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Kelly D. Brownell

Robert L. Flowers Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Public Policy
Sanford School of Public Policy
BOX90245, Durham, NC 27708
240A Sanford Building, Box 90245, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Urban Public Food Procurement in Kiambu and Machakos Counties as a Driver of Food and Nutrition Security and Sustainability: A Literature Review and Case Studies

Journal Article Sustainability (Switzerland) · March 1, 2022 Urban public food procurement can address malnutrition and improve the beneficiary experience at public institutions whilst reshaping food systems to be healthier and more sustainable. We reviewed grey and peer-reviewed literature on urban public food proc ... Full text Cite

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and obesity risk: A review of recommendations for obesity prevention policies.

Journal Article Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity · November 2021 Emerging evidence indicates that industrially produced endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be as obesogenic as poor dietary patterns and should be considered in obesity prevention policies. The authors conducted two reviews: (a) a systematic search o ... Full text Cite

Role of food aid and assistance in addressing the double burden of malnutrition in Ghana: A qualitative policy analysis

Journal Article BMJ Nutrition, Prevention and Health · December 1, 2020 Background and aims In many low-income and middle-income countries, the double burden of malnutrition threatens public health and economic progress, urging a re-evaluation of the roles and responsibilities of nutrition actors, both traditional and non-trad ... Full text Cite

Primer on US Food and Nutrition Policy and Public Health: Food Sustainability

Journal Article American Journal of Public Health · 2019 Cite

Primer on US Food and Nutrition Policy and Public Health: Food Assistance

Journal Article American Journal of Public Health · 2019 Cite

Grappling With Complex Food Systems to Reduce Obesity: A US Public Health Challenge.

Journal Article Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974) · November 2018 Despite 2 decades of effort by the public health community to combat obesity, obesity rates in the United States continue to rise. This lack of progress raises fundamental questions about the adequacy of our current approaches. Although the causes of popul ... Full text Cite

Sports Sponsorships of Food and Nonalcoholic Beverages.

Journal Article Pediatrics · April 2018 BackgroundFood and nonalcoholic beverage companies spend millions of dollars on professional sports sponsorships, yet this form of marketing is understudied. These sponsorships are valuable marketing tools but prompt concerns when unhealthy produc ... Full text Cite

Marketing Food and Beverages to Youth Through Sports.

Journal Article The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine · January 2018 Food and beverage marketing has been identified as a major driver of obesity yet sports sponsorship remains common practice and represents millions of dollars in advertising expenditures. Research shows that food and beverage products associated with sport ... Full text Cite

Why we need local, state, and national policy-based approaches to improve children's nutrition in the united states

Chapter · January 1, 2018 Government agencies have the authority to improve public health through laws and policies. Childhood obesity is one of the most pressing health issues today, and government policies are a critical strategy to improve children's nutrition and health. This c ... Full text Cite

Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

Journal Article International journal of environmental research and public health · November 2017 This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthie ... Full text Cite

Strategic science for eating disorders research and policy impact.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · March 2017 Scientific research often fails to have relevance and impact because scientists do not engage policy makers and influencers in the process of identifying information needs and generating high priority questions. To address this scholarship-policy gap, we h ... Full text Cite

U.S. Nutrition Assistance, 2018 - Modifying SNAP to Promote Population Health.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · March 2017 Full text Cite

The Heterogeneity of Obesity: Fitting Treatments To Individuals – Republished Article

Journal Article Behavior Therapy · November 1, 2016 Body weight is regulated by a complex interaction of biological, behavioral, and cultural factors. The population as a whole is at risk for obesity because of increased intake of dietary fat, the consumption of calories in fewer meals per day, striking acc ... Full text Cite

Development of the Yale Food Addiction Scale Version 2.0.

Journal Article Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors · February 2016 Parallels in biological, psychological, and behavioral systems have led to the hypothesis that an addictive process may contribute to problematic eating. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was developed to provide a validated measure of addictive-like ea ... Full text Cite

Patchy progress on obesity prevention: emerging examples, entrenched barriers, and new thinking.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · June 2015 Despite isolated areas of improvement, no country to date has reversed its obesity epidemic. Governments, together with a broad range of stakeholders, need to act urgently to decrease the prevalence of obesity. In this Series paper, we review several regul ... Full text Cite

Urban Public Food Procurement in Kiambu and Machakos Counties as a Driver of Food and Nutrition Security and Sustainability: A Literature Review and Case Studies

Journal Article Sustainability (Switzerland) · March 1, 2022 Urban public food procurement can address malnutrition and improve the beneficiary experience at public institutions whilst reshaping food systems to be healthier and more sustainable. We reviewed grey and peer-reviewed literature on urban public food proc ... Full text Cite

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and obesity risk: A review of recommendations for obesity prevention policies.

Journal Article Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity · November 2021 Emerging evidence indicates that industrially produced endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be as obesogenic as poor dietary patterns and should be considered in obesity prevention policies. The authors conducted two reviews: (a) a systematic search o ... Full text Cite

Role of food aid and assistance in addressing the double burden of malnutrition in Ghana: A qualitative policy analysis

Journal Article BMJ Nutrition, Prevention and Health · December 1, 2020 Background and aims In many low-income and middle-income countries, the double burden of malnutrition threatens public health and economic progress, urging a re-evaluation of the roles and responsibilities of nutrition actors, both traditional and non-trad ... Full text Cite

Primer on US Food and Nutrition Policy and Public Health: Food Sustainability

Journal Article American Journal of Public Health · 2019 Cite

Primer on US Food and Nutrition Policy and Public Health: Food Assistance

Journal Article American Journal of Public Health · 2019 Cite

Grappling With Complex Food Systems to Reduce Obesity: A US Public Health Challenge.

Journal Article Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974) · November 2018 Despite 2 decades of effort by the public health community to combat obesity, obesity rates in the United States continue to rise. This lack of progress raises fundamental questions about the adequacy of our current approaches. Although the causes of popul ... Full text Cite

Sports Sponsorships of Food and Nonalcoholic Beverages.

Journal Article Pediatrics · April 2018 BackgroundFood and nonalcoholic beverage companies spend millions of dollars on professional sports sponsorships, yet this form of marketing is understudied. These sponsorships are valuable marketing tools but prompt concerns when unhealthy produc ... Full text Cite

Marketing Food and Beverages to Youth Through Sports.

Journal Article The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine · January 2018 Food and beverage marketing has been identified as a major driver of obesity yet sports sponsorship remains common practice and represents millions of dollars in advertising expenditures. Research shows that food and beverage products associated with sport ... Full text Cite

Why we need local, state, and national policy-based approaches to improve children's nutrition in the united states

Chapter · January 1, 2018 Government agencies have the authority to improve public health through laws and policies. Childhood obesity is one of the most pressing health issues today, and government policies are a critical strategy to improve children's nutrition and health. This c ... Full text Cite

Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

Journal Article International journal of environmental research and public health · November 2017 This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthie ... Full text Cite

Strategic science for eating disorders research and policy impact.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · March 2017 Scientific research often fails to have relevance and impact because scientists do not engage policy makers and influencers in the process of identifying information needs and generating high priority questions. To address this scholarship-policy gap, we h ... Full text Cite

U.S. Nutrition Assistance, 2018 - Modifying SNAP to Promote Population Health.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · March 2017 Full text Cite

The Heterogeneity of Obesity: Fitting Treatments To Individuals – Republished Article

Journal Article Behavior Therapy · November 1, 2016 Body weight is regulated by a complex interaction of biological, behavioral, and cultural factors. The population as a whole is at risk for obesity because of increased intake of dietary fat, the consumption of calories in fewer meals per day, striking acc ... Full text Cite

Development of the Yale Food Addiction Scale Version 2.0.

Journal Article Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors · February 2016 Parallels in biological, psychological, and behavioral systems have led to the hypothesis that an addictive process may contribute to problematic eating. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was developed to provide a validated measure of addictive-like ea ... Full text Cite

Patchy progress on obesity prevention: emerging examples, entrenched barriers, and new thinking.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · June 2015 Despite isolated areas of improvement, no country to date has reversed its obesity epidemic. Governments, together with a broad range of stakeholders, need to act urgently to decrease the prevalence of obesity. In this Series paper, we review several regul ... Full text Cite

Strategic science with policy impact.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · June 2015 Full text Cite

Exposure to Weight-Stigmatizing Media: Effects on Exercise Intentions, Motivation, and Behavior.

Journal Article Journal of health communication · January 2015 This study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to weight-stigmatizing media on exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior, as well as to examine the interaction between this exposure and past experiences with weight stigma. A community sample of 72 ... Full text Cite

The power of industry (money) in influencing science

Chapter · January 1, 2015 An issue generating considerable controversy is whether scientists can remain objective and unbiased when accepting money from industry. Large amounts of money change hands between industry and scientists, and this practice has been challenged in prominent ... Full text Cite

Individual differences in striatum activity to food commercials predict weight gain in adolescents.

