Skip to main content

Kevin S. LaBar

Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience
Psychology & Neuroscience

Selected Publications


Counterfactual thinking induces different neural patterns of memory modification in anxious individuals.

Journal Article Scientific reports · May 2024 Episodic counterfactual thinking (eCFT) is the process of mentally simulating alternate versions of experiences, which confers new phenomenological properties to the original memory and may be a useful therapeutic target for trait anxiety. However, it rema ... Full text Cite

An experimental examination of neurostimulation and cognitive restructuring as potential components for Misophonia interventions.

Journal Article J Affect Disord · April 1, 2024 Misophonia is a disorder of decreased tolerance to certain aversive, repetitive common sounds, or to stimuli associated with these sounds. Two matched groups of adults (29 participants with misophonia and 30 clinical controls with high emotion dysregulatio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retrieval-induced forgetting of emotional memories.

Journal Article Cognition & emotion · February 2024 Long-term memory manages its contents to facilitate adaptive behaviour, amplifying representations of information relevant to current goals and expediting forgetting of information that competes with relevant memory traces. Both mnemonic selection and inhi ... Full text Cite

Mood-congruent memory revisited.

Journal Article Psychological review · November 2023 Affective experiences are commonly represented by either transient emotional reactions to discrete events or longer term, sustained mood states that are characterized by a more diffuse and global nature. While both have considerable influence in shaping me ... Full text Cite

The representation of emotional experience from imagined scenarios.

Journal Article Emotion (Washington, D.C.) · September 2023 One of the key unresolved issues in affective science is understanding how the subjective experience of emotion is structured. Semantic space theory has shed new light on this debate by applying computational methods to high-dimensional data sets containin ... Full text Cite

Self-Relevance Moderates the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Corrugator Activity during the Imagination of Personal Episodic Events.

Journal Article Brain sciences · May 2023 Accumulating evidence suggests depression is associated with blunted reactivity to positive and negative stimuli, known as emotion context insensitivity (ECI). However, ECI is not consistently observed in the literature, suggesting moderators that influenc ... Full text Cite

Neuroimaging of Fear Extinction.

Journal Article Current topics in behavioral neurosciences · January 2023 Extinguishing fear and defensive responses to environmental threats when they are no longer warranted is a critical learning ability that can promote healthy self-regulation and, ultimately, reduce susceptibility to or maintenance of affective-, trauma-, s ... Full text Cite

Brain Structure in Acutely Underweight and Partially Weight-Restored Individuals With Anorexia Nervosa: A Coordinated Analysis by the ENIGMA Eating Disorders Working Group.

Journal Article Biol Psychiatry · November 1, 2022 BACKGROUND: The pattern of structural brain abnormalities in anorexia nervosa (AN) is still not well understood. While several studies report substantial deficits in gray matter volume and cortical thickness in acutely underweight patients, others find no ... Full text Link to item Cite

Psychosocial determinants of anxiety about the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal Article Journal of health psychology · September 2022 Pandemic health threats can cause considerable anxiety, but not all individuals react similarly. To understand the sources of this variability, we applied a theoretical model developed during the H1N1 pandemic of 2009 to quantify relationships among intole ... Full text Cite

Mapping a pathway to improved neuropsychiatric treatments with precision transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Journal Article Science advances · June 2022 Transcranial magnetic stimulation traces the functional and structural connections that modulate amygdala activity, enabling advanced brain stimulation treatments for numerous psychiatric disorders. ... Full text Cite

Enhancing cognitive restructuring with concurrent fMRI-guided neurostimulation for emotional dysregulation-A randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article J Affect Disord · March 15, 2022 BACKGROUND: Transdiagnostic clinical emotional dysregulation is a key component of many mental health disorders and offers an avenue to address multiple disorders with one transdiagnostic treatment. In the current study, we pilot an intervention that combi ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Temporal Dynamics of Spontaneous Emotional Brain States and Their Implications for Mental Health.

Journal Article Journal of cognitive neuroscience · March 2022 Temporal processes play an important role in elaborating and regulating emotional responding during routine mind wandering. However, it is unknown whether the human brain reliably transitions among multiple emotional states at rest and how psychopathology ... Full text Cite

Complex functional brain network properties in anorexia nervosa.

Journal Article Journal of eating disorders · February 2022 BackgroundAnorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by an incapacitating fear of weight gain and by a disturbance in the way the body is experienced, facets that motivate dangerous weight loss behaviors. Multimodal neuroimaging studies hig ... Full text Cite

Enhancing Cognitive Restructuring with Concurrent Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Transdiagnostic Randomized Controlled Trial.

Journal Article Psychother Psychosom · 2022 INTRODUCTION: Emotional dysregulation constitutes a serious public health problem in need of novel transdiagnostic treatments. OBJECTIVE: To this aim, we developed and tested a one-time intervention that integrates behavioral skills training with concurren ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enhancing Cognitive Restructuring with Concurrent Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Transdiagnostic Randomized Controlled Trial

Journal Article · 2021 Introduction Emotional dysregulation constitutes a serious public health problem in need of novel transdiagnostic treatments. Objective To this aim, we developed and tested a one-time intervention that integrates behavioral skills trainin ... Full text Cite

The Efficacy of Downward Counterfactual Thinking for Regulating Emotional Memories in Anxious Individuals.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2021 Aversive autobiographical memories sometimes prompt maladaptive emotional responses and contribute to affective dysfunction in anxiety and depression. One way to regulate the impact of such memories is to create a downward counterfactual thought-a mental s ... Full text Cite

Phenomenology of counterfactual thinking is dampened in anxious individuals.

Journal Article Cognition & emotion · December 2020 Counterfactual thinking (CFT), or simulating alternative versions of occurred events, is a common psychological strategy people use to process events in their lives. However, CFT is also a core component of ruminative thinking that contributes to psychopat ... Full text Cite

Extinction learning alters the neural representation of conditioned fear.

Journal Article Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience · October 2020 Extinction learning is a primary means by which conditioned associations to threats are controlled and is a model system for emotion dysregulation in anxiety disorders. Recent work has called for new approaches to track extinction-related changes in condit ... Full text Cite

Counterfactual thinking induces different neural patterns of memory modification in anxious individuals.

Journal Article Scientific reports · May 2024 Episodic counterfactual thinking (eCFT) is the process of mentally simulating alternate versions of experiences, which confers new phenomenological properties to the original memory and may be a useful therapeutic target for trait anxiety. However, it rema ... Full text Cite

An experimental examination of neurostimulation and cognitive restructuring as potential components for Misophonia interventions.

Journal Article J Affect Disord · April 1, 2024 Misophonia is a disorder of decreased tolerance to certain aversive, repetitive common sounds, or to stimuli associated with these sounds. Two matched groups of adults (29 participants with misophonia and 30 clinical controls with high emotion dysregulatio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retrieval-induced forgetting of emotional memories.

Journal Article Cognition & emotion · February 2024 Long-term memory manages its contents to facilitate adaptive behaviour, amplifying representations of information relevant to current goals and expediting forgetting of information that competes with relevant memory traces. Both mnemonic selection and inhi ... Full text Cite

Mood-congruent memory revisited.

Journal Article Psychological review · November 2023 Affective experiences are commonly represented by either transient emotional reactions to discrete events or longer term, sustained mood states that are characterized by a more diffuse and global nature. While both have considerable influence in shaping me ... Full text Cite

The representation of emotional experience from imagined scenarios.

Journal Article Emotion (Washington, D.C.) · September 2023 One of the key unresolved issues in affective science is understanding how the subjective experience of emotion is structured. Semantic space theory has shed new light on this debate by applying computational methods to high-dimensional data sets containin ... Full text Cite

Self-Relevance Moderates the Relationship between Depressive Symptoms and Corrugator Activity during the Imagination of Personal Episodic Events.

Journal Article Brain sciences · May 2023 Accumulating evidence suggests depression is associated with blunted reactivity to positive and negative stimuli, known as emotion context insensitivity (ECI). However, ECI is not consistently observed in the literature, suggesting moderators that influenc ... Full text Cite

Neuroimaging of Fear Extinction.

Journal Article Current topics in behavioral neurosciences · January 2023 Extinguishing fear and defensive responses to environmental threats when they are no longer warranted is a critical learning ability that can promote healthy self-regulation and, ultimately, reduce susceptibility to or maintenance of affective-, trauma-, s ... Full text Cite

Brain Structure in Acutely Underweight and Partially Weight-Restored Individuals With Anorexia Nervosa: A Coordinated Analysis by the ENIGMA Eating Disorders Working Group.

Journal Article Biol Psychiatry · November 1, 2022 BACKGROUND: The pattern of structural brain abnormalities in anorexia nervosa (AN) is still not well understood. While several studies report substantial deficits in gray matter volume and cortical thickness in acutely underweight patients, others find no ... Full text Link to item Cite

Psychosocial determinants of anxiety about the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal Article Journal of health psychology · September 2022 Pandemic health threats can cause considerable anxiety, but not all individuals react similarly. To understand the sources of this variability, we applied a theoretical model developed during the H1N1 pandemic of 2009 to quantify relationships among intole ... Full text Cite

Mapping a pathway to improved neuropsychiatric treatments with precision transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Journal Article Science advances · June 2022 Transcranial magnetic stimulation traces the functional and structural connections that modulate amygdala activity, enabling advanced brain stimulation treatments for numerous psychiatric disorders. ... Full text Cite

Enhancing cognitive restructuring with concurrent fMRI-guided neurostimulation for emotional dysregulation-A randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article J Affect Disord · March 15, 2022 BACKGROUND: Transdiagnostic clinical emotional dysregulation is a key component of many mental health disorders and offers an avenue to address multiple disorders with one transdiagnostic treatment. In the current study, we pilot an intervention that combi ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Temporal Dynamics of Spontaneous Emotional Brain States and Their Implications for Mental Health.

Journal Article Journal of cognitive neuroscience · March 2022 Temporal processes play an important role in elaborating and regulating emotional responding during routine mind wandering. However, it is unknown whether the human brain reliably transitions among multiple emotional states at rest and how psychopathology ... Full text Cite

Complex functional brain network properties in anorexia nervosa.

Journal Article Journal of eating disorders · February 2022 BackgroundAnorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by an incapacitating fear of weight gain and by a disturbance in the way the body is experienced, facets that motivate dangerous weight loss behaviors. Multimodal neuroimaging studies hig ... Full text Cite

Enhancing Cognitive Restructuring with Concurrent Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Transdiagnostic Randomized Controlled Trial.

Journal Article Psychother Psychosom · 2022 INTRODUCTION: Emotional dysregulation constitutes a serious public health problem in need of novel transdiagnostic treatments. OBJECTIVE: To this aim, we developed and tested a one-time intervention that integrates behavioral skills training with concurren ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enhancing Cognitive Restructuring with Concurrent Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Transdiagnostic Randomized Controlled Trial

Journal Article · 2021 Introduction Emotional dysregulation constitutes a serious public health problem in need of novel transdiagnostic treatments. Objective To this aim, we developed and tested a one-time intervention that integrates behavioral skills trainin ... Full text Cite

The Efficacy of Downward Counterfactual Thinking for Regulating Emotional Memories in Anxious Individuals.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2021 Aversive autobiographical memories sometimes prompt maladaptive emotional responses and contribute to affective dysfunction in anxiety and depression. One way to regulate the impact of such memories is to create a downward counterfactual thought-a mental s ... Full text Cite

Phenomenology of counterfactual thinking is dampened in anxious individuals.

Journal Article Cognition & emotion · December 2020 Counterfactual thinking (CFT), or simulating alternative versions of occurred events, is a common psychological strategy people use to process events in their lives. However, CFT is also a core component of ruminative thinking that contributes to psychopat ... Full text Cite

Extinction learning alters the neural representation of conditioned fear.

Journal Article Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience · October 2020 Extinction learning is a primary means by which conditioned associations to threats are controlled and is a model system for emotion dysregulation in anxiety disorders. Recent work has called for new approaches to track extinction-related changes in condit ... Full text Cite

Examining the Role of Lateral Parietal Cortex in Emotional Distancing Using TMS.

Journal Article Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci · October 2020 We recently proposed a neurocognitive model of distancing-an emotion regulation tactic-with a focus on the lateral parietal cortex. Although this brain area has been implicated in both cognitive control and self-projection processes during distancing, fMRI ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Proximal threats promote enhanced acquisition and persistence of reactive fear-learning circuits.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · July 14, 2020 Physical proximity to a traumatic event increases the severity of accompanying stress symptoms, an effect that is reminiscent of evolutionarily configured fear responses based on threat imminence. Despite being widely adopted as a model system for stress a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neural correlates of conceptual-level fear generalization in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article Neuropsychopharmacology · July 2020 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop when mechanisms for making accurate distinctions about threat relevance have gone awry. Generalization across conceptually related objects has been hypothesized based on clinical observation in PTSD, but the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multivariate Patterns of Posterior Cortical Activity Differentiate Forms of Emotional Distancing.

Journal Article Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) · May 2020 Distancing is an effective tactic for emotion regulation, which can take several forms depending on the type(s) of psychological distance being manipulated to modify affect. We recently proposed a neurocognitive model of emotional distancing, but it is unk ... Full text Cite

Sex differentiation in the human social brain

Journal Article Science · March 20, 2020 Full text Cite

Amygdala Nuclei Volume and Shape in Military Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Journal Article Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging · March 2020 BACKGROUND: The amygdala is a subcortical structure involved in socioemotional and associative fear learning processes relevant for understanding the mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research in animals indicates that the amygdala is a h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Threat-induced anxiety during goal pursuit disrupts amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article Transl Psychiatry · February 10, 2020 To investigate how unpredictable threat during goal pursuit impacts fronto-limbic activity and functional connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we compared military veterans with PTSD (n = 25) vs. trauma-exposed control (n = 25). Participan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Disgust Theory Through the Lens of Psychiatric Medicine

Journal Article Clinical Psychological Science · January 1, 2020 The elicitors of disgust are heterogeneous, which makes attributing one function to disgust challenging. Theorists have proposed that disgust solves multiple adaptive problems and comprises multiple functional domains. However, theories conflict with regar ... Full text Cite

Spatial distancing reduces emotional arousal to reactivated memories.

Journal Article Psychonomic bulletin & review · December 2019 Memories are able to update and adapt with new information about the world after they are reactivated. However, it is unknown whether the labile period following reactivation makes episodic memories more amenable to emotion regulation, an application that ... Full text Cite

Advances in understanding addiction treatment and recovery.

Journal Article Science advances · October 2019 Full text Cite

How did we evolve pointing gestures?

Journal Article Science · July 12, 2019 Full text Cite

Emotion schemas are embedded in the human visual system.

Journal Article Science advances · July 2019 Theorists have suggested that emotions are canonical responses to situations ancestrally linked to survival. If so, then emotions may be afforded by features of the sensory environment. However, few computational models describe how combinations of stimulu ... Full text Cite

The central role of disgust in disorders of food avoidance.

Journal Article Int J Eat Disord · May 2019 BACKGROUND: Individuals with extreme food avoidance such as Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) experience impairing physical and mental health consequences from nutrition of insufficient variety or/and quantity. Identifying mechanisms contri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Regulating emotion through distancing: A taxonomy, neurocognitive model, and supporting meta-analysis.

Journal Article Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews · January 2019 Distancing is a type of emotion regulation that involves simulating a new perspective to alter the psychological distance and emotional impact of a stimulus. The effectiveness and versatility of distancing relative to other types of emotion regulation make ... Full text Cite

Chimera states in neural networks

Journal Article Science · January 1, 2019 Full text Cite

Threat-Induced Anxiety During Goal Pursuit Disrupts Amygdala-Prefrontal Cortex Connectivity in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Journal Article · 2019 To investigate how unpredictable threat during goal pursuit impacts fronto-limbic activity and functional connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we compared military veterans with PTSD (n=25) versus trauma-exposed Control (n=25). Participant ... Full text Cite

Smaller hippocampal CA1 subfield volume in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article Depress Anxiety · November 2018 BACKGROUND: Smaller hippocampal volume in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents the most consistently reported structural alteration in the brain. Subfields of the hippocampus play distinct roles in encoding and processing of memori ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neural mechanisms underlying subsequent memory for personal beliefs:An fMRI study.

Journal Article Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience · April 2018 Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is i ... Full text Cite

A brain rhythm for speech integration

Journal Article Science · February 9, 2018 Full text Cite

Brain Structural Covariance Network Topology in Remitted Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Journal Article Front Psychiatry · 2018 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, chronic disorder with high psychiatric morbidity; however, a substantial portion of affected individuals experience remission after onset. Alterations in brain network topology derived from cortical thic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neural responses to emotional involuntary memories in posttraumatic stress disorder: Differences in timing and activity.

Journal Article · January 2018 Background:Involuntary memories are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but studies of the neural basis of involuntary memory retrieval in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sparse. The study of the neural correlates of involu ... Full text Open Access Cite

Smaller Hippocampal CA-1 Subfield Volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Journal Article · 2018 Background Smaller hippocampal volume in patients with PTSD represents the most consistently reported structural alteration in the brain. Subfields of the hippocampus play distinct roles in encoding and processing of memories, which are disrupted ... Full text Cite

Emotion Schemas are Embedded in the Human Visual System

Journal Article · 2018 Theorists have suggested that emotions are canonical responses to situations ancestrally linked to survival. If so, then emotions may be afforded by features of the sensory environment. However, few computationally explicit models describe how combinations ... Full text Cite

Advances in neuroscience.

Journal Article Science advances · November 2017 Full text Open Access Cite

Adolescent development of insula-dependent interoceptive regulation.

Journal Article Dev Sci · September 2017 Adolescence is hypothesized to be a critical period for the maturation of self-regulatory capacities, including those that depend on interoceptive sensitivity, but the neural basis of interoceptive regulation in adolescence is unknown. We used functional m ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Clinical Significance of Posterior Insular Volume in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa.

Journal Article Psychosom Med · 2017 OBJECTIVE: The diagnostic criterion disturbance in the experience of the body remains a poorly understood and persistent feature of anorexia nervosa (AN). Increased sophistication in understanding the structure of the insular cortex-a neural structure that ... Full text Link to item Cite

Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

Journal Article Neurobiol Learn Mem · October 2016 Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and su ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fear generalization gradients in visuospatial attention.

Journal Article Emotion (Washington, D.C.) · October 2016 Fear learning can be adaptively advantageous, but only if the learning is integrated with higher-order cognitive processes that impact goal-directed behaviors. Recent work has demonstrated generalization (i.e., transfer) of conditioned fear across perceptu ... Full text Cite

Decoding Spontaneous Emotional States in the Human Brain

Journal Article PLoS Biol · September 14, 2016 Author SummaryFunctional brain imaging techniques provide a window into neural activity underpinning diverse cognitive processes, including visual perception, decision-making, and memory, among many others. By treating functional imaging ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Decoding the Nature of Emotion in the Brain.

Journal Article Trends in cognitive sciences · June 2016 A central, unresolved problem in affective neuroscience is understanding how emotions are represented in nervous system activity. After prior localization approaches largely failed, researchers began applying multivariate statistical tools to reconceptuali ... Full text Cite

Variability in emotional responsiveness and coping style during active avoidance as a window onto psychological vulnerability to stress.

Journal Article Physiology & behavior · May 2016 Individual differences in coping styles are associated with psychological vulnerability to stress. Recent animal research suggests that coping styles reflect trade-offs between proactive and reactive threat responses during active avoidance paradigms, with ... Full text Cite

Emotional modulation of interval timing and time perception.

Journal Article Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews · May 2016 Like other senses, our perception of time is not veridical, but rather, is modulated by changes in environmental context. Anecdotal experiences suggest that emotions can be powerful modulators of time perception; nevertheless, the functional and neural mec ... Full text Cite

Somatosensory Representations Link the Perception of Emotional Expressions and Sensory Experience.

Journal Article eNeuro · March 2016 Studies of human emotion perception have linked a distributed set of brain regions to the recognition of emotion in facial, vocal, and body expressions. In particular, lesions to somatosensory cortex in the right hemisphere have been shown to impair recogn ... Full text Cite

Discriminative Fear Learners are Resilient to Temporal Distortions during Threat Anticipation.

Journal Article Timing & time perception (Leiden, Netherlands) · January 2016 Discriminative fear conditioning requires learning to dissociate between safety cues and cues that predict negative outcomes yet little is known about what processes contribute to discriminative fear learning. According to attentional models of time percep ... Full text Cite

Fear learning circuitry is biased toward generalization of fear associations in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article Transl Psychiatry · December 15, 2015 Fear conditioning is an established model for investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, symptom triggers may vaguely resemble the initial traumatic event, differing on a variety of sensory and affective dimensions. We extended the fear-c ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Multivariate neural biomarkers of emotional states are categorically distinct.

Journal Article Social cognitive and affective neuroscience · November 2015 Understanding how emotions are represented neurally is a central aim of affective neuroscience. Despite decades of neuroimaging efforts addressing this question, it remains unclear whether emotions are represented as distinct entities, as predicted by cate ... Full text Cite

Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans.

Journal Article NeuroImage · November 2015 The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear ren ... Full text Cite

Spatial proximity amplifies valence in emotional memory and defensive approach-avoidance.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · April 2015 In urban areas, people often have to stand or move in close proximity to others. The egocentric distance to stimuli is a powerful determinant of defensive behavior in animals. Yet, little is known about how spatial proximity to others alters defensive resp ... Full text Cite

Emotion

Chapter · February 14, 2015 Full text Cite

Developmental trajectories of cortical-subcortical interactions underlying the evaluation of trust in adolescence.

