure (AIM). Previous factor analyses suggest that the AIM is comprised of four weakly correlated factors: Positive Affectivity, Negative Reactivity, Negative Int ... Full text Open Access Cite

Two versions of life: emotionally negative and positive life events have different roles in the organization of life story and identity.

Journal Article Emotion · October 2011 Over 2,000 adults in their sixties completed the Centrality of Event Scale (CES) for the traumatic or negative event that now troubled them the most and for their most positive life event, as well as measures of current PTSD symptoms, depression, well-bein ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The integration of emotions in memories: Cognitive-emotional distinctiveness and posttraumatic stress disorder

Journal Article · September 1, 2011 The current study examined cognitive-emotional distinctiveness (CED), the extent to which emotions are linked with event information, in memories associated with PTSD. Participants either with PTSD (n=68) or without PTSD (n=40) completed a modified multidi ... Full text Open Access Cite

The coherence of memories for trauma: evidence from posttraumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article · September 2011 Participants with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and participants with a trauma but without PTSD wrote narratives of their trauma and, for comparison, of the most-important and the happiest events that occurred within a year of their trauma. They the ... Full text Open Access Cite

Autobiographical memory for stressful events: the role of autobiographical memory in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article Conscious Cogn · September 2011 To provide the three-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, we compared (1) most-stressful memories to other memories and (2) involuntary to voluntary memories (3) in 75 community dwelling adults with and 42 without a current diagnosis of posttr ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Remembering from any angle: the flexibility of visual perspective during retrieval.

Journal Article · September 2011 When recalling autobiographical memories, individuals often experience visual images associated with the event. These images can be constructed from two different perspectives: first person, in which the event is visualized from the viewpoint experienced a ... Full text Open Access Cite

Dynamic neural networks supporting memory retrieval.

Journal Article · July 15, 2011 How do separate neural networks interact to support complex cognitive processes such as remembrance of the personal past? Autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval recruits a consistent pattern of activation that potentially comprises multiple neural networks ... Full text Open Access Cite

Imagery and retrieval of auditory and visual information: neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful performance.

Journal Article · June 2011 Remembering past events - or episodic retrieval - consists of several components. There is evidence that mental imagery plays an important role in retrieval and that the brain regions supporting imagery overlap with those supporting retrieval. An open issu ... Full text Open Access Cite

Functional neuroimaging of emotionally intense autobiographical memories in post-traumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article · May 2011 Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects regions that support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval, such as the hippocampus, amygdala and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, it is not well understood how PTSD may impact the neural mecha ... Full text Open Access Cite

Age Effects in Cultural Life Scripts.

Journal Article · March 1, 2011 Life scripts are culturally shared expectations about the timing of life events in an idealized life course. Because they are cultural semantic knowledge, they should be known by all adult age groups including those who have not lived through all events in ... Full text Open Access Cite

The temporal distribution of autobiographical memory: changes in reliving and vividness over the life span do not explain the reminiscence bump.

Journal Article · January 2011 When autobiographical memories are elicited with word cues, personal events from middle childhood to early adulthood are overrepresented compared to events from other periods. It is, however, unclear whether these memories are also associated with greater ... Full text Open Access Cite

WHEN I'M 64: FINDINGS FROM THE UNC ALUMNI HEART STUDY

Journal Article INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE · August 1, 2010 Link to item Cite

People who expect to enter psychotherapy are prone to believing that they have forgotten memories of childhood trauma and abuse.

Journal Article · July 2010 We asked 1004 undergraduates to estimate both the probability that they would enter therapy and the probability that they experienced but could not remember incidents of potentially life-threatening childhood traumas or physical and sexual abuse. We found ... Full text Open Access Cite

Mental hoop diaries: emotional memories of a college basketball game in rival fans.

Journal Article · February 10, 2010 The rivalry between the men's basketball teams of Duke University and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) is one of the most storied traditions in college sports. A subculture of students at each university form social bonds with fellow fans ... Full text Open Access Cite

Autobiographical Memories for Very Negative Events: The Effects of Thinking about and Rating Memories.

Journal Article · February 1, 2010 In three related experiments, 250 participants rated properties of their autobiographical memory of a very negative event before and after writing about either their deepest thoughts and emotions of the event or a control topic. Levels of emotional intensi ... Full text Open Access Cite

Component Neural Systems for the Creation of Emotional Memories during Free Viewing of a Complex, Real-World Event.

