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Timothy J. Strauman

Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience
Psychology & Neuroscience
Duke Box 90086, Durham, NC 27708-0086
316 Reuben-Cooke Building, Durham, NC 27708
Office hours By appointment; please email to arrange a time to meet.  

Selected Publications


Intrinsic functional connectivity of motor and heteromodal association cortex predicts individual differences in regulatory focus.

Journal Article PNAS nexus · May 2024 Regulatory focus theory (RFT) describes two cognitive-motivational systems for goal pursuit-the promotion and prevention systems-important for self-regulation and previously implicated in vulnerability to psychopathology. According to RFT, the promotion sy ... Full text Open Access Cite

The Use of Ontologies to Accelerate the Behavioral Sciences: Promises and Challenges

Journal Article Current Directions in Psychological Science · October 1, 2023 Behavioral scientists produce a vast amount of research every year yet struggle to produce cumulative knowledge that is easily translated in applied settings. This article summarizes a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine consensus rep ... Full text Open Access Cite

The BETTER Traumatic Brain Injury Transitional Care Intervention: A Feasibility Study.

Journal Article West J Nurs Res · October 2023 This study aimed to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcome measures of BETTER (Brain Injury Education, Training, and Therapy to Enhance Recovery), a culturally tailored traumatic brain injury (TBI) transitional care intervention, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Revising a Self-Regulation Phenotype for Depression Through Individual Differences in Macroscale Brain Organization.

Journal Article Current directions in psychological science · August 2023 Self-regulation denotes the processes by which people initiate, maintain, and control their own thoughts, behaviors, or emotions to produce a desired outcome or avoid an undesired outcome. Self-regulation brings the influence of distal factors such ... Full text Open Access Cite

"If you respect me, you are respecting my culture": methods and recommendations for personalizing a TBI transitional care intervention.

Journal Article Brain injury · July 2023 ObjectiveDespite research, national legislation, and clinical guidelines supporting transitional care, there is minimal benefit from existing transitional care interventions for racial/ethnic minorities with traumatic brain injury (TBI) discharged ... Full text Cite

Network-level dynamics underlying a combined rTMS and psychotherapy treatment for major depressive disorder: An exploratory network analysis.

Journal Article Int J Clin Health Psychol · 2023 BACKGROUND: Despite the growing use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for depression, there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms of action and how potential treatment-related brain changes help to characterize tr ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Engineering Virtuous health habits using Emotion and Neurocognition: Flexibility for Lifestyle Optimization and Weight management (EVEN FLOW).

Journal Article Front Aging Neurosci · 2023 Interventions to preserve functional independence in older adults are critically needed to optimize 'successful aging' among the large and increasing population of older adults in the United States. For most aging adults, the management of chronic diseases ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Protocol for a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a stepped-care intervention for emergency department patients with panic-related anxiety.

Journal Article BMC Psychiatry · December 16, 2022 BACKGROUND: Approximately 40% of Emergency Department (ED) patients with chest pain meet diagnostic criteria for panic-related anxiety, but only 1-2% are correctly diagnosed and appropriately managed in the ED. A stepped-care model, which focuses on provid ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluating a couple communication skills training (CCST) intervention for advanced cancer: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article Trials · August 26, 2022 BACKGROUND: For patients and their intimate partners, advanced cancer poses significant challenges that can negatively impact both individuals and their relationship. Prior studies have found evidence that couple-based communication skills interventions ca ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patient and Caregiver Perceptions of Animal Assisted Activity in Orthodontics.

Journal Article Animals : an open access journal from MDPI · July 2022 Dental anxiety affects up to 21% of children and 80% of adults and is associated with lifelong dental avoidance. Animal assisted activity (AAA) is widely used to reduce anxiety and pain in medical settings and has promise in dentistry. The primary objectiv ... Full text Cite

Design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the Brain Injury Education, Training, and Therapy to Enhance Recovery (BETTER) feasibility study: a transitional care intervention for younger adult patients with traumatic brain injury and caregivers.

Journal Article Curr Med Res Opin · May 2022 OBJECTIVES: We developed a patient- and family-centered traumatic brain injury (TBI) transitional care intervention, called BETTER (Brain Injury Education, Training, and Therapy to Enhance Recovery), to improve quality of life (via SF-36) of younger TBI pa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Training the Next Generation of Clinical Psychological Scientists: A Data-Driven Call to Action.

Journal Article Annual review of clinical psychology · May 2022 The central goal of clinical psychology is to reduce the suffering caused by mental health conditions. Anxiety, mood, psychosis, substance use, personality, and other mental disorders impose an immense burden on global public health and the economy. Tackli ... Full text Open Access Cite

Correction to: The Student Resilience and Well-Being Project: Opportunities, Challenges, and Lessons Learned (International Journal of Community Well-Being, (2021), 4, 4, (669-690), 10.1007/s42413-021-00138-2)

Journal Article International Journal of Community Well-Being · December 1, 2021 In this article The Student Resilience and Well-Being Project Research Group3 members are (in alphabetical order by institution and last name) Lauren A. Stutts (Department of Health and Human Values, Davidson College); Steven R. Asher, Rick H. Hoyle, Mark ... Full text Cite

Modeling the onset of a depressive episode: A self-regulation perspective.

Journal Article Current opinion in psychology · October 2021 Major depression is an episodic disorder which, for many individuals, has its onset in a distinct change of emotional state which then persists over time. The present article explores the utility of combining a dynamical systems approach to depression, foc ... Full text Open Access Cite

Relationships between nonappearance self-discrepancy, weight discrepancy, and binge eating disorder symptoms.