Journal Article Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) · December 2014 ObjectiveAdolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but little is known about how individual differences in neural response to food commercials relate to weight gain. To add to our understanding of individual risk factors for unhealt ... Full text Cite

Can government regulate portion sizes?

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · November 2014 Full text Cite

Albert J. ("Mickey") Stunkard, M.D.

Journal Article Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) · September 2014 Full text Cite

Relation of obesity to neural activation in response to food commercials.

Journal Article Social cognitive and affective neuroscience · July 2014 Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but the neural response to food advertising and its association with obesity is largely unknown. This study is the first to examine how neural response to food commercials differs from other stimuli ... Full text Cite

The trans-fat ban--food regulation and long-term health.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · May 2014 Full text Cite

Food-addiction scale measurement in 2 cohorts of middle-aged and older women.

Journal Article The American journal of clinical nutrition · March 2014 BackgroundExcess weight is a major threat to public health. An addiction-like tendency toward certain foods may contribute to overeating.ObjectiveWe aimed to describe the prevalence and associated characteristics in relation to a food-add ... Full text Cite

Do media portrayals of obesity influence support for weight-related medical policy?

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · February 2014 ObjectiveThe purpose of this research was to examine the impact of nonstigmatizing visual portrayals of obesity on support for a discriminatory weight-based medical policy.MethodParticipants read an online news story about a policy to den ... Full text Cite

Obesity

Chapter · January 1, 2014 Introduction A critical turning point in the history of human food consumption has become evident. With famine and undernutrition the central food issues for much of human history, we now face the opposite: overnutrition and obesity. The number of individu ... Full text Cite

Bias, Discrimination, and Obesity

Chapter · January 1, 2014 Obese individuals are highly stigmatized in our society, with bias and discrimination being common outcomes.1-3 The prevalence of weight discrimination has increased by 66% in the past decade4 and is now comparable to and in some cases exceeds racial discr ... Full text Cite

Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale for children.

Journal Article Eating behaviors · December 2013 IntroductionEvidence is growing that an addictive process may play a role in problematic eating behavior. The majority of research on this topic has examined the concept of "food addiction" solely in adult samples. If certain foods have addictive ... Full text Cite

Athlete endorsements in food marketing.

Journal Article Pediatrics · November 2013 ObjectiveThis study quantified professional athletes' endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for ch ... Full text Cite

Calorie estimation accuracy and menu labeling perceptions among individuals with and without binge eating and/or purging disorders.

Journal Article Eating and weight disorders : EWD · September 2013 Menu labeling is a public health policy that requires chain restaurants in the USA to post kilocalorie information on their menus to help consumers make informed choices. However, there is concern that such a policy might promote disordered eating. This we ... Full text Cite

Susan Nolen-Hoeksema (1959-2013).

Journal Article The American psychologist · July 2013 Presents an obituary for Susan Nolen-Hoeksema. Susan received her bachelor's degree from Yale University and her doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Pennsylvania. Her undergraduate and graduate school mentors were Irving Janis, Robert S ... Full text Cite

Can food and addiction change the game?

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · May 2013 Full text Cite

A Survey of undergraduate student perceptions and use of nutrition information labels in a university dining hall

Journal Article Health Education Journal · May 1, 2013 Objective: To examine undergraduate student perceptions and reported use of nutrition information labels in campus dining halls. Design: Paper surveys were administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates. Setting: This study was conducted at an urba ... Full text Cite

Redefining "child-directed advertising" to reduce unhealthy television food advertising.

Journal Article American journal of preventive medicine · April 2013 BackgroundFood and beverage companies have pledged to reduce unhealthy marketing to children through the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI). However, public health experts question the initiative's effectiveness because pl ... Full text Cite

The use of sports references in marketing of food and beverage products in supermarkets.

Journal Article Public health nutrition · April 2013 ObjectiveFood marketing has been identified as a significant driver of the childhood obesity epidemic. The purpose of the present study was to (i) conduct a content analysis of the types of sports references that appear on supermarket food and bev ... Full text Cite

The science on front-of-package food labels.

Journal Article Public health nutrition · March 2013 ObjectiveThe U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Institute of Medicine are currently investigating front-of-package (FOP) food labelling systems to provide science-based guidance to the food industry. The present paper reviews the literature on ... Full text Cite

Bias, discrimination and obesity

Chapter · January 1, 2013 It has been said that obese persons are the last acceptable targets of discrimination.1-4 Anecdotes abound about overweight individuals being ridiculed by teachers, physicians, and complete strangers in public settings, such as supermarkets, restaurants, a ... Full text Cite

Modeling the effects of positive and negative mood on the ability to resist eating in obese and non-obese individuals.

Journal Article Eating behaviors · January 2013 This pilot study adapted a well-established drug self-administration paradigm to examine the effects of mood induction on the ability to resist high-calorie foods and subsequent food consumption differently in 15 obese individuals (40.0% women, BMI: 35.1±3 ... Full text Cite

A test of different menu labeling presentations.

Journal Article Appetite · December 2012 Chain restaurants will soon need to disclose calorie information on menus, but research on the impact of calorie labels on food choices is mixed. This study tested whether calorie information presented in different formats influenced calories ordered and p ... Full text Cite

Foreword

Journal Article Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance · December 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Role of policy and government in the obesity epidemic.

Journal Article Circulation · November 2012 Full text Cite

Positive media portrayals of obese persons: impact on attitudes and image preferences.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · November 2012 ObjectiveThe purpose of this research was to assess the impact of nonstereotypical, positive media portrayals of obese persons on biased attitudes, as well as propose a change in media practices that could reduce public weight bias and consequent ... Full text Cite

Portion sizes and beyond--government's legal authority to regulate food-industry practices.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · October 2012 Full text Cite

The Imperative of Changing Public Policy to Address Obesity

Journal Article · September 18, 2012 This chapter discusses the responsibility of changing public policy to address obesity. The understanding of obesity as an issue of personal responsibility has led to weak government action. The chapter notes that the environment is the major force underly ... Full text Cite

Food and Addiction: A Comprehensive Handbook

Book · August 30, 2012 Featured Publication Food and Addiction: A Comprehensive Handbook brings scientific order to the issue of food and addiction, spanning multiple disciplines to create the foundation for what is a rapidly advancing field and to highlight needed advances in science and public pol ... Cite

Facts up front versus traffic light food labels: a randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article American journal of preventive medicine · August 2012 BackgroundThe U.S. food and beverage industry recently released a new front-of-package nutrition labeling system called Facts Up Front that will be used on thousands of food products.PurposeTo test consumer understanding of the Facts Up F ... Full text Cite

The Smart Choices front-of-package nutrition label. Influence on perceptions and intake of cereal.

Journal Article Appetite · April 2012 Numerous front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labeling systems exist, but it is unclear if such labels influence behavior. A single-summary label called Smart Choices (SC) appeared briefly on products in the United States in 2009. The current study aimed to ev ... Full text Cite

Choosing front-of-package food labelling nutritional criteria: how smart were 'Smart Choices'?

Journal Article Public health nutrition · February 2012 ObjectiveThe 'Smart Choices' programme was an industry-driven, front-of-package (FOP) nutritional labelling system introduced in the USA in August 2009, ostensibly to help consumers select healthier options during food shopping. Its nutritional cr ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of consumer understanding of different front-of-package nutrition labels, 2010-2011.

Journal Article Preventing chronic disease · January 2012 IntroductionGovernments throughout the world are using or considering various front-of-package (FOP) food labeling systems to provide nutrition information to consumers. Our web-based study tested consumer understanding of different FOP labeling s ... Full text Cite

Obesity and public policy.

Journal Article Annual review of clinical psychology · January 2012 There is a pressing need to reduce both the prevalence and impact of obesity. This review begins with a discussion of the roles of treatment and prevention. Two overriding issues, weight bias and the addictive nature of food, are covered because of their i ... Full text Cite

Nutrition-related claims on children's cereals: what do they mean to parents and do they influence willingness to buy?

Journal Article Public health nutrition · December 2011 ObjectiveTo examine parents' beliefs about the meaning of common front-of-package nutrition-related claims on children's cereals and determine whether the claims would make them more willing to buy the cereals.DesignParents viewed images ... Full text Cite

Obesity: a public health approach.

Journal Article The Psychiatric clinics of North America · December 2011 Obesity is an epidemic that likely will worsen without substantive changes to the current environment. Although treatment of the individual has conventionally been the focus of the obesity field, prevention using a public health model will be essential for ... Full text Cite

The impact of weight stigma on caloric consumption.

Journal Article Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) · October 2011 The present study assessed the influence of exposure to weight stigma on energy intake in both overweight and normal-weight adult women. Seventy-three women (mean age: 31.71 ± 12.72 years), both overweight (n = 34) and normal weight (n = 39), were randomly ... Full text Cite

The addiction potential of hyperpalatable foods.