Journal Article · 2010 To investigate the neural systems that contribute to the formation of complex, self-relevant emotional memories, dedicated fans of rival college basketball teams watched a competitive game while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Duri ... Full text Open Access Cite

I can see it both ways: first- and third-person visual perspectives at retrieval.

Journal Article · December 2009 The number of studies examining visual perspective during retrieval has recently grown. However, the way in which perspective has been conceptualized differs across studies. Some studies have suggested perspective is experienced as either a first-person or ... Full text Open Access Cite

A comparison of dimensional models of emotion: evidence from emotions, prototypical events, autobiographical memories, and words.

Journal Article · November 2009 The intensity and valence of 30 emotion terms, 30 events typical of those emotions, and 30 autobiographical memories cued by those emotions were each rated by different groups of 40 undergraduates. A vector model gave a consistently better account of the d ... Full text Open Access Cite

The frequency of voluntary and involuntary autobiographical memories across the life span.

Journal Article · July 2009 In the present study, ratings of the memory of an important event from the previous week on the frequency of voluntary and involuntary retrieval, belief in its accuracy, visual imagery, auditory imagery, setting, emotional intensity, valence, narrative coh ... Full text Open Access Cite

Positive emotions enhance recall of peripheral details

Journal Article · March 2, 2009 Emotional arousal and negative affect enhance recall of central aspects of an event. However, the role of discrete emotions in selective memory processing is understudied. Undergraduates were asked to recall and rate autobiographical memories of eight emot ... Full text Open Access Cite

Oral traditions as collective memories: Implications for a general theory of individual and collective memory

Chapter · January 1, 2009 © Cambridge University Press 2009 and 2010. Historians are interested in sites of memory, understood as places where groups of people engage in public activity through which they express “a collective shared knowledge … of the past, on which a group's sens ... Full text Open Access Cite

Memory in posttraumatic stress disorder: properties of voluntary and involuntary, traumatic and nontraumatic autobiographical memories in people with and without posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

Journal Article · November 2008 One hundred fifteen undergraduates rated 15 word-cued memories and their 3 most negatively stressful, 3 most positive, and 7 most important events and completed tests of personality and depression. Eighty-nine also recorded involuntary memories online for ... Full text Open Access Cite

Contrasting Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Reply to.

Journal Article · October 2008 We address the four main points in Monroe and Mineka (2008)'s Comment. First, we first show that the DSM PTSD diagnosis includes an etiology and that it is based on a theoretical model with a distinguished history in psychology and psychiatry. Two tenets o ... Full text Open Access Cite

A memory-based model of posttraumatic stress disorder: evaluating basic assumptions underlying the PTSD diagnosis.

Journal Article · October 2008 In the mnemonic model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the current memory of a negative event, not the event itself, determines symptoms. The model is an alternative to the current event-based etiology of PTSD represented in the Diagnostic and Stat ... Full text Open Access Cite

The short and long of it: neural correlates of temporal-order memory for autobiographical events.

Journal Article · July 2008 Previous functional neuroimaging studies of temporal-order memory have investigated memory for laboratory stimuli that are causally unrelated and poor in sensory detail. In contrast, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigat ... Full text Open Access Cite

The reappearance hypothesis revisited: recurrent involuntary memories after traumatic events and in everyday life.

Journal Article · March 2008 Recurrent involuntary memories are autobiographical memories that come to mind with no preceding retrieval attempt and that are subjectively experienced as being repetitive. Clinically, they are classified as a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder. The ... Open Access Cite

H.M.'s personal crossword puzzles: understanding memory and language.

Journal Article Memory · February 2008 The amnesic patient H.M. has been solving crossword puzzles nearly all his life. Here, we analysed the linguistic content of 277 of H.M.'s crossword-puzzle solutions. H.M. did not have any unusual difficulties with the orthographic and grammatical componen ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Memory and coping with stress: the relationship between cognitive-emotional distinctiveness, memory valence, and distress.

Journal Article · 2008 Cognitive-emotional distinctiveness (CED), the extent to which an individual separates emotions from an event in the cognitive representation of the event, was explored in four studies. CED was measured using a modified multidimensional scaling procedure. ... Full text Open Access Cite

The spatiotemporal dynamics of autobiographical memory: neural correlates of recall, emotional intensity, and reliving.

Journal Article · January 2008 We sought to map the time course of autobiographical memory retrieval, including brain regions that mediate phenomenological experiences of reliving and emotional intensity. Participants recalled personal memories to auditory word cues during event-related ... Full text Open Access Cite

People believe it is plausible to have forgotten memories of childhood sexual abuse.

