Skip to main content

David Joseph Madden

Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Medicine & Neurosciences
Box 3918, Durham, NC 27710
40 Duke Medicine Circle, Room 414, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


Age-related differences in resting-state, task-related, and structural brain connectivity: graph theoretical analyses and visual search performance.

Journal Article Brain Struct Funct · June 10, 2024 Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research suggests that aging is associated with a decrease in the functional interconnections within and between groups of locally organized brain regions (modules). Further, this age-related decrease in the segreg ... Full text Link to item Cite

Depth- and curvature-based quantitative susceptibility mapping analyses of cortical iron in Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Article Cereb Cortex · January 31, 2024 In addition to amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with elevated iron in deep gray matter nuclei using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). However, only a few studies have examined cortical ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Accelerated Brain Atrophy, Microstructural Decline and Connectopathy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Journal Article Biomedicines · January 10, 2024 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has recently been linked to cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that AMD modifies the brain aging trajectory, and we conducted a longitudinal diffusion MRI study on 40 participants (20 with AMD and 20 controls) to r ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Quantitative susceptibility mapping of brain iron in healthy aging and cognition.

Journal Article Neuroimage · November 15, 2023 Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can assess the magnetic properties of cerebral iron in vivo. Although brain iron is necessary for basic neurobiological functions, excess iron content disrupts h ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

High-resolution multi-shot diffusion imaging of structural networks in healthy neurocognitive aging.

Journal Article Neuroimage · July 15, 2023 Healthy neurocognitive aging has been associated with the microstructural degradation of white matter pathways that connect distributed gray matter regions, assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). However, the relatively low spatial resolution of sta ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Age-related differences in frontoparietal activation for target and distractor singletons during visual search.

Journal Article Atten Percept Psychophys · April 2023 Age-related decline in visual search performance has been associated with different patterns of activation in frontoparietal regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but whether these age-related effects represent specific influences of ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cerebral White Matter Mediation of Age-Related Differences in Picture Naming Across Adulthood.

Journal Article Neurobiol Lang (Camb) · March 2022 As people age, one of the most common complaints is difficulty with word retrieval. A wealth of behavioral research confirms such age-related language production deficits, yet the structural neural differences that relate to age-related language production ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cortical iron mediates age-related decline in fluid cognition.

Journal Article Hum Brain Mapp · February 15, 2022 Brain iron dyshomeostasis disrupts various critical cellular functions, and age-related iron accumulation may contribute to deficient neurotransmission and cell death. While recent studies have linked excessive brain iron to cognitive function in the conte ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cerebral white matter connectivity, cognition, and age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Neuroimage Clin · 2021 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common retina disease associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. The mechanism(s) that account for the link between AMD and cognitive decline remain unclear. Here we aim to shed light on this issue by ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Influence of structural and functional brain connectivity on age-related differences in fluid cognition.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · December 2020 We used graph theoretical measures to investigate the hypothesis that structural brain connectivity constrains the influence of functional connectivity on the relation between age and fluid cognition. Across 143 healthy, community-dwelling adults 19-79 yea ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Relationship between neural functional connectivity and memory performance in age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · November 2020 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been linked to memory deficits, with no established neural mechanisms. We collected resting-state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging and standardized verbal recall tests from 42 older adults with AMD and ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Response-level processing during visual feature search: Effects of frontoparietal activation and adult age.

Journal Article Atten Percept Psychophys · January 2020 Previous research suggests that feature search performance is relatively resistant to age-related decline. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the age-related constancy of feature search. In this experiment, we used a diffus ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Neural activation for actual and imagined movement following unilateral hand transplantation: a case study.

Journal Article Neurocase · December 2019 Transplantation of a donor hand has been successful as a surgical treatment following amputation, but little is known regarding the brain mechanisms contributing to the recovery of motor function. We report functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) find ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Age-related differences in the neural bases of phonological and semantic processes in the context of task-irrelevant information.

Journal Article Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci · August 2019 As we age we have increasing difficulty with phonological aspects of language production. Yet semantic processes are largely stable across the life span. This suggests a fundamental difference in the cognitive and potentially neural architecture supporting ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Language processing in age-related macular degeneration associated with unique functional connectivity signatures in the right hemisphere.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · March 2018 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal disease associated with significant vision loss among older adults. Previous large-scale behavioral studies indicate that people with AMD are at increased risk of cognitive deficits in language processing ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Functional modular architecture underlying attentional control in aging.

Journal Article Neuroimage · July 15, 2017 Previous research suggests that age-related differences in attention reflect the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes, but the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying this interaction remain an active area of research. Here, within a sample o ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cocaine dependence does not contribute substantially to white matter abnormalities in HIV infection.

Journal Article J Neurovirol · June 2017 This study investigated the association of HIV infection and cocaine dependence with cerebral white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). One hundred thirty-five participants stratified by HIV and cocaine status (26 HIV+/COC+, 37 HIV+/COC- ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Age-related differences in resting-state, task-related, and structural brain connectivity: graph theoretical analyses and visual search performance.

Journal Article Brain Struct Funct · June 10, 2024 Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research suggests that aging is associated with a decrease in the functional interconnections within and between groups of locally organized brain regions (modules). Further, this age-related decrease in the segreg ... Full text Link to item Cite

Depth- and curvature-based quantitative susceptibility mapping analyses of cortical iron in Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Article Cereb Cortex · January 31, 2024 In addition to amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with elevated iron in deep gray matter nuclei using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). However, only a few studies have examined cortical ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Accelerated Brain Atrophy, Microstructural Decline and Connectopathy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Journal Article Biomedicines · January 10, 2024 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has recently been linked to cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that AMD modifies the brain aging trajectory, and we conducted a longitudinal diffusion MRI study on 40 participants (20 with AMD and 20 controls) to r ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Quantitative susceptibility mapping of brain iron in healthy aging and cognition.

Journal Article Neuroimage · November 15, 2023 Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can assess the magnetic properties of cerebral iron in vivo. Although brain iron is necessary for basic neurobiological functions, excess iron content disrupts h ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

High-resolution multi-shot diffusion imaging of structural networks in healthy neurocognitive aging.