Journal Article Current drug abuse reviews · September 2011 Scientific interest in "food addiction" continues to grow due both to neurobiological and behavioral similarities between substance dependence and excessive food consumption. An important next step is to examine the addictive potential of highly processed ... Full text Cite

Neural correlates of food addiction.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · August 2011 ContextResearch has implicated an addictive process in the development and maintenance of obesity. Although parallels in neural functioning between obesity and substance dependence have been found, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the ne ... Full text Cite

Mind over milkshakes: mindsets, not just nutrients, determine ghrelin response.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · July 2011 ObjectiveTo test whether physiological satiation as measured by the gut peptide ghrelin may vary depending on the mindset in which one approaches consumption of food.MethodsOn 2 separate occasions, participants (n = 46) consumed a 380-cal ... Full text Cite

Can food be addictive? Public health and policy implications.

Journal Article Addiction (Abingdon, England) · July 2011 AimsData suggest that hyperpalatable foods may be capable of triggering an addictive process. Although the addictive potential of foods continues to be debated, important lessons learned in reducing the health and economic consequences of drug add ... Full text Cite

Front-of-package nutrition labeling--an abuse of trust by the food industry?

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · June 2011 Full text Cite

Estimating the potential of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages to reduce consumption and generate revenue.

Journal Article Preventive medicine · June 2011 ObjectiveBeverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity. Our paper offer ... Full text Cite

Advancing public health obesity policy through state attorneys general.

Journal Article American journal of public health · March 2011 Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. T ... Full text Cite

Industry response to the obesity threat: Reply

Journal Article JAMA · January 26, 2011 Full text Cite

Effects of serving high-sugar cereals on children's breakfast-eating behavior.

Journal Article Pediatrics · January 2011 ObjectivesTo test (1) whether children will consume low-sugar ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals and (2) the effects of serving high- versus low-sugar cereals on the consumption of cereal, refined sugar, fresh fruit, and milk.Participants and methods< ... Full text Cite

Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.

Journal Article Current pharmaceutical design · January 2011 The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthie ... Full text Cite

An observational study of consumer use of fast-food restaurant drive-through lanes: implications for menu labelling policy.

Journal Article Public health nutrition · November 2010 ObjectiveSome versions of restaurant menu labelling legislation do not require energy information to be posted on menus for drive-through lanes. The present study was designed to quantify the number of customers who purchase fast food through driv ... Full text Cite

The need for courageous action to prevent obesity

Journal Article · September 9, 2010 This chapter focuses on three key issues: firstly, the necessity of a shared vision; secondly, whether or not to trust the food industry; and thirdly, what should be done next. In order to move forward, a shared vision is needed of the causes of obesity an ... Full text Cite

The humbling experience of treating obesity: Should we persist or desist?

Journal Article Behaviour research and therapy · August 2010 Obesity has humbled one research group after another. Some of the field's brightest scientists have attempted to subdue obesity by treating it, but now, after decades of work, treatment gains remain small, maintenance is poor, and the field produces effect ... Full text Cite

Influence of licensed characters on children's taste and snack preferences.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 2010 ObjectiveThe goal was to study how popular licensed cartoon characters appearing on food packaging affect young children's taste and snack preferences.MethodsForty 4- to 6-year-old children tasted 3 pairs of identical foods (graham cracke ... Full text Cite

Breakfast cereal industry pledges to self-regulate advertising to youth: will they improve the marketing landscape?

Journal Article Journal of public health policy · April 2010 In 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus created the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative to improve the nutritional profile of products marketed to children in the United States. We provide quantitative baseline data describing (a) t ... Full text Cite

Predicting support for restricting food marketing to youth.

Journal Article Health affairs (Project Hope) · March 2010 To address the obesity crisis, public health experts recommend major reductions in the marketing of unhealthy food to youth. However, policies to restrict food marketing are not currently viewed as politically feasible. This paper examines attitudes and kn ... Full text Cite

Personal responsibility and obesity: a constructive approach to a controversial issue.

Journal Article Health affairs (Project Hope) · March 2010 The concept of personal responsibility has been central to social, legal, and political approaches to obesity. It evokes language of blame, weakness, and vice and is a leading basis for inadequate government efforts, given the importance of environmental c ... Full text Cite

Government intervention and the nation's diet: the slippery slope of inaction.

Journal Article The American journal of bioethics : AJOB · March 2010 Full text Cite

Marketing foods to children and adolescents: licensed characters and other promotions on packaged foods in the supermarket.

Journal Article Public health nutrition · March 2010 ObjectiveTo analyse cross-promotions targeted to children and adolescents on packaging in the supermarket.DesignOn three occasions from 2006 to 2008, researchers purchased all foods in a large supermarket that included a cross-promotion o ... Full text Cite

Evaluating the impact of menu labeling on food choices and intake.

Journal Article American journal of public health · February 2010 ObjectivesWe assessed the impact of restaurant menu calorie labels on food choices and intake.MethodsParticipants in a study dinner (n=303) were randomly assigned to either (1) a menu without calorie labels (no calorie labels), (2) a menu ... Full text Cite

The food industry and self-regulation: standards to promote success and to avoid public health failures.

Journal Article American journal of public health · February 2010 Threatened by possible government regulation and critical public opinion, industries often undertake self-regulatory actions, issue statements of concern for public welfare, and assert that self-regulation is sufficient to protect the public. The food indu ... Full text Cite

The impact of food prices on consumption: a systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food.

Journal Article American journal of public health · February 2010 In light of proposals to improve diets by shifting food prices, it is important to understand how price changes affect demand for various foods. We reviewed 160 studies on the price elasticity of demand for major food categories to assess mean elasticities ... Full text Cite

The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

Journal Article Social Issues and Policy Review · December 1, 2009 Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of ... Full text Cite

Rationale and evidence for menu-labeling legislation.

Journal Article American journal of preventive medicine · December 2009 Menu-labeling legislation is a proposed public health intervention for poor diet and obesity that requires chain restaurants to provide nutrition information on menus and menu boards. The restaurant industry has strongly opposed menu-labeling legislation. ... Full text Cite

The public health and economic benefits of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · October 2009 Full text Cite

The need for bold action to prevent adolescent obesity.

Journal Article The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine · September 2009 Record levels of obesity in children and adolescents are predictable in light of powerful conditions that promote high consumption of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and discourage physical activity. Default conditions for youth are dangerous, and inclu ... Full text Cite

Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · July 2009 ObjectiveHealth advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewi ... Full text Cite

An observational study of consumers' accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants.

Journal Article American journal of public health · May 2009 In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 ... Full text Cite

Eighty-five per cent of what? Discrepancies in the weight cut-off for anorexia nervosa substantially affect the prevalence of underweight.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · May 2009 BackgroundDSM-IV cites <85% of expected body weight (EBW) as a guideline for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN) but does not require a specific method for calculating EBW. The purpose of the present study was to determine the degree to which w ... Full text Cite

The relationship between eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and officially recognized eating disorders: meta-analysis and implications for DSM.

Journal Article Psychological bulletin · May 2009 Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDN ... Full text Cite

Considerations for an obesity policy research agenda.

Journal Article Am J Prev Med · April 2009 The rise in obesity levels in the U.S. in the past several decades has been dramatic, with serious implications for public health and the economy. Experiences in tobacco control and other public health initiatives have shown that public policy may be a pow ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ounces of prevention--the public policy case for taxes on sugared beverages.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · April 2009 Full text Cite

Food addiction: An examination of the diagnostic criteria for dependence

Journal Article Journal of Addiction Medicine · March 1, 2009 The evidence for food's addictive properties is steadily growing. In addition to clinical and evolutionary plausibility, the possibility of addiction to food is supported by animal model research and increasingly by research with humans. Much as classic dr ... Full text Cite

Innovative legal approaches to address obesity.

Journal Article The Milbank quarterly · March 2009 ContextThe law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundati ... Full text Cite

The perils of ignoring history: Big Tobacco played dirty and millions died. How similar is Big Food?

Journal Article The Milbank quarterly · March 2009 ContextIn 1954 the tobacco industry paid to publish the "Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers" in hundreds of U.S. newspapers. It stated that the public's health was the industry's concern above all others and promised a variety of good-faith chan ... Full text Cite

Obesity metaphors: how beliefs about the causes of obesity affect support for public policy.

Journal Article The Milbank quarterly · March 2009 ContextRelatively little is known about the factors shaping public attitudes toward obesity as a policy concern. This study examines whether individuals' beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for policies aimed at stemming obesi ... Full text Cite

A crisis in the marketplace: how food marketing contributes to childhood obesity and what can be done.

Journal Article Annual review of public health · January 2009 Reducing food marketing to children has been proposed as one means for addressing the global crisis of childhood obesity, but significant social, legal, financial, and public perception barriers stand in the way. The scientific literature documents that fo ... Full text Cite

Authors' Response

Journal Article Journal of the American Dietetic Association · October 1, 2008 Full text Cite

Availability and prices of foods across stores and neighborhoods: the case of New Haven, Connecticut.