Journal Article · August 2007 Pezdek, Blandon-Gitlin, and Gabbay (2006) found that perceptions of the plausibility of events increase the likelihood that imagination may induce false memories of those events. Using a survey conducted by Gallup, we asked a large sample of the general po ... Open Access Cite

Cross-cultural variability of component processes in autobiographical remembering: Japan, Turkey, and the USA.

Journal Article · July 2007 Although the underlying mechanics of autobiographical memory may be identical across cultures, the processing of information differs. Undergraduates from Japan, Turkey, and the USA rated 30 autobiographical memories on 15 phenomenological and cognitive pro ... Full text Open Access Cite

Flashbulb memories are special after all; in phenomenology, not accuracy

Journal Article · July 1, 2007 Consistency of flashbulb memories (FBMs) of the 11th September terrorist attacks and of everyday memories (EDMs) of the preceding weekend do not differ, in both cases declining over the following year for a group of Duke University undergraduates. However, ... Full text Open Access Cite

Forgetting

Chapter · May 10, 2007 © 2007 by Henry L. Roediger III, Yadin Dudai, and Susan M. Fitzpatrick. All rights reserved. This part presents four chapters on the concept of forgetting. The first chapter analyzes the term "forgetting". The second discusses the impact of misinformation ... Full text Open Access Cite

When a trauma becomes a key to identity: Enhanced integration of trauma memories predicts posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms

Journal Article · May 1, 2007 The Centrality of Event Scale (CES) measures the extent to which a traumatic memory forms a central component of personnal identity, a turning point in the life story and a reference point for everyday inferences. In two studies, we show that the CES is po ... Full text Open Access Cite

Emotion and vantage point in autobiographical

Journal Article · December 1, 2006 Autobiographical memories may be recalled from two different perspectives: Field memories in which the person seems to remember the scene from his/her original point of view and observer memories in which the rememberer sees him/herself in the memory image ... Full text Open Access Cite

The Basic-Systems Model of Episodic Memory.

Journal Article · December 2006 Behavior, neuropsychology, and neuroimaging suggest that episodic memories are constructed from interactions among the following basic systems: vision, audition, olfaction, other senses, spatial imagery, language, emotion, narrative, motor output, explicit ... Full text Open Access Cite

People over forty feel 20% younger than their age: subjective age across the lifespan.

Journal Article · October 2006 Subjective age--the age people think of themselves asbeing--is measured in a representative Danish sample of 1,470 adults between 20 and 97 years of age through personal, in-home interviews. On the average, adults younger than 25 have older subjective ages ... Open Access Cite

Flashbulb memories and posttraumatic stress reactions across the life span: age-related effects of the German occupation of Denmark during World War II.

Journal Article · March 2006 A representative sample of older Danes were interviewed about experiences from the German occupation of Denmark in World War II. The number of participants with flashbulb memories for the German invasion (1940) and capitulation (1945) increased with partic ... Full text Open Access Cite

The centrality of event scale: a measure of integrating a trauma into one's identity and its relation to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms.

Journal Article · February 2006 We introduce a new scale that measures how central an event is to a person's identity and life story. For the most stressful or traumatic event in a person's life, the full 20-item Centrality of Event Scale (CES) and the short 7-item scale are reliable (al ... Full text Open Access Cite

Disputes over memory ownership: What memories are disputed?

Journal Article · 2006 The ownership of memories is sometimes disputed, particularly by twins. Examination of 77 disputed memories, 71 provided by twins, showed that most of the remembered events are negative and that the disputants appear to be self-serving. They claim for them ... Full text Open Access Cite

A basic-systems approach to autobiographical memory

Journal Article · April 1, 2005 Memory for complex everyday events involving vision, hearing, smell, emotion, narrative, and language cannot be understood without considering the properties of the separate systems that process and store each of these forms of information. Using this prem ... Full text Open Access Cite

A tale of three functions: The self-reported uses of autobiographical memory

Journal Article · February 1, 2005 Theories hold that autobiographical memory serves several broad functions (directive, self, and social). In the current study, items were derived from the theoretical literature to create the Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) questionnaire to empirica ... Full text Open Access Cite

Visual memory loss and autobiographical amnesia: a case study.

Journal Article · 2005 Amnesia typically results from trauma to the medial temporal regions that coordinate activation among the disparate areas of cortex that represent the information that make up autobiographical memories. We proposed that amnesia should also result from dama ... Full text Open Access Cite

Co-activation of the amygdala, hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus during autobiographical memory retrieval.