Journal Article Neuroimage · July 15, 2023 Healthy neurocognitive aging has been associated with the microstructural degradation of white matter pathways that connect distributed gray matter regions, assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). However, the relatively low spatial resolution of sta ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Age-related differences in frontoparietal activation for target and distractor singletons during visual search.

Journal Article Atten Percept Psychophys · April 2023 Age-related decline in visual search performance has been associated with different patterns of activation in frontoparietal regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but whether these age-related effects represent specific influences of ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cerebral White Matter Mediation of Age-Related Differences in Picture Naming Across Adulthood.

Journal Article Neurobiol Lang (Camb) · March 2022 As people age, one of the most common complaints is difficulty with word retrieval. A wealth of behavioral research confirms such age-related language production deficits, yet the structural neural differences that relate to age-related language production ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cortical iron mediates age-related decline in fluid cognition.

Journal Article Hum Brain Mapp · February 15, 2022 Brain iron dyshomeostasis disrupts various critical cellular functions, and age-related iron accumulation may contribute to deficient neurotransmission and cell death. While recent studies have linked excessive brain iron to cognitive function in the conte ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cerebral white matter connectivity, cognition, and age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Neuroimage Clin · 2021 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common retina disease associated with cognitive impairment in older adults. The mechanism(s) that account for the link between AMD and cognitive decline remain unclear. Here we aim to shed light on this issue by ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Influence of structural and functional brain connectivity on age-related differences in fluid cognition.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · December 2020 We used graph theoretical measures to investigate the hypothesis that structural brain connectivity constrains the influence of functional connectivity on the relation between age and fluid cognition. Across 143 healthy, community-dwelling adults 19-79 yea ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Relationship between neural functional connectivity and memory performance in age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · November 2020 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been linked to memory deficits, with no established neural mechanisms. We collected resting-state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging and standardized verbal recall tests from 42 older adults with AMD and ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Response-level processing during visual feature search: Effects of frontoparietal activation and adult age.

Journal Article Atten Percept Psychophys · January 2020 Previous research suggests that feature search performance is relatively resistant to age-related decline. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the age-related constancy of feature search. In this experiment, we used a diffus ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Neural activation for actual and imagined movement following unilateral hand transplantation: a case study.

Journal Article Neurocase · December 2019 Transplantation of a donor hand has been successful as a surgical treatment following amputation, but little is known regarding the brain mechanisms contributing to the recovery of motor function. We report functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) find ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Age-related differences in the neural bases of phonological and semantic processes in the context of task-irrelevant information.

Journal Article Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci · August 2019 As we age we have increasing difficulty with phonological aspects of language production. Yet semantic processes are largely stable across the life span. This suggests a fundamental difference in the cognitive and potentially neural architecture supporting ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Language processing in age-related macular degeneration associated with unique functional connectivity signatures in the right hemisphere.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · March 2018 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal disease associated with significant vision loss among older adults. Previous large-scale behavioral studies indicate that people with AMD are at increased risk of cognitive deficits in language processing ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Functional modular architecture underlying attentional control in aging.

Journal Article Neuroimage · July 15, 2017 Previous research suggests that age-related differences in attention reflect the interaction of top-down and bottom-up processes, but the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying this interaction remain an active area of research. Here, within a sample o ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cocaine dependence does not contribute substantially to white matter abnormalities in HIV infection.

Journal Article J Neurovirol · June 2017 This study investigated the association of HIV infection and cocaine dependence with cerebral white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). One hundred thirty-five participants stratified by HIV and cocaine status (26 HIV+/COC+, 37 HIV+/COC- ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Task difficulty modulates brain activation in the emotional oddball task.

Journal Article Brain Res · June 1, 2017 Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have reported that task-irrelevant, emotionally salient events can disrupt target discrimination, particularly when attentional demands are low, while others demonstrate alterations in the distr ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Sources of disconnection in neurocognitive aging: cerebral white-matter integrity, resting-state functional connectivity, and white-matter hyperintensity volume.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · June 2017 Age-related decline in fluid cognition can be characterized as a disconnection among specific brain structures, leading to a decline in functional efficiency. The potential sources of disconnection, however, are unclear. We investigated imaging measures of ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Frontoparietal activation during visual conjunction search: Effects of bottom-up guidance and adult age.

Journal Article Hum Brain Mapp · April 2017 We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a visual search paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging is associated with increased frontoparietal involvement in both target detection and bottom-up attentional guidance (featural salience ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Maintenance and Representation of Mind Wandering during Resting-State fMRI.

Journal Article Sci Rep · January 12, 2017 Major advances in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques in the last two decades have provided a tool to better understand the functional organization of the brain both in health and illness. Despite such developments, charac ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Age-related differences in resolving semantic and phonological competition during receptive language tasks.

Journal Article Neuropsychologia · December 2016 Receptive language (e.g., reading) is largely preserved in the aging brain, and semantic processes in particular may continue to develop throughout the lifespan. We investigated the neural underpinnings of phonological and semantic retrieval in older and y ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Linking cognitive and visual perceptual decline in healthy aging: The information degradation hypothesis.

Journal Article Neurosci Biobehav Rev · October 2016 Several hypotheses attempt to explain the relation between cognitive and perceptual decline in aging (e.g., common-cause, sensory deprivation, cognitive load on perception, information degradation). Unfortunately, the majority of past studies examining thi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Changes in Brain Resting-state Functional Connectivity Associated with Peripheral Nerve Block: A Pilot Study.

Journal Article Anesthesiology · August 2016 BACKGROUND: Limited information exists on the effects of temporary functional deafferentation (TFD) on brain activity after peripheral nerve block (PNB) in healthy humans. Increasingly, resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) is being used to study br ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Visual Acuity does not Moderate Effect Sizes of Higher-Level Cognitive Tasks.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · 2016 BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Declining visual capacities in older adults have been posited as a driving force behind adult age differences in higher-order cognitive functions (e.g., the "common cause" hypothesis of Lindenberger & Baltes, 1994, Psychology and ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Global versus tract-specific components of cerebral white matter integrity: relation to adult age and perceptual-motor speed.