Journal Article Health affairs (Project Hope) · September 2008 Two studies compared food availability and prices in large and small stores across neighborhoods of varying income levels in New Haven, Connecticut. The findings suggest that supermarket access in lower-income neighborhoods has improved since 1971, and ave ... Full text Cite

The 'Sydney Principles' for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children.

Journal Article Public health nutrition · September 2008 A set of seven principles (the 'Sydney Principles') was developed by an International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) Working Group to guide action on changing food and beverage marketing practices that target children. The aim of the present communication is to ... Full text Cite

Legal and public health considerations affecting the success, reach, and impact of menu-labeling laws.

Journal Article American journal of public health · September 2008 Because the rate of consumption of away-from-home meals has increased dramatically, the distinction between requiring nutrition information for packaged but not restaurant products is no longer reasonable. Public health necessitates that nutrition labels m ... Full text Cite

Perceptions of weight discrimination: prevalence and comparison to race and gender discrimination in America.

Journal Article International journal of obesity (2005) · June 2008 ObjectiveLimited data are available on the prevalence and patterns of body weight discrimination from representative samples. This study examined experiences of weight/height discrimination in a nationally representative sample of US adults and co ... Full text Cite

Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans, 1995-1996 through 2004-2006.

Journal Article Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) · May 2008 ObjectiveLittle is known about the prevalence and patterns of weight discrimination in the United States. This study examined the trends in perceived weight/height discrimination among a nationally representative sample of adults aged 35-74 years, ... Full text Cite

Cognitive Processing About Classroom-Relevant Contexts: Teachers' Attention to and Utilization of Girls' Body Size, Ethnicity, Attractiveness, and Facial Affect

Journal Article Journal of Educational Psychology · May 1, 2008 This study examines 2 aspects of cognitive processing in person perception-attention and decision making-in classroom-relevant contexts. Teachers completed 2 implicit, performance-based tasks that characterized attention to and utilization of 4 student cha ... Full text Cite

Examining the nutritional quality of breakfast cereals marketed to children.

Journal Article Journal of the American Dietetic Association · April 2008 There are both public health and food industry initiatives aimed at increasing breakfast consumption among children, particularly the consumption of ready-to-eat cereals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were identifiable difference ... Full text Cite

Weight stigmatization and bias reduction: perspectives of overweight and obese adults.

Journal Article Health education research · April 2008 This study employed qualitative methods with a sample of overweight and obese adults to identify and describe their subjective experiences of weight bias. Participants (274 females and 44 males) completed an online battery of self-report questionnaires, in ... Full text Cite

Bias, discrimination, and obesity

Chapter · January 1, 2008 Obese individuals are highly stigmatized in our society, with bias and discrimination as common outcomes (1,2). Given the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the American population, the number of children and adults potentially faced with stigmatizati ... Cite

Assessing the feasibility and impact of federal childhood obesity policies

Journal Article Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science · January 1, 2008 Research on childhood obesity has primarily been conducted by experts in nutrition, psychology, and medicine. Only recently have public policy scholars devoted serious work to this burgeoning public health crisis. Here the authors advance that research by ... Full text Cite

A pilot study of a weight management program with food provision in schizophrenia.

Journal Article Schizophrenia research · November 2007 Obesity is a serious medical problem that disproportionately affects people with severe mental illness. Behavioral strategies aimed at lifestyle modification have proven effective for weight loss in general population but have not been studied adequately a ... Full text Cite

Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article American journal of public health · April 2007 In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and nutrition and health outcomes. We found clear associations of soft drink intake with increased energy intake and body weight. Soft drink intake also was associ ... Full text Cite

Actions necessary to prevent childhood obesity: creating the climate for change.

Journal Article The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics · January 2007 Childhood obesity has become a public health epidemic, and currently a battle exists over how to frame and address this problem. This paper explores how public policy approaches can be employed to address obesity. We present the argument that obesity shoul ... Full text Cite

Confronting and coping with weight stigma: an investigation of overweight and obese adults.

Journal Article Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) · October 2006 ObjectiveThis study examined experiences of weight stigmatization, sources of stigma, coping strategies, psychological functioning, and eating behaviors in a sample of 2671 overweight and obese adults.Research methods and proceduresThe to ... Full text Cite

Lessons from a small country about the global obesity crisis

Journal Article Globalization and Health · September 12, 2006 Developed countries had high obesity rates before the problem was taken seriously and hence the genesis must be seen in retrospect. Developing countries offer a clear view of causal factors but also opportunities for prevention, which must focus on both fo ... Full text Cite

Evaluating the effects of eating disorder memoirs on readers' eating attitudes and behaviors.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · July 2006 ObjectiveMore than 50 individuals have published eating disorder (ED) memoirs. The current study was the first to test whether memoirs affect readers' eating attitudes and behaviors, and whether they normalize and/or glamorize EDs.MethodF ... Full text Cite

Stigmatized patients’ right to equal treatment

Journal Article Virtual Mentor · May 1, 2006 Full text Cite

The influence of one's own body weight on implicit and explicit anti-fat bias.

Journal Article Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) · March 2006 ObjectiveThis study examined the influence of one's own body weight on the strength of implicit and explicit anti-fat bias.Research methods and procedureImplicit and explicit anti-fat attitudes and obesity stereotypes were assessed among ... Full text Cite

Acknowledging and reversing the toxic environment

Chapter · January 1, 2006 With the prevalence of obesity being at record levels and showing every indication of increasing descriptors such as “epidemic” and “crisis” seem justified (1). To prevent even more unnecessary death, disability, and damage to the nation’s collective well ... Cite

Can television change anti-fat attitudes and behavior?

Journal Article Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research · January 1, 2006 This work investigated negative attitudes toward overweight people and whether anti-fat attitudes and behavior could be reduced by media-based empathy and classical conditioning interventions. Participants were first primed by an empathy-evoking video of o ... Full text Cite

The battle of the bulge

Journal Article Foreign Policy · November 1, 2005 Think America is overweight? Take a look at the rest of the world. Obesity has become a global pandemic that afflicts young and old, rich and poor alike. ... Cite

The chronicling of obesity: growing awareness of its social, economic, and political contexts.

Journal Article Journal of health politics, policy and law · October 2005 Full text Cite

Impact of perceived consensus on stereotypes about obese people: a new approach for reducing bias.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · September 2005 In 3 experiments, the authors tested the effect of perceived social consensus on attitudes toward obese people. Participants completed self-report measures of attitudes toward obese people prior to and after manipulated consensus feedback depicting attitud ... Full text Cite

Does a “Toxic” Environment Make Obesity Inevitable?

Journal Article Obesity Management · April 1, 2005 Full text Cite

Public policy and obesity: the need to marry science with advocacy.

Journal Article The Psychiatric clinics of North America · March 2005 Full text Cite

Childhood obesity

Journal Article Issues in Science and Technology · January 1, 2005 The issues related to prevent childhood obesity are discussed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Obesity is one of the problems brought on by poor diet and lack of physical activity. Mandatory immunization required safety restraints in cars and restrictio ... Cite

Are stress eaters at risk for the metabolic syndrome?

Journal Article Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences · December 2004 Stress eating is a health behavior that has been overlooked in much of health psychology research. It is largely unknown why some tend to eat during or after stressful periods, whereas others tend to lose their appetite and lose weight. Furthermore, it is ... Full text Cite

The influence of the stigma of obesity on overweight individuals.

Journal Article International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity · October 2004 ObjectiveTo investigate the internalization of anti-fat bias among overweight individuals across a variety of attitudes and stereotypes.DesignTwo studies were conducted using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a performance-based measur ... Full text Cite

Obesity and managed care: a role for activism and advocacy?

Journal Article The American journal of managed care · June 2004 Cite

Fast food and obesity in children.

Journal Article Pediatrics · January 2004 Full text Cite

Obesity and body image

Journal Article Body Image · January 1, 2004 Modern western culture emphasizes thinness, denigrates excess weight, and stigmatizes obese individuals, making it likely that obese people internalize these messages and feel badly about the physical presence that brands them. There is clear evidence that ... Full text Cite

"Before and after" diet advertisements escalate weight stigma.

Journal Article Eating and weight disorders : EWD · December 2003 The stigma-producing effects of "before and after" diet advertisements on a healthy weight sample were examined. Subjects (n = 59) were exposed to a presentation containing either a "before and after" diet ad, or solely the "before" or "after" picture embe ... Full text Cite

Psychosocial origins of obesity stigma: toward changing a powerful and pervasive bias.

Journal Article Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity · November 2003 Widespread bias and discrimination based on weight have been documented in key areas of living, including education, employment, and health care. This paper examines the social and psychological origins of this bias through a review and critique of theoret ... Full text Cite

Weight bias among health professionals specializing in obesity.