Journal Article Eating and weight disorders : EWD · June 2021 PurposeSelf-discrepancy (i.e., perceived differences between one's actual self and personal standards) has been associated with binge eating disorder (BED) symptoms. However, little is known about how weight discrepancy (i.e., the difference betwe ... Full text Open Access Cite

Regulatory focus and the p factor: Evidence for self-regulatory dysfunction as a transdiagnostic feature of general psychopathology.

Journal Article Journal of psychiatric research · May 2021 A general psychopathology ('p') factor captures transdiagnostic features of mental illness; however, the meaning of the p factor remains unclear. Regulatory focus theory postulates that individuals regulate goal pursuit either by maximizing gains (promotio ... Full text Open Access Cite

Internal states and interoception along a spectrum of eating disorder symptomology.

Journal Article Physiol Behav · March 1, 2021 OBJECTIVE: Recent studies on atypical interoceptive capabilities have focused on clinical populations, including anorexia nervosa[1,2]. The present exploratory study aims to characterize the influence of disordered eating symptomology on interoceptive capa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Regulatory Focus and Substance Use in Adolescents: Protective Effects of Prevention Orientation.

Journal Article Subst Use Misuse · 2021 Substance use is a major risk factor for negative health and functioning outcomes among middle schoolers. The purpose of this study was to assess whether individual differences in the adolescents' goal orientation are associated with elevated or attenuated ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Inviting ASPPB to address systemic bias and racism: Reply to Turner et al. (2021).

Journal Article The American psychologist · January 2021 Turner et al. (2021) subtly relapse in conceptualizing the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (Part 2-Skills) exam as a competency evaluation despite Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards' (ASPPB) prior concession that Part ... Full text Cite

Intrinsic functional connectivity of motor and heteromodal association cortex predicts individual differences in regulatory focus.

Journal Article PNAS nexus · May 2024 Regulatory focus theory (RFT) describes two cognitive-motivational systems for goal pursuit-the promotion and prevention systems-important for self-regulation and previously implicated in vulnerability to psychopathology. According to RFT, the promotion sy ... Full text Open Access Cite

The Use of Ontologies to Accelerate the Behavioral Sciences: Promises and Challenges

Journal Article Current Directions in Psychological Science · October 1, 2023 Behavioral scientists produce a vast amount of research every year yet struggle to produce cumulative knowledge that is easily translated in applied settings. This article summarizes a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine consensus rep ... Full text Open Access Cite

The BETTER Traumatic Brain Injury Transitional Care Intervention: A Feasibility Study.

Journal Article West J Nurs Res · October 2023 This study aimed to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcome measures of BETTER (Brain Injury Education, Training, and Therapy to Enhance Recovery), a culturally tailored traumatic brain injury (TBI) transitional care intervention, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Revising a Self-Regulation Phenotype for Depression Through Individual Differences in Macroscale Brain Organization.

Journal Article Current directions in psychological science · August 2023 Self-regulation denotes the processes by which people initiate, maintain, and control their own thoughts, behaviors, or emotions to produce a desired outcome or avoid an undesired outcome. Self-regulation brings the influence of distal factors such ... Full text Open Access Cite

"If you respect me, you are respecting my culture": methods and recommendations for personalizing a TBI transitional care intervention.

Journal Article Brain injury · July 2023 ObjectiveDespite research, national legislation, and clinical guidelines supporting transitional care, there is minimal benefit from existing transitional care interventions for racial/ethnic minorities with traumatic brain injury (TBI) discharged ... Full text Cite

Network-level dynamics underlying a combined rTMS and psychotherapy treatment for major depressive disorder: An exploratory network analysis.

Journal Article Int J Clin Health Psychol · 2023 BACKGROUND: Despite the growing use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for depression, there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms of action and how potential treatment-related brain changes help to characterize tr ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Engineering Virtuous health habits using Emotion and Neurocognition: Flexibility for Lifestyle Optimization and Weight management (EVEN FLOW).

Journal Article Front Aging Neurosci · 2023 Interventions to preserve functional independence in older adults are critically needed to optimize 'successful aging' among the large and increasing population of older adults in the United States. For most aging adults, the management of chronic diseases ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Protocol for a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a stepped-care intervention for emergency department patients with panic-related anxiety.

Journal Article BMC Psychiatry · December 16, 2022 BACKGROUND: Approximately 40% of Emergency Department (ED) patients with chest pain meet diagnostic criteria for panic-related anxiety, but only 1-2% are correctly diagnosed and appropriately managed in the ED. A stepped-care model, which focuses on provid ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluating a couple communication skills training (CCST) intervention for advanced cancer: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article Trials · August 26, 2022 BACKGROUND: For patients and their intimate partners, advanced cancer poses significant challenges that can negatively impact both individuals and their relationship. Prior studies have found evidence that couple-based communication skills interventions ca ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patient and Caregiver Perceptions of Animal Assisted Activity in Orthodontics.

Journal Article Animals : an open access journal from MDPI · July 2022 Dental anxiety affects up to 21% of children and 80% of adults and is associated with lifelong dental avoidance. Animal assisted activity (AAA) is widely used to reduce anxiety and pain in medical settings and has promise in dentistry. The primary objectiv ... Full text Cite

Design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the Brain Injury Education, Training, and Therapy to Enhance Recovery (BETTER) feasibility study: a transitional care intervention for younger adult patients with traumatic brain injury and caregivers.

Journal Article Curr Med Res Opin · May 2022 OBJECTIVES: We developed a patient- and family-centered traumatic brain injury (TBI) transitional care intervention, called BETTER (Brain Injury Education, Training, and Therapy to Enhance Recovery), to improve quality of life (via SF-36) of younger TBI pa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Training the Next Generation of Clinical Psychological Scientists: A Data-Driven Call to Action.