Journal Article · 2005 Functional MRI was used to investigate the role of medial temporal lobe and inferior frontal lobe regions in autobiographical recall. Prior to scanning, participants generated cue words for 50 autobiographical memories and rated their phenomenological prop ... Full text Open Access Cite

Facets of personality and the phenomenology of autobiographical memory

Journal Article · November 1, 2004 The relationship between individual differences in autobiographical memory and personality was examined by having 118 undergraduates complete the NEO Personality Inventory after rating 15 word-cued autobiographical memories on 20 scales. The Openness to Fe ... Full text Open Access Cite

Brain activity during episodic retrieval of autobiographical and laboratory events: an fMRI study using a novel photo paradigm.

Journal Article · November 2004 Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval generally measure brain activity while participants remember items encountered in the laboratory ("controlled laboratory condition") or events from their own life ("open autobiographical conditio ... Open Access Cite

Puzzling thoughts for H. M.: can new semantic information be anchored to old semantic memories?

Journal Article Neuropsychology · October 2004 Researchers currently debate whether new semantic knowledge can be learned and retrieved despite extensive damage to medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. The authors explored whether H. M., a patient with amnesia, could acquire new semantic information i ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Emotional intensity predicts autobiographical memory experience.

Journal Article · October 2004 College students generated autobiographical memories from distinct emotional categories that varied in valence (positive vs. negative) and intensity (high vs. low). They then rated various perceptual, cognitive, and emotional properties for each memory. Th ... Open Access Cite

Cultural life scripts structure recall from autobiographical memory.

Journal Article · April 2004 Three classes of evidence demonstrate the existence of life scripts, or culturally shared representations of the timing of major transitional life events. First, a reanalysis of earlier studies on age norms shows an increase in the number of transitional e ... Open Access Cite

Autobiographical memories of anxiety-related experiences.

Journal Article · March 2004 Ninety-nine undergraduate students retrieved three memories associated with each of the five emotional experiences: panic, trauma, worry, social anxiety, and feeling content. Subsequently, they answered 24 questions assessing properties of each memory, inc ... Full text Open Access Cite

Reliving, emotions, and fragmentation in the autobiographical memories of veterans diagnosed with PTSD

Journal Article · January 1, 2004 Fifty veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) each recalled four autobiographical memories: one from the 2 years before service, one non-combat memory from the time in service, one from combat, and one from service that had often come ... Full text Open Access Cite

Confidence, not consistency, characterizes flashbulb memories.

Journal Article · September 2003 On September 12, 2001, 54 Duke students recorded their memory of first hearing about the terrorist attacks of September 11 and of a recent everyday event. They were tested again either 1, 6, or 32 weeks later. Consistency for the flashbulb and everyday mem ... Full text Open Access Cite

The neuropsychology of autobiographical memory.

Journal Article · September 2003 This special issue of Cortex focuses on the relative contribution of different neural networks to memory and the interaction of 'core' memory processes with other cognitive processes. In this article, we examine both. Specifically, we identify cognitive pr ... Open Access Cite

Belief and recollection of autobiographical memories.

Journal Article · September 2003 In three experiments, undergraduates rated autobiographical memories on scales derived from existing theories of memory. In multiple regression analyses, ratings of the degree to which subjects recollected (i.e., relived) their memories were predicted by v ... Open Access Cite

Experimental manipulations of the phenomenology of memory.

Journal Article · September 2003 We investigated the effects of visual input at encoding and retrieval on the phenomenology of memory. In Experiment 1, participants took part in events with and without wearing blindfolds, and later were shown a video of the events. Blindfolding, as well a ... Open Access Cite

Splintered memories or vivid landmarks? Qualities and organization of traumatic memories with and without PTSD

Journal Article · September 1, 2003 One hundred and eighty-one students answered a standardized questionnaire on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): 25 reported trauma(s) and indicated a pattern of after-effects that matched a PTSD symptom profile, whereas 88 indicated trauma(s) but no PT ... Full text Open Access Cite

Life-narrative and word-cued autobiographical memories in centenarians: comparisons with 80-year-old control, depressed, and dementia groups.

Journal Article · January 2003 Centenarians provided autobiographical memories to either a request for a life narrative or a request to produce autobiographical memories to cue words. Both methods produced distributions with childhood-amnesia, reminiscence-bump, and recency components. ... Full text Open Access Cite

Life scripts help to maintain autobiographical memories of highly positive, but not highly negative, events.