Journal Article Obesity research · September 2003 PurposeTo determine the level of anti-fat bias in health professionals specializing in obesity and identify personal characteristics that correlate with both implicit and explicit bias.Research methods and proceduresThe Implicit Associati ... Full text Cite

Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television.

Journal Article American journal of public health · August 2003 ObjectivesThis study examined the distribution and individual characteristics of body types on prime-time television.MethodsFive episodes of each of the 10 top-rated prime-time fictional programs on 6 broadcast networks during the 1999-20 ... Full text Cite

Trick, treat, or toy: children are just as likely to choose toys as candy on halloween.

Journal Article Journal of nutrition education and behavior · July 2003 This study investigated whether children would choose toys over candy when offered both on Halloween. Seven households gave trick-or-treaters a choice between comparably sized toys and candies. The subjects (N = 284) were between 3 and 14 years of age. Chi ... Full text Cite

Sociotropy and bulimic symptoms in clinical and nonclinical samples.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · July 2003 ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to examine the relation between sociotropy and bulimic symptoms. Studies of interpersonal functioning among individuals with bulimia nervosa consistently reveal issues of social dependency, need for approval, ... Full text Cite

Body objectification and "fat talk": Effects on emotion, motivation, and cognitive performance

Journal Article Sex Roles · May 1, 2003 To evaluate the effects of self-objectification on mood, motivation, and cognitive performance, 80 women either tried on a swimsuit (high objectification) or a sweater (low objectification). In addition, in order to investigate whether "fat talk" exacerbat ... Full text Cite

Predicting adolescent eating and activity behaviors: the role of social norms and personal agency.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · March 2003 Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this 2-week longitudinal study examined health behaviors in a sample of 279 adolescents. Social norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were tested as predictors of self-reported intentions and behaviors in 2 ... Full text Cite

Bias, prejudice, discrimination, and obesity

Chapter · January 1, 2003 Research is clear in showing that obese individuals are highly stigmatized, and that bias and discrimination are often a consequence (1). Given that half the American population is overweight, the number of people potentially faced with discrimination and ... Cite

Ways of coping with obesity stigma: Review and conceptual analysis

Journal Article Eating Behaviors · January 1, 2003 There is clear documentation of bias and discrimination aimed at overweight persons, but less is known about methods individuals use to cope with weight stigma. This paper provides an analysis of such methods, integrating work on weight stigma with what is ... Full text Cite

Demonstrations of implicit anti-fat bias: the impact of providing causal information and evoking empathy.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · January 2003 Three studies investigated implicit biases, and their modifiability, against overweight persons. In Study 1 (N = 144), the authors demonstrated strong implicit anti-fat attitudes and stereotypes using the Implicit Association Test, despite no explicit anti ... Full text Cite

Comparison of price change and health message interventions in promoting healthy food choices.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · September 2002 This study examines the feasibility and effectiveness of an environmental intervention for improving diet by comparing the impact of health messages, lowered prices, and their combination on the purchase of healthy food items in a restaurant. Price decreas ... Full text Cite

Shame and severity of bulimic symptoms

Journal Article Eating Behaviors · July 30, 2002 Initial research suggests that self-conscious affect such as shame may perpetuate bulimic symptoms among individuals suffering from bulimia nervosa (BN). This investigation reports findings from two studies that examine the relation of shame to bulimic sym ... Full text Cite

Obesity: responding to the global epidemic.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · June 2002 Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and other developed nations. In the United States, 27% of adults are obese and an additional 34% are overweight. Research in the past decade has shown that genetic influences clearly predispose ... Full text Cite

Emotional expression and body dissatisfaction.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · January 2002 ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to examine the relation between emotional expression and body dissatisfaction in a sample of young women.MethodParticipants were 141 female undergraduates. They were assessed for emotional expression ... Full text Cite

Bias, discrimination, and obesity.

Journal Article Obesity research · December 2001 This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether systematic discrimination occurs and why, and discusses needed work in the field. Clear and consistent stigmatization, and ... Full text Cite

Implicit anti-fat bias among health professionals: is anyone immune?

Journal Article International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity · October 2001 ObjectiveTo investigate whether negative implicit attitudes and beliefs toward overweight persons exist among health professionals who specialize in obesity treatment, and to compare these findings to the implicit anti-fat bias evident in the gene ... Full text Cite

Stress may add bite to appetite in women: a laboratory study of stress-induced cortisol and eating behavior.

Journal Article Psychoneuroendocrinology · January 2001 To date, there are few known predictors of stress-induced eating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether physiological and psychological variables are related to eating after stress. Specifically, we hypothesized that high cortisol reactivity in ... Full text Cite

Stress and body shape: stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat.

Journal Article Psychosomatic medicine · September 2000 ObjectiveExcessive central fat puts one at greater risk of disease. In animal studies, stress-induced cortisol secretion has been shown to increase central fat. The objective of this study was to assess whether women with central fat distribution ... Full text Cite

Studying intergenerational transmission of eating attitudes and behaviors: methodological and conceptual questions.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · July 2000 Associations between parent and child attitudes and behaviors related to eating and weight were examined among college-age men and women and their mothers and fathers (ns = 44, 47, 87, and 66, respectively). Parent attitudes and behaviors were assessed fro ... Full text Cite

Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health.

Journal Article American journal of public health · June 2000 Health officials often wish to sponsor nutrition and other health promotion programs but are hampered by lack of funding. One source of funding is suggested by the fact that 18 states and 1 major city levy special taxes on soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, ... Full text Cite

Body mass index, eating attitudes, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in pregnancy and the postpartum period.

Journal Article Psychosomatic medicine · March 2000 ObjectiveThis report describes associations between body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), eating attitudes, and affective symptoms across pregnancy and the postpartum period in a sample of 64 women.MethodsAs part of a larger study, women were rec ... Full text Cite

Fearful cognitions associated with eating pathology: Psychometric properties of a new scale

Journal Article Eating Disorders · January 1, 2000 The psychometric properties of a new scale that measures fearful cognitions associated with eating problems were explored, using two independent samples of undergraduate females. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to revise and shorte ... Full text Cite

Lesbians, bisexual women, and body image: An investigation of gender roles and social group affiliation

Journal Article International Journal of Eating Disorders · 1999 Objective: This study examined the effects of considering oneself to be masculine, feminine, or androgynous in appearance, of having friends who share one's gender and sexual orientation, and of affiliating with three subcommunities within the lesbian soci ... Full text Cite

Marital status, marital satisfaction, and body image dissatisfaction

Journal Article International Journal of Eating Disorders · 1999 Objective: This study examined whether married individuals have comparable body image disturbance to nonmarried individuals and whether the quality of a marital relationship is significantly related to body image disturbance in a sample of dieters. Method: ... Full text Cite

The central role of lifestyle change in long-term weight management.

Journal Article Clinical cornerstone · January 1999 Lifestyle change--most notably, modification of eating behavior, physical activity, and psychologic factors like attitudes, goals, and emotions--is the central determinant of whether people will lose weight and maintain the loss. Even when medical interven ... Full text Cite

Eating attitudes and behaviors in pregnancy and postpartum: global stability versus specific transitions.

Journal Article Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine · January 1999 Global changes in eating attitudes were examined prospectively across pregnancy and 4 months postpartum in a sample of 90 women. In addition, specific changes in dieting behavior and weight/shape satisfaction were assessed at 4 months postpartum for concur ... Full text Cite

Diet, exercise and behavioural intervention: the nonpharmacological approach.

Journal Article European journal of clinical investigation · September 1998 Behaviour is an important factor in both the aetiology and treatment of obesity. Successful long-term weight management ultimately depends on the ability of patients to change their behaviour patterns, particularly with regard to diet and exercise. Many pa ... Full text Cite

Differential relation of psychological functioning with the history and experience of weight cycling.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · August 1998 Two measures of weight cycling and indexes of psychological functioning were examined in a large sample of dieters. History of weight cycling was assessed to include number of dieting attempts, total lifetime weight lost and regained, and number of weight ... Full text Cite

Dietary fat consumption in a cohort of American adults, 1985-1991: covariates, secular trends, and compliance with guidelines.

Journal Article American journal of health promotion : AJHP · July 1998 PurposeTo examine compliance with the guideline for dietary fat (i.e., 30% of total daily colonies) and covariates of fat intake in a cohort of adults using both 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).DesignProspective, obs ... Full text Cite

Beliefs about weight gain and attitudes toward relapse in a sample of women and men with obesity.

