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Kanecia Obie Zimmerman

Professor of Pediatrics
Pediatrics, Critical Care Medicine
300 West Morgan Street, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


Sedation Research in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: Proposals for Future Study Design From the Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education, and Research IV Workshop.

Journal Article Pediatr Crit Care Med · April 1, 2024 OBJECTIVES: Sedation and analgesia for infants and children requiring mechanical ventilation in the PICU is uniquely challenging due to the wide spectrum of ages, developmental stages, and pathophysiological processes encountered. Studies evaluating the sa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Population Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine in Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease and Associations with Acute Kidney Injury.

Journal Article J Clin Pharmacol · March 2024 Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) occurs in approximately 65% of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass and contributes to morbidity and mortality. Caffeine may reduce CS-AKI by counteracting adenosine receptor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Morbidity and mortality of twins and triplets compared to singleton infants delivered between 26-34 weeks gestation in the United States.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 2024 OBJECTIVE: To describe in-hospital morbidities and mortality among twins and triplets delivered at ≥26 to ≤34 weeks gestational age (GA) while controlling for prematurity and growth restriction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of inborn infants discha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prescribing practices of inhaled corticosteroids for premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 31, 2024 OBJECTIVE: Despite limited safety and efficacy data, inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are prescribed to premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We examined contemporary use and risk factors for ICS use in the NICU. STUDY DESIGN: Infants ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in COVID-19 diagnoses and outcomes in infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 2024 OBJECTIVE: Characterize the prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis among mothers with infants hospitalized in 294 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), and demographics and outcomes of infants with severe acute respiratory syndrome co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors and epidemiology of spontaneous intestinal perforation among infants born at 22-24 weeks' gestational age.

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 2024 OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, risk factors, and timing of spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) among infants born at 22-24 weeks' gestational age (GA). STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study among infants born at 22-24 weeks' GA in 446 neo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Underimmunization of very low birth weight infants at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 2024 OBJECTIVE: To quantify immunization status among premature infants discharged from neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), and identify risk factors for underimmunization. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cohort study of infants <33 weeks gestation discharged h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in Pediatric Emergency and Inpatient Healthcare Use for Mental and Behavioral Health Among North Carolinians During the Early COVID-19 Pandemic.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: Widespread school closures and health care avoidance during the COVID-19 pandemic led to disruptions in access to pediatric mental health care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of emergency and inpatient administrative claims from pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Leveraging School Infection Data to Address Community COVID-19 Data Gaps.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: At-home COVID-19 tests became available in the USA in April 2021 with widespread use by January 2022; however, the lack of infrastructure to report test results to public health agencies created a gap in public health data. Kindergarten through ... Full text Link to item Cite

Late-Onset Sepsis Evaluation and Empiric Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: Little is known about late-onset sepsis (LOS) evaluations in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). We describe frequencies of LOS evaluation in ELGANs, infant characteristics, and empiric therapy choices during evaluations. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Pediatric Preventive Health Care Among North Carolina Children Enrolled in Medicaid.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: Children enrolled in private insurance had reduced preventive health care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the impact of the pandemic on children enrolled in Medicaid has been minimally described. METHODS: We us ... Full text Link to item Cite

School Absenteeism as a Marker for Community COVID-19 Rates.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: Reported community transmission rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may not be accurate, particularly since at-home testing has become widely available. School absenteeism may serve as a marker of broader community COVID-19 transmissio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mentorship.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 Full text Link to item Cite

Use of Dexmedetomidine and Opioids in Hospitalized Preterm Infants.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · November 1, 2023 IMPORTANCE: Dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist, is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in premature infants. However, the off-label use of dexmedetomidine in premature infants has increased 50-fold in the past decade. Currently, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Kids Mod PAH trial: A multicenter trial comparing mono- versus duo-therapy for initial treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension.

Journal Article Pulm Circ · October 2023 Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a significant health problem that contributes to high morbidity and mortality in diverse cardiac, pulmonary, and systemic diseases in children. Evidence-based advances in PH care have been challenged by a paucity of quality e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Building School-Academic Partnerships to Implement COVID-19 Testing in Underserved Populations.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 1, 2023 OBJECTIVE: In April 2021, the US government made substantial investments in students' safe return to school by providing resources for school-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mitigation strategies, including COVID-19 diagnostic testing. However, t ... Full text Link to item Cite

In-Person Instruction and Educational Outcomes of K-8 Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 1, 2023 OBJECTIVES: Quantify the relationship between district policy permitting in-person instruction and educational outcomes during the 2020 to 2021 academic year for kindergarten through eighth grade students. METHODS: An ecological, repeated cross-sectional a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Common Data Element Collection in Underserved School Communities: Challenges and Recommendations.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 1, 2023 OBJECTIVES: To provide recommendations for future common data element (CDE) development and collection that increases community partnership, harmonizes data interpretation, and continues to reduce barriers of mistrust between researchers and underserved co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utilization and Impact of Symptomatic and Exposure SARS-CoV-2 Testing in K-12 Schools.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 1, 2023 OBJECTIVES: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that schools can offer severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostic (on-demand) testing for students and staff with coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms or exposur ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sedation Research in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients: Proposals for Future Study Design From the Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education, and Research IV Workshop.