Journal Article · January 2003 A representative sample of 1,307 respondents between the ages of 20 and 94 was asked how old they were when they felt most afraid, most proud, most jealous, most in love, and most angry. They were also asked when they had experienced their most important e ... Open Access Cite

Emotionally charged autobiographical memories across the life span: the recall of happy, sad, traumatic, and involuntary memories.

Journal Article · December 2002 A sample of 1,241 respondents between 20 and 93 years old were asked their age in their happiest, saddest, most traumatic, most important memory, and most recent involuntary memory. For older respondents, there was a clear bump in the 20s for the most impo ... Full text Open Access Cite

Activation in mesolimbic and visuospatial neural circuits elicited by smoking cues: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Journal Article Am J Psychiatry · June 2002 OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to increase understanding of the brain mechanisms involved in cigarette addiction by identifying neural substrates modulated by visual smoking cues in nicotine-deprived smokers. METHOD: Event-related functional magnetic resona ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Production and recognition bias of stylistic sentences using a story reading task.

Journal Article · March 2002 Four experiments examined participants' ability to produce surface characteristics of sentences using an on-line story reading task. Participants read a series of stories in which either all, or the majority of sentences were written in the same "style," o ... Open Access Cite

Inner speech and bilingual autobiographical memory: a Polish-Danish cross-cultural study.

Journal Article · January 2002 Thirty years after fleeing from Poland to Denmark, 20 immigrants were enlisted in a study of bilingual autobiographical memory. Ten "early immigrators" averaged 24 years old at the time of immigration, and ten "late immigrators" averaged 34 years old at im ... Full text Open Access Cite

Effects of Voluntary Immigration on the Distribution of Autobiographical Memory over the Lifespan

Journal Article · December 1, 2001 Immigration may be considered a 'traumatic' event with acute phases followed by long latency effects. Ten older, Hispanic adults who immigrated to the USA at ages 20-22, 24-28, and 34-35 narrated their 'life-stories' on two occasions, once in English and o ... Full text Open Access Cite

Olfactory conditioning facilitates diet transition in human infants.

Journal Article · November 2000 We evaluated whether Pavlovian conditioning methods could be used to increase the ingestion of non-preferred solutions by formula-fed human infants. In baseline measures, 5-7 month old infants sucked less frequently and consumed less water than regular for ... Open Access Cite

The distribution of early childhood memories.

Journal Article · July 2000 The quantitative distribution of autobiographical memories for the first decade of life is described. The distribution, based on over 11,000 autobiographical memories from age 10 and younger from published studies, is nearly identical for males and females ... Full text Open Access Cite

Internal languages of retrieval: the bilingual encoding of memories for the personal past.

Journal Article · June 2000 In contrast to most research on bilingual memory that focuses on how words in either lexicon are mapped onto memory for objects and concepts, we focus on memory for events in the personal past. Using a word-cue technique in sessions devoted exclusively to ... Open Access Cite

Frontal-striatal circuits in cognitive aging: Evidence for caudate involvement

Journal Article · December 1, 1999 Changes in cognition with aging have been claimed to be due in large part to a decline in frontal lobe function. However, at our present state of knowledge, the emphasis on the frontal lobes to the exclusion of the rest of the frontal-striatal circuits of ... Open Access Cite

A Study of Gender Differences in Autobiographical Memory: Broken Down by Age and Sex

Journal Article · December 1, 1999 Data from 40 older adults who produced autobiographical memories to word cues and to the request to list five important memories, and data from 60 older adults who answered factual multiple-choice questions for events spread across their lives, were analyz ... Full text Open Access Cite

Music, emotion, and autobiographical memory: they're playing your song.

Journal Article · November 1999 Very long-term memory for popular music was investigated. Older and younger adults listened to 20-sec excerpts of popular songs drawn from across the 20th century. The subjects gave emotionality and preference ratings and tried to name the title, artist, a ... Open Access Cite

The Precise Time Course of Retention

Journal Article · September 1, 1999 Fits of retention data were examined from 5 conditions: 3 types of cued recall, an old-new recognition task, and a remember-know recognition task. In each condition, 100 participants had either 18 recall or 27 recognition trials at each of 10 delays betwee ... Open Access Cite

The neural basis of naming impairments in Alzheimer's disease revealed through positron emission tomography.