Journal Article Obesity research · May 1998 ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to examine beliefs regarding reasons for weight gain, likely responses to weight loss relapse, notions of reasonable weight loss, and correlations between beliefs and attitudes in a large nonclinical sample o ... Full text Cite

Motivations for running and eating attitudes in obligatory versus nonobligatory runners.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · April 1998 ObjectiveThis study examined the association between motivations to run and eating disturbances in a sample of obligatory and nonobligatory runners.Method240 males and 84 females were evaluated for running habits, motivations for running, ... Full text Cite

Obesity management: A comprehensive plan

Journal Article American Journal of Managed Care · March 1, 1998 The emerging concept of obesity is one of chronic disease requiring chronic care. Many healthcare professionals are not trained with this new concept and are faced with learning new weight management techniques that are likely to be more effective in the l ... Cite

Eating disturbances in white and minority female dieters

Journal Article International Journal of Eating Disorders · 1998 Objective: This study examined disordered eating, attitudes about weight and appearance, self-esteem, weight loss, and reasons for weight regain in a sample of white, black, Asian, and Hispanic female dieters. Method: In this cross-sectional descriptive st ... Full text Cite

Physical activity, genetic, and nutritional considerations in childhood weight management.

Journal Article Medicine and science in sports and exercise · January 1998 Almost one-quarter of U.S. children are now obese, a dramatic increase of over 20% in the past decade. It is intriguing that the increase in prevalence has been occurring while overall fat consumption has been declining. Body mass and composition are influ ... Full text Cite

The clinical and economic aspects of obesity management: A managed care perspective

Journal Article American Journal of Managed Care · January 1, 1998 Cite

A classification system to evaluate weight maintainers, gainers, and losers.

Journal Article Journal of the American Dietetic Association · May 1997 ObjectivesTo study natural weight changes and to develop a weight classification system that can identify weight maintainers, gainers, and losers. DESIGN/OUTCOME: A prospective, observational study in which weight changes over five annual measurem ... Full text Cite

Comparison of men and women with binge eating disorder

Journal Article International Journal of Eating Disorders · 1997 Objective: This study examined gender differences in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) on eating-related psychopathology and general psychological functioning. Method: Subjects were age-matched men (n = 21) and women (n = 21) with BED who were a ... Full text Cite

Sex differences in the relationship of body fat distribution with psychosocial variables

Journal Article International Journal of Eating Disorders · 1997 Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that the relationship of psychosocial variables to body fat distribution would differ in men and women and would vary according to gender differences in natural patterns of fat distribution. Method: Body fat dist ... Full text Cite

Relationship of weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in african american and white female dieters

Journal Article International Journal of Eating Disorders · 1997 Objective: The present study examined the relationship among weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in a large group of African American and white female dieters who were generally overweight and of middle to high socioeconomic status. Method: Subje ... Full text Cite

Binge eating in an obese community sample

Journal Article International Journal of Eating Disorders · 1997 Objective: The present study sought to examine the validity and utility of diagnostic criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED) by replicating and extending a study reported by de Zwaan and colleagues (International Journal of Eating Disorders 15, 43-52, 19 ... Full text Cite

Adult obesity and functioning in the family of origin

Journal Article International Journal of Eating Disorders · 1997 Objective: This study investigated the relationship between eating and weight behaviors and functioning in individuals' families of origin. Method: Subjects were 237 women and 242 men enrolled in the RENO (Relationship of Energy, Nutrition, and Obesity) Di ... Full text Cite

Age of onset for binge eating: Are there different pathways to binge eating?

Journal Article International Journal of Eating Disorders · 1997 Objective: In examining individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), we aimed to determine whether their binge eating preceded their first diet or their first diet preceded their binge eating, the age of their first diet, the age of their first binge, and ... Full text Cite

Confronting a rising tide of eating disorders and obesity: treatment vs. prevention and policy.

Journal Article Addictive behaviors · November 1996 Eating disorders and obesity are rising in prevalence and are problems of considerable public health significance. Prevailing treatments have a limited impact on public health because the disorders do not yield easily to intervention and because the treatm ... Full text Cite

Behaviour change in practice: group approaches.

Journal Article International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity · February 1996 Preliminary research in the treatment of obesity suggests that group interventions may be at least as effective as individual interventions, presumably due to the social support created among individuals in the group. Given that a cost-effectiveness analys ... Cite

Body shape ideals across gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, race, and age in personal advertisements

Journal Article International Journal of Eating Disorders · 1996 Objective: To assess body shape ideals across gender, sexual orientation, race, socioeconomic status, and age. Method: An analysis of personal advertisements was conducted across seven different publications which targeted the groups of interest. Results: ... Full text Cite

Methodological issues in weight cycling

Journal Article Annals of Behavioral Medicine · January 1, 1996 Recent studies have suggested that weight changes may be related to disease risk independent of weight status. A critical step in testing this assertion is the measurement of weight change and so-called 'weight cycling.' However intuitive the concept of we ... Full text Cite

Distorting reality for children: body size proportions of Barbie and Ken dolls.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · November 1995 Using hip measurements as a constant, calculations were made to determine the changes necessary for a young, healthy adult woman and man to attain the same body proportions as Barbie and Ken dolls, respectively. Among the changes necessary were for the fem ... Full text Cite

Exercise and obesity treatment: psychological aspects.

Journal Article International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity · October 1995 Exercise is clearly beneficial as a means for losing weight and keeping it off. Given recent studies showing its association with maintenance, it would be difficult to argue that any factor is more important than exercise. For an exercise program to be hel ... Cite

Who are the weight maintainers?

Journal Article Obesity research · September 1995 To characterize people who maintain weight over long periods of time, normal weight and obese adults (n = 385) were studied over five annual visits. Subjects were classified using a +/- 5 lb change between the first and the fifth year visits to determine o ... Full text Cite

Dietary intake of female collegiate heavyweight rowers.

Journal Article International journal of sport nutrition · September 1995 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of dietary intake in 16 female heavyweight rowers during the sprint racing phase of the season. Caloric intake for the rowers was 2,633 kcal/day, lower than expected given the training regimen of these ... Full text Cite

Weight loss, psychological, and nutritional patterns in competitive male body builders.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · July 1995 There has been increasing interest in the effects of chronic dieting and of repeated cycles of weight loss and regain in athletes. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the eating and weight loss practices, nutrition, and psychological factors i ... Full text Cite

Psychological correlates of weight fluctuation.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · April 1995 This investigation attempted to determine psychological correlates of weight fluctuation in a sample of 497 normal weight and obese adults who were enrolled in a prospective, natural history study. Subjects were stratified by gender, obesity, and age and c ... Full text Cite

Matching individuals to weight loss treatments: a survey of obesity experts.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · February 1995 For identification of factors for matching individuals to treatments, experts in the field of obesity were surveyed about the indications and contraindications for 11 common approaches to weight loss. The experts provided 170 client characteristics as poss ... Full text Cite

Psychological correlates of obesity: moving to the next research generation.

Journal Article Psychological bulletin · January 1995 Studies comparing obese and nonobese persons have generally failed to find differences in global aspects of psychological functioning (e.g., depression, anxiety). The resulting conclusion, that obesity does not carry risk for psychological problems, is ini ... Full text Cite

Adherence to dietary regimens. 1: An overview of research.

Journal Article Behavioral medicine (Washington, D.C.) · January 1995 In recent government reports, scientists have highlighted the link between diet and health and have concluded that dietary changes could reduce risks for some major chronic illnesses (ie, cancer and cardiovascular disease). As a result, the feasibility of ... Full text Cite

Adherence to dietary regimens. 2: Components of effective interventions.

Journal Article Behavioral medicine (Washington, D.C.) · January 1995 Diet has an important impact not only on health but also on daily functioning, cognitive performance, and, perhaps, psychological well-being. Much is known about the specific dietary changes necessary to improve these factors, yet it becomes ever more clea ... Full text Cite

The stress-eating paradox: Multiple daily measurements in adult males and females

Journal Article Psychology & Health · November 1, 1994 The stress-eating relationship was examined in a prospective study of 158 subjects who completed daily records of stress and eating for 84 days, yielding 16, 188 person days of observation. Using both within-subjects and between-subjects analyses, individu ... Full text Cite

The dieting maelstrom. Is it possible and advisable to lose weight?

Journal Article The American psychologist · September 1994 An impassioned debate over the virtues and dangers of dieting is polarizing the field and diverts attention from key issues. Dieting clearly has costs and, for some, has the potential for benefit. The primary challenges are (a) to identify individuals who ... Full text Cite

Teasing, body image, and self-esteem in a clinical sample of obese women.

Journal Article Addictive behaviors · July 1994 This study examined the relationship of physical-appearance-related teasing history to body image and self-esteem in a clinical sample of adult obese females. The frequency of being teased about weight and size while growing up was negatively correlated wi ... Full text Cite

Medical, metabolic, and psychological effects of weight cycling.