Journal Article Pediatr Crit Care Med · April 1, 2024 OBJECTIVES: Sedation and analgesia for infants and children requiring mechanical ventilation in the PICU is uniquely challenging due to the wide spectrum of ages, developmental stages, and pathophysiological processes encountered. Studies evaluating the sa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Population Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine in Neonates with Congenital Heart Disease and Associations with Acute Kidney Injury.

Journal Article J Clin Pharmacol · March 2024 Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CS-AKI) occurs in approximately 65% of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass and contributes to morbidity and mortality. Caffeine may reduce CS-AKI by counteracting adenosine receptor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Morbidity and mortality of twins and triplets compared to singleton infants delivered between 26-34 weeks gestation in the United States.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 2024 OBJECTIVE: To describe in-hospital morbidities and mortality among twins and triplets delivered at ≥26 to ≤34 weeks gestational age (GA) while controlling for prematurity and growth restriction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of inborn infants discha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prescribing practices of inhaled corticosteroids for premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 31, 2024 OBJECTIVE: Despite limited safety and efficacy data, inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are prescribed to premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We examined contemporary use and risk factors for ICS use in the NICU. STUDY DESIGN: Infants ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in COVID-19 diagnoses and outcomes in infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 2024 OBJECTIVE: Characterize the prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis among mothers with infants hospitalized in 294 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), and demographics and outcomes of infants with severe acute respiratory syndrome co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors and epidemiology of spontaneous intestinal perforation among infants born at 22-24 weeks' gestational age.

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 2024 OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, risk factors, and timing of spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) among infants born at 22-24 weeks' gestational age (GA). STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort study among infants born at 22-24 weeks' GA in 446 neo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Underimmunization of very low birth weight infants at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 2024 OBJECTIVE: To quantify immunization status among premature infants discharged from neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), and identify risk factors for underimmunization. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cohort study of infants <33 weeks gestation discharged h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in Pediatric Emergency and Inpatient Healthcare Use for Mental and Behavioral Health Among North Carolinians During the Early COVID-19 Pandemic.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: Widespread school closures and health care avoidance during the COVID-19 pandemic led to disruptions in access to pediatric mental health care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of emergency and inpatient administrative claims from pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Leveraging School Infection Data to Address Community COVID-19 Data Gaps.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: At-home COVID-19 tests became available in the USA in April 2021 with widespread use by January 2022; however, the lack of infrastructure to report test results to public health agencies created a gap in public health data. Kindergarten through ... Full text Link to item Cite

Late-Onset Sepsis Evaluation and Empiric Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: Little is known about late-onset sepsis (LOS) evaluations in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). We describe frequencies of LOS evaluation in ELGANs, infant characteristics, and empiric therapy choices during evaluations. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Pediatric Preventive Health Care Among North Carolina Children Enrolled in Medicaid.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: Children enrolled in private insurance had reduced preventive health care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the impact of the pandemic on children enrolled in Medicaid has been minimally described. METHODS: We us ... Full text Link to item Cite

School Absenteeism as a Marker for Community COVID-19 Rates.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: Reported community transmission rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may not be accurate, particularly since at-home testing has become widely available. School absenteeism may serve as a marker of broader community COVID-19 transmissio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mentorship.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 Full text Link to item Cite

Use of Dexmedetomidine and Opioids in Hospitalized Preterm Infants.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · November 1, 2023 IMPORTANCE: Dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist, is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in premature infants. However, the off-label use of dexmedetomidine in premature infants has increased 50-fold in the past decade. Currently, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Kids Mod PAH trial: A multicenter trial comparing mono- versus duo-therapy for initial treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension.

Journal Article Pulm Circ · October 2023 Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a significant health problem that contributes to high morbidity and mortality in diverse cardiac, pulmonary, and systemic diseases in children. Evidence-based advances in PH care have been challenged by a paucity of quality e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Building School-Academic Partnerships to Implement COVID-19 Testing in Underserved Populations.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 1, 2023 OBJECTIVE: In April 2021, the US government made substantial investments in students' safe return to school by providing resources for school-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mitigation strategies, including COVID-19 diagnostic testing. However, t ... Full text Link to item Cite

In-Person Instruction and Educational Outcomes of K-8 Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 1, 2023 OBJECTIVES: Quantify the relationship between district policy permitting in-person instruction and educational outcomes during the 2020 to 2021 academic year for kindergarten through eighth grade students. METHODS: An ecological, repeated cross-sectional a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Common Data Element Collection in Underserved School Communities: Challenges and Recommendations.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 1, 2023 OBJECTIVES: To provide recommendations for future common data element (CDE) development and collection that increases community partnership, harmonizes data interpretation, and continues to reduce barriers of mistrust between researchers and underserved co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utilization and Impact of Symptomatic and Exposure SARS-CoV-2 Testing in K-12 Schools.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 1, 2023 OBJECTIVES: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that schools can offer severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostic (on-demand) testing for students and staff with coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms or exposur ... Full text Link to item Cite

Test-to-Stay in Kindergarten Through 12th Grade Schools After Household Exposure to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2.