Journal Article Arch Clin Neuropsychol · May 1999 The naming impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been attributed to a variety of cognitive processing deficits, including impairments in semantic memory, visual perception, and lexical access. To further understand the underlying biological basis of ... Open Access Link to item Cite

Bilingual Autobiographical Memory in Older Adult Immigrants: A Test of Cognitive Explanations of the Reminiscence Bump and the Linguistic Encoding of Memories

Journal Article · October 1, 1998 Twelve people who emigrated as adults from Spanish-speaking cultures and then spent at least 30 years in an Anglo culture were asked to provide autobiographical memories to word cues. All communication was in Spanish on one day and English on a second. In ... Full text Open Access Cite

Knowledge and judgments about events that occurred prior to birth: The measurement of the persistence of information

Journal Article · September 1, 1998 Data from five laboratories using five different techniques were reanalyzed to measure subjects' knowledge of events that occurred over the past 70 years. Subjects were about 20 years of age, so the measures included events that extended up to 50 years bef ... Open Access Cite

Memory and learning for a novel written style.

Journal Article · July 1998 Subjects read and recalled a series of five short stories in one of four plot and style combinations. The stories were written in one of two styles that consisted of opposing clause orders (i.e., independent-dependent vs. dependent-independent), tense form ... Open Access Cite

Visual memory-deficit amnesia: a distinct amnesic presentation and etiology.

Journal Article · April 28, 1998 We describe a form of amnesia, which we have called visual memory-deficit amnesia, that is caused by damage to areas of the visual system that store visual information. Because it is caused by a deficit in access to stored visual material and not by an imp ... Open Access Cite

The spacing effect depends on an encoding deficit, retrieval, and time in working memory: evidence from once-presented words.

Journal Article · January 1998 The spacing effect in list learning occurs because identical massed items suffer encoding deficits and because spaced items benefit from retrieval and increased time in working memory. Requiring the retrieval of identical items produced a spacing effect fo ... Full text Open Access Cite

Things learned in early adulthood are remembered best.

Journal Article · January 1998 Evidence is reviewed that for older adults the period from 10 to 30 years of age produces recall of the most autobiographical memories, the most vivid memories, and the most important memories. It is the period from which peoples' favorite films, music, an ... Open Access Cite

The distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan.

Journal Article · November 1997 Words were used to cue autobiographical memories from 20- and 70-year-old subjects. Both groups showed a decrease in memories from the childhood years and a power-function retention function for their most recent 10 years. Older subjects also had an increa ... Open Access Cite

Distribution of important and word-cued autobiographical memories in 20-, 35-, and 70-year-old adults.

Journal Article · September 1997 For word-cued autobiographical memories, older adults had an increase, or bump, from the ages 10 to 30. All age groups had fewer memories from childhood than from other years and a power-function retention for memories from the most recent 10 years. There ... Open Access Cite

Properties of word cues for autobiographical memory.

Journal Article · August 1997 A sample of 124 words were used to cue autobiographical memories in 120 adults varying in age from 20 to 73 years. Individual words reliably cued autobiographical memories of different ages with different speeds. For all age groups, words rated high in ima ... Full text Open Access Cite

One hundred years of forgetting: A quantitative description of retention

Journal Article · December 1, 1996 A sample of 210 published data sets were assembled that (a) plotted amount remembered versus time, (b) had 5 or more points, and (c) were smooth enough to fit at least 1 of the functions tested with a correlation coefficient of .90 or greater. Each was fit ... Open Access Cite

Spatial imagery preserves temporal order.

Journal Article · September 1996 Line drawings were presented in either a spatial or a nonspatial format. Subjects recalled each of four sets of 24 items in serial order. Amount recalled in the correct serial order and sequencing errors were scored. In Experiment 1 items appeared either i ... Full text Open Access Cite

Remembering Our Past: Studies in Autobiographical Memory

Book · 1996 This book reviews the latest research in the field of autobiographical memory. ... Cite

Memory in Oral Traditions: The Cognitive Psychology of Epic, Ballads, and Counting-out Rhymes

Book · 1995 Dr. Rubin has brought cognitive psychology into a wholly unprecedented dialogue with studies in oral tradition. ... Cite

The beginnings of expertise for ballads

Journal Article · January 1, 1993 To study the beginning stages of expertise, 14 students, who were inexperienced with ballads, heard and recalled a series of 5 ballads over the course of 5 weeks. Compared with their first recall of the first ballad, their first recall of the fifth ballad ... Open Access Cite

Characteristics and Constraints in Ballads and Their Effects on Memory

Journal Article · April 1, 1991 Four sets of ballads, chosen as a sample of an oral tradition as it existed in North Carolina in the early 1900s, were examined in order to determine whether ballad characteristics used in combination are sufficient to account for the stability observed fr ... Full text Open Access Cite

The abstraction of form in semantic categories.