Journal Article Archives of internal medicine · June 1994 This article reviews studies on the effects of weight cycling and weight variability on metabolism, psychological status, morbidity, and mortality. Repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, known as weight cycling or yo-yo dieting, are highly prevalent, oc ... Full text Cite

Dieting and disordered eating correlates of weight fluctuation in normal and obese adults

Journal Article Eating Disorders · January 1, 1994 Weight dissatisfaction, dieting, and weight change, assessed by question-naires, were studied in 471 subjects stratified by gender, age (20-60+ years) and weight (normal/obese), participating in the RENO Diet Heart Study. Female and obese subjects had more ... Full text Cite

The social self, body dissatisfaction, and binge eating in obese females.

Journal Article Obesity research · January 1994 We examined the relationship of the social self to body dissatisfaction and to binge eating in two clinical samples of obese females. In the first study, with 32 nonbingeing obese females, social self measures of Public Self-Consciousness and Social Anxiet ... Full text Cite

Body weight change, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.

Journal Article Annals of internal medicine · October 1993 ObjectiveTo evaluate the relation between weight variability and death in high-risk, middle-aged men participating in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT).DesignCohort study with 3.8 years of follow-up.SettingMulti ... Full text Cite

Whether obesity should be treated.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · September 1993 Antidieting sentiment is strengthened in part by the assumption that all diets fail, which in turn is based on data from university-based treatment programs. A small percentage of overweight people attempt to lose weight in these programs, and they differ ... Full text Cite

Eating, weight, and dieting disturbances in male and female lightweight and heavyweight rowers.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · September 1993 Rowers compete in a sport that allows comparison of male and female athletes and where some (lightweight) but not others (heavyweights) must meet specific weight criteria. Eating attitudes, dieting patterns, weight fluctuation, and methods of weight loss w ... Full text Cite

Obesity. Workshop III. AHA Prevention Conference III. Behavior change and compliance: keys to improving cardiovascular health.

Journal Article Circulation · September 1993 The workshop provided the opportunity to discuss issues and develop and integrate ideas. The following recommendations for public policies, education programs, and high-priority research initiatives were developed: Recommendations for Public Policies: Focu ... Full text Cite

Etiology and treatment of obesity: understanding a serious, prevalent, and refractory disorder.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · August 1992 Obesity remains a leading public health problem because of its complications, prevalence, and resistance to change, despite record rates of dieting. Risk factors exist at both population and individual levels, thus obesity has diverse etiologies and conseq ... Full text Cite

Weight reduction diets and health promotion.

Journal Article American journal of preventive medicine · May 1992 Obesity is an important health problem. Despite record rates of dieting and the availability of numerous programs, the problem is not abating. This article discusses the popularity of fad diets, the safety and effectiveness of commonly used approaches to w ... Full text Cite

Relation of level of exercise, age, and weight-cycling history to weight and eating concerns in male and female runners.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · January 1992 We examined the association between level of exercise and degree of weight preoccupation in a large sample of male and female runners, as well as risk factors posited to influence weight and eating concerns in the general population. Subjects were 2,459 ma ... Full text Cite

Early-onset repeated dieting reduces food intake and body weight but not adiposity in dietary-obese female rats.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · January 1992 As dieting behavior and attempts at weight loss are becoming increasingly common in adolescent girls, we wished to determine whether early-onset repeated dieting influenced the development of obesity and its metabolic correlates. Female rats were fed a hig ... Full text Cite

Variability of body weight and health outcomes.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · December 1991 Full text Cite

Variability of body weight and health outcomes in the Framingham population.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · June 1991 BackgroundFluctuation in body weight is a common phenomenon, due in part to the high prevalence of dieting. In this study we examined the associations between variability in body weight and health end points in subjects participating in the Framin ... Full text Cite

Exercise decreases fat selection in female rats during weight cycling.

Journal Article The American journal of physiology · March 1991 Weight cycling (weight loss and regain) increases fat intake in rats allowed to self-select a diet from protein, carbohydrate, and fat sources. This study reports the effects of exercise on macronutrient self-selection. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (5 mo old ... Full text Cite

The heterogeneity of obesity: fitting treatments to individuals

Journal Article Behavior Therapy · January 1, 1991 Body weight is regulated by a complex interaction of biological, behavioral, and cultural factors. The population as a whole is at risk for obesity because of increased intake of dietary fat, the consumption of calories in fewer meals per day, striking acc ... Full text Cite

Dieting and the search for the perfect body: Where physiology and culture collide

Journal Article Behavior Therapy · January 1, 1991 Modern society breeds a search for the perfect body. Today's aesthetic ideal is extremely thin, and now, superimposed on this, is the need to be physically fit. People seek the ideal, not only because of expected health benefits, but because of what the id ... Full text Cite

Personal responsibility and control over our bodies: when expectation exceeds reality.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · January 1991 Good health has become more than a means to personal goals such as greater attractiveness and increased longevity. It symbolizes self-control, hard work, ambition, and success in life. Inherent in this symbolism is the concept that the individual controls ... Full text Cite

Patterns of weight loss and regain in wrestlers: has the tradition changed?

Journal Article Medicine and science in sports and exercise · December 1990 To assess current weight loss practices in wrestlers, 63 college wrestlers and 368 high school wrestlers completed a questionnaire that examined the frequency and magnitude of weight loss, weight control methods, emotions associated with weight loss, dieti ... Full text Cite

Age and sex differences in health habits and beliefs of schoolchildren.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · January 1990 All children in Grades 3 through 12 of one school system completed a survey about health habits and beliefs including smoking and eating habits, perceptions of exercise, weight, and parental involvement in health. The surveys were factor-analyzed within gr ... Full text Cite

Weight cycling: the experience of human dieters.

Journal Article The American journal of clinical nutrition · May 1989 Full text Cite

The role of parents and older peers in school-based cardiovascular prevention programs: implications for program development.

Journal Article Health education quarterly · January 1989 This article describes a set of studies which compare the effectiveness of innovative interventions led by older peers and which included a parent component with teacher-led interventions for nutrition, blood pressure, and smoking prevention. Information a ... Full text Cite

Metabolic effects of repeated weight loss and regain in adolescent wrestlers

Journal Article Journal of the American Medical Association · 1988 This study examined resting metabolic rate in adolescent wrestlers to test the hypothesis that repeated cycles of weight loss and regain would be associated with reduced energy requirements. Energy restriction lowers resting metabolic rate in normal-weight ... Cite

Weight regulation practices in athletes: analysis of metabolic and health effects.

Journal Article Medicine and science in sports and exercise · December 1987 Athletes engage in a number of dietary and weight control practices which may influence metabolism, health, and performance. This paper reviews the literature on these factors with special emphasis on athletes who show large, frequent, and rapid fluctuatio ... Cite

Experimentation with smokeless tobacco and cigarettes by children and adolescents: relationship to beliefs, peer use, and parental use.

Journal Article American journal of public health · November 1987 Experimentation with both cigarettes and smokeless tobacco by children in grades 3-12 in a school district in Pennsylvania was related to peer experimentation, parental use, and personal beliefs about the harm of the product for both males and females. Exp ... Full text Cite

Obesity and weight control: The good and bad of dieting

Journal Article Nutrition Today · January 1, 1987 There may be different “obesities” with different etiologies, characteristics and indications for treatment. The dangers of dieting must be balanced against the potential benefits, and if dieting is undertaken, a comprehensive program based on new principl ... Full text Cite

Modern methods for weight control: The physiology and psychology of dieting

Journal Article Physician and Sportsmedicine · January 1, 1987 Full text Cite

Competitions to facilitate health promotion: Review and conceptual analysis

Journal Article American Journal of Health Promotion · January 1, 1987 Full text Cite

Improving long-term weight loss: Pushing the limits of treatment

Journal Article Behavior Therapy · January 1, 1987 This paper adopts an aggressive stance on short-term and long-term weight losses produced by treatment of obesity. For many years the behavior therapy field has settled for small weight losses. This has resulted in part from a focus on "maintenance," which ... Full text Cite

The effects of repeated cycles of weight loss and regain in rats.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · October 1986 This study examined the metabolic effects of weight cycling, i.e., repeated periods of weight loss followed by regain. There were three groups of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats: (1) Chow Controls (a normal weight control group fed chow throughout); (2) Ob ... Full text Cite

Understanding and preventing relapse.

Journal Article The American psychologist · July 1986 Full text Cite

Interventions to prevent relapse.

Journal Article Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association · January 1986 Cite

Public health approaches to obesity and its management.

Journal Article Annual review of public health · January 1986 Full text Cite

Peer-led program for the treatment and prevention of obesity in the schools.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · August 1985 Full text Cite

A comparison of two very-low-calorie diets: protein-sparing-modified fast versus protein-formula-liquid diet.

Journal Article The American journal of clinical nutrition · March 1985 This study investigated the acceptability of two very-low-calorie diets in 16 moderately overweight persons participating in a weight reduction program. Subjects were prescribed a 1000-1200 kcal balanced diet the first month and asked to complete appetite ... Full text Cite

Weight reduction at the work site: a promise partially fulfilled.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · January 1985 Three consecutive studies of weight reduction at the work site were conducted with 172 female union members, who participated in 16-week behavioral group programs. There was no significant difference in weight loss over the three studies, but attrition dec ... Full text Cite

Self-concept in obese and normal-weight children.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · December 1984 Full text Cite

Weight loss competitions at the work site: impact on weight, morale and cost-effectiveness.