Journal Article J Sch Health · May 2023 BACKGROUND: Test-to-stay (TTS) is a strategy to limit school exclusion following an exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We evaluated the use of TTS within universally masked kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) schoo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessing clinical site readiness for electronic health record (EHR)-to-electronic data capture (EDC) automated data collection.

Journal Article Contemporary clinical trials · May 2023 BackgroundeSource software is used to automatically copy a patient's electronic health record data into a clinical study's electronic case report form. However, there is little evidence to assist sponsors in identifying the best sites for multi-ce ... Full text Cite

Caregivers of Black and Latino/a/x Students and School Personnel Perspectives on School-Based SARS-CoV-2 Testing: Implications for Testing and Test-to-Stay Programs in K-12 Schools.

Journal Article J Sch Health · March 2023 BACKGROUND: "Test-to-stay" (TTS) is an effective approach for keeping students in school post-exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To prepare for school-based SARS-CoV-2 testing, we implemented formative research to gat ... Full text Link to item Cite

SARS-CoV-2 Screening Testing Programs for Safe In-person Learning in K-12 Schools.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · February 27, 2023 BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) screening testing is a recommended mitigation strategy for schools, although few descriptions of program implementation are available. METHODS: Kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mechanisms to expedite pediatric clinical trial site activation: The DOSE trial experience.

Journal Article Contemp Clin Trials · February 2023 BACKGROUND: Timely trial start-up is a key determinant of trial success; however, delays during start-up are common and costly. Moreover, data on start-up metrics in pediatric clinical trials are sparse. To expedite trial start-up, the Trial Innovation Net ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparative Effectiveness of Dual- Versus Mono-Sedative Therapy on Opioid Administration, Sedative Administration, and Sedation Level in Mechanically Ventilated, Critically Ill Children.

Journal Article J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther · 2023 OBJECTIVE: We estimated the effect of early initiation of dual therapy vs monotherapy on drug administration and related outcomes in mechanically ventilated, critically ill children. METHODS: We used the electronic medical record at a single tertiary medic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetics and Proposed Dosing of Levetiracetam in Children With Obesity.

Journal Article J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther · 2023 OBJECTIVE: Characterize levetiracetam pharmacokinetics (PK) in children with obesity to inform dosing. METHODS: Children 2 to <21 years old receiving standard of care oral levetiracetam across two opportunistic studies provided blood samples. Levetiracetam ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of Electronic Health Records to Identify Exposure-Response Relationships in Critically Ill Children: An Example of Midazolam and Delirium.

Journal Article J Pediatr Intensive Care · December 2022 Adverse drug events are common in critically ill children and often result from systemic or target organ drug exposure. Methods of drug dosing and titration that consider pharmacokinetic alterations may improve our ability to optimally dose critically ill ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety of sildenafil in premature infants at risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Rationale and methods of a phase II randomized trial.

Journal Article Contemp Clin Trials Commun · December 2022 Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a disease of chronic respiratory insufficiency stemming from premature birth and iatrogenic lung injury leading to alveolar simplification, impaired alveolar-capillary development, interstitial fibrosis, and often pulmon ... Full text Link to item Cite

Test-to-Stay After SARS-CoV-2 Exposure: A Mitigation Strategy for Optionally Masked K-12 Schools.

Journal Article Pediatrics · November 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of a test-to-stay (TTS) program on within-school transmission and missed school days in optionally masked kindergarten through 12th grade schools during a period of high community severe acute respiratory syndrome corona ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of Real-World Data and Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Characterize Enoxaparin Disposition in Children With Obesity.

Journal Article Clin Pharmacol Ther · August 2022 Dosing guidance for children with obesity is often unknown despite the fact that nearly 20% of US children are classified as obese. Enoxaparin, a commonly prescribed low-molecular-weight heparin, is dosed based on body weight irrespective of obesity status ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prescribing Patterns of Amantadine During Pediatric Inpatient Rehabilitation After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicentered Retrospective Review From the Pediatric Brain Injury Consortium.

Journal Article J Head Trauma Rehabil · July 2022 OBJECTIVES: To describe dosing practices for amantadine hydrochloride and related adverse effects among children and young adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to pediatric inpatient rehabilitation units. SETTING: Eight pediatric acute inpatie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ampicillin dosing in premature infants for early-onset sepsis: exposure-driven efficacy, safety, and stewardship.

Journal Article J Perinatol · July 2022 OBJECTIVE: Define optimal ampicillin dosing for empiric early-onset sepsis (EOS) therapy in preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: We simulated ampicillin concentrations in newborns (birthweight < 1500 g; gestational age 22-27 weeks), summarizing three 48 h regim ... Full text Link to item Cite

Developing lay summaries and thank you notes in paediatric pragmatic clinical trials.

Journal Article Health Expect · June 2022 INTRODUCTION: Better transparency of research results and participant engagement may help address poor participant accrual in paediatric clinical research. We conducted formative research to assess the acceptability of lay summaries and thank you notes, as ... Full text Link to item Cite

School Masking Policies and Secondary SARS-CoV-2 Transmission.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, masking has been a widely used mitigation practice in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school districts to limit within-school transmission. Prior studies attempting to quantify the impact of masking have ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association Between Digoxin Use and Cardiac Function in Infants With Single-Ventricle Congenital Heart Disease During the Interstage Period.