Journal Article Brain Struct Funct · September 2015 Although age-related differences in white matter have been well documented, the degree to which regional, tract-specific effects can be distinguished from global, brain-general effects is not yet clear. Similarly, the manner in which global and regional di ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Phonemic fluency and brain connectivity in age-related macular degeneration: a pilot study.

Journal Article Brain Connect · March 2015 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in developed nations, has been associated with poor performance on tests of phonemic fluency. This pilot study sought to (1) characterize the relationship between phonemic fluency and r ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Association between increased magnetic susceptibility of deep gray matter nuclei and decreased motor function in healthy adults.

Journal Article Neuroimage · January 15, 2015 In the human brain, iron is more prevalent in gray matter than in white matter, and deep gray matter structures, particularly the globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, and dentate nucleus, exhibit especially high iron co ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Age-related differences in the neural bases of phonological and semantic processes.

Journal Article J Cogn Neurosci · December 2014 Changes in language functions during normal aging are greater for phonological compared with semantic processes. To investigate the behavioral and neural basis for these age-related differences, we used fMRI to examine younger and older adults who made sem ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Age mediation of frontoparietal activation during visual feature search.

Journal Article Neuroimage · November 15, 2014 Activation of frontal and parietal brain regions is associated with attentional control during visual search. We used fMRI to characterize age-related differences in frontoparietal activation in a highly efficient feature search task, detection of a shape ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Disconnected aging: cerebral white matter integrity and age-related differences in cognition.

Journal Article Neuroscience · September 12, 2014 Cognition arises as a result of coordinated processing among distributed brain regions and disruptions to communication within these neural networks can result in cognitive dysfunction. Cortical disconnection may thus contribute to the declines in some asp ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Functional brain connectivity and cognition: effects of adult age and task demands.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · August 2013 Previous neuroimaging research has documented that patterns of intrinsic (resting state) functional connectivity (FC) among brain regions covary with individual measures of cognitive performance. Here, we examined the relation between intrinsic FC and a re ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Brain connectivity and visual attention.

Journal Article Brain Connect · 2013 Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated w ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Reduced comparison speed during visual search in late life depression.

Journal Article J Clin Exp Neuropsychol · 2013 Slowed information processing is a prominent deficit in late-life depression (LLD). To better differentiate processing speed components in LLD, we examined characteristics of visual search performance in 32 LLD and 32 control participants. Data showed spec ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Diffusion tensor imaging of cerebral white matter integrity in cognitive aging.

Journal Article Biochim Biophys Acta · March 2012 Featured Publication In this article we review recent research on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of white matter (WM) integrity and the implications for age-related differences in cognition. Neurobiological mechanisms defined from DTI analyses suggest that a primary dimension ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The architecture of cross-hemispheric communication in the aging brain: linking behavior to functional and structural connectivity.

Journal Article Cereb Cortex · January 2012 Featured Publication Contralateral recruitment remains a controversial phenomenon in both the clinical and normative populations. To investigate the neural correlates of this phenomenon, we explored the tendency for older adults to recruit prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions contr ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

White matter integrity correlates of implicit sequence learning in healthy aging.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · December 2011 Featured Publication Previous research has identified subcortical (caudate, putamen, hippocampus) and cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC; frontal motor areas) regions involved in implicit sequence learning, with mixed findings for whether these neural substrates d ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Influence of encoding difficulty, word frequency, and phonological regularity on age differences in word naming.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · May 2011 It is presently unclear as to why older adults take longer than younger adults to recognize visually presented words. To examine this issue in more detail, the authors conducted two word-naming studies (Experiment 1: 20 older adults and 20 younger adults; ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Cognitive and neural contributors to emotion regulation in aging.

Journal Article Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci · April 2011 Older adults, compared to younger adults, focus on emotional well-being. While the lifespan trajectory of emotional processing and its regulation has been characterized behaviorally, few studies have investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Here, old ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Attention

Chapter · January 1, 2011 In the past decade a number of critical reviews of the literature on attention and aging have been published (e.g., Kramer and Kray, 2006; Madden and Whiting, 2004; Madden, Whiting, and Huettel, 2005a). Indeed, excellent chapters on aging and attention hav ... Full text Cite

Adult age differences in functional connectivity during executive control.

Journal Article Neuroimage · August 15, 2010 Featured Publication Task switching requires executive control processes that undergo age-related decline. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified age-related differences in brain activation associated with global switching effects (dual-task blocks versus single-task bl ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Age-related preservation of top-down control over distraction in visual search.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · July 2010 Visual search studies have demonstrated that older adults can have preserved or even increased top-down control over distraction. However, the results are mixed as to the extent of this age-related preservation. The present experiment assesses group differ ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Age-related decline of visual processing components in change detection.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · June 2010 Previous research has suggested that an age-related decline in change detection may be due to older adults using a more conservative response criterion. However, this finding may reflect methodological limitations of the traditional change detection design ... Full text Link to item Cite

Processing speed and memory mediate age-related differences in decision making.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · June 2010 Decision making under risk changes with age. Increases in risk aversion with age have been most commonly characterized, although older adults may be risk seeking in some decision contexts. An important, and unanswered, question is whether these changes in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of adult age and blood pressure on executive function and speed of processing.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · April 2010 Previous research has established that the effects of chronically increased blood pressure (BP) on cognition interact with adult age, but the relevant cognitive processes are not well defined. In this cross-sectional study, using a sample matched for age, ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Toward discovery science of human brain function.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · March 9, 2010 Featured Publication Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related differences in multiple measures of white matter integrity: A diffusion tensor imaging study of healthy aging.

Journal Article Hum Brain Mapp · March 2010 Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures diffusion of molecular water, which can be used to calculate indices of white matter integrity. Early DTI studies of aging primarily focused on two global measures of integrity; the average rate (mean diffusivity, MD ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cerebral white matter integrity and cognitive aging: contributions from diffusion tensor imaging.

Journal Article Neuropsychol Rev · December 2009 Featured Publication The integrity of cerebral white matter is critical for efficient cognitive functioning, but little is known regarding the role of white matter integrity in age-related differences in cognition. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures the directional displa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Measurement of spontaneous signal fluctuations in fMRI: adult age differences in intrinsic functional connectivity.