Journal Article Annual review of clinical psychology · May 2022 The central goal of clinical psychology is to reduce the suffering caused by mental health conditions. Anxiety, mood, psychosis, substance use, personality, and other mental disorders impose an immense burden on global public health and the economy. Tackli ... Full text Open Access Cite

Correction to: The Student Resilience and Well-Being Project: Opportunities, Challenges, and Lessons Learned (International Journal of Community Well-Being, (2021), 4, 4, (669-690), 10.1007/s42413-021-00138-2)

Journal Article International Journal of Community Well-Being · December 1, 2021 In this article The Student Resilience and Well-Being Project Research Group3 members are (in alphabetical order by institution and last name) Lauren A. Stutts (Department of Health and Human Values, Davidson College); Steven R. Asher, Rick H. Hoyle, Mark ... Full text Cite

Modeling the onset of a depressive episode: A self-regulation perspective.

Journal Article Current opinion in psychology · October 2021 Major depression is an episodic disorder which, for many individuals, has its onset in a distinct change of emotional state which then persists over time. The present article explores the utility of combining a dynamical systems approach to depression, foc ... Full text Open Access Cite

Relationships between nonappearance self-discrepancy, weight discrepancy, and binge eating disorder symptoms.

Journal Article Eating and weight disorders : EWD · June 2021 PurposeSelf-discrepancy (i.e., perceived differences between one's actual self and personal standards) has been associated with binge eating disorder (BED) symptoms. However, little is known about how weight discrepancy (i.e., the difference betwe ... Full text Open Access Cite

Regulatory focus and the p factor: Evidence for self-regulatory dysfunction as a transdiagnostic feature of general psychopathology.

Journal Article Journal of psychiatric research · May 2021 A general psychopathology ('p') factor captures transdiagnostic features of mental illness; however, the meaning of the p factor remains unclear. Regulatory focus theory postulates that individuals regulate goal pursuit either by maximizing gains (promotio ... Full text Open Access Cite

Internal states and interoception along a spectrum of eating disorder symptomology.

Journal Article Physiol Behav · March 1, 2021 OBJECTIVE: Recent studies on atypical interoceptive capabilities have focused on clinical populations, including anorexia nervosa[1,2]. The present exploratory study aims to characterize the influence of disordered eating symptomology on interoceptive capa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Regulatory Focus and Substance Use in Adolescents: Protective Effects of Prevention Orientation.

Journal Article Subst Use Misuse · 2021 Substance use is a major risk factor for negative health and functioning outcomes among middle schoolers. The purpose of this study was to assess whether individual differences in the adolescents' goal orientation are associated with elevated or attenuated ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Inviting ASPPB to address systemic bias and racism: Reply to Turner et al. (2021).

Journal Article The American psychologist · January 2021 Turner et al. (2021) subtly relapse in conceptualizing the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (Part 2-Skills) exam as a competency evaluation despite Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards' (ASPPB) prior concession that Part ... Full text Cite

Training Opportunities for Challenge-Focused Career Development in Clinical Psychology

Journal Article Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice · January 1, 2021 Ultimately, all procedures in clinical science come with an expiration date. Whether it is therapeutic practices, assessment techniques, research questions, research measures, or data analytic approaches, all have their moment on center stage and then the ... Full text Cite

Couple Communication in Cancer: Protocol for a Multi-Method Examination.

Journal Article Front Psychol · 2021 Cancer and its treatment pose challenges that affect not only patients but also their significant others, including intimate partners. Accumulating evidence suggests that couples' ability to communicate effectively plays a major role in the psychological a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meal skipping and cognition along a spectrum of restrictive eating.

Journal Article Eat Behav · December 2020 OBJECTIVE: Inadequate nutrition adversely impacts brain development and cognitive functioning (Pollitt et al., 1983). Studies examining the acute impact of eating regular meals on cognition have reported inconsistent findings, necessitating the exploration ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparing integrative cognitive-affective therapy and guided self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy to treat binge-eating disorder using standard and naturalistic momentary outcome measures: A randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · September 2020 ObjectiveInnovative treatments and outcome measures are needed for binge-eating disorder (BED). This randomized controlled trial compared Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy (ICAT-BED), an individual psychotherapy targeting momentary behaviora ... Full text Open Access Cite

Neural signatures of promotion versus prevention goal priming: fMRI evidence for distinct cognitive-motivational systems.

Journal Article Personality neuroscience · February 2020 Regulatory focus theory (RFT) postulates two cognitive-motivational systems for personal goal pursuit: the promotion system, which is associated with ideal goals (an individual's hopes, dreams, and aspirations), and the prevention system, which is associat ... Full text Open Access Cite

The enhanced examination for professional practice in psychology: A viable approach?

Journal Article The American psychologist · January 2020 Health disciplines have increasingly required competency-based evaluations as a licensure prerequisite. In keeping with this trend, the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) has begun to develop a second part to the Examination for ... Full text Open Access Cite

Impact of Student Perceptions of the Educational Program on Burnout in Medical School.

Journal Article Medical science educator · December 2019 IntroductionBurnout is considered to be at the opposite end of the continuum from engagement. People who experience burnout first go through various intermediate patterns that lead to burnout, which in medical students is associated with reduced e ... Full text Cite

The central role of disgust in disorders of food avoidance.

Journal Article Int J Eat Disord · May 2019 BACKGROUND: Individuals with extreme food avoidance such as Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) experience impairing physical and mental health consequences from nutrition of insufficient variety or/and quantity. Identifying mechanisms contri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Self-discrepancy theory as a transdiagnostic framework: A meta-analysis of self-discrepancy and psychopathology.

Journal Article Psychological bulletin · April 2019 Self-discrepancy theory (SDT) is a model of the relations between the self and affect which has been applied to the study of different types of psychopathology including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. Although the theory itself is compatible wi ... Full text Open Access Cite

Self-rated amygdala activity: an auto-biological index of affective distress.

Journal Article Personality neuroscience · January 2019 Auto-biological beliefs-beliefs about one's own biology-are an understudied component of personal identity. Research participants who are led to believe they are biologically vulnerable to affective disorders report more symptoms and less ability to contro ... Full text Open Access Cite

Distress tolerance to auditory feedback and functional connectivity with the auditory cortex.

Journal Article Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging · December 30, 2018 Distress tolerance is the capacity to withstand negative affective states in pursuit of a goal. Low distress tolerance may bias an individual to avoid or escape experiences that induce affective distress, but the neural mechanisms underlying the bottom-up ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

On the Concurrent Use of Self-System Therapy and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as Treatment for Depression.

Journal Article J ECT · December 2018 OBJECTIVES: Despite the growing use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a treatment for unipolar depression, its typical effect sizes have been modest, and methodological and conceptual challenges remain regarding how to optimize its ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Single session real-time fMRI neurofeedback has a lasting impact on cognitive behavioral therapy strategies.

Journal Article Neuroimage Clin · 2018 To benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), individuals must not only learn new skills but also strategically implement them outside of session. Here, we tested a novel technique for personalizing CBT skills and facilitating their generalization to ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Links Between Communication and Relationship Satisfaction Among Patients With Cancer and Their Spouses: Results of a Fourteen-Day Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

Journal Article Front Psychol · 2018 Cancer treatment poses significant challenges not just for those diagnosed with the disease but also for their intimate partners. Evidence suggests that couples' communication plays a major role in the adjustment of both individuals and in the quality of t ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Neurobehavioral Mechanisms of Resilience Against Emotional Distress: An Integrative Brain-Personality-Symptom Approach Using Structural Equation Modeling.

Journal Article Personality neuroscience · January 2018 Clarifying individual differences that predict resilience or vulnerability to emotional distress is crucial for identifying etiological factors contributing to affective disturbances, and to promoting emotional well-being. Despite recent progress identifyi ... Full text Open Access Cite

Individual differences in regulatory focus predict neural response to reward.

Journal Article Soc Neurosci · August 2017 Although goal pursuit is related to both functioning of the brain's reward circuits and psychological factors, the literatures surrounding these concepts have often been separate. Here, we use the psychological construct of regulatory focus to investigate ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Self-Regulation and Psychopathology: Toward an Integrative Translational Research Paradigm.

Journal Article Annual review of clinical psychology · May 2017 This article presents a general framework in which different manifestations of psychopathology can be conceptualized as dysfunctions in one or more mechanisms of self-regulation, defined as the ongoing process of managing personal goal pursuit in the face ... Full text Open Access Cite

Reprint of ''Using neuroimaging to individualize TMS treatment for depression: Toward a new paradigm for imaging-guided intervention''.

Journal Article Neuroimage · May 1, 2017 The standard clinical technique for using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with limited efficacy to date. Such limited efficacy may be due to reliance on scalp-based targeting rather than ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Using neuroimaging to individualize TMS treatment for depression: Toward a new paradigm for imaging-guided intervention.

Journal Article Neuroimage · March 1, 2017 The standard clinical technique for using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with limited efficacy to date. Such limited efficacy may be due to reliance on scalp-based targeting rather than ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Understanding Our Own Biology: The Relevance of Auto-Biological Attributions for Mental Health

Journal Article Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice · March 1, 2017 As knowledge of the neurobiological basis of psychopathology has advanced, public perceptions have shifted toward conceptualizing mental disorders as disorders of biology. However, little is known about how patients respond to biological information about ... Full text Open Access Cite

Treatment of Depression From a Self-Regulation Perspective: Basic Concepts and Applied Strategies in Self-System Therapy.

Journal Article Cognitive therapy and research · February 2017 Self-regulation models of psychopathology provide a theory-based, empirically supported framework for developing psychotherapeutic interventions that complement and extend current cognitive-behavioral models. However, many clinicians are only minimally fam ... Full text Open Access Cite

The association between cognitive function and subsequent depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article Psychol Med · January 2017 Despite a growing interest in understanding the cognitive deficits associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), it is largely unknown whether such deficits exist before disorder onset or how they might influence the severity of subsequent illness. The ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Self-Discrepancy and Eating Disorder Symptoms Across Eating Disorder Diagnostic Groups.

Journal Article European eating disorders review : the journal of the Eating Disorders Association · November 2016 This study examined self-discrepancy, a construct of theoretical relevance to eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, across different types of EDs. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 112), bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 72), and binge eating disorder (BED ... Full text Open Access Cite

Brain mechanisms of Change in Addictions Treatment: Models, Methods, and Emerging Findings.

Journal Article Current addiction reports · September 2016 Increased understanding of "how" and "for whom" treatment works at the level of the brain has potential to transform addictions treatment through the development of innovative neuroscience-informed interventions. The 2015 Science of Change meeting bridged ... Full text Open Access Cite

Self-system therapy for distress associated with persistent low back pain: A randomized clinical trial.

Journal Article Psychother Res · July 2016 OBJECTIVE: Persistent low back pain (PLBP) is associated with vulnerability to depression. PLBP frequently requires major changes in occupation and lifestyle, which can lead to a sense of failing to attain one's personal goals (self-discrepancy). METHOD: W ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Attachment style and self-regulation: How our patterns in relationships reflect broader motivational styles

Journal Article Personality and Individual Differences · December 1, 2015 Individuals orient themselves in relationships using different goals and preoccupations, often conceptualized as four distinct attachment styles (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). Individuals also orient themselves in the social world more broadly using diffe ... Full text Open Access Cite

Microinterventions targeting regulatory focus and regulatory fit selectively reduce dysphoric and anxious mood.

Journal Article Behaviour research and therapy · September 2015 Depression and generalized anxiety, separately and as comorbid states, continue to represent a significant public health challenge. Current cognitive-behavioral treatments are clearly beneficial but there remains a need for continued development of complem ... Full text Open Access Cite

Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: current trends.

Journal Article Psychotherapy research : journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research · January 2015 ObjectiveThis article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy ... Full text Open Access Cite

PhenX RISING: real world implementation and sharing of PhenX measures.

Journal Article BMC Med Genomics · March 20, 2014 BACKGROUND: The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the PhenX RISING network and the site experiences in the implementation of PhenX measures into ongoing population-based genomic studies. METHODS: Eighty PhenX measures were implemented across the se ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Affective impact and electrocortical correlates of a psychotherapeutic microintervention: an ERP study of cognitive restructuring.

Journal Article Psychotherapy research : journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research · January 2014 ObjectivePsychotherapy for depression emphasizes techniques that can help individuals regulate their moods. The present study investigated the affective impact and electrocortical correlates of cognitive restructuring, delivered as a 90-minute psy ... Full text Open Access Cite

Reconceptualizing internship training within the evolving clinical science training model

Journal Article Clinical Psychological Science · January 1, 2014 As changes in health-care delivery impel us to refine clinical science training, the opportunity arises to reconceptualize internship training to align more closely with clinical science values and outcomes. We present observations on the evolution of inte ... Full text Open Access Cite

Self-regulation and mechanisms of action in psychotherapy: a theory-based translational perspective.

Journal Article Journal of personality · December 2013 Psychotherapy is a complex, multilayered process with the potential to bring about changes at multiple levels of functioning, from the neurobiology of the brain to the individual's role in the social world. Although studies of the mechanisms by which psych ... Full text Open Access Cite

Early risk factors for alcohol use across high school and its covariation with deviant friends.

Journal Article Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs · September 2013 ObjectivePast research has associated childhood characteristics and experiences with alcohol use at single time points in adolescence. Other work has focused on drinking trajectories across adolescence but with risk factors typically no earlier th ... Full text Cite

A pilot randomized controlled trial with paroxetine for subthreshold PTSD in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom era veterans.

Journal Article Psychiatry Res · April 30, 2013 Subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for suicidality, depression, and functional impairment. We thus conducted a small (N=12) pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with paroxetine for subthreshold PTSD in Op ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Genetic moderation of the association between regulatory focus and reward responsiveness: a proof-of-concept study.

Journal Article Biology of mood & anxiety disorders · February 2013 UnlabelledBackgroundRecent studies implicate individual differences in regulatory focus as contributing to self-regulatory dysfunction, particularly not responding to positive outcomes. How such individual differences emerge, however, is ... Full text Open Access Cite

Self-regulation as a mediator of change in psychotherapy

Chapter · January 1, 2013 Regulatory focus and depression Individual differences in regulatory focus develop primarily from differential exposure to positive-outcome-focused vs. negative-outcome-focused parenting, with temperament manifesting an indirect influence by sensitizing or ... Full text Cite

What shall I be, what must I be: Neural correlates of personal goal activation

Journal Article Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience · December 9, 2012 How is the brain engaged when people are thinking about their hopes, dreams, and obligations? Regulatory focus theory postulates two classes of personal goals and motivational systems for pursuing them. Ideal goals, such as hopes and aspirations, are pursu ... Full text Cite

Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

Journal Article Behavior therapy · December 2012 The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task f ... Full text Open Access Cite

What shall I be, what must I be: neural correlates of personal goal activation.

Journal Article Frontiers in integrative neuroscience · January 2012 How is the brain engaged when people are thinking about their hopes, dreams, and obligations? Regulatory focus theory postulates two classes of personal goals and motivational systems for pursuing them. Ideal goals, such as hopes and aspirations, are pursu ... Full text Open Access Cite

The narrowing of theoretical orientations in clinical psychology doctoral training

Journal Article Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice · 2012 Open Access Cite

An experience-sampling study of depressive symptoms and their social context.

Journal Article The Journal of nervous and mental disease · June 2011 Both clinical and subclinical depression are associated with social impairment; however, few studies have examined the impact of social contact in the daily lives of people with depressive symptoms. The current study used the experience-sampling methodolog ... Full text Open Access Cite

Regulatory Focus and Anxiety: A Self-Regulatory Model of GAD-Depression Comorbidity.

Journal Article Personality and individual differences · May 2011 The etiology of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), including its high degree of comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD), remains a conceptual and clinical challenge. In this article, we discuss the relevance of regulatory focus theory, an influen ... Full text Open Access Cite

Neural correlates of emotional processing in depression: changes with cognitive behavioral therapy and predictors of treatment response.

Journal Article Journal of psychiatric research · May 2011 Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by the presence of disturbances in emotional processing. However, the neural correlates of these alterations, and how they may be affected by therapeutic interventions, remain unclear. The present study addr ... Full text Open Access Cite

Sex, temperament, and family context: how the interaction of early factors differentially predict adolescent alcohol use and are mediated by proximal adolescent factors.

Journal Article Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors · March 2011 Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interacti ... Full text Open Access Cite

Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, exercise, and caloric restriction on neurocognition in overweight adults with high blood pressure.

Journal Article Hypertension · June 2010 High blood pressure increases the risks of stroke, dementia, and neurocognitive dysfunction. Although aerobic exercise and dietary modifications have been shown to reduce blood pressure, no randomized trials have examined the effects of aerobic exercise co ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Aerobic exercise and neurocognitive performance: a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials.

Journal Article Psychosom Med · April 2010 OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of aerobic exercise training on neurocognitive performance. Although the effects of exercise on neurocognition have been the subject of several previous reviews and meta-analyses, they have been hampered by methodological ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Neural correlates of idiographic goal priming in depression: goal-specific dysfunctions in the orbitofrontal cortex.

Journal Article Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci · September 2009 We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether depressed (vs non-depressed) adults showed differences in cortical activation in response to stimuli representing personal goals. Drawing upon regulatory focus theory as well as prev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Self-discrepancy and suicidal ideation

Journal Article Cognition and Emotion · August 10, 2009 The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain self-discrepancies predicted the extent to which individuals experienced suicidal ideation. The Selves Questionnaire (an idiographic measure of self-beliefs) was administered to 152 undergraduate p ... Full text Cite

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in psychotherapy research: a brief introduction to concepts, methods, and task selection.

Journal Article Psychotherapy research : journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research · July 2009 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become an increasingly important methodology in the study of psychotherapy outcome and process. In this article, the authors offer a brief introduction to the use of fMRI in psychotherapy research aimed prim ... Full text Open Access Cite

Over and over again: rumination, reflection, and promotion goal failure and their interactive effects on depressive symptoms.

Journal Article Behaviour research and therapy · March 2009 Research indicates that examining failure experiences using an immersed processing style versus a non-immersed, self-distanced open style influences cognitions about the self, motivation, and subsequent depressive symptoms. However, the effect of processin ... Full text Cite

Examining the conceptual model of integrative cognitive-affective therapy for BN: Two assessment studies.

Journal Article The International journal of eating disorders · December 2008 ObjectiveTwo studies sought to examine predictions of the Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy (ICAT) model, which views bulimic symptoms in terms of inter-relations between self-concept discrepancies, negative affect, and self-directed coping ... Full text Cite

Individual differences in self-regulatory failure and menstrual dysfunction predict upper respiratory infection symptoms and antibody response to flu immunization.

Journal Article Brain, behavior, and immunity · July 2008 Prior research indicates that cognitive priming manipulations that activate personal goals acutely increase or decrease natural killer cell cytotoxicity depending on whether individuals see themselves as making or failing to make progress toward their goal ... Full text Cite

Laboratory-based blood pressure recovery is a predictor of ambulatory blood pressure.

Journal Article Biol Psychol · March 2008 The recovery phase of the stress response is an individual difference characteristic that may predict cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to examine whether laboratory-based blood pressure (BP) recovery predicts ambulatory BP (ABP). One hund ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neural correlates of promotion and prevention goal activation: an fMRI study using an idiographic approach.

Journal Article J Cogn Neurosci · July 2007 Regulatory focus theory [Higgins, E. T. Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280-1300, 1997] postulates two social-cognitive motivational systems, the promotion and prevention systems, for self-regulation of goal pursuit. However, the neur ... Full text Link to item Cite

The development of children's ideal and ought self-guides: parenting, temperament, and individual differences in guide strength.

Journal Article Journal of personality · December 2006 Regulatory focus theory (RFT; Higgins, 1997) predicts that individual differences in the strength of promotion (ideal) and prevention (ought) orientations emerge from patterns of parent/child interactions that emphasize making good things happen versus kee ... Full text Cite

Universal session-level change processes in an early session of psychotherapy: path models.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · April 2006 The authors used structural equation modeling to investigate universal change processes identified in the generic model of psychotherapy (GMP). Three path models of increasing complexity were examined in Study 1 in dynamic therapy. The best fitting model f ... Full text Cite

Self-regulation, rumination, and vulnerability to depression in adolescent girls.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · January 2006 There is increasing evidence that with the onset of adolescence, girls experience higher rates of depression than boys. However, a comprehensive understanding of the risk factors contributing to this emerging gender difference has yet to be attained. Previ ... Full text Cite

Maintenance of exercise gains among women with primary breast cancer

Journal Article Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise · 2006 Cite

Early psychotherapy process and cluster B and C personality pathology: similarities and differences in interactions with symptomatic and interpersonal distress.

Journal Article Psychotherapy research : journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research · July 2005 Abstract In a prior study (Kolden & Klein, 1996), the authors found that the relationships between global personality pathology and early psychotherapy change processes (as defined by the Generic Model of Psychotherapy) were moderated by the extent of th ... Full text Cite

Social support and coronary heart disease: epidemiologic evidence and implications for treatment.

Journal Article Psychosom Med · 2005 OBJECTIVE: The present paper reviews theories of social support and evidence for the role of social support in the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Articles for the primary review of social support as a risk factor were ... Full text Link to item Cite

Self-regulatory cognition and immune reactivity: idiographic success and failure feedback effects on the natural killer cell.

Journal Article Brain, behavior, and immunity · November 2004 Inducing depressed and anxious individuals to write about their personal goals decreases natural killer (NK) cell activity, revealing a psychobiological pathway whereby experiences of failure can influence health (Strauman et al., 1993). However, it is unc ... Full text Cite

The basic science/clinical science interface and treatment development

Journal Article Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice · September 1, 2004 Psychological constructs often are incorporated into treatments before they are investigated systematically from a basic-science perspective. We discuss the potential costs of such a sequence of events and the potential benefits of closer working ties betw ... Full text Cite

The Basic Science/Clinical Science Interface and Treatment Development

Journal Article Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice · August 1, 2004 Full text Cite

Self-discrepancy in chronic low back pain: relation to pain, depression, and psychological distress.

Journal Article J Pain Symptom Manage · March 2004 Self-discrepancies occur when patients' evaluations of their actual self differ from their views of who they ideally would like to be (ideal self) or feel they ought to be (ought self), or from patients' perceptions of how significant others wish they coul ... Full text Link to item Cite

The role of personality in cognitive-behavioral therapies

Journal Article Behavior Therapy · January 1, 2004 Trait-based theories of personality explain behavior across situations based on a set of broad personality attributes or dimensions. In contrast, recent social-cognitive theories of personality emphasize the importance of context and take a combined nomoth ... Full text Cite

Depression as a risk factor for coronary artery disease: evidence, mechanisms, and treatment.

Journal Article Psychosom Med · 2004 OBJECTIVE: The present paper reviews the evidence that depression is a risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: MEDLINE searches and reviews of bibliographies were used to identify relevant articles. Articl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Self-System Therapy (SST): A Theory-Based Psychotherapy for Depression

Journal Article Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice · September 1, 2003 Full text Cite

Self-System Therapy: A theory-based psychotherapy for depression

Journal Article Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice · 2003 Cite

A pilot study of group exercise training (GET) for women with primary breast cancer: feasibility and health benefits.

Journal Article Psycho-oncology · September 2002 Evidence is accumulating for physical activity as an effective, well-tolerated, highly rewarding complementary behavioral intervention for enhancing quality of life (QOL) as well as fitness among individuals with chronic and even terminal illnesses. Howeve ... Full text Cite

Self-regulation and depression

Journal Article Self and Identity · 2002 Cite

Paradigms, promises, and the potential of clinical psychology.

Journal Article Journal of clinical psychology · September 2001 Both Plaud's and Ilardi and Feldman's articles call for clinical psychology to redefine itself according to a particular paradigm or "unifying framework." This commentary focuses on the nature of clinical psychology as an applied discipline, whether clinic ... Full text Cite

The effects of treatments for depression on perceived failure in self-regulation

Journal Article Cognitive Therapy and Research · January 1, 2001 Two studies examined the effect of treatments for depression on perceived failure in self-regulation, operationalized as within-self discrepancy. In Study 1, patients received group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT); in Study 2, patients received either i ... Full text Cite

Self-regulation, affect regulation, and narcissism: Pieces of the puzzle

Journal Article PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY · January 1, 2001 Link to item Cite

The Therapeutic Realizations Scale-Revised (TRS-R): psychometric characteristics and relationship to treatment process and outcome.

Journal Article Journal of clinical psychology · September 2000 Therapeutic realizations are one of five universal, session-level change processes explicated in the Generic Model of Psychotherapy. Realizations refer to session impacts, the moment-to-moment accomplishments that patients experience within sessions. This ... Full text Cite

Self-discrepancy, negative life events, and social support in relation to dejection in mothers of infants

Journal Article Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology · January 1, 1999 A diathesis-stress framework was used to examine self-discrepancy, negative life events, and social support in relation to dejection in a sample of 100 mothers who were between 3 and 12 months postpartum. In hierarchical regressions, actual:ideal (AI) disc ... Full text Cite

Is depression a dysfunction in self-regulating the brain/behavior system for approach?

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 1999 This commentary examines the implications of the Depue and Collins model for the etiology and treatment of depression, specifically, whether it can account for findings concerning neurobiological, behavioral, and phenomenological facets of depression. Draw ... Full text Cite

Temperament, recalled parenting styles, and self-regulation: testing the developmental postulates of self-discrepancy theory.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · November 1998 Self-discrepancy theory (SDT) postulates that self-regulatory systems corresponding to the ideal and ought self-domains emerge from the influences of temperament (e.g., sensitivity to stimuli for positive vs. negative outcomes) and socialization (e.g., par ... Full text Cite

Using imagination and personalized suggestion to change people: A commentary

Journal Article Behavior Therapy · January 1, 1998 The methods and findings of Loftus and Mazzoni (1998) are examined from a multidisciplinary perspective in which both cognitive and motivational factors are hypothesized to influence memory. Drawing upon theories of social influence, the role of persuasion ... Full text Cite

The self in depression: Research trends and clinical implications

Journal Article In Session - Psychotherapy in Practice · January 1, 1997 This article offers n brief selective review of basic research findings linking the self to clinical depression. Criteria used for identifying the most influential research trends included theoretical impact, extent of empirical support, and potential clin ... Full text Cite

Stability within the self: a longitudinal study of the structural implications of self-discrepancy theory.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · December 1996 Self-discrepancy theory emphasizes the emotional significance of patterns of relations between the self-concept and ideal and ought self-guides and predicts stability within the self related to structural characteristics independent of specific self-belief ... Full text Cite

Self-discrepancy theory: Validity and clinical implications

Journal Article INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY · January 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

Self-discrepancy and psychotherapy for depression

Journal Article INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY · January 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

Psychopathology from a self-regulation perspective.

Journal Article Journal of Psychotherapy Integration · December 1995 Full text Cite

Self pathology from a self-regulation perspective

Journal Article Journal of Psychotherapy Integration · 1995 Cite

Introduction: social cognition, psychodynamic psychology, and the representation and processing of emotionally significant information.

Journal Article Journal of personality · December 1994 This special issue examines two perspectives on how people comprehend and respond to significant features of their lives: psychoanalytic psychology and social cognition. The articles included present new empirical findings relevant to the overlap of psycho ... Full text Cite

Self-representations and the nature of cognitive change in psychotherapy.

Journal Article Journal of Psychotherapy Integration · December 1994 Full text Cite

Self-concept and body-image disturbance: Which self-beliefs predict body size overestimation?

Journal Article Cognitive Therapy and Research · April 1, 1994 Two studies investigated the relation between self-concept and body-image disturbance in selected female undergraduates. In each study, high- and low-body-shape-concerned women completed a set of self-concept assessments, including both appearance-specific ... Full text Cite

Effects of motivationally significant stimuli on the regulation of dominant responses.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · July 1993 In 4 experiments, Ss responded as quickly as possible to indicate whether character strings consisted of letters or numbers. Following a warning stimulus that was or was not designed to trigger a motivational-emotional response in particular subgroups (viz ... Full text Cite

Self-discrepancy and natural killer cell activity: immunological consequences of negative self-evaluation.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · June 1993 The study tested whether self-discrepancy theory could account for changes in natural killer (NK) cell activity after exposure to self-referential stimuli. Anxious, dysphoric, and control Ss were pretested and 1 month later covertly exposed to their own se ... Full text Cite

Self-Discrepancy and Natural Killer Cell Activity: Immunological Consequences of Negative Self-Evaluation

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · January 1, 1993 The study tested whether self-discrepancy theory could account for changes in natural killer (NK) cell activity after exposure to self-referential stimuli. Anxious, dysphoric, and control Ss were pretested and 1 month later covertly exposed to their own se ... Full text Cite

Tanaka, Jeffrey S. – 1958-1992

Journal Article Multivariate Behavioral Research · 1993 Cite

Responses of "generalized" and "discrete" social phobics during public speaking

Journal Article Journal of Anxiety Disorders · January 1, 1993 Thirty-six patients meeting DSM-IIIR social phobia criteria (28 "generalized," 8 "discrete") and 14 controls were monitored during a 10-minute simulated speech. Both patient groups reported less overall confidence in public speaking than controls. Generali ... Full text Cite

Self-guides, autobiographical memory, and anxiety and dysphoria: toward a cognitive model of vulnerability to emotional distress.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · February 1992 Several aspects of a cognitive model of vulnerability to emotional disorders based on self-discrepancy theory were tested. Anxious, dysphoric, anxious/dysphoric, and control subjects participated in 3 studies over a 4-month period: screening, assessment of ... Full text Cite

The Factor Structure of SCL-90 and MCMI Scale Scores: Within-Measure and Interbattery Analyses.

Journal Article Multivariate behavioral research · January 1992 This article reports scale-level factor analyses for two widely used self-report measures of psychopathology - the Symptom Checklist-90-R (Derogatis, 1983) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (Millon, 1983) - and compares the obtained factor struc ... Full text Cite

Self-discrepancies and vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · December 1991 Two studies explored the relevance of self-discrepancies for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. In Study 1, actual:ideal self-discrepancies of female undergraduates correlated with body shape dissatisfaction independent of Ss' body mass and number ... Full text Cite

Long-term biopsychosocial effects of interleukin-2 therapy.

Journal Article Oncology nursing forum · May 1991 This three-year project evaluates the biopsychosocial effects of interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy on the first 45 patients treated with the therapy at the Moses Division of the Montefiore Medical Center in Bronx, NY, starting in April 1986. Therapy with IL-2 a ... Cite

Self-discrepancies and vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating.

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · 1991 Full text Cite

Self-discrepancies and vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · 1991 Cite

Testing hypotheses derived from the Roy Adaptation Model.

Journal Article Nursing science quarterly · January 1991 This study investigated the role of perception and biopsychosocial adaptation in patients with cancer entering an aggressive cancer treatment program. The Roy adaptation model provided the framework from which hypotheses were derived and tested. The hypoth ... Full text Cite

Self-Guides and Emotionally Significant Childhood Memories: A Study of Retrieval Efficiency and Incidental Negative Emotional Content

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · January 1, 1990 Two studies examined the effects of several cue types on ease of retrieval and incidental negative emotional content of childhood memories. Subjects were presented an individually tailored list of cues and verbalized the first memory of a childhood experie ... Full text Cite

Self-discrepancies in clinical depression and social phobia: cognitive structures that underlie emotional disorders?

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · February 1989 Previous research indicates that self-discrepancies are cognitive structures that can induce emotional discomfort. The present study compared clinically depressed and social phobic subjects (plus controls) to determine whether different self-discrepancies ... Full text Cite

CA 125 levels in patients with ovarian carcinoma undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Journal Article American journal of obstetrics and gynecology · February 1989 Levels of CA 125, determined in three patients with ovarian carcinoma undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation, dropped significantly in the month after bone marrow transplantation. This decrease was linear by multiple regression analysis. The CA ... Full text Cite

Diagnosis of major depression by self-report.

Journal Article Journal of personality assessment · January 1989 The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI), and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test profiles of inpatients and outpatients with DSM-III major depression (n = 48) were contrasted with the test profiles ... Full text Cite

Self-discrepancies as predictors of vulnerability to distinct syndromes of chronic emotional distress.

Journal Article Journal of personality · December 1988 Two types of self-discrepancy differing in both domain and standpoint of self-guide were examined as predictors of vulnerability to chronic emotional syndromes. Study 1 assessed discrepancy between the actual/own self-state and the ideal/own self-guide and ... Full text Cite

Behavioral indications for serotonin receptor hypersensitivity in panic disorder.

Journal Article Psychiatry research · July 1988 Immediate placebo-corrected behavioral responses to m-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP), a selective serotonin agonist, are reported in 11 normal controls, 10 patients with panic disorder, and 10 patients with major depression. Whereas the normal and depressed ... Full text Cite

Automatic activation of self-discrepancies and emotional syndromes: when cognitive structures influence affect.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · December 1987 Different types of self-discrepancies are associated with different negative affects. Two studies were conducted to determine whether automatic activation of specific actual-self: self-guide mismatches, as cognitive structures, would induce distinct emotio ... Full text Cite

Self-discrepancies and emotional vulnerability: how magnitude, accessibility, and type of discrepancy influence affect.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · July 1986 Two studies examined whether the type of emotional change experienced by individuals is influenced by the magnitude and accessibility of the different types of self-discrepancies they possess. In both studies, subjects filled out a measure of self-discrepa ... Full text Cite