Journal Article Pediatr Crit Care Med · June 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between digoxin use and cardiac function assessed by echocardiographic indices in infants with single-ventricle (SV) congenital heart disease (CHD) during the interstage period. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SET ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to inform dosing of the opioid analgesics fentanyl and methadone in children with obesity.

Journal Article CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol · June 2022 Obesity is an increasingly alarming public health threat, with nearly 20% of children classified as obese in the United States today. Children with obesity are commonly prescribed the opioids fentanyl and methadone, and accurate dosing is critical to reduc ... Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship between simulated milrinone exposure and hypotension in children.

Journal Article Cardiol Young · May 2022 INTRODUCTION: Hypotension is an adverse event that may be related to systemic exposure of milrinone; however, the true exposure-safety relationship is unknown. METHODS: Using the Pediatric Trials Network multicentre repository, we identified children ≤17 y ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of a Generic Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Lactation and Prediction of Maternal and Infant Exposure to Ondansetron via Breast Milk.

Journal Article Clin Pharmacol Ther · May 2022 Ondansetron is commonly used in breastfeeding mothers to treat nausea and vomiting. There is limited information in humans regarding safety of ondansetron exposure to nursing infants and no adequate study looking at ondansetron pharmacokinetics during lact ... Full text Link to item Cite

SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Incidence at a North Carolina Pre-Kindergarten-12 School During In-Person Education: August 2020 to January 2021.

Journal Article J Sch Health · May 2022 BACKGROUND: School closures were initially believed to mitigate SARS-CoV-2, but instead may have had a limited role in reducing community SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We describe a single school's experience with in-person education during the COVID-19 pandemi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Test-to-Stay After Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in K-12 Schools.

Journal Article Pediatrics · May 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a test-to-stay program for unvaccinated students and staff who experienced an unmasked, in-school exposure to someone with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development and Evaluation of a Virtual Population of Children with Obesity for Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

Journal Article Clin Pharmacokinet · February 2022 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While one in five children in the USA are now obese, and more than three-quarters receive at least one drug during childhood, there is limited dosing guidance for this vulnerable patient population. Physiologically based pharmacok ... Full text Link to item Cite

Secondary Transmission of COVID-19 in K-12 Schools: Findings From 2 States.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 2022 ObjectivesWe evaluated the impact of distancing practices on secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the degree of sports-associated secondary transmission across a large diverse cohort of schools during sprin ... Full text Cite

Masking Adherence in K-12 Schools and SARS-CoV-2 Secondary Transmission.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: Masking is an essential coronavirus 2019 mitigation tool assisting in the safe return of kindergarten through 12th grade children and staff to in-person instruction; however, masking adherence, compliance evaluation methods, and potential conse ... Full text Link to item Cite

Building a National Framework to Pair Scientists and Schools During a Global Pandemic.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 1, 2022 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced the suspension of in-person education in schools serving students in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) across the United States. As time passed, teachers, students, and parents struggled with rem ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quarantine Elimination for K-12 Students With Mask-on-Mask Exposure to SARS-CoV-2.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: With layered mitigation strategies, there are low rates of secondary transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; therefore, quarantine after close-contact exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the k ... Full text Link to item Cite

Urban Classification, Not COVID-19 Community Rates, Was Associated With Modes of Learning in US K-12 Schools?

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with the decision to provide in-person, hybrid, and remote learning in kindergarten through 12th grade school districts during the 2020-2021 school year. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study evaluating scho ... Full text Link to item Cite

From Research to Policy: Reopening K-12 Schools in North Carolina During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 1, 2022 School-aged children experienced substantial challenges to health and well-being as a result of school-building closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In hopes of supporting equitable and safe school reopening for every student across North ... Full text Link to item Cite

A School-Based SARS-CoV-2 Testing Program: Testing Uptake and Quarantine Length After In-School Exposures.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 1, 2022 OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related quarantines, which are required after close contact with infected individuals, have substantially disrupted in-person education for kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) stud ... Full text Link to item Cite

Medication Use in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Changes from 2010 to 2018.

Journal Article J Pediatr · January 2022 OBJECTIVE: To provide up-to-date medication prescribing patterns in US neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to examine trends in prescribing patterns over time. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cohort study of 799 016 infants treated in NICUs managed by t ... Full text Link to item Cite

School Safety, Masking, and the Delta Variant.

Journal Article Pediatrics · December 7, 2021 Full text Link to item Cite

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Meropenem in Preterm and Term Infants.

Conference Clin Pharmacokinet · December 2021 BACKGROUND: Meropenem is a broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in pediatric patients, including treating complicated intra-abdominal infections in infants < 3 months of age. The impact of maturation ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparative efficacy and safety of late surfactant preparations: a retrospective study.

Journal Article J Perinatol · November 2021 OBJECTIVE: Characterize the use, efficacy, and safety of poractant alfa and calfactant surfactants compared to beractant in preterm infants receiving late surfactant. STUDY DESIGN: We included infants <37 weeks gestational age (GA) discharged from Pediatri ... Full text Link to item Cite

School Safety, Masking, and the Delta Variant.