Journal Article Brain Struct Funct · October 2009 Featured Publication Functional connectivity (FC) reflects the coherence of spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We report a behavior-based connectivity analysis method, in which whole-brain data are used to identify beh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessing the effects of age on long white matter tracts using diffusion tensor tractography.

Journal Article Neuroimage · June 2009 Aging is associated with significant white matter deterioration and this deterioration is assumed to be at least partly a consequence of myelin degeneration. The present study investigated specific predictions of the myelodegeneration hypothesis using diff ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cerebral white matter integrity mediates adult age differences in cognitive performance.

Journal Article J Cogn Neurosci · February 2009 Featured Publication Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of aging on the neural correlates of successful item and source memory encoding.

Journal Article J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn · July 2008 To investigate the neural basis of age-related source memory (SM) deficits, young and older adults were scanned with fMRI while encoding faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Successful encoding activity was identified by comparing encoding activity for sub ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related slowing of memory retrieval: contributions of perceptual speed and cerebral white matter integrity.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · July 2008 Previous research suggests that, in reaction time (RT) measures of episodic memory retrieval, the unique effects of adult age are relatively small compared to the effects aging shares with more elementary abilities such as perceptual speed. Little is known ... Full text Link to item Cite

Overriding age differences in attentional capture with top-down processing.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · June 2007 Two experiments investigated the influence of top-down information on adult age differences in the ability to search for singleton targets using spatial cues. In Experiment 1, both younger and older adults were equally able to use target-related top-down i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related increase in top-down activation of visual features.

Journal Article Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) · May 2007 Featured Publication Previous research suggests that, during visual search and discrimination tasks, older adults place greater emphasis than younger adults on top-down attention. This experiment investigated the relative contribution of target activation and distractor inhibi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aging and Visual Attention.

Journal Article Curr Dir Psychol Sci · April 2007 Older adults are often slower and less accurate than are younger adults in performing visual-search tasks, suggesting an age-related decline in attentional functioning. Age-related decline in attention, however, is not entirely pervasive. Visual search tha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in the functional neuroanatomy of visual attention: a combined fMRI and DTI study.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · March 2007 Featured Publication We combined measures from event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and cognitive performance (visual search response time) to test the hypotheses that differences between younger and older adults in top-do ... Full text Link to item Cite

Role of aerobic fitness and aging on cerebral white matter integrity.

Journal Article Ann N Y Acad Sci · February 2007 Neuroimaging research suggests that cerebral white matter (WM) integrity, as reflected in fractional anisotropy (FA) via diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is decreased in older adults, especially in the prefrontal regions of the brain. Behavioral investigati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Information processing/cognition

Journal Article · January 1, 2007 Full text Cite

Effects of healthy aging on hippocampal and rhinal memory functions: an event-related fMRI study.

Journal Article Cereb Cortex · December 2006 Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effects of healthy aging on hippocampal and rhinal memory functions. Memory for past events can be based on retrieval accompanied by specific contextual details (recollection) or on ... Full text Link to item Cite

A diffusion model analysis of adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory retrieval.

Journal Article J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn · January 2006 Featured Publication Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related differences in the processing of redundant visual dimensions.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · September 2005 Age differences in the redundant-signals effect and coactivation of visual dimensions were investigated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1 the task required the conjoining of dimensions, whereas in Experiment 2 the spatial separation of dimensions was manip ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determination of multiple sclerosis plaque size with diffusion-tensor MR Imaging: comparison study with healthy volunteers.

Journal Article Radiology · August 2005 PURPOSE: To use diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to measure involvement of normal-appearing white matter (WM) immediately adjacent to multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques and thus redefine actual plaque size on diffusion-tensor images through co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in the implicit and explicit components of top-down attentional guidance during visual search.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · June 2005 Two experiments investigated adult age differences in the explicit (knowledge-based) and implicit (repetition priming) components of top-down attentional guidance during discrimination of a target singleton. Experiment 1 demonstrated an additional contribu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related changes in neural activity during visual perception and attention

Chapter · May 1, 2005 © 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights reserved. This chapter presents an overview of age-related changes in sensory systems that alter the identification of objects and events in the environment. It reviews the behavioral literature on percept ... Full text Cite

Searching from the top down: ageing and attentional guidance during singleton detection.

Journal Article Q J Exp Psychol A · January 2005 Previous investigations of adult age differences in visual search suggest that an age-related decline may exist in attentional processes dependent on the observer's knowledge of task-relevant features (top-down processing). The present experiments were con ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related preservation of top-down attentional guidance during visual search.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · June 2004 Younger (19-27 years of age) and older (60-82 years of age) adults performed a letter search task in which a color singleton was either noninformative (baseline condition) or highly informative (guided condition) regarding target location. In the guided co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diffusion tensor imaging of adult age differences in cerebral white matter: relation to response time.

Journal Article Neuroimage · March 2004 Featured Publication Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures the displacement of water molecules across tissue components, thus providing information regarding the microstructure of cerebral white matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA), the degree to which diffusion is directional ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related changes in neural activity during visual target detection measured by fMRI.

Journal Article Cereb Cortex · February 2004 We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a visual target detection (oddball) task to investigate age differences in neural activation for the detection of two types of infrequent events: visually simple items requiring a response shift (targ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interaction of Blood Pressure and Adult Age in Memory Search and Visual Search Performance

Journal Article Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition · December 1, 2003 According to one model of the interaction between blood pressure and adult age, chronically elevated blood pressure accelerates age-related decline in fluid intelligence. To test this model, 48 unmedicated individuals with high blood pressure (HBP) and 48 ... Full text Cite

Lexical and sublexical components of age-related changes in neural activation during visual word identification.