Journal Article · January 1991 Undergraduates were asked to generate a name for a hypothetical new exemplar of a category. They produced names that had the same numbers of syllables, the same endings, and the same types of word stems as existing exemplars of that category. In addition, ... Open Access Cite

Memorabeatlia: a naturalistic study of long-term memory.

Journal Article · March 1990 Seventy-six undergraduates were given the titles and first lines of Beatles' songs and asked to recall the songs. Seven hundred and four different undergraduates were cued with one line from each of 25 Beatles' songs and asked to recall the title. The prob ... Open Access Cite

Telescoping is not time compression: a model of the dating of autobiographical events.

Journal Article · November 1989 A model of telescoping is proposed that assumes no systematic errors in dating. Rather, the overestimation of recent occurrences of events is based on the combination of three factors: (1) Retention is greater for recent events; (2) errors in dating, thoug ... Open Access Cite

Rhyme and Reason: Analyses of Dual Retrieval Cues

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition · September 1, 1989 Open Access Cite

Everyday Cognition in Adulthood and Late Life

Book · 1989 The authors present relevant data that open up new directions for those studying cognitive aging. ... Cite

Natural rhythmic patterns in English verse: Evidence from child counting-out rhymes

Journal Article · January 1, 1988 Counting-out rhymes are part of an oral tradition whose primary participants are children. These facts are used to justify the claim that the rhythmic structure of counting-out rhymes can be attributed to natural preferences more readily than could the str ... Full text Open Access Cite

Autobiographical Memory

Book · 1986 Rubin brings together and integrates the best contemporary work on the cognitive psychology of memories of the self. ... Cite

Unit Analysis of Prose Memory in Clinical and Elderly Populations

Journal Article · January 1, 1986 Interpretation of clinical memory tests generally emphasizes the quantitative aspects of recall. This study presents an additional unit analysis of the Logical Memory subtest of Russell's revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale for a variety of older adult g ... Full text Open Access Cite

Memorability as a measure of processing: a unit analysis of prose and list learning.

Journal Article · June 1985 The percentage of subjects recalling each unit in a list or prose passage is considered as a dependent measure. When the same units are recalled in different tasks, processing is assumed to be the same; when different units are recalled, processing is assu ... Open Access Cite

THE SUBTLE DECEIVER - RECALLING OUR PAST

Journal Article · January 1, 1985 Open Access Cite

Vivid memories.

Journal Article · February 1984 Open Access Cite

Olfactory cuing of autobiographical memory.

Journal Article · 1984 In Experiment 1, subjects were presented with either the odors or the names of 15 common objects. In Experiment 2, subjects were presented with either the odors, photographs, or names of 16 common objects. All subjects were asked to describe an autobiograp ... Open Access Cite

A schema for common cents.

Journal Article · July 1983 Open Access Cite

The Toronto Word Pool: Norms for imagery, concreteness, orthographic variables, and grammatical usage for 1,080 words

Journal Article · September 1, 1982 Imagery and concreteness norms and percentage noun usage were obtained on the 1,080 verbal items from the Toronto Word Pool. Imagery was defined as the rated ease with which a word aroused a mental image, and concreteness was defined in relation to level o ... Full text Open Access Cite

A depth aftereffect caused by viewing a rotating Ames window.

Journal Article · January 1982 After a rotating Ames window has been viewed, a normal test window held diagonal to the subject's line of sight appears to be distorted, having a larger back than front. The effect does not occur if a normal window is rotated or if the test window is held ... Full text Open Access Cite

On the retention function for autobiographical memory

Journal Article · January 1, 1982 College undergraduates were asked to record events from their lives, and then to date those events. Data were collected from groups of subjects using a set of cue words to prompt the events, from individual subjects, for individual cue words, from groups o ... Full text Open Access Cite

Adaptation-level theory and the free recall of mixed-frequency lists

Journal Article · January 1, 1982 Subjects learned a list containing both high-frequency (common) and low-frequency (rare) words after learning five lists of either high-or low-frequency words. As predicted by adaptation-level theory, preexposure to lists at one frequency made words at tha ... Full text Open Access Cite

First-order approximation to English, second-order approximation to English, and orthographic neighbor ratio norms for 925 nouns

Journal Article · November 1, 1981 First- and second-order approximations to English and orthographic neighbor ratio values are provided for Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan's (1968) 925 nouns. First- and second-order approximations to English are information theory measures of the probability o ... Full text Open Access Cite

Clustering by alcoholic Korsakoff patients.