Journal Article Pediatrics · October 8, 2021 Full text Link to item Cite

Community SARS-CoV-2 Surge and Within-School Transmission.

Journal Article Pediatrics · October 2021 OBJECTIVES: When the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began, experts raised concerns about in-person instruction in the setting of high levels of community transmission. We describe secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vasoactive medications in extremely low gestational age neonates during the first postnatal week.

Journal Article J Perinatol · September 2021 OBJECTIVE: The management of early hypotension in extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGANs) varies greatly between centers. The objective of this study was to provide updated data on the use of vasoactive medications in ELGANs during the first postna ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetics of Ceftazidime in Children and Adolescents with Obesity.

Journal Article Paediatr Drugs · September 2021 PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate ceftazidime pharmacokinetics (PK) in a cohort that includes a predominate number of children and adolescents with obesity and assess the efficacy of competing dosing strategies. METHODS: A population PK model ... Full text Link to item Cite

High-Flow Nasal Cannula in Pediatric Critical Asthma.

Journal Article Respiratory care · August 2021 BackgroundHigh-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been used in the treatment of pediatric asthma, although high-quality data comparing HFNC to aerosol mask nebulizer are lacking. We hypothesized that HFNC would perform similarly to the aerosol mask for ... Full text Cite

New Insights into Gastrointestinal Involvement in Late-Onset Pompe Disease: Lessons Learned from Bench and Bedside.

Journal Article J Clin Med · July 30, 2021 BACKGROUND: There are new emerging phenotypes in Pompe disease, and studies on smooth muscle pathology are limited. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are poorly understood and underreported in Pompe disease. METHODS: To understand the extent and the eff ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cognitive Recovery During Inpatient Rehabilitation Following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pediatric Brain Injury Consortium Study.

Journal Article J Head Trauma Rehabil · July 2021 OBJECTIVES: To characterize the demographics, clinical course, and predictors of cognitive recovery among children and young adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Retrospective observational, mu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pediatric Trials Network: Stakeholder views on thanking families and providing study findings on pragmatic pediatric clinical research.

Journal Article Contemp Clin Trials Commun · June 2021 We conducted formative research using in-depth interviews to identify preferences for and anticipated responses to receiving thank you notes and lay summaries of aggregate results among caregivers and adolescent participants of pragmatic pediatric studies ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prolonged Post-Discontinuation Antibiotic Exposure in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates at Risk for Early-Onset Sepsis.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · May 28, 2021 BACKGROUND: Premature, very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates are at risk for early-onset sepsis and receive ampicillin and gentamicin post-birth. Antimicrobial stewardship supports short-course antibiotics, but how long antibiotic concentrations remain the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluating Site-Level Implementations of the HL7 FHIR Standard to Support eSource Data Exchange in Clinical Research.

Journal Article Stud Health Technol Inform · May 27, 2021 Direct extraction and use of electronic health record (EHR) data is a long-term and multifaceted endeavor that includes design, development, implementation and evaluation of methods and tools for semi-automating tasks in the research data collection proces ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Studies Funded Under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act.

Journal Article Pediatrics · May 2021 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) incentivizes the study of on-patent medicines in children and mandates that the National Institutes of Health sponsor research on off-patent drugs important to pediatric therapeuti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incidence and Secondary Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Schools.

Journal Article Pediatrics · April 2021 BackgroundIn an effort to mitigate the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), North Carolina closed prekindergarten through grade 12 public schools to in-person instruction on March 14, 2020. On July 15, 2020, Nort ... Full text Cite

The use of supplemental hydrocortisone in the management of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

Journal Article J Perinatol · April 2021 OBJECTIVE: Characterize association between hydrocortisone receipt and hospital outcomes of infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study of infants ≥34 weeks with PPHN who received inhaled nitric oxide at ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetics of Hydrochlorothiazide in Children: A Potential Surrogate for Renal Secretion Maturation.

Journal Article J Clin Pharmacol · March 2021 Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a thiazide diuretic used in adults and children for the treatment of hypertension and edema. The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of HCTZ in children are not well characterized, particularly among children with obesity who freq ... Full text Link to item Cite

Wide range of perioperative drugs and doses used in inguinal hernia repairs for premature infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · March 2021 OBJECTIVE: Characterize the types and doses of commonly administered perioperative drugs in inguinal hernia (IH) repair for premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: In total, 112 premature infants underwent IH re ... Full text Link to item Cite

Population pharmacokinetics of olanzapine in children.

Journal Article Br J Clin Pharmacol · February 2021 AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) of olanzapine in children and devise a model-informed paediatric dosing scheme. METHODS: The PopPK of olanzapine was characterized using opportunistically collected plasma ... Full text Link to item Cite

Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Characterizes the CYP3A-Mediated Drug-Drug Interaction Between Fluconazole and Sildenafil in Infants.

Journal Article Clin Pharmacol Ther · January 2021 Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can potentially predict pediatric drug-drug interactions (DDIs) when clinical DDI data are limited. In infants for whom treatment of pulmonary hypertension and prevention or treatment of invasive candid ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early-onset sepsis in term infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (2011-2016).

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 2021 OBJECTIVES: Investigate characteristics of term infants culture-evaluated for early-onset sepsis (EOS) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), frequencies of organisms causing EOS, and factors associated with EOS. STUDY DESIGN: Using a cohort design, we ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluation of effect of scheduled fresh frozen plasma on ECMO circuit life: A randomized pilot trial.

Journal Article Transfusion · January 2021 BACKGROUND: Factor consumption is common during ECMO complicating the balance of pro and anticoagulation factors. This study sought to determine whether transfusion of coagulation factors using fresh frozen plasma (FFP) increased ECMO circuit life and decr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of COVID-19-related School Closures on the Drivers of Child Health.

Journal Article N C Med J · 2021 The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in large-scale school closures in an effort to reduce the spread of disease. This article reviews the potential impact of COVID-19-related school closures on the health of children in North Carolina, with particular attention ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluation of qtc interval effects of antipsychotic medications for intensive care unit delirium in pediatric patients

Journal Article Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics · January 1, 2021 OBJECTIVE Intensive care unit delirium is an increasingly recognized problem in pediatric patients. Controversy exists regarding the safety and efficacy of antipsychotic medications for this indication. The objective of this study was to determine the inci ... Full text Cite

An evidence-based review of the use of vasoactive and inotropic medications in post-operative paediatric patients after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass from 2000 to 2020.

Journal Article Cardiol Young · December 2020 BACKGROUND: Infants with moderate-to-severe CHD frequently undergo cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in childhood. Morbidity and mortality are highest in those who develop post-operative low cardiac output syndrome. Vasoactive and inotropic medications are ma ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exchange transfusion safety and outcomes in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

Journal Article J Perinatol · October 2020 OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence of exchange transfusion (ET), clinical characteristics of infants receiving ET, and ET-associated morbidity and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a multicenter cohort study of infants ≥23 weeks of gestational a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Simulated Assessment of Pharmacokinetically Guided Dosing for Investigational Treatments of Pediatric Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019.

Journal Article JAMA Pediatr · October 1, 2020 IMPORTANCE: Children of all ages appear susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. To support pediatric clinical studies for investigational treatments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), pediatric-specific dosing is requ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Initial Modified Pulmonary Index Score Predicts Hospital Length of Stay for Asthma Subjects Admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

Journal Article Respir Care · September 2020 BACKGROUND: Scoring systems are frequently used to assess the severity of pediatric asthma exacerbations. The modified pulmonary index score (MPIS) has been found to be highly correlated with length of stay (LOS) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcomes associated with surfactant in more mature and larger premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

Journal Article J Perinatol · August 2020 OBJECTIVE: Examine the effect of off-label surfactant on mortality and morbidity in more mature and larger premature infants diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study of premature infants born at 30-36 weeks, birth weig ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel approaches to quantify CNS involvement in children with Pompe disease.

Journal Article Neurology · August 2020 ObjectiveTo characterize the extent of CNS involvement in children with Pompe disease using brain MRI and developmental assessments.MethodsThe study included 14 children (ages 6-18 years) with infantile Pompe disease (IPD) (n = 12) or lat ... Full text Open Access Cite

Probiotic Use and Safety in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Matched Cohort Study.

Journal Article J Pediatr · July 2020 OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of probiotic administration in infants born preterm over time, as well as the association between probiotic administration and select adverse outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a multicenter cohort study of infants ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety considerations for the use of antifungal drugs in the neonatal population.

Journal Article Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol · July 2020 INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants, particularly in extreme prematurity. Successful systemic treatment requires consideration of antifungal efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics, including ... Full text Link to item Cite

Altered Folate Homeostasis in Children with Down Syndrome: A Potential Basis for Enhanced Methotrexate Toxicity.

Journal Article J Pediatr · June 2020 Methotrexate is used to treat autoimmune and oncologic diseases in children with Down syndrome. However, increased methotrexate-related toxicity is reported in this population. We evaluated differences in the concentrations and distribution of erythrocyte ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of Personal Protective Equipment on Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performance: A Controlled Trial.

Journal Article Pediatr Emerg Care · June 2020 OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether personal protective equipment (PPE) results in deterioration in chest compression (CC) quality and greater fatigue for administering health care providers (HCPs). METHODS: In this multicenter study, HCPs co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dosing of Continuous Fentanyl Infusions in Obese Children: A Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis.

Journal Article J Clin Pharmacol · May 2020 Differences in fentanyl pharmacokinetics (PK) between obese and nonobese adults have previously been reported; however, the impact of childhood obesity on fentanyl PK is relatively unknown. We developed a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model using oppo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Higher dosing of alglucosidase alfa improves outcomes in children with Pompe disease: a clinical study and review of the literature.

Journal Article Genet Med · May 2020 PURPOSE: Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid-α glucosidase (rhGAA) at standard dose of 20 mg/kg every other week is insufficient to halt the long-term progression of myopathy in Pompe disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Medications and in-hospital outcomes in infants born at 22-24 weeks of gestation.

Journal Article J Perinatol · May 2020 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the most commonly used medications and in-hospital morbidities and mortality in infants born 22-24 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of infants born 22-24 weeks of gestation (2006-2016), without ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dexmedetomidine extraction by the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit: results from an in vitro study.

Journal Article Perfusion · April 2020 BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is a sedative administered to minimize distress and decrease the risk of life threatening complications in children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit can extract ... Full text Link to item Cite

Response to Zhang et al.

Journal Article Genet Med · March 2020 Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of Gastrostomy Tube Placement on Short-Term Weight Gain in Hospitalized Premature Infants.

Journal Article JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr · February 2020 BACKGROUND: Gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement is a long-term alternative to oral or nasogastric feeding for premature infants who cannot safely feed orally or need supplemental nutrition for adequate growth. METHODS: We compared daily weight changes for ... Full text Link to item Cite

Detection of iron deficiency in children with Down syndrome.

Journal Article Genet Med · February 2020 PURPOSE: Current American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for children with Down syndrome (DS) recommend a complete blood count (CBC) at birth and hemoglobin annually to screen for iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA) in low-risk children. We aimed to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Wide variation in caffeine discontinuation timing in premature infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 2020 OBJECTIVE: To assess site variability and concomitant respiratory support related to the timing of caffeine discontinuation, and compare clinical characteristics of infants who discontinued caffeine before vs. within the last week of hospitalization. STUDY ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between preoperative respiratory support and outcomes in paediatric cardiac surgery.

Journal Article Cardiol Young · January 2020 BACKGROUND: Preoperative mechanical ventilation is associated with morbidity and mortality following CHD surgery, but prior studies lack a comprehensive analysis of how preoperative respiratory support mode and timing affects outcomes. METHODS: We retrospe ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Comparative safety profile of chloral hydrate versus other sedatives for procedural sedation in hospitalized infants.

Journal Article J Neonatal Perinatal Med · 2020 BACKGROUND: Given the limited available evidence on chloral hydrate safety in neonatal populations and the discrepancy in chloral hydrate acceptance between the US and other countries, we sought to clarify the safety profile of chloral hydrate compared to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacoepidemiology of Furosemide in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Journal Article Neonatology · 2020 BACKGROUND: Furosemide is commonly used off-label in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), but current dosing practices vary widely. OBJECTIVES: To describe dosing practices including route, dose, and duration of exposure to furosemide in a large number ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sedative and Analgesic Pharmacokinetics During Pediatric ECMO.

Journal Article J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther · 2020 Sedatives and analgesics are often administered to critically ill children supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to facilitate comfort and to decrease risks of life-threatening complications. Optimization of sedative and analgesic dosing ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluating the Coverage of the HL7 ® FHIR ® Standard to Support eSource Data Exchange Implementations for use in Multi-Site Clinical Research Studies.

Journal Article AMIA Annu Symp Proc · 2020 The direct use of EHR data in research, often referred to as 'eSource', has long-been a goal for researchers because of anticipated increases in data quality and reductions in site burden. eSource solutions should rely on data exchange standards for consis ... Link to item Cite

Dexmedetomidine Pharmacokinetics and a New Dosing Paradigm in Infants Supported With Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Journal Article Anesth Analg · December 2019 BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is increasingly used off-label in infants and children with cardiac disease during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and in the postoperative period. Despite its frequent use, optimal dosing of dexmedetomidine in the setting of CPB h ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Respiratory Therapist-Driven Asthma Pathway Reduced Hospital Length of Stay in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

Journal Article Respir Care · November 2019 BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common reason for admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Since June 2014, our institution has used a pediatric asthma clinical pathway for all patients, including those in PICU. The pathway promotes respiratory ther ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cefazolin pharmacokinetics in premature infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · September 2019 OBJECTIVE: Pharmacokinetic (PK) data to guide cefazolin dosing in premature infants are virtually non-existent. Therefore, we aimed to characterize cefazolin PK in infants aged ≤32 weeks of gestation at birth. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective, open ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neonatal Therapeutics: Considerations for Dosing.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · July 2019 Neonates are a uniquely vulnerable population, compromised by immature physiology and critical illness if born premature. Furthermore, neonates have frequent exposures to drugs that lack adequate data on safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing in this pop ... Full text Link to item Cite

Severe childhood asthma exacerbations: Is treatment response variability in the genes?

Journal Article Pediatr Pulmonol · June 2019 Worldwide, asthma is one of the most common causes of medical emergency in children. Failed acute management events comprise a large part of the annual healthcare costs of asthma. These severe exacerbations requiring hospitalization likely also contribute ... Full text Link to item Cite

Duration of Pediatric Clinical Trials Submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration.

Journal Article JAMA Pediatr · January 1, 2019 IMPORTANCE: The increasing prevalence of pediatric chronic disease has resulted in increased exposure to long-term drug therapy in children. The duration of recently completed drug trials that support approval for drug therapy in children with chronic dise ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prolonged furosemide exposure and risk of abnormal newborn hearing screen in premature infants.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · October 2018 BACKGROUND: At very high doses, furosemide is linked to ototoxicity in adults, but little is known about the risk of hearing loss in premature infants exposed to furosemide. AIMS: Evaluate the association between prolonged furosemide exposure and abnormal ... Full text Link to item Cite

External Evaluation of a Gentamicin Infant Population Pharmacokinetic Model Using Data from a National Electronic Health Record Database.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · September 2018 Gentamicin is a common antibiotic used in neonates and infants. A recently published population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed using data from multiple studies, and the objective of our analyses was to evaluate the feasibility of using a national ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of Methadone on Corrected Q-T Interval Prolongation in Critically Ill Children.

Journal Article J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther · 2018 OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the association between methadone use and corrected Q-T interval (QTc) prolongation in critically ill children. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of critically ill children receiving methadone at a tertiary car ... Full text Link to item Cite

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Chapter · January 1, 2018 Full text Cite

Antibiotic Dosing Considerations for Term and Preterm Infants

Chapter · January 1, 2018 Early and appropriate antibiotic therapy can be lifesaving for severe infections in infants. However, physiologic differences in infants compared with older children and adults contribute to challenges in neonatal dosing. Neonatal-specific dosing regimens ... Full text Cite

Early Caffeine Prophylaxis and Risk of Failure of Initial Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · November 2017 OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that early caffeine treatment on the day of birth, compared with later treatment in very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, is associated with a decreased ... Full text Link to item Cite

Population Pharmacokinetics of Dexmedetomidine in Infants.

Journal Article J Clin Pharmacol · September 2017 Despite limited pharmacokinetic (PK) data, dexmedetomidine is increasingly being used off-label for sedation in infants. We aimed to characterize the developmental PK changes of dexmedetomidine during infancy. In this open-label, single-center PK study of ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Systematic Literature Review Approach to Estimate the Therapeutic Index of Selected Immunosuppressant Drugs After Renal Transplantation.

Journal Article Ther Drug Monit · February 2017 BACKGROUND: Drugs that exhibit close margins between therapeutic and toxic blood concentrations are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index (NTI). The Food and Drug Administration has proposed that NTI drugs should have more stringent bioequivalence ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sedation, Analgesia, and Paralysis during Mechanical Ventilation of Premature Infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · January 2017 OBJECTIVE: To characterize administration of sedatives, analgesics, and paralytics in a large cohort of mechanically ventilated premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including all infants <1500 g birth weight and <32 weeks gestational ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety of Enalapril in Infants Admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Journal Article Pediatr Cardiol · January 2017 Enalapril is used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure in infants. However, enalapril is not labeled for neonates, and safety data in infants are sparse. To evaluate the safety of enalapril in young infants, we conducted a retrospective cohor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Electronic Health Records, and Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Evaluate Sirolimus Drug Exposure-Response Relationships in Renal Transplant Patients.

Journal Article Ther Drug Monit · October 2016 BACKGROUND: Sirolimus, an immunosuppressive agent used in renal transplantation, can prevent allograft rejection. Identification of the therapeutic index (the ratio of minimum toxic concentration to minimum therapeutic concentration) for immunosuppresants ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exposure Matching of Pediatric Anti-infective Drugs: Review of Drugs Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration for Pediatric Approval.

Journal Article Clin Ther · September 2016 PURPOSE: Over the last decade, few new antibiotics have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pediatric use. For most anti-infective agents, including antibiotics, extrapolation of efficacy from adults to children is possible if the d ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacologic studies in vulnerable populations: Using the pediatric experience.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · November 2015 Historically, few data exist to guide dosing in children and pregnant women. Multiple barriers to inclusion of these vulnerable populations in clinical trials have led to this paucity of data. However, federal legislation targeted at pediatric therapeutics ... Full text Link to item Cite

Detection of Multiple Respiratory Viruses Associated With Mortality and Severity of Illness in Children.

Journal Article Pediatr Crit Care Med · September 2015 OBJECTIVE: Respiratory viral infection is a common source of morbidity and mortality in children. Coinfection with multiple viruses occurs frequently; however, the clinical significance of concomitant viral pathogens is unclear. We hypothesized that presen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sedatives and Analgesics Given to Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units at the End of Life.

Journal Article J Pediatr · August 2015 OBJECTIVE: To describe the administration of sedatives and analgesics at the end of life in a large cohort of infants in North American neonatal intensive care units. STUDY DESIGN: Data on mortality and sedative and analgesic administration were from infan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multicenter development, implementation, and patient safety impacts of a simulation-based module to teach handovers to pediatric residents.

Journal Article Hosp Pediatr · March 2015 OBJECTIVE: Teaching and evaluation of handovers are important requirements of graduate medical education (GME), but well-defined and effective methods have not been clearly established. Case-based computer simulations provide potential methods to teach, ev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Simultaneous determination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in dried plasma and urine spots.

Journal Article Bioanalysis · 2015 BACKGROUND: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is an antimicrobial drug combination commonly prescribed in children and adults. The study objectives were to validate and apply an HPLC-MS/MS method to quantify TMP-SMX in dried plasma spots (DPS) and dr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical outcomes in very low birth weight infants with major congenital heart defects.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · December 2014 BACKGROUND: The combination of major congenital heart disease (CHD) and prematurity is associated with poor prognosis, but previous studies have not fully characterized morbidity and mortality in this population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Current epidemiology and management of invasive candidiasis in infants

Journal Article Current Fungal Infection Reports · March 1, 2014 Invasive candidiasis (IC) is common in premature infants and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of IC in infants is decreasing, there is marked variability in number of cases by center and geographical region, an ... Full text Cite