Journal Article J Cogn Neurosci · April 1, 2003 Positron emission tomography data (Madden, Langley, et al., 2002) were analyzed to investigate adult age differences in the relation between neural activation and the lexical (word frequency) and sublexical (word length) components of visual word identific ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related changes in selective attention and perceptual load during visual search.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · March 2003 Three visual search experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that age differences in selective attention vary as a function of perceptual load (E. A. Maylor & N. Lavie, 1998). Under resource-limited conditions (Experiments 1 and 2), the distractio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related changes in visual attention

Journal Article Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology · January 1, 2003 Full text Cite

Differential age effects for case and hue mixing in visual word recognition.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · December 2002 The authors compare older adults' lexical-decision data with younger adults' data reported in P. Allen, A. F. Smith, et al. (2002). On the basis of their work, it was proposed that consistent-case wordswould be processed by the faster holistic (magnodomina ... Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in visual word identification: functional neuroanatomy by positron emission tomography.

Journal Article Brain Cogn · August 2002 Adult age differences in the neural systems mediating semantic (context-independent) memory were investigated using positron emission tomography (PET). Younger (20-29 years) and older (62-70 years) participants performed lexical decision (word/nonword disc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differential age effects in semantic and episodic memory.

Journal Article J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci · March 2002 Results from 4 experimental tasks and 8 data sets (the 4 tasks involved either multiple sessions or different stimuli) as well as a vocabulary test conducted on the same 80 participants (40 younger and 40 older adults) are reported. The authors employed 2 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aging and attentional guidance during visual search: functional neuroanatomy by positron emission tomography.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · March 2002 Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to examine adult age differences in neural activation during visual search. Target detection was less accurate for older adults than for younger adults, but both age groups were successful in using color to guide ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of exercise training on cognitive functioning among depressed older men and women

Journal Article Journal of Aging and Physical Activity · January 1, 2001 The effects of a structured exercise program on the cognitive functioning of 84 clinically depressed middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 57 years) were examined. Participants were randomized to either 4 months of aerobic exercise (n = 42) or antidepre ... Full text Cite

Functional neuroimaging of memory: implications for cognitive aging.

Journal Article Microsc Res Tech · October 1, 2000 Our understanding of the ways in which changes in specific neural systems mediate adult age differences in memory is rapidly increasing, due in no small part to the advent of functional neuroimaging techniques. This article reviews age-related changes in m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neuroimaging of memory. Introduction.

Journal Article Microsc Res Tech · October 1, 2000 Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age invariance in sentence unitization

Journal Article Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition · January 1, 2000 We examined age differences on a letter detection task that was performed on four-word sentences in order to examine how letter-level and word-level processing is integrated with sentence-level unitization. Sentence-level unitization is defined as the form ... Full text Cite

Adult age differences in visual search accuracy: attentional guidance and target detectability.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · December 1999 Previous research, relying primarily on reaction time measures of highly accurate performance, suggests that both younger and older adults can increase the efficiency of visual search by guiding attention to a candidate subset of items. The authors investi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aging and recognition memory: changes in regional cerebral blood flow associated with components of reaction time distributions.

Journal Article J Cogn Neurosci · September 1999 We used H(2)15O positron emission tomography (PET) to measure age-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a verbal recognition memory task. Twelve young adults (20 to 29 years) and 12 older adults (62 to 79 years) participated. Separa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age differences in the strategic allocation of visual attention.

Journal Article J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci · May 1999 The allocation of visual spatial attention was investigated in two groups of adults, younger (n = 24; M = 19 yrs) and older (n = 24; M = 68 yrs). Two sequential target displays were presented on a computer screen. If a target letter appeared in Display 1, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age similarities in the inertial properties of attention.

Journal Article Percept Psychophys · May 1999 Adult age differences in the mode of allocation of visual attention were investigated, using a visual search task with a circular display containing one target letter and seven distractor letters. In two experiments, a total of 56 younger adults (M = 20 ye ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in the functional neuroanatomy of verbal recognition memory.

Journal Article Hum Brain Mapp · 1999 Adult age differences are frequently observed in the performance of memory tasks, but the changes in neural function mediating these differences are largely unknown. We used (H2)15O positron emission tomography (PET) to measure changes in regional cerebral ... Full text Link to item Cite

Task complexity and signal detection analyses of lexical decision performance in Alzheimer's disease

Journal Article Developmental Neuropsychology · January 1, 1999 This experiment addressed the issue of whether the changes in semantic memory performance associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be distinguished from a generalized cognitive slowing. Young adults, healthy older adults, and AD patients performed 3 ... Full text Cite

Time course of allocation of visual attention after equating for sensory differences: an age-related perspective.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · March 1998 Adult age differences in the time course of the allocation of visual attention were investigated, in 2 experiments that both included the same 10 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 10 older adults (M = 68 years). In Experiment 1, older adults accumulated in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interaction of hypertension and age in visual selective attention performance.

Journal Article Health Psychol · January 1998 Previous research suggests that some aspects of cognitive performance decline as a joint function of age and hypertension. In this experiment, 51 unmedicated individuals with mild essential hypertension and 48 normotensive individuals, 18-78 years of age, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Word frequency effects at brief exposure durations: comment on Paap and Johansen (1994).

Journal Article J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform · December 1997 K. R. Paap and L. S. Johansen (1994) proposed that word frequency effects do not occur on a lexical decision task (LDT) when postmasked target exposure duration is sufficiently brief because such a task prevents verification--their hypothesized locus of th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Word frequency effects at brief exposure durations: Comment on Paap and Johansen (1994).

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance · 1997 Full text Cite

Adult age differences in long-term semantic priming.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · 1997 Young and older adults were first asked to decide if a list of individually presented words were "living" (e.g., "tree") or "nonliving" (e.g., "store"). This was termed the "orienting task." Next, subjects performed a pronunciation task. Semantic priming f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Selective and divided visual attention: age-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow measured by H2(15)O PET.

Journal Article Hum Brain Mapp · 1997 Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured using H2(15)O and positron emission tomography (PET) to test the hypothesis that age-related changes in the pattern of rCBF activation would be greater under divided attention conditions than under selective ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in strategic and dynamic components of focusing visual attention

Journal Article Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition · January 1, 1997 Changes in tile width of a focally attended area were assessed by analysis of changes in reaction time associated with response-incompatible nontarget letters (flankers). In two experiments, the focus of attention widened as an increasing function of stimu ... Full text Cite

Adult age differences in the use of distractor homogeneity during visual search.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · September 1996 Previous research has suggested that an age-related decline may exist in the ability to inhibit distracting information during visual search. The present experiments used a conjunction search task in which the within-item features of the target (an upright ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in regional cerebral blood flow during visual world identification: evidence from H215O PET.