Journal Article · January 1981 Twelve alcoholic Korsakoff patients and 12 alcoholic controls recalled two clusterable lists, and two nonclusterable lists. Korsakoff patients recalled more from the clusterable than the nonclusterable lists. Detailed analysis of the Korsakoff results indi ... Full text Open Access Cite

Memory for prose in Korsakoff and schizophrenic populations.

Journal Article · January 1981 Twelve alcoholic Korsakoff patients, their 12 alcoholic controls, and 27 institutionalized schizophrenics and their 19 controls, recalled two stories. The clinical populations recalled approximately half as much as their controls, yet recalled the same par ... Full text Open Access Cite

Recall of semantic domains.

Journal Article · July 1980 The order of recall of lists of words learned incidentally was analyzed by multidimensional scaling similarity matrices based on the number of times words were retrieved next to each other. For the semantic domains of mammals, birds, and kinship terms, ret ... Full text Open Access Cite

51 properties of 125 words: A unit analysis of verbal behavior

Journal Article · January 1, 1980 Values for 125 words were obtained for 51 scales including measures of orthography, pronunciation, imagery, categorizability, association, number of attributes, age-of-acquisition, word frequency, goodness, emotionality, autobiographical memory, tachistosc ... Full text Open Access Cite

On measuring fuzziness: a comment on "A fuzzy set approach to modifiers and vagueness in natural language".

Journal Article · December 1979 Hersh and Caramazza's application of fuzzy set theory to vagueness in natural language is criticized for including in their measures of fuzziness response variability due to experimental and statistical procedures. ... Full text Open Access Cite

A unit analysis of prose memory

Journal Article · January 1, 1978 Four stories were divided into function word units. These units were assigned dependent variable values determined by the scoring of subjects' recalls and independent variable values determined by measures of gist, imagery, repetition, frequency of occurre ... Full text Open Access Cite

Word⇔initial and word⇔final ngram frequencies

Journal Article · January 1, 1978 Every word-initial and word-final letter cluster, or ngram, that occurred in 30 or more different words in one million words of running text is listed along with the number of different words and the total number of words it appeared in. The relation of th ... Full text Open Access Cite

Estimating chance reproducibility in Guttman Scaling

Journal Article · January 1, 1977 A definition of reproducibility in Guttman Scaling and two chance measures of reproducibility are suggested. The first measure assumes that the items are independent. The second method assumes nonindependent items and fits respondent and item margins by an ... Full text Open Access Cite

A halo visual illusion.

Journal Article · January 1977 A visual illusion consisting of transparent halos extending beyond the boundaries of rotating discs is reported. The effect can be obtained by rotating a variety of black-and-white discs at moderate speeds. It is not due solely to rods, as opposed to cones ... Full text Open Access Cite

Very long-term memory for prose and verse

Journal Article · January 1, 1977 Recalls from five passages learned by undergraduates in the course of growing up in America were obtained. Unlike passages learned in the laboratory, the recalls, while partial, were exact with no evidence of constructive memory. Although there was no cont ... Full text Open Access Cite

Frequency of occurrence as a psychophysical continuum: Weber's fraction, Ekman's fraction, range effects, and the phi-gamma hypothesis

Journal Article · September 1, 1976 Using the continuum of frequency of occurrence of words in English, it was found that: (1) errors in judgment are distributed lognormally rather than normally, and therefore the standard method of calculating Weber's fraction underestimates its definition, ... Full text Open Access Cite

The effectiveness of context before, after, and around a missing word

Journal Article · March 1, 1976 The probability of correctly guessing a missing word was measured using lour different kinds of context: all words before the missing word (forward context), all words after the missing word (backward context), all words before and the one word after the m ... Full text Open Access Cite

A simple method for producing figures for publication

Journal Article Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation · 1976 Open Access Cite

Within word structure in the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

Journal Article · January 1, 1975 Definitions of four rare words were read to 259 undergradua tes. Those subjects who were in the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state recorded all the letters they knew. The within-word structure of the resulting 101 partial recalls was indistinguishable from that ... Full text Open Access Cite

The subjective estimation of relative syllable frequency

Journal Article · January 1, 1974 Ss are able to judge the relative frequency of occurrence in English of nonmorphemic syllables independent of phoneme frequency. The results support a theory of speech perception based on the syllable as a unit as opposed to the phoneme. © 1974 Psychonomic ... Full text Open Access Cite

Electric field hysteresis effects in cholesteric liquid crystals

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · 1970 Cite

TEST

Journal Article Cite