Journal Article American journal of public health · November 1984 Three weight loss competitions were held in business/industrial settings. One competition was between three banks; the other two were within industries, either between employee teams selected at random or between divisions of the industry. Attrition in the ... Full text Cite

In Reply

Journal Article JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association · August 17, 1984 Full text Cite

Treatment of obesity by behavior therapy and very low calorie diet: a pilot investigation.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · August 1984 Full text Cite

Confronting obesity in children: behavioral and psychological factors.

Journal Article Pediatric annals · June 1984 The problem of obesity in children must be taken seriously and treated aggressively. The long-term psychological, social, and medical consequences of childhood obesity can be quite serious. Behavior modification has shown new promise compared to the discou ... Cite

The psychology and physiology of obesity: implications for screening and treatment.

Journal Article Journal of the American Dietetic Association · April 1984 This article examines the psychological and physiological concomitants of obesity and presents practical methods for working with obese patients. Three areas of physiology are covered: fat cell theory, set point theory, and dietary obesity. The social and ... Cite

Behavioral, psychological, and environmental predictors of obesity and success at weight reduction.

Journal Article International journal of obesity · January 1984 Several behavioral, psychological, and environmental factors are related to the likelihood that an individual will be obese and to that person's chances of success at weight reduction. This paper identifies ten such factors and proposes that this combinati ... Cite

Behavioral and psychological aspects of motivation to exercise

Journal Article International Journal of Sports Medicine · January 1, 1984 Obesity is a major public health problem because of its prevalence, its serious medical and psychosocial effects, and its striking resistance to treatment. Popular thought is that overeating is the prime contributor to positive energy balance (hence a 'die ... Full text Cite

New developments in the treatment of obese children and adolescents.

Journal Article Research publications - Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease · January 1984 Cite

Very low calorie diets: their efficacy, safety, and future.

Journal Article Annals of internal medicine · November 1983 Very low calorie diets used to treat moderate and severe obesity produce average weight losses of 20 kg in 12 weeks. This paper reviews the development of very low calorie diets from research on fasting in the late 1950s and examines data on the amount of ... Full text Cite

Treatment of obese children with and without their mothers: changes in weight and blood pressure.

Journal Article Pediatrics · April 1983 Weight and blood pressure changes were evaluated in a 16-month controlled trial comparing three methods of involving mothers in the treatment of their obese adolescents (aged 12 to 16 years). The treatments were: (1) Mother-Child Separately--children and m ... Cite

The Cambridge diet. More mayhem?

Journal Article Journal of the American Medical Association · 1983 Full text Cite

A comprehensive treatment plan for obese children and adolescents: principles and practice.

Journal Article Pediatrician · January 1983 The problem of obesity in children must be identified early and treated seriously. The long-term psychological, social, and medical consequences of childhood obesity can be quite serious. Behavior modification has shown new promise compared to the discoura ... Cite

Obesity: understanding and treating a serious, prevalent, and refractory disorder.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · December 1982 Full text Cite

The double-blind in danger: untoward consequences of informed consent.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · November 1982 Patients and physicians correctly identified medication assignments in 70% of the cases in a double-blind trial of an appetite suppressant. The breach of the double-blind design may have had therapeutic consequences; correct identification was associated w ... Full text Cite

Comparison of school-based treatments for adolescent obesity.

Journal Article The Journal of school health · August 1982 Full text Cite

Estimates of food quantity and calories: errors in self-report among obese patients.

Journal Article The American journal of clinical nutrition · April 1982 We report three studies that examine the accuracy and usefulness of food records among dieting obese patients. In study 1 errors in quantity and calorie estimates for 10 common foods averaged 63.9% (quantity) and 53.4% (calories). The results of study 2 in ... Full text Cite

Changes in plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in men and women after a program of moderate exercise.

Journal Article Circulation · March 1982 Levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and other lipids and lipoproteins of 24 men and 37 women were measured before and after a 10-week exercise program. The program involved three sessions of aerobic exercise each week, with 15-20 minutes o ... Full text Cite

A school-based behavior modification, nutrition education, and physical activity program for obese children.

Journal Article The American journal of clinical nutrition · February 1982 Sixty-three obese children, ages 5 to 12 yr, participated in a school-based program of behavior modification, nutrition education, and physical activity. The 10-wk program involved educating the children and those in the children's social network (parents, ... Full text Cite

Plasma fenfluramine levels, weight loss and side effects: a failure to find a relationship.

Journal Article International journal of obesity · January 1982 Thirty-six women were treated for 16 weeks with fenfluramine and behavior therapy. There was a strong correlation between drug dosage and plasma levels of fenfluramine. In contrast to two previous reports, however, there was no correlation between plasma l ... Cite

Couples training, pharmacotherapy, and behavior therapy in the treatment of obesity.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · November 1981 The effects of behavior therapy with and without either pharmacotherapy or couples training were studied in 124 obese adults. In a 16-week behavioral weight-reduction program, patients were assigned to medication (fenfluramine hydrochloride) and no-medicat ... Full text Cite

Differential changes in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in obese men and women during weight reduction

Journal Article Archives of Internal Medicine · 1981 Levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and other lipoproteins of 73 obese men and women were measured before and after a 16-week weight reduction program. There were significant differences between men and women. In men, a 10.7-kg ... Full text Cite

Evaluation and modification of exercise patterns in the natural environment.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · December 1980 Using a new experimental paradigm to evaluate physical activity in the natural environment, the authors made of 45,694 observations of persons using stairs or an adjacent escalator at a shopping mall, train station, and bus terminal. In study 1, stair use ... Full text Cite

Determination of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in stored human plasma.

Journal Article Journal of lipid research · July 1980 This study was performed to determine the effect of frozen and unfrozen storage on plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol analysis. HDL-cholesterol was determined, following removal of the other lipoproteins by precipitation with heparin and MnC ... Cite

Work-site treatment for obesity.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · February 1980 Full text Cite

Behavior therapy for obesity: An evaluation of treatment outcome

Journal Article Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy · January 1, 1980 The long-term evidence on the behavioral treatment of obesity, including both experimentally controlled outcome studies and uncontrolled clinical trials, is critically reviewed. Results of the controlled studies show that weight loss at post-treatment (a m ... Full text Cite

The behavioral control of obesity: a descriptive analysis of a large-scale program.

Journal Article Journal of clinical psychology · October 1979 Evaluated a behavoiral treatment program for 147 obese patients in a Weight Control Clinic. Weight losses during treatment averaged 11.01 pounds with large inter-S variability. Unlike past studies, patients continued to lose weight during a 6-month follow- ... Full text Cite

Obesity and adherence to behavioral programs.

Journal Article NIDA research monograph · June 1979 Full text Cite

Cleaning the plate: food left by overweight and normal weight persons.

Journal Article Behaviour research and therapy · January 1979 Full text Cite

Self and external monitoring of weight.

Journal Article Psychological reports · October 1978 Full text Cite

Therapist and group contact as variables in the behavioral treatment of obesity.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · June 1978 Full text Cite

Behavioral treatment of obesity in children.

Journal Article American journal of diseases of children (1960) · April 1978 The development of behavioral techniques for the control of obesity in children is reviewed. Techniques developed for the treatment of obese adults have recently been modified for use with children, and to date, six studies exist that have evaluated their ... Full text Cite

The use of self-administered covert sensitization in the treatment of exhibitionism and sadism

Journal Article Behavior Therapy · January 1, 1978 This case study examines the response-response relationships between three distinct patterns of sexual arousal-exhibitionism, sadism, and heterosexual arousal-in the treatment of a 25-year-old male arrested for exhibitionism and attempted rape. Physiologic ... Full text Cite

Behavior therapy and behavior change: uncertainties in programs for weight control.

Journal Article Behaviour research and therapy · January 1978 Full text Cite

Patterns of appropriate and deviant sexual arousal: the behavioral treatment of multiple sexual deviations.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · December 1977 Full text Cite

Self-control in school children: Stringency and leniency in self-determined and externally imposed performance standards

Journal Article Behavior Therapy · January 1, 1977 This experiment was designed to investigate the capacity of stringent and lenient performance standards to elicit and maintain academic performance when self-determined or externally imposed. The ability of stringency instructions and social reinforcement ... Full text Cite

Measurement and treatment of two sexual deviations in one person

Journal Article Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry · January 1, 1976 Measurement and modification is described of the sexual deviations of a 34-yr-old male with a history of exhibitionism and sexual contact with his stepdaughter. A multiple baseline design was employed to assess the effects of covert sensitization not only ... Full text Cite