Journal Article Neuroimage · April 1996 We used H215O PET to investigate adult age differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during the performance of a visual word identification task. The study participants were 20 healthy, right-handed men: 10 young adults between 18 and 27 years of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Methodological issues in the assessment of neuropsychologic function after cardiac surgery.

Journal Article Ann Thorac Surg · May 1995 This report reviews critical issues facing investigators interested in neuropsychologic sequelae after cardiac operations: (1) experimental design; (2) selective attrition; (3) selection of instruments; (4) moderating factors; (5) definitions of cognitive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aging and the speed/accuracy relation in visual search: evidence for an accumulator model.

Journal Article Optom Vis Sci · March 1995 Two models of performance in visual classification tasks, the fast-guess model and the accumulator model, offer contrasting accounts of the relation between speed and accuracy. We attempted to distinguish these models in the context of age-related changes ... Full text Link to item Cite

Family history of hypertension influences neurobehavioral function in hypertensive patients.

Journal Article Psychosom Med · 1995 This study examined the influence of family history of hypertension on neurobehavioral performance. Sixty-two hypertensive men and women who reported a family history of hypertension (+FH) were compared with 28 hypertensive individuals without a family his ... Full text Link to item Cite

Visual word encoding and the effect of adult age and word frequency

Journal Article Advances in Psychology · January 1, 1995 The chapter discusses word encoding, which is the first step in the process of reading and discusses the effect of increased adult age on visual word encoding. It means that the transduction of light information from a word stimulus into a code is then use ... Full text Cite

Adult age differences in shifting focused attention.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · December 1994 Young and older adults performed a choice response task in which 1 of 2 target letters was presented visually at 1 of 4 display locations. In 2 experiments, the validity of a target location cue and the presence of nontarget characters (distractors) were v ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in attention: filtering or selection?

Journal Article J Gerontol · September 1994 We examined the effect of target letter redundancy for target-only (TO) and target-plus-noise (TPN) trials on a visual search, divided attention task where target letters were presented in one or two corners of a two-corner display. Half of the two-letter ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Coming of Age of Cognitive Aging

Journal Article Contemporary Psychology: A Journal of Reviews · April 1994 Full text Cite

Adult age differences in shifting focused attention.

Journal Article Psychology and Aging · 1994 Full text Cite

Age-related slowing and the time course of semantic priming in visual word identification.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · December 1993 In 4 experiments, the authors investigated the time course of semantic priming effects during 2 forms of visual word identification, lexical decision and pronunciation. On each trial, a target letter string was preceded by a single-word priming context. Th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of response selection and noise similarity on age differences in the redundancy gain.

Journal Article J Gerontol · July 1993 We examined the impact of target redundancy for target-plus-noise (TPN) and target-only (TO) trials. Experiment 1 manipulated response selection load (two-choice vs go/no-go) and Experiment 2 (all two-choice) varied noise redundancy (single or cumulative n ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of spectacle mounted telescope systems by the visually impaired.

Journal Article J Am Optom Assoc · July 1993 BACKGROUND: Spectacle mounted telescope low vision aids are designed to magnify objects Spectacle telescopes are often rejected by the visually impaired because of their unusual cosmetic appearance which may call attention to their disability. METHODS: Fif ... Link to item Cite

Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive and psychosocial functioning in patients with mild hypertension.

Journal Article Health Psychol · July 1993 The effects of 16 weeks of physical exercise training on the psychological functioning of 90 patients with mild hypertension were examined. At baseline and after 16 weeks of training, patients completed a psychometric test battery that included objective m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of age and processing stage on visual word recognition.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · June 1993 The authors used a lexical-decision task in 3 different experiments to examine whether age differences in word recognition were consistent across processing stage. In all experiments, word frequency and length were manipulated. In Experiments 1 and 2, enco ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypertension affects neurobehavioral functioning.

Journal Article Psychosom Med · 1993 This study compared the neurobehavioral performance of hypertensive and normotensive men and women using neuropsychological, information-processing, and psychometric assessments. One hundred subjects, including 68 hypertensive and 32 normotensive individua ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in attentional allocation during memory search.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · December 1992 Young and older adults performed a memory search task in which, before probe onset, a cue indicated which of 4 memory-set items the probe was most likely to be. The results were consistent with an attentional allocation model in which performance represent ... Full text Link to item Cite

Selective attention and visual search: revision of an allocation model and application to age differences.

Journal Article J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform · August 1992 The present experiments examined a revised version of the Eriksen and Yeh model of attentional allocation during visual search. The results confirmed the assumption of the model that performance represents a weighted combination of focused- and distributed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age differences in short-term memory: organization or internal noise?

Journal Article J Gerontol · July 1992 Older and young adults' letter search performances were examined on a short-term memory (STM) task where subjects compared a five-letter target sequence stored in short-term memory to a subsequently presented five-letter probe sequence. The same five lette ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of age on driving skills.

Journal Article J Am Geriatr Soc · June 1992 OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of age on driving skills independent of the limitations related to disease or dementia. DESIGN: Prospective comparison of driving skills across three age groups. SETTING: A university-based research study of student and univ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of age, redundancy, and perceptual noise on visual search.

Journal Article J Gerontol · March 1992 We examined adult age differences in the impact of redundancy and perceptual noise during visual search. Using a two-choice, visual search task, subjects responded to letters presented in one to four corners of an imaginary display square. On each trial, o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Four to ten milliseconds per year: age-related slowing of visual word identification.

Journal Article J Gerontol · March 1992 This experiment examined the age-related slowing of visual word identification. Each of 108 subjects between 20 and 78 years of age performed a word/nonword discrimination (lexical decision) task in which the target was preceded by a single-word prime. Sev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Selective attention and visual search: Revision of an allocation model and application to age differences.