Journal Article Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci · February 2015 Social decision making is guided by the ability to intuitively judge personal attributes, including analysis of facial features to infer the trustworthiness of others. Although the neural basis for trustworthiness evaluation is well characterized in adults ... Full text Link to item Cite

Therapeutic affect reduction, emotion regulation, and emotional memory reconsolidation: A neuroscientific quandary.

Journal Article The Behavioral and brain sciences · January 2015 Lane et al. emphasize the role of emotional arousal as a precipitating factor for successful psychotherapy. However, as therapy ensues, the arousal diminishes. How can the unfolding therapeutic process generate long-term memories for reconsolidated emotion ... Full text Cite

Aversive learning modulates cortical representations of object categories.

Journal Article Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) · November 2014 Experimental studies of conditioned learning reveal activity changes in the amygdala and unimodal sensory cortex underlying fear acquisition to simple stimuli. However, real-world fears typically involve complex stimuli represented at the category level. A ... Full text Cite

Extinction in multiple virtual reality contexts diminishes fear reinstatement in humans.

Journal Article Neurobiology of learning and memory · September 2014 Although conditioned fear can be effectively extinguished by unreinforced exposure to a threat cue, fear responses tend to return when the cue is encountered some time after extinction (spontaneous recovery), in a novel environment (renewal), or following ... Full text Cite

Relative effectiveness of reappraisal and distraction in regulating emotion in late-life depression.

Journal Article Am J Geriatr Psychiatry · September 2014 OBJECTIVES: The present study compares the effectiveness of two strategies, reappraisal and distraction, in reducing negative affect in older adults induced by focusing on personally relevant negative events and stressors. PARTICIPANTS: 30 adults with majo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Learning and Memory: Basic Mechanisms

Chapter · July 11, 2014 Previous chapters in this book described the various components of nerve cells and their biophysical and biochemical properties as well as the ways in which neurons are connected to each other to process information and generate behavior. This chapter desc ... Full text Cite

Prior perceptual processing enhances the effect of emotional arousal on the neural correlates of memory retrieval.

Journal Article Neurobiology of learning and memory · July 2014 A fundamental idea in memory research is that items are more likely to be remembered if encoded with a semantic, rather than perceptual, processing strategy. Interestingly, this effect has been shown to reverse for emotionally arousing materials, such that ... Full text Cite

Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

Journal Article Neurobiology of learning and memory · July 2014 Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive even ... Full text Cite

Hear it playing low and slow: how pitch level differentially influences time perception.

Journal Article Acta psychologica · June 2014 Variations in both pitch and time are important in conveying meaning through speech and music, however, research is scant on perceptual interactions between these two domains. Using an ordinal comparison procedure, we explored how different pitch levels of ... Full text Cite

Advancing emotion theory with multivariate pattern classification.

Journal Article Emotion review : journal of the International Society for Research on Emotion · April 2014 Characterizing how activity in the central and autonomic nervous systems corresponds to distinct emotional states is one of the central goals of affective neuroscience. Despite the ease with which individuals label their own experiences, identifying specif ... Full text Cite

Development and validation of an unsupervised scoring system (Autonomate) for skin conductance response analysis.

Journal Article International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology · March 2014 The skin conductance response (SCR) is increasingly being used as a measure of sympathetic activation concurrent with neuroscience measurements. We present a method of automated analysis of SCR data in the contexts of event-related cognitive tasks and nons ... Full text Cite

Acute effects of trauma-focused research procedures on participant safety and distress.

Journal Article Psychiatry Res · January 30, 2014 The ethical conduct of research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires assessing the risks to study participants. Some previous findings suggest that patients with PTSD report higher distress compared to non-PTSD participants after trauma-focused ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Effects of induced moods on economic choices

Journal Article Judgment and Decision Making · January 1, 2014 Emotions can shape decision processes by altering valuation signals, risk perception, and strategic orientation. Although multiple theories posit a role for affective processes in mediating the influence of frames on decision making, empirical studies have ... Cite

Altered resting-state functional connectivity of basolateral and centromedial amygdala complexes in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article Neuropsychopharmacology · January 2014 The amygdala is a major structure that orchestrates defensive reactions to environmental threats and is implicated in hypervigilance and symptoms of heightened arousal in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The basolateral and centromedial amygdala (CMA) ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Neural similarity between encoding and retrieval is related to memory via hippocampal interactions.

Journal Article Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) · December 2013 A fundamental principle in memory research is that memory is a function of the similarity between encoding and retrieval operations. Consistent with this principle, many neurobiological models of declarative memory assume that memory traces are stored in c ... Full text Cite

Multivariate pattern classification reveals autonomic and experiential representations of discrete emotions.

Journal Article Emotion (Washington, D.C.) · August 2013 Defining the structural organization of emotions is a central unresolved question in affective science. In particular, the extent to which autonomic nervous system activity signifies distinct affective states remains controversial. Most prior research on t ... Full text Cite

Effects of discrimination training on fear generalization gradients and perceptual classification in humans.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · June 2013 To examine the effect of discriminative fear conditioning on the shape of the generalization gradient, two groups of participants first learned to discriminate between two color stimuli, one paired with an electrical shock (conditional stimulus, CS+) and t ... Full text Cite

Dissociable Prefrontal Brain Systems for Attention and Emotion

Chapter · January 1, 2013 The prefrontal cortex has been implicated in a variety of attentional, executive, and mnemonic mental operations, yet its functional organization is still highly debated. The present study used functional MRI to determine whether attentional and emotional ... Full text Cite

Perception of affect in biological motion cues in anorexia nervosa.

Journal Article Int J Eat Disord · January 2013 OBJECTIVE: Nonverbal motion cues (a clenched fist) convey essential information about the intentions of the actor. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have demonstrated impairment in deciphering intention from facial affective cues, but it is unknown wh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Amygdala volume changes in posttraumatic stress disorder in a large case-controlled veterans group.

Journal Article Arch Gen Psychiatry · November 2012 CONTEXT: Smaller hippocampal volumes are well established in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the relatively few studies of amygdala volume in PTSD have produced equivocal results. OBJECTIVE: To assess a large cohort of recent military veterans wi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Threat of punishment motivates memory encoding via amygdala, not midbrain, interactions with the medial temporal lobe.

Journal Article J Neurosci · June 27, 2012 Neural circuits associated with motivated declarative encoding and active threat avoidance have both been described, but the relative contribution of these systems to punishment-motivated encoding remains unknown. The current study used functional magnetic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Emotional Influences on Visuospatial Attention

Chapter · May 24, 2012 This chapter focuses on how emotional processing in the amygdala and related limbic regions interact with frontoparietal attentional control systems and the visual processing stream. Such effects have been elucidated by studying neurologic patients with br ... Full text Cite

Neural mechanisms mediating contingent capture of attention by affective stimuli.

Journal Article Journal of cognitive neuroscience · May 2012 Attention is attracted exogenously by physically salient stimuli, but this effect can be dampened by endogenous attention settings, a phenomenon called "contingent capture." Emotionally salient stimuli are also thought to exert a strong exogenous influence ... Full text Cite

Neurocognitive mechanisms of gaze-expression interactions in face processing and social attention.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · April 2012 The face conveys a rich source of non-verbal information used during social communication. While research has revealed how specific facial channels such as emotional expression are processed, little is known about the prioritization and integration of mult ... Full text Cite

Imaging emotional influences on learning and memory

Chapter · March 22, 2012 This chapter discusses relevant psychological and neurobiological theories on emotion and emotional memory. It also illustrates how neuroimaging research has validated and extended the animal models and has led to new insights into mechanisms of emotional ... Full text Cite

Neural systems for guilt from actions affecting self versus others.

Journal Article Neuroimage · March 2012 Guilt is a core emotion governing social behavior by promoting compliance with social norms or self-imposed standards. The goal of this study was to contrast guilty responses to actions that affect self versus others, since actions with social consequences ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Brain activity associated with omission of an aversive event reveals the effects of fear learning and generalization.

Journal Article Neurobiology of learning and memory · March 2012 During fear learning, anticipation of an impending aversive stimulus increases defensive behaviors. Interestingly, omission of the aversive stimulus often produces another response around the time the event was expected. This omission response suggests tha ... Full text Cite

Role of conceptual knowledge in learning and retention of conditioned fear.

Journal Article Biological psychology · February 2012 Associating sensory cues with aversive outcomes is a relatively basic process shared across species. Yet higher-order cognitive processes likely contribute to associative fear learning in many circumstances, especially in humans. Here we ask whether fears ... Full text Cite

Fear-relevant outcomes modulate the neural correlates of probabilistic classification learning.

Journal Article NeuroImage · January 2012 Although much work has implicated the contributions of frontostriatal and medial temporal lobe (MTL) systems during probabilistic classification learning, the impact of emotion on these learning circuits is unknown. We used a modified version of the weathe ... Full text Cite

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism and hippocampal activation during episodic encoding and retrieval tasks.

Journal Article Hippocampus · September 2011 Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin which has been shown to regulate cell survival and proliferation, as well as synaptic growth and hippocampal long-term potentiation. A naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism in the huma ... Full text Cite

Anticipatory anxiety hinders detection of a second target in dual-target search.

Journal Article Psychological science · July 2011 Professional visual searches (e.g., baggage screenings, military searches, radiological examinations) are often conducted in high-pressure environments and require focus on multiple visual targets. Yet laboratory studies of visual search tend to be conduct ... Full text Cite

Functional imaging of emotion reactivity in opiate-dependent borderline personality disorder.

Journal Article Personal Disord · July 2011 Opiate dependence (OD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), separately and together, are significant public health problems with poor treatment outcomes. BPD is associated with difficulties in emotion regulation, and brain-imaging studies in BPD indi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cracking the almond (Commentary on Prévost et al.).

Journal Article The European journal of neuroscience · July 2011 Full text Cite

Hemodynamic signals of mixed messages during a social exchange.

Journal Article Neuroreport · June 22, 2011 This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize hemodynamic activation patterns recruited when the participants viewed mixed social communicative messages during a common interpersonal exchange. Mixed messages were defined as conflict ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reduced hippocampal and amygdala activity predicts memory distortions for trauma reminders in combat-related PTSD.

Journal Article J Psychiatr Res · May 2011 Neurobiological models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that altered activity in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during encoding of traumatic memories contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, there is little di ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Level of processing modulates the neural correlates of emotional memory formation.

Journal Article Journal of cognitive neuroscience · April 2011 Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The pr ... Full text Cite

Neurobehavioral mechanisms of human fear generalization.

Journal Article NeuroImage · April 2011 While much research has elucidated the neurobiology of fear learning, the neural systems supporting the generalization of learned fear are unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that regions involved in the acquisition of fear ... Full text Cite

Low- and high-testosterone individuals exhibit decreased aversion to economic risk.

Journal Article Psychol Sci · April 2011 Testosterone is positively associated with risk-taking behavior in social domains (e.g., crime, physical aggression). However, the scant research linking testosterone to economic risk preferences presents inconsistent findings. We examined the relationship ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cognitive and neural contributors to emotion regulation in aging.

Journal Article Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci · April 2011 Older adults, compared to younger adults, focus on emotional well-being. While the lifespan trajectory of emotional processing and its regulation has been characterized behaviorally, few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Here, old ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Reprint of: fMRI studies of successful emotional memory encoding: a quantitative meta-analysis.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · March 2011 Over the past decade, fMRI techniques have been increasingly used to interrogate the neural correlates of successful emotional memory encoding. These investigations have typically aimed to either characterize the contributions of the amygdala and medial te ... Full text Link to item Cite

Structural magnetic resonance imaging in bipolar disorder: an international collaborative mega-analysis of individual adult patient data.

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · February 2011 BackgroundThere is substantial inconsistency in results of brain structural magnetic resonance imaging studies in adult bipolar disorder. This is likely consequent upon limited statistical power of studies together with their clinical and methodol ... Full text Cite

Conceptual similarity promotes generalization of higher order fear learning.

Journal Article Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) · January 2011 We tested the hypothesis that conceptual similarity promotes generalization of conditioned fear. Using a sensory preconditioning procedure, three groups of subjects learned an association between two cues that were conceptually similar, unrelated, or misma ... Full text Cite

Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory.

Journal Article Learn Mem · 2011 The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experiment ... Full text Link to item Cite

Revealing context-specific conditioned fear memories with full immersion virtual reality.

Journal Article Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience · January 2011 The extinction of conditioned fear is known to be context-specific and is often considered more contextually bound than the fear memory itself (Bouton, 2004). Yet, recent findings in rodents have challenged the notion that contextual fear retention is init ... Full text Open Access Cite

Neurocognitive mechanisms of fear conditioning and vulnerability to anxiety.

Journal Article Frontiers in human neuroscience · January 2011 Full text Open Access Cite

fMRI studies of successful emotional memory encoding: A quantitative meta-analysis.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · October 2010 Over the past decade, fMRI techniques have been increasingly used to interrogate the neural correlates of successful emotional memory encoding. These investigations have typically aimed to either characterize the contributions of the amygdala and medial te ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human fear conditioning conducted in full immersion 3-dimensional virtual reality.

Journal Article Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE · August 2010 Fear conditioning is a widely used paradigm in non-human animal research to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying fear and anxiety. A major challenge in conducting conditioning studies in humans is the ability to strongly manipulate or simulate the ... Full text Cite

Stressful politics: voters' cortisol responses to the outcome of the 2008 United States Presidential election.

Journal Article Psychoneuroendocrinology · June 2010 Social subordination can be biologically stressful; when mammals lose dominance contests they have acute increases in the stress hormone cortisol. However, human studies of the effect of dominance contest outcomes on cortisol changes have had inconsistent ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modulation of reflexive orienting to gaze direction by facial expressions

Journal Article Visual Cognition · March 1, 2010 Facial expression and gaze perception are thought to share brain mechanisms but behavioural interactions, especially from gaze-cueing paradigms, are inconsistent. We conducted a series of gaze-cueing studies using dynamic facial cues to examine orienting a ... Full text Cite

COMT val108/158 met genotype affects neural but not cognitive processing in healthy individuals.

Journal Article Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) · March 2010 The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met g ... Full text Cite

Mental hoop diaries: emotional memories of a college basketball game in rival fans.

Journal Article · February 10, 2010 The rivalry between the men's basketball teams of Duke University and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) is one of the most storied traditions in college sports. A subculture of students at each university form social bonds with fellow fans ... Full text Open Access Cite

Emotion-Cognition Interactions

Chapter · January 1, 2010 Limbic forebrain regions are anatomically positioned to integrate cortical and subcortical processing streams that mediate cognitive and emotional functions. Feedback projections to sensory cortices bias perceptual systems to process stimuli of high signif ... Full text Cite

Emotion–Cognition Interactions

Chapter · January 1, 2010 Limbic forebrain regions are anatomically positioned to integrate cortical and subcortical processing streams that mediate cognitive and emotional functions. Feedback projections to sensory cortices bias perceptual systems to process stimuli of high signif ... Full text Cite

Component Neural Systems for the Creation of Emotional Memories during Free Viewing of a Complex, Real-World Event.

Journal Article · 2010 To investigate the neural systems that contribute to the formation of complex, self-relevant emotional memories, dedicated fans of rival college basketball teams watched a competitive game while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Duri ... Full text Open Access Cite

Staying cool when things get hot: emotion regulation modulates neural mechanisms of memory encoding.

Journal Article Front Hum Neurosci · 2010 During times of emotional stress, individuals often engage in emotion regulation to reduce the experiential and physiological impact of negative emotions. Interestingly, emotion regulation strategies also influence memory encoding of the event. Cognitive r ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Rebuttal to Hasan and Pedraza in comments and controversies: "Improving the reliability of manual and automated methods for hippocampal and amygdala volume measurements".

Journal Article Neuroimage · November 15, 2009 Here we address the critiques offered by Hasan and Pedraza to our recently published manuscript comparing the performance of two automated segmentation programs, FSL/FIRST and FreeSurfer (Morey R, Petty C, Xu Y, Pannu Hayes J, Wagner H, Lewis D, LaBar K, S ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dominance, politics, and physiology: voters' testosterone changes on the night of the 2008 United States presidential election.

Journal Article PLoS One · October 21, 2009 BACKGROUND: Political elections are dominance competitions. When men win a dominance competition, their testosterone levels rise or remain stable to resist a circadian decline; and when they lose, their testosterone levels fall. However, it is unknown whet ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Delayed extinction attenuates conditioned fear renewal and spontaneous recovery in humans.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · August 2009 This study investigated whether the retention interval after an aversive learning experience influences the return of fear after extinction training. After fear conditioning, participants underwent extinction training either 5 min or 1 day later and in eit ... Full text Cite

Generalization of conditioned fear along a dimension of increasing fear intensity.

Journal Article Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) · July 2009 The present study investigated the extent to which fear generalization in humans is determined by the amount of fear intensity in nonconditioned stimuli relative to a perceptually similar conditioned stimulus. Stimuli consisted of graded emotionally expres ... Full text Cite

The role of trauma-related distractors on neural systems for working memory and emotion processing in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article J Psychiatr Res · May 2009 The relevance of emotional stimuli to threat and survival confers a privileged role in their processing. In PTSD, the ability of trauma-related information to divert attention is especially pronounced. Information unrelated to the trauma may also be highly ... Full text Link to item Cite

Alterations in the neural circuitry for emotion and attention associated with posttraumatic stress symptomatology.

Journal Article Psychiatry Res · April 30, 2009 Information processing models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that PTSD is characterized by preferential allocation of attentional resources to potentially threatening stimuli. However, few studies have examined the neural pattern underlyin ... Full text Link to item Cite

A comparison of automated segmentation and manual tracing for quantifying hippocampal and amygdala volumes.

Journal Article Neuroimage · April 15, 2009 Large databases of high-resolution structural MR images are being assembled to quantitatively examine the relationships between brain anatomy, disease progression, treatment regimens, and genetic influences upon brain structure. Quantifying brain structure ... Full text Link to item Cite

Event-related potentials reveal temporal staging of dynamic facial expression and gaze shift effects on attentional orienting.

Journal Article Social neuroscience · January 2009 Multiple sources of information from the face guide attention during social interaction. The present study modified the Posner cueing paradigm to investigate how dynamic changes in emotional expression and eye gaze in faces affect the neural processing of ... Full text Cite

Fear relevancy, strategy use, and probabilistic learning of cue-outcome associations.

Journal Article Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) · October 2008 The goal of this study was to determine how the fear relevancy of outcomes during probabilistic classification learning affects behavior and strategy use. Novel variants of the "weather prediction" task were created, in which cue cards predicted either loo ... Full text Cite

Prefrontal mechanisms for executive control over emotional distraction are altered in major depression.

Journal Article Psychiatry Res · July 15, 2008 A dysfunction in the interaction between executive function and mood regulation has been proposed as the pathophysiology of depression. However, few studies have investigated the alteration in brain systems related to executive control over emotional distr ... Full text Link to item Cite

The short and long of it: neural correlates of temporal-order memory for autobiographical events.

Journal Article · July 2008 Previous functional neuroimaging studies of temporal-order memory have investigated memory for laboratory stimuli that are causally unrelated and poor in sensory detail. In contrast, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigat ... Full text Open Access Cite

Age-dependent reduction of amygdala volume in bipolar disorder.

Journal Article Psychiatry Res · May 30, 2008 The amygdala is hypothesized to play a critical role in mood regulation, yet its involvement in bipolar disorder remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare measurements of amygdala volumes in a relatively large sample of bipolar disorder ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neural systems for executive and emotional processing are modulated by symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq War veterans.

Journal Article Psychiatry Res · January 15, 2008 The symptom-provocation paradigms generally used in neuroimaging studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have placed high demands on emotion processing but lacked cognitive processing, thereby limiting the ability to assess alterations in neural sy ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Memory Enhancing Effect of Emotion: Functional Neuroimaging Evidence

Chapter · January 11, 2008 Emotional events are usually remembered better than neutral events. The anatomical and functional correlates of this phenomenon have been investigated in both animals and humans, with approaches ranging from neuropsychological and pharmacological to electr ... Full text Cite

The spatiotemporal dynamics of autobiographical memory: neural correlates of recall, emotional intensity, and reliving.

Journal Article · January 2008 We sought to map the time course of autobiographical memory retrieval, including brain regions that mediate phenomenological experiences of reliving and emotional intensity. Participants recalled personal memories to auditory word cues during event-related ... Full text Open Access Cite

Happy and fearful emotion in cues and targets modulate event-related potential indices of gaze-directed attentional orienting.

Journal Article Social cognitive and affective neuroscience · December 2007 The goal of the present study was to characterize the effects of valence in facial cues and object targets on event-related potential (ERPs) indices of gaze-directed orienting. Participants were shown faces at fixation that concurrently displayed dynamic g ... Full text Cite

Anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorders: guided investigation of social cognitive endophenotypes.

Journal Article Psychol Bull · November 2007 Death by suicide occurs in a disproportionate percentage of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), with a standardized mortality ratio indicating a 57-fold greater risk of death from suicide relative to an age-matched cohort. Longitudinal studies indicate ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of emotional facial recognition in late childhood and adolescence.

Journal Article Developmental science · September 2007 The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajec ... Full text Cite

Perception of dynamic changes in facial affect and identity in autism.

Journal Article Social cognitive and affective neuroscience · June 2007 Despite elegant behavioral descriptions of abnormalities for processing emotional facial expressions and biological motion in autism, identification of the neural mechanisms underlying these abnormalities remains a critical and largely unmet challenge. We ... Full text Cite

Dissociable effects of conscious emotion regulation strategies on explicit and implicit memory.

Journal Article Emotion (Washington, D.C.) · May 2007 The authors manipulated emotion regulation strategies at encoding and administered explicit and implicit memory tests. In Experiment 1, participants used reappraisal to enhance and decrease the personal relevance of unpleasant and neutral pictures. In Expe ... Full text Cite

Garner interference reveals dependencies between emotional expression and gaze in face perception.

Journal Article Emotion (Washington, D.C.) · May 2007 The relationship between facial expression and gaze processing was investigated with the Garner selective attention paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants performed expression judgments without interference from gaze, but expression interfered with gaze j ... Full text Cite

Reinstatement of conditioned fear and the hippocampus: an attentional-associative model.

Journal Article Behavioural brain research · February 2007 An existing attentional-associative model of classical conditioning [Schmajuk N, Lam Y, Gray JA. Latent inhibition: a neural network approach. J Exp Psychol: Anim Behav Process 1996;22:321-49] is applied to the description of reinstatement in animals and h ... Full text Cite

Quantifying deficits in the perception of fear and anger in morphed facial expressions after bilateral amygdala damage.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · January 2007 Amygdala damage has been associated with impairments in perceiving facial expressions of fear. However, deficits in perceiving other emotions, such as anger, and deficits in perceiving emotion blends have not been definitively established. One possibility ... Full text Cite

Beyond Fear Emotional Memory Mechanisms in the Human Brain.

Journal Article Current directions in psychological science · January 2007 Neurobiological accounts of emotional memory have been derived largely from animal models investigating the encoding and retention of memories for events that signal threat. This literature has implicated the amygdala, a structure in the brain's temporal l ... Full text Cite

Mood alters amygdala activation to sad distractors during an attentional task.

Journal Article Biol Psychiatry · November 15, 2006 BACKGROUND: A behavioral hallmark of mood disorders is biased perception and memory for sad events. The amygdala is poised to mediate internal mood and external event processing because of its connections with both the internal milieu and the sensory world ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dissociation of event-related potentials indexing arousal and semantic cohesion during emotional word encoding.

Journal Article Brain Cogn · October 2006 Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that emotional stimuli elicit greater amplitude late positive-polarity potentials (LPPs) than neutral stimuli. This effect has been attributed to arousal, but emotional stimuli are also more semantically coh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fear and anxiety pathways

Chapter · January 1, 2006 Cite

Cognitive neuroscience of emotional memory.

Journal Article Nature reviews. Neuroscience · January 2006 Emotional events often attain a privileged status in memory. Cognitive neuroscientists have begun to elucidate the psychological and neural mechanisms underlying emotional retention advantages in the human brain. The amygdala is a brain structure that dire ... Full text Cite

Effects of stress and sex on acquisition and consolidation of human fear conditioning.

Journal Article Learn Mem · 2006 We examined the relationship between stress hormone (cortisol) release and acquisition and consolidation of conditioned fear learning in healthy adults. Participants underwent acquisition of differential fear conditioning, and consolidation was assessed in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sequential ordering of morphed faces and facial expressions following temporal lobe damage.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · January 2006 A card ordering task was developed to evaluate the role of the temporal lobe in perceiving subtle featural displacements of faces that contribute to judgments of facial expression and identity. Individuals with varying degrees of temporal lobe damage and h ... Full text Cite

Startle modulation during conscious emotion regulation is arousal-dependent.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · August 2005 Conscious regulation of negative emotion has been shown to affect human eyeblink startle responses, but whether these results depend on modulation of arousal- or valence-based processes is unknown. The authors presented participants with negative, neutral, ... Full text Cite

Sex, stress, and fear: individual differences in conditioned learning.

Journal Article Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci · June 2005 It has long been recognized that humans vary in their conditionability, yet the factors that contribute to individual variation in emotional learning remain to be delineated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship among sex, stre ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reinstatement of conditioned fear in humans is context dependent and impaired in amnesia.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · June 2005 A contextual reinstatement procedure was developed to assess the contributions of environmental cues and hippocampal function in the recovery of conditioned fear following extinction in humans. Experiment 1 showed context specificity in the recovery of ext ... Full text Cite

Amygdala activation to sad pictures during high-field (4 tesla) functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Journal Article Emotion · March 2005 Fear-related processing in the amygdala has been well documented, but its role in signaling other emotions remains controversial. The authors recovered signal loss in the amygdala at high-field strength using an inward spiral pulse sequence and probed its ... Full text Link to item Cite

Remembering one year later: role of the amygdala and the medial temporal lobe memory system in retrieving emotional memories.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · February 2005 The memory-enhancing effect of emotion can be powerful and long-lasting. Most studies investigating the neural bases of this phenomenon have focused on encoding and early consolidation processes, and hence little is known regarding the contribution of retr ... Full text Cite

Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming.

Journal Article Cognition & emotion · January 2005 Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, th ... Full text Cite

Co-activation of the amygdala, hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus during autobiographical memory retrieval.

Journal Article · 2005 Functional MRI was used to investigate the role of medial temporal lobe and inferior frontal lobe regions in autobiographical recall. Prior to scanning, participants generated cue words for 50 autobiographical memories and rated their phenomenological prop ... Full text Open Access Cite

Emotional enhancement of perceptual priming is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · 2005 Perceptual priming for emotionally-negative and neutral scenes was tested in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy younger, middle-aged and older adults. In the study phase, participants rated the scenes for their arousal properties. In ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sex, stress, and fear: Individual differences in conditioned learning

Conference JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE · January 1, 2005 Link to item Cite

Perception of dynamic changes in facial expressions of emotion in autism

Conference JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE · January 1, 2005 Link to item Cite

Brain activity during episodic retrieval of autobiographical and laboratory events: an fMRI study using a novel photo paradigm.

Journal Article · November 2004 Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval generally measure brain activity while participants remember items encountered in the laboratory ("controlled laboratory condition") or events from their own life ("open autobiographical conditio ... Open Access Cite

Emotional intensity predicts autobiographical memory experience.

Journal Article · October 2004 College students generated autobiographical memories from distinct emotional categories that varied in valence (positive vs. negative) and intensity (high vs. low). They then rated various perceptual, cognitive, and emotional properties for each memory. Th ... Open Access Cite

Impact of healthy aging on awareness and fear conditioning.

Journal Article Behav Neurosci · October 2004 Fear conditioning has provided a useful model system for studying associative emotional learning, but the impact of healthy aging has gone relatively unexplored. The present study investigated fear conditioning across the adult life span in humans. A delay ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dissociable effects of arousal and valence on prefrontal activity indexing emotional evaluation and subsequent memory: an event-related fMRI study.

Journal Article NeuroImage · September 2004 Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity associated with emotional evaluation and subsequent memory was investigated with event-related functional MRI (fMRI). Participants were scanned while rating the pleasantness of emotionally positive, negative, and neutral pi ... Full text Cite

Emotion-attention network interactions during a visual oddball task.

Journal Article Brain research. Cognitive brain research · June 2004 Emotional and attentional functions are known to be distributed along ventral and dorsal networks in the brain, respectively. However, the interactions between these systems remain to be specified. The present study used event-related functional magnetic r ... Full text Open Access Cite

Interaction between the amygdala and the medial temporal lobe memory system predicts better memory for emotional events.

Journal Article Neuron · June 2004 Emotional events are remembered better than neutral events possibly because the amygdala enhances the function of medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system (modulation hypothesis). Although this hypothesis has been supported by much animal research, evidenc ... Full text Cite

Dynamic perception of facial affect and identity in the human brain.

Journal Article Cereb Cortex · October 2003 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation to static facial displays versus dynamic changes in facial identity or emotional expression. Static images depicted prototypical fearful, angry and neutral expressions. Ident ... Full text Link to item Cite

Emotional memory functions of the human amygdala.

Journal Article Current neurology and neuroscience reports · September 2003 Full text Cite

Neural correlates of person recognition.

Journal Article Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) · July 2003 Rapidly identifying known individuals is an essential skill in human society. To elucidate the neural basis of this skill, we monitored brain activity while experimental participants demonstrated their ability to recognize people on the basis of viewing th ... Full text Cite

Electromyography as a recording system for eyeblink conditioning with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Journal Article NeuroImage · October 2002 This study was designed to develop a suitable method of recording eyeblink responses while conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Given the complexity of this behavioral setup outside of the magnet, this study sought to adapt and further ... Full text Cite

Dissociable prefrontal brain systems for attention and emotion.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · August 2002 The prefrontal cortex has been implicated in a variety of attentional, executive, and mnemonic mental operations, yet its functional organization is still highly debated. The present study used functional MRI to determine whether attentional and emotional ... Full text Cite

Functional changes in temporal lobe activity during transient global amnesia.

Journal Article Neurology · February 2002 The integrity of temporal lobe activity during and after recovery from transient global amnesia (TGA) was assessed in a case study using functional MRI. TGA was associated with scene-encoding deficits in a temporolimbic circuit that recovered over time. Fr ... Full text Cite

Impact of signal-to-noise on functional MRI of the human amygdala.

Journal Article Neuroreport · November 2001 The impact of signal-to-noise (SNR) on fMRI of the amygdala was investigated during a picture encoding task. The SNR value required to observe reliable activation was determined by computer simulations. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) sensitivity maps ... Full text Cite

Hunger selectively modulates corticolimbic activation to food stimuli in humans.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · April 2001 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to determine whether visual responses to food in the human amygdala and related corticolimbic structures would be selectively altered by changes in states of hunger. Participants viewed images of motiva ... Full text Cite

Impact of signal-to-noise on functional MRI.

Journal Article Magnetic resonance in medicine · December 2000 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has recently been adopted as an investigational tool in the field of neuroscience. The signal changes induced by brain activations are small ( approximately 1-2%) at 1.5T. Therefore, the signal-to-noise ratio (S ... Full text Cite

Real-time monitoring of eye movements using infrared video-oculography during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the frontal eye fields.

Journal Article NeuroImage · January 2000 Monitoring eye movements is a critical aspect of experimental design for studies of spatial attention and visual perception. However, obtaining online eye-movement recordings has been technologically difficult during functional magnetic resonance (MR) imag ... Full text Cite

Emotional curiosity: modulation of visuospatial attention by arousal is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · January 2000 Previous studies have shown that Alzheimer's disease, even in its early stages, decreases novelty-seeking behaviors (curiosity) and impairs the shifting of spatial attention to extrapersonal targets. In this study, early-stage probable Alzheimer's disease ... Full text Cite

Neuroanatomic overlap of working memory and spatial attention networks: a functional MRI comparison within subjects.

Journal Article NeuroImage · December 1999 Frontal and posterior parietal activations have been reported in numerous studies of working memory and visuospatial attention. To directly compare the brain regions engaged by these two cognitive functions, the same set of subjects consecutively participa ... Full text Cite

A large-scale distributed network for covert spatial attention: further anatomical delineation based on stringent behavioural and cognitive controls.

Journal Article Brain : a journal of neurology · June 1999 Functional MRI was used to examine cerebral activations in 12 subjects while they performed a spatial attention task. This study applied more stringent behavioural and cognitive controls than previously used for similar experiments: (i) subjects were inclu ... Full text Cite

The large-scale neural network for spatial attention displays multifunctional overlap but differential asymmetry.

Journal Article NeuroImage · March 1999 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to determine the brain regions activated by two types of covert visuospatial attentional shifts: one based on exogenous spatial priming and the other on foveally presented cues which endogenously regula ... Full text Cite

Specifying the contributions of the human amygdala to emotional memory: A case study

Journal Article Neurocase · December 1, 1998 We examined emotional memory in patient SP, a 54-year-old woman with bilateral damage to the amygdala. Consistent with previous case studies, SP showed deficits on tests of fear conditioning and recognition memory for arousing stimuli. SP's performance on ... Full text Cite

Human amygdala activation during conditioned fear acquisition and extinction: a mixed-trial fMRI study.

Journal Article Neuron · May 1998 Echoplanar functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in normal human subjects to investigate the role of the amygdala in conditioned fear acquisition and extinction. A simple discrimination procedure was employed in which activation to a visual ... Full text Cite

Conditioning, awareness, and the hippocampus.

Journal Article Hippocampus · January 1998 For the past 50 years, psychologists have wrestled with questions regarding the relationship between conscious awareness and human conditioned behavior. A recent proposal that the hippocampus mediates awareness during trace conditioning (Clark, Squire, Sci ... Full text Cite

Arousal-mediated memory consolidation: Role of the Medial Temporal Lobe in Humans

Journal Article Psychological Science · January 1, 1998 Although the influence of emotional arousal on declarative memory has been documented behaviorally, the mechanisms underlying arousal-memory interactions and their representation in the human brain remain uncertain. One route through which arousal achieves ... Full text Cite

Memory for emotional words following unilateral temporal lobectomy.

Journal Article Brain and cognition · October 1997 We recently reported that patients who had received unilateral temporal lobectomy, including the amygdala and hippocampus, show impaired acquisition in a fear conditioning task (LaBar, LeDoux, Spencer, & Phelps, 1995), indicating a deficit in emotional mem ... Full text Cite

"Willed action": a functional MRI study of the human prefrontal cortex during a sensorimotor task.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · June 1997 Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to examine human brain activity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a sensorimotor task that had been proposed to require selection between several responses, a cognitive concept termed "willed action" in a posit ... Full text Cite

Partial disruption of fear conditioning in rats with unilateral amygdala damage: correspondence with unilateral temporal lobectomy in humans.

Journal Article Behavioral neuroscience · October 1996 Conditioned fear in rats was assessed for the effects of pretraining amygdala lesions (unilateral vs. bilateral) across unconditioned stimulus (US) modalities (white noise vs. shock). In contrast to sham controls, unilateral amygdala lesions significantly ... Full text Cite

Impaired fear conditioning following unilateral temporal lobectomy in humans.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · October 1995 Classical fear conditioning was used in the present study as a model for investigating emotional learning and memory in human subjects with lesions to the medial temporal lobe. Animal studies have revealed a critical role for medial temporal lobe structure ... Full text Cite