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance · 1992 Full text Cite

Cognitive Slowing in Alzheimer's Disease as a Function of Task Type and Response Type

Journal Article Developmental Neuropsychology · January 1, 1992 Full text Cite

Long-term effects of exercise on psychological functioning in older men and women.

Journal Article J Gerontol · November 1991 The purpose of this study was to determine the psychological, behavioral, and cognitive changes associated with up to 14 months of aerobic exercise training. For the first 4 months of the study, 101 older (greater than 60 years) men and women were randomly ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of exercise training on bone density in older men and women.

Journal Article J Am Geriatr Soc · November 1991 OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of up to 14 months of aerobic exercise on measures of bone density in older adults. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with subjects assigned to either an aerobic exercise condition, non-aerobic yoga, or a wait list no ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in letter-level and word-level processing.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · June 1991 Older and young adults' letter detection and lexical decision performance were examined as word frequency varied to determine whether there were age differences in word recognition. Allen and Madden (1989) found that older adults' pattern of reaction time ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in the rate of information extraction during visual search.

Journal Article J Gerontol · May 1991 We investigated adult age differences in the function relating accuracy to speed during visual-search performance. Twenty-four young adults between 17 and 26 years of age, and 24 older adults between 59 and 75 years of age, participated. The level of accur ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of exercise training on cardiorespiratory function in men and women older than 60 years of age.

Journal Article Am J Cardiol · March 15, 1991 This study reports the physiologic effects of up to 14 months of aerobic exercise in 101 older (greater than 60 years) men and women. After an extensive baseline physiologic assessment (Time 1), in which aerobic capacity and blood lipids were measured, sub ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age-related changes in paying attention

Journal Article Experimental Aging Research · January 1, 1991 Cite

The Ocutech Vision Enhancing System (VES): utilization and preference study.

Journal Article J Am Optom Assoc · January 1991 An NIH-sponsored user and prescriber preference trial was conducted comparing a new low vision telescope system, the Ocutech Vision Enhancing System (VES) to two conventional Keplarian spectacle telescope systems in a controlled cross-over clinical study p ... Link to item Cite

A preliminary study of the effects of cardiac procedures on cognitive performance.

Journal Article Int J Psychosom · 1991 The effects of three commonly performed cardiac procedures on cognitive performance were evaluated in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (N = 20), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedure (N = 8), or card ... Link to item Cite

Adult Age Differences in Attentional Selectivity and Capacity

Journal Article European Journal of Cognitive Psychology · July 1, 1990 This paper reviews empirical research on adult age differences in the use of attention during visual search and classification tasks. This research suggests that the selective aspect of attention, in the sense of the ability to discriminate relevant and ir ... Full text Cite

Evidence for a parallel input serial analysis model of word processing.

Journal Article J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform · February 1990 A parallel input serial analysis (PISA) model of word processing was developed and tested. The goal was to expand on the "critical processing duration" hypothesis of Johnson, Allen, and Strand (1989) so that both single-word and multiple-word presentation, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evidence for a parallel input serial analysis model of word processing.

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance · 1990 Full text Cite

Adult age differences in the time course of visual attention.

Journal Article J Gerontol · January 1990 On each trial in this experiment, subjects made a choice response regarding which of two target letters was present in a visual display. A cue, occurring between 50 and 183 ms prior to display onset, indicated the location of the target. The results indica ... Full text Link to item Cite

AGING AND THE ALLOCATION OF FOCUSED AND DISTRIBUTED ATTENTION

Journal Article BULLETIN OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOCIETY · November 1, 1989 Link to item Cite

Improving aerobic capacity in healthy older adults does not necessarily lead to improved cognitive performance.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · September 1989 The effects of aerobic exercise training in a sample of 85 older adults were investigated. Ss were assigned randomly to either an aerobic exercise group, a nonaerobic exercise (yoga) group, or a waiting-list control group. Following 16 weeks of the group-s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women.

Journal Article J Gerontol · September 1989 The cardiovascular and behavioral adaptations associated with a 4-month program of aerobic exercise training were examined in 101 older men and women (mean age = 67 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to an Aerobic Exercise group, a Yoga and Flexibilit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Amount and duration of attentional demands during visual search.

Journal Article Percept Psychophys · June 1989 Previous research has suggested that, in visual-search tasks, the comparison between target and display items does not require attentional capacity. In the present experiment we used a secondary-task paradigm to distinguish the amount and duration of the a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Slowing of memory-search performance in men with mild hypertension.

Journal Article Health Psychol · 1989 Previous reports have associated hypertension with a slowing of cognitive performance, although the component processes involved have not been identified. Our report compares the performance of 24 men with mild hypertension and 28 age-matched normotensive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in the effects of word frequency during visual letter identification

Journal Article Cognitive Development · January 1, 1989 The experiment reported in this investigation examined whether older adults process both letter-level and word-level information simultaneously during a letter identification task as younger adults apparently do (Allen & Madden, in press; Johnson, Allen, & ... Full text Cite

Visual word identification and age-related slowing

Journal Article Cognitive Development · January 1, 1989 Two experiments investigated adult age differences in the time course of sentence-context priming effects. In each experiment, subjects performed a word/ nonword discrimination (i.e., lexical decision) regarding a target letter string that followed a sente ... Full text Cite

Effects of aerobic exercise training, age, and physical fitness on memory-search performance.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · September 1988 We investigated the effects of exercise training on memory performance. One group of 13 men (M = 42.92 years of age) participated in supervised aerobic exercise (jogging) three times a week for 12 weeks. A second group of 15 men (M = 43.67 years of age) pe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in the effects of sentence context and stimulus degradation during visual word recognition.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · June 1988 I investigated adult age differences in the efficiency of feature-extraction processes during visual word recognition. Participants were 24 young adults (M age = 21.0 years) and 24 older adults (M age = 66.5 years). On each trial, subjects made a word/nonw ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of beta-blockade and exercise on cardiovascular and cognitive functioning.

Journal Article Hypertension · May 1988 Twenty-four men with mild essential hypertension were assigned randomly to receive propranolol (n = 9), atenolol (n = 7), or a placebo (n = 8). All subjects participated in a 12-week study and provided physiological and behavioral data four times during th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Short-term behavioral effects of beta-adrenergic medications in men with mild hypertension.

Journal Article Clin Pharmacol Ther · April 1988 beta-Adrenergic-inhibiting drugs are widely prescribed for the treatment of hypertension. These drugs have previously been found to influence a variety of psychologic and behavioral functions and have, in some cases, been associated with serious psychiatri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Different patterns of cognitive slowing produced by Alzheimer's disease and normal aging.

Journal Article Psychol Aging · March 1988 Aging has previously been shown to produce a generalized proportional slowing of all cognitive operations. In contrast, the present results suggested that Alzheimer's disease produces a disproportionate reduction in the speed with which patients carry out ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in visual acuity, stereopsis, and contrast sensitivity.

Journal Article Am J Optom Physiol Opt · October 1987 We investigated adult age differences in four measures of visual function: distance acuity, near acuity, stereopsis, and contrast sensitivity. Twenty-four young adults (mean age 19.5 years) and 24 older adults (mean age 68.4 years) participated. Age differ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult age differences in the attentional capacity demands of letter matching.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · 1987 The attentional demands of letter matching were assessed using a secondary task technique with three adult subject groups. The mean ages were: Group 1 = 19.9 years, Group 2 = 58.7 years, Group 3 = 68.9 years. The primary task was letter matching on the bas ... Full text Link to item Cite

From retina to response: contrast sensitivity and memory retrieval during visual word recognition.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · 1987 Twenty-four young adults (M = 19.5 years) and 24 older adults (M = 68.4 years) performed a word/nonword classification task (i.e., lexical decision) in which a single letter-string was presented on each trial. Estimates were obtained of the time required t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aging, attention, and the use of meaning during visual search

Journal Article Cognitive Development · January 1, 1987 Twenty-four young adults (M = 21.0 years) and 24 older adults (M = 65.3 years) performed a primary task (visual search) and a secondary task (tone detection) concurrently. The search task required subjects to decide, on each trial, if a single target lette ... Full text Cite

Adult age differences in visual word recognition: semantic encoding and episodic retention.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · 1986 The present experiment examined adult age differences in semantic priming effects and subsequent episodic retention for visually presented words. Twenty-four young (18-22 years) and 24 older (58-74 years) adults participated. In a lexical decision task, ea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Memory performance by mild hypertensives following beta-adrenergic blockade.

Journal Article Psychopharmacology (Berl) · 1986 Previous experiments have reported deficits in cognitive performance following the administration of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. These deficits have not appeared consistently, however, and it is not clear from previous studies whether changes in the cen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult Age Differences in the Attentional Capacity Demands of Visual Search

Journal Article Cognitive Development · January 1, 1986 Four experiments investigated the ability of young (18 to 27 years) and older (59 to 76 years) adults to perform visual search and tone detection concurrently. In each experiment, the proportional increase in tone reaction time (RT) on the dual-task trials ... Full text Cite

Adult Age Differences in Memory-Driven Selective Attention

Journal Article Developmental Psychology · July 1, 1985 In two visual-search experiments, the ability of young (18-24 years) and older (60-74 years) adults to use memory-driven selective attention was investigated. In both experiments, both age groups exhibited faster reaction time to a visual display on trials ... Full text Cite

Age-related slowing in the retrieval of information from long-term memory.

Journal Article J Gerontol · March 1985 The present experiment investigated adult age differences in the retrieval of information from long-term memory. Each trial required a decision regarding the synonymy of two visually presented words. On the yes-response trials, the two words were either id ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Data-driven and memory-driven selective attention in visual search.

Journal Article J Gerontol · January 1984 The present experiment investigated Rabbitt's (1979) hypothesis that age differences in selective attention occur when memory-driven processing must be employed. Young and older adults performed a visual search task, which, on some trials, provided advance ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Aging and distraction by highly familiar stimuli during visual search

Journal Article Developmental Psychology · July 1, 1983 P. Rabbitt's (1965, 1968) theory regarding age-related changes in cognition proposes that aging is accompanied by a decreased ability to ignore irrelevant information (perceptual noise). The present experiment examined age differences in the extent to whic ... Full text Open Access Cite

The use of focused attention in visual search by young and old adults.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · 1983 A deficit in focused attention has recently been suggested to underlie some of the cognitive decrements seen in the elderly. This hypothesis was tested in two visual search studies. Subjects had to decide whether or not a given target was present among an ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of age on hemispheric asymmetry in visual and auditory identification.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · 1983 On psychometric tests, spatial scores typically decline more with age than do verbal scores. Since in humans, visuo-spatial information is more efficiently processed by the right hemisphere (RH) and verbal information by the left (LH), this behavioral patt ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age differences and similarities in the improvement of controlled search.

Journal Article Exp Aging Res · 1982 An age-related slowing of performance has been previously reported for tasks that require controlled search, an attention-demanding stimulus comparison procedure. In contrast, older adults have been found to resemble the young in the ability to improve sea ... Full text Link to item Cite

AGE EFFECTS IN SEMANTIC ACTIVATION

Conference GERONTOLOGIST · January 1, 1982 Link to item Cite

Signal-detection analysis of hemispheric differences in visual recognition memory.

Journal Article Cortex · December 1981 In the present experiment, subjects decided on each trial whether or not a unilaterally presented probe digit was a member of a previously memorized set of two, three, or four digits. The probe was presented at a near-threshold duration and followed by a v ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aging and the development of automaticity in visual search

Journal Article Developmental Psychology · September 1, 1980 The rate of short-term memory search has previously been reported to be slower for older individuals than for college-age Ss (F. I. Craik, 1977). Current research has suggested that after extensive practice with the same population of stimuli, performance ... Full text Open Access Cite

Probing echoic memory with different voices.

Journal Article Mem Cognit · May 1977 Considerable evidence has indicated that some acoustical properties of spoken items are preserved in an "echoic" memory for approximately 2 sec. However, some of this evidence has also shown that changing the voice speaking the stimulus items has a disrupt ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite