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Dan Ariely

Professor of Business Administration
Fuqua School of Business
Box 104117, Durham, NC 27708
2024 W. Main Street, A200, Durham, NC 27705

Selected Publications


How pledges reduce dishonesty: The role of involvement and identification

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · July 1, 2024 Authorities and managers often rely on individuals and businesses' self-reports and employ various forms of honesty declarations to ensure that those individuals and businesses do not over-claim payments, benefits, or other resources. While previous work h ... Full text Cite

Morality in minimally deceptive environments.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Applied · March 2024 Psychologists, economists, and philosophers have long argued that in environments where deception is normative, moral behavior is harmed. In this article, we show that individuals making decisions within minimally deceptive environments do not behave more ... Full text Cite

Harnessing dehumanization theory, modern media, and an intervention tournament to reduce support for retributive war crimes

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · March 1, 2024 We demonstrate how psychological scientists can curate rich-yet-accessible media to intervene on conflict-escalating attitudes during the earliest stages of violent conflicts. Although wartime atrocities all-too-often ignite destructive cycles of tit-for-t ... Full text Cite

A field study of the impacts of workplace diversity on the recruitment of minority group members.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · December 2023 Increasing workplace diversity is a common goal. Given research showing that minority applicants anticipate better treatment in diverse workplaces, we ran a field experiment (N = 1,585 applicants, N = 31,928 website visitors) exploring how subtle organizat ... Full text Cite

Does Real Age Feedback Really Motivate Us to Change our Lifestyle? Results from an Online Experiment.

Journal Article Health communication · October 2023 We set out to research the causal impact of Real Age feedback, a popular tool on health and lifestyle platforms, on health behaviors. We ran an online experiment where participants were randomly assigned a Real Age that differed in both direction (older or ... Full text Cite

Contextual processing and its alterations in patients with addictive disorders

Journal Article Addiction Neuroscience · September 1, 2023 Contextual processing is implicated in the pathophysiology of addictive disorders, but the nature of putative deficiencies remains unclear. We assessed some aspects of contextual processing across multimodal experimental procedures with detoxified subjects ... Full text Cite

THEY HAD IT COMING: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERPETRATOR-BLAME AND VICTIM-BLAME

Journal Article Social Cognition · December 1, 2022 Though the study of blame is far from new, little to no research has systematically investigated how perpetrator-blame and victim-blame influence one another. The current series of studies used correlational (Study 1), experimental (Studies 2 and 3), and m ... Full text Cite

The Association of Digital Health Application Use With Heart Failure Care and Outcomes: Insights From CONNECT-HF.

Journal Article J Card Fail · October 2022 BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether digital applications can improve guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) and outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Care Optimization Through Patient and Hospital Engagemen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Health insurance benefits as a labor market friction: Evidence from a quasi-experiment

Journal Article Strategic Management Journal · August 1, 2022 Research Summary: This study examines the propensity of small firms to provide health insurance in response to high state-level unemployment insurance (UI) benefits, given that generous UI benefits reduce labor market frictions that constrain employee mobi ... Full text Cite

Morality in the time of cognitive famine: The effects of memory load on cooperation and honesty.

Journal Article Acta psychologica · August 2022 Though human social interaction in general seems effortless at times, successful engagement in collaborative or exploitative social interaction requires the availability of cognitive resources. Research on Dual-Process suggests that two systems, the affect ... Full text Cite

Relational Spending in Funerals: Caring for Others Loved and Lost

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · April 1, 2022 Funeral rituals perform important social functions for families and communities, but little is known about the motives of people planning funerals. Using mixed methods, we examine funeral planning as end-of-life relational spending. We identify how relatio ... Full text Cite

Political coherence and certainty as drivers of interpersonal liking over and above similarity.

Journal Article Science advances · February 2022 Affective polarization and political segregation have become a serious threat to democratic societies. One standard explanation for these phenomena is that people like and prefer interacting with similar others. However, similarity may not be the only driv ... Full text Cite

Eliciting preferences for redistribution across domains: A study on wealth, education, and health

Journal Article Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy · December 1, 2021 People's preferences for redistribution are a key component of redistributive policy design, yet how to elicit these preferences is still a matter of debate. We recruited a nationally representative sample of more than 5000 US respondents. We used an appro ... Full text Cite

Moral responses to the COVID-19 crisis.

Journal Article Royal Society open science · September 2021 The COVID-19 pandemic has raised complex moral dilemmas that have been the subject of extensive public debate. Here, we study how people judge a set of controversial actions related to the crisis: relaxing data privacy standards to allow public control of ... Full text Cite

Expression of Concern: Effort for Payment: A Tale of Two Markets.

Journal Article Psychological science · August 2021 Full text Cite

Effect of a Hospital and Postdischarge Quality Improvement Intervention on Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Care for Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: The CONNECT-HF Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA · July 27, 2021 IMPORTANCE: Adoption of guideline-directed medical therapy for patients with heart failure is variable. Interventions to improve guideline-directed medical therapy have failed to consistently achieve target metrics, and limited data exist to inform efforts ... Full text Link to item Cite

Developing Workshops to Enhance Hope Among Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer and Oncologists: A Pilot Study.

Journal Article JCO oncology practice · June 2021 PurposeHope is a modifiable entity that can be augmented. We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a short intervention to increase hopefulness in patients with advanced breast cancer and oncologists.MethodsWe enrolled ... Full text Cite

Robin Hood meets Pinocchio: Justifications increase cheating behavior but decrease physiological tension

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics · June 1, 2021 We investigated whether altruistic justification increases cheating behavior while suppressing its associated physiological arousal. In the first study (n = 60), participants strategically employed altruistic considerations to justify their dishonesty and ... Full text Cite

How pledges reduce dishonesty: The role of involvement and identification

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · July 1, 2024 Authorities and managers often rely on individuals and businesses' self-reports and employ various forms of honesty declarations to ensure that those individuals and businesses do not over-claim payments, benefits, or other resources. While previous work h ... Full text Cite

Morality in minimally deceptive environments.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Applied · March 2024 Psychologists, economists, and philosophers have long argued that in environments where deception is normative, moral behavior is harmed. In this article, we show that individuals making decisions within minimally deceptive environments do not behave more ... Full text Cite

Harnessing dehumanization theory, modern media, and an intervention tournament to reduce support for retributive war crimes

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · March 1, 2024 We demonstrate how psychological scientists can curate rich-yet-accessible media to intervene on conflict-escalating attitudes during the earliest stages of violent conflicts. Although wartime atrocities all-too-often ignite destructive cycles of tit-for-t ... Full text Cite

A field study of the impacts of workplace diversity on the recruitment of minority group members.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · December 2023 Increasing workplace diversity is a common goal. Given research showing that minority applicants anticipate better treatment in diverse workplaces, we ran a field experiment (N = 1,585 applicants, N = 31,928 website visitors) exploring how subtle organizat ... Full text Cite

Does Real Age Feedback Really Motivate Us to Change our Lifestyle? Results from an Online Experiment.

Journal Article Health communication · October 2023 We set out to research the causal impact of Real Age feedback, a popular tool on health and lifestyle platforms, on health behaviors. We ran an online experiment where participants were randomly assigned a Real Age that differed in both direction (older or ... Full text Cite

Contextual processing and its alterations in patients with addictive disorders

Journal Article Addiction Neuroscience · September 1, 2023 Contextual processing is implicated in the pathophysiology of addictive disorders, but the nature of putative deficiencies remains unclear. We assessed some aspects of contextual processing across multimodal experimental procedures with detoxified subjects ... Full text Cite

THEY HAD IT COMING: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERPETRATOR-BLAME AND VICTIM-BLAME

Journal Article Social Cognition · December 1, 2022 Though the study of blame is far from new, little to no research has systematically investigated how perpetrator-blame and victim-blame influence one another. The current series of studies used correlational (Study 1), experimental (Studies 2 and 3), and m ... Full text Cite

The Association of Digital Health Application Use With Heart Failure Care and Outcomes: Insights From CONNECT-HF.

Journal Article J Card Fail · October 2022 BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether digital applications can improve guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) and outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Care Optimization Through Patient and Hospital Engagemen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Health insurance benefits as a labor market friction: Evidence from a quasi-experiment

Journal Article Strategic Management Journal · August 1, 2022 Research Summary: This study examines the propensity of small firms to provide health insurance in response to high state-level unemployment insurance (UI) benefits, given that generous UI benefits reduce labor market frictions that constrain employee mobi ... Full text Cite

Morality in the time of cognitive famine: The effects of memory load on cooperation and honesty.

Journal Article Acta psychologica · August 2022 Though human social interaction in general seems effortless at times, successful engagement in collaborative or exploitative social interaction requires the availability of cognitive resources. Research on Dual-Process suggests that two systems, the affect ... Full text Cite

Relational Spending in Funerals: Caring for Others Loved and Lost

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · April 1, 2022 Funeral rituals perform important social functions for families and communities, but little is known about the motives of people planning funerals. Using mixed methods, we examine funeral planning as end-of-life relational spending. We identify how relatio ... Full text Cite

Political coherence and certainty as drivers of interpersonal liking over and above similarity.

Journal Article Science advances · February 2022 Affective polarization and political segregation have become a serious threat to democratic societies. One standard explanation for these phenomena is that people like and prefer interacting with similar others. However, similarity may not be the only driv ... Full text Cite

Eliciting preferences for redistribution across domains: A study on wealth, education, and health

Journal Article Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy · December 1, 2021 People's preferences for redistribution are a key component of redistributive policy design, yet how to elicit these preferences is still a matter of debate. We recruited a nationally representative sample of more than 5000 US respondents. We used an appro ... Full text Cite

Moral responses to the COVID-19 crisis.

Journal Article Royal Society open science · September 2021 The COVID-19 pandemic has raised complex moral dilemmas that have been the subject of extensive public debate. Here, we study how people judge a set of controversial actions related to the crisis: relaxing data privacy standards to allow public control of ... Full text Cite

Expression of Concern: Effort for Payment: A Tale of Two Markets.

Journal Article Psychological science · August 2021 Full text Cite

Effect of a Hospital and Postdischarge Quality Improvement Intervention on Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Care for Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: The CONNECT-HF Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA · July 27, 2021 IMPORTANCE: Adoption of guideline-directed medical therapy for patients with heart failure is variable. Interventions to improve guideline-directed medical therapy have failed to consistently achieve target metrics, and limited data exist to inform efforts ... Full text Link to item Cite

Developing Workshops to Enhance Hope Among Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer and Oncologists: A Pilot Study.

Journal Article JCO oncology practice · June 2021 PurposeHope is a modifiable entity that can be augmented. We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a short intervention to increase hopefulness in patients with advanced breast cancer and oncologists.MethodsWe enrolled ... Full text Cite

Robin Hood meets Pinocchio: Justifications increase cheating behavior but decrease physiological tension

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics · June 1, 2021 We investigated whether altruistic justification increases cheating behavior while suppressing its associated physiological arousal. In the first study (n = 60), participants strategically employed altruistic considerations to justify their dishonesty and ... Full text Cite

How does the perceived value of a medium of exchange depend on its set of possible uses?

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · November 1, 2020 The normative value of a medium of exchange is derived from the best consumption that it permits. Adding potential uses can increase the normative value of a medium of exchange but not decrease it. In two large preregistered experiments (total N = 2205), i ... Full text Cite

The Effect of a Priest-Led Intervention on the Choice and Preference of Soda Beverages: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Catholic Parishes.

Journal Article Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine · May 2020 BackgroundLatin America ranks among the regions with the highest level of intake of sugary beverages in the world. Innovative strategies to reduce the consumption of sugary drinks are necessary.PurposeEvaluate the effect of a one-off prie ... Full text Cite

Signing at the beginning versus at the end does not decrease dishonesty.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · March 2020 Honest reporting is essential for society to function well. However, people frequently lie when asked to provide information, such as misrepresenting their income to save money on taxes. A landmark finding published in PNAS [L. L. Shu, N. Mazar, F. Gino, D ... Full text Cite

Care Optimization Through Patient and Hospital Engagement Clinical Trial for Heart Failure: Rationale and design of CONNECT-HF.

Journal Article Am Heart J · February 2020 Many therapies have been shown to improve outcomes for patients with heart failure (HF) in controlled settings, but there are limited data available to inform best practices for hospital and post-discharge quality improvement initiatives. The CONNECT-HF st ... Full text Link to item Cite

It's how you say it: Systematic A/B testing of digital messaging cut hospital no-show rates.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2020 Failure to attend hospital appointments has a detrimental impact on care quality. Documented efforts to address this challenge have only modestly decreased no-show rates. Behavioral economics theory has suggested that more effective messages may lead to in ... Full text Cite

Replicating and extending the effects of auditory religious cues on dishonest behavior.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2020 Although scientists agree that replications are critical to the debate on the validity of religious priming research, religious priming replications are scarce. This paper attempts to replicate and extend previously observed effects of religious priming on ... Full text Cite

Batching smartphone notifications can improve well-being

Journal Article Computers in Human Behavior · December 1, 2019 Every day, billions of us receive smartphone notifications. Designed to distract, these interruptions capture and monetize our time and attention. Though smartphones are incredibly helpful, their current notification systems impose underappreciated, yet co ... Full text Cite

Reaching Consensus in Polarized Moral Debates.

Journal Article Current biology : CB · December 2019 The group polarization phenomenon is a widespread human bias with no apparent geographical or cultural boundaries [1]. Although the conditions that breed extremism have been extensively studied [2-5], comparably little research has examined how to depolari ... Full text Cite

The lie deflator – The effect of polygraph test feedback on subsequent (Dis)honesty

Journal Article Judgment and Decision Making · November 1, 2019 Despite its controversial status, the lie detection test is still a popular organizational instrument for credibility assessment. Due to its popularity, we examined the effect of the lie-detection test feedback on subsequent moral behavior. In three studie ... Cite

The Limits of Cognitive Reappraisal: Changing Pain Valence, but not Persistence, during a Resistance Exercise Task.

Journal Article International journal of environmental research and public health · October 2019 Physiological discomfort is commonly cited as a barrier for initiating and persisting with exercise. Although individuals may think of physiological discomfort as determined by physical sensations, it can also be influenced by cognitive and emotional facto ... Full text Cite

The impact of two different economic systems on dishonesty

Journal Article European Journal of Political Economy · September 1, 2019 Using an artefactual field experiment, this paper tests the long-term implications of living in a specific economic system on individual dishonesty. By comparing cheating behaviour across individuals from the former socialist East of Germany with those of ... Full text Cite

Human decision-making biases in the moral dilemmas of autonomous vehicles.

Journal Article Scientific reports · September 2019 The development of artificial intelligence has led researchers to study the ethical principles that should guide machine behavior. The challenge in building machine morality based on people's moral decisions, however, is accounting for the biases in human ... Full text Cite

The Feeling of Not Knowing It All

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · July 1, 2019 How do consumers assess their mastery of knowledge they have learned? We explore this question by investigating a common knowledge consumption situation: encountering opportunities for further learning. We argue and show that such opportunities can trigger ... Full text Cite

When is inequality fair? An experiment on the effect of procedural justice and agency

Journal Article Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization · May 1, 2019 We investigate how the perceived fairness of an income distribution depends on the beliefs about the process that generates the inequality. Specifically, we examine how two crucial features of this process affect fairness views: (1) Procedural justice - eq ... Full text Cite

Small probabilistic discounts stimulate spending: Pain of paying in price promotions

Journal Article Journal of the Association for Consumer Research · April 1, 2019 We find that small probabilistic price promotions effectively stimulate demand, even more so than comparable fixed price promotions (e.g., “1% chance it’s free” vs. “1% off,” respectively), because they more effectively reduce the pain of paying. In three ... Full text Cite

Consuming together (versus separately) makes the heart grow fonder

Journal Article Marketing Letters · March 15, 2019 Across three studies, we investigate how consumers in romantic relationships make decisions when choosing an item to share with their partner. We show that consumers will forgo their preferred alternative for an option that is more aligned with the prefere ... Full text Cite

Impact of Disgust on Intentions to Undergo Colorectal Surgery.

Journal Article Dis Colon Rectum · December 2018 BACKGROUND: Surgeons present patients with complex information at the perioperative appointment. Emotions likely play a role in surgical decision-making, and disgust is an emotion of revulsion at a stimulus that can lead to avoidance. OBJECTIVE: The purpos ... Full text Link to item Cite

Naïve models of dietary splurges: Beliefs about caloric compensation and weight change following non-habitual overconsumption.

Journal Article Appetite · September 2018 The mechanisms that lead to overeating and the consumption of tempting, unhealthy foods have been studied extensively, but the compensatory actions taken afterwards have not. Here we describe the naïve models individuals hold around dietary splurges (singl ... Full text Cite

Replicating the Effect of the Accessibility of Moral Standards on Dishonesty: Authors’ Response to the Replication Attempt

Journal Article Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science · September 1, 2018 Full text Cite

If You Are Going to Pay Within the Next 24 Hours, Press 1: Automatic Planning Prompt Reduces Credit Card Delinquency

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · July 1, 2018 People often form intentions but fail to follow through on them. Mounting evidence suggests that such intention-action gaps can be narrowed with prompts to make concrete plans about when, where, and how to act to achieve the intention. In this paper, we pu ... Full text Cite

Triadic treatment decision-making in advanced cancer: a pilot study of the roles and perceptions of patients, caregivers, and oncologists.

Journal Article Support Care Cancer · April 2018 PURPOSE: The research on cancer treatment decision-making focuses on dyads; the full "triad" of patients, oncologists, and caregivers remains largely unstudied. We investigated how all members of this triad perceive and experience decisions related to trea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Social Norms and the Price of Zero

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · April 1, 2018 The standard economic model assumes that demand is weakly decreasing in price. While empirical evidence shows that this is true for most price levels, it might not hold for the price of zero, where social norms are not entirely compatible with the self-max ... Full text Cite

How Counterfeits Infect Genuine Products: The Role of Moral Disgust

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · April 1, 2018 We argue that moral disgust toward counterfeiting can degrade both the efficacy of products perceived to be counterfeits and that of genuine products resembling them. Five studies support our propositions and highlight the infectious nature of counterfeiti ... Full text Cite

The Sticky Anchor Hypothesis: Ego Depletion Increases Susceptibility to Situational Cues

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral Decision Making · December 1, 2017 Self-control depletion has been linked both to increased selfish behavior and increased susceptibility to situational cues. The present research tested two competing hypotheses about the consequence of depletion by measuring how people allocate rewards bet ... Full text Cite

The choice architecture of privacy decision-making

Journal Article Health and Technology · December 1, 2017 ‘Choice architects’ are responsible for designing environments that guide decision-making, and thus must consider the inherent tradeoffs that accompany every choice. This examination of privacy decision-making places privacy considerations into context, an ... Full text Cite

Bonobos respond prosocially toward members of other groups.

Journal Article Scientific reports · November 2017 Modern humans live in an "exploded" network with unusually large circles of trust that form due to prosociality toward unfamiliar people (i.e. xenophilia). In a set of experiments we demonstrate that semi-free ranging bonobos (Pan paniscus) - both juvenile ... Full text Cite

Comparison of affect-regulated, self-regulated, and heart-rate regulated exercise prescriptions: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Journal Article Psychology of Sport and Exercise · September 1, 2017 Recent evidence has highlighted the potential benefits of affect- and self-regulated exercise prescriptions for the promotion of physical activity and exercise behavior (Baldwin et al., 2016; Williams et al., 2015, 2016). However, questions remain about wh ... Full text Cite

Leveraging Behavioral Economics to Improve Heart Failure Care and Outcomes.

Journal Article Circulation · August 22, 2017 Behavioral challenges are often present in human illness, so behavioral economics is increasingly being applied in healthcare settings to better understand why patients choose healthy or unhealthy behaviors. The application of behavioral economics to healt ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of Sharing Access Credentials in Electronic Medical Records.

Journal Article Healthcare informatics research · July 2017 ObjectivesConfidentiality of health information is an important aspect of the physician patient relationship. The use of digital medical records has made data much more accessible. To prevent data leakage, many countries have created regulations r ... Full text Cite

The effects of extreme rituals on moral behavior: The performers-observers gap hypothesis

Journal Article Journal of Economic Psychology · April 1, 2017 Religious rituals are found all over the world. Some cultures engage in extreme religious rituals in which individuals take on forms of bodily harm to demonstrate their devotion. Such rituals entail excessive costs in terms of physical pain and effort, but ... Full text Cite

What are likes worth? A facebook page field experiment

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · April 1, 2017 Despite the tremendous resources devoted to marketing on Facebook, little is known about its actual effect on customers. Specifically, can Facebook page likes affect offline customer behavior, and if so, how? To answer these questions, the authors conduct ... Full text Cite

Behavioral Interventions to Increase Tax-Time Saving: Evidence from a National Randomized Trial

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Affairs · March 1, 2017 We provide new large-scale experimental evidence on policies that aim to boost household saving out of income tax refunds. Households that filed income tax returns with an online tax preparer and chose to receive their refund electronically were randomized ... Full text Cite

Arousal and economic decision making

Journal Article Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization · February 1, 2017 Previous experiments have found that subjecting participants to cognitive load leads to poorer decision making, consistent with dual-system models of behavior. Rather than taxing the cognitive system, this paper reports the results of an experiment that ta ... Full text Cite

It’s (Not) All About the Jacksons: Testing Different Types of Short-Term Bonuses in the Field

Journal Article Journal of Management · February 1, 2017 The use of short-term bonuses to motivate employees has become an organizational regularity, but a thorough understanding of the relationship between these incentives and actual performance is lacking. We aim to advance this understanding by examining how ... Full text Cite

When retailing and las vegas meet: Probabilistic free price promotions

Journal Article Management Science · January 1, 2017 A number of retailers offer gambling-or lottery-type price promotions with a chance to receive one's entire purchase for free. Although these retailers seem to share the intuition that probabilistic free price promotions are attractive to consumers, it is ... Full text Cite

Gain without pain: The extended effects of a behavioral health intervention

Journal Article Management Science · January 1, 2017 We examine the extended effects of an incentive-based behavioral health intervention designed to improve nutrition behavior. Although the intervention successfully improved the target behavior, less is known about any spillovers, positive or negative, that ... Full text Cite

Life is a battlefield

Journal Article Independent Review · December 1, 2016 There are two standard policy alternatives for combating the harmful behaviors that commercialism encourages, ineffective soft paternalistic requirements mandating that consumers receive helpful information, such as calorie counts; and hard paternalistic r ... Cite

Public and Private Values

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral Decision Making · December 1, 2016 In this paper, we experimentally examine whether looking at other people's pricing decisions is a type of a decision rule that people over-apply even when it is not applicable, as in the case of private-value goods. In Study 1, we find evidence that this i ... Full text Cite

The brain adapts to dishonesty.

Journal Article Nature neuroscience · December 2016 Dishonesty is an integral part of our social world, influencing domains ranging from finance and politics to personal relationships. Anecdotally, digressions from a moral code are often described as a series of small breaches that grow over time. Here we p ... Full text Cite

The Valjean effect: Visceral states and cheating.

Journal Article Emotion (Washington, D.C.) · September 2016 Visceral states like thirst, hunger, and fatigue can alter motivations, predictions, and even memory. Across 3 studies, we demonstrate that such "hot" states can also shift moral standards and increase dishonest behavior. Compared to participants who had j ... Full text Cite

Cut From the Same Cloth: Similarly Dishonest Individuals Across Countries

Journal Article Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology · July 1, 2016 Norms for dishonest behaviors vary across societies, but whether this variation is related to differences in individuals’ core tendencies toward dishonesty is unknown. We compare individual dishonesty on a novel task across 10 participant samples from five ... Full text Cite

Can You Have Your Vigorous Exercise and Enjoy It Too? Ramping Intensity Down Increases Postexercise, Remembered, and Forecasted Pleasure.

Journal Article Journal of sport & exercise psychology · April 2016 There is a paucity of methods for improving the affective experience of exercise. We tested a novel method based on discoveries about the relation between exercise intensity and pleasure, and lessons from behavioral economics. We examined the effect of rev ... Full text Cite

Past Actions as Self-Signals: How Acting in a Self-Interested Way Influences Environmental Decision Making.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2016 In the last few decades, awareness of environmental issues has increased significantly. Little has changed, however, in human activities contributing to environmental damage. Why is it so difficult for us to change our behavior in a domain that is clearly ... Full text Cite

Editorial: Dishonest Behavior, from Theory to Practice.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2016 Full text Cite

Irrational attachment (why we love what we own)

Chapter · January 1, 2016 Ellen Langer’s early observation that people feel a false sense of connection to uncontrollable events has led to a long line of research, originating with Langer’s illusion of control and spanning a wide array of studies on the endowment effect, the IKEA ... Full text Cite

Revisiting constructed preferences: Extrapolating preferences from relevant reminders

Journal Article Decision · January 1, 2016 Bias and error are considered fundamental characteristics of preferences. However, daily behavior frequently demonstrates preference coherence. We link the leading notions of constructed preferences and well-defined values (Payne, Bettman & Schkade, 1999) ... Full text Cite

Ethical dissonance, justifications, and moral behavior

Journal Article Current Opinion in Psychology · December 1, 2015 Full text Cite

Dishonesty in scientific research.

Journal Article The Journal of clinical investigation · November 2015 Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil indivi ... Full text Cite

Three Principles to REVISE People's Unethical Behavior.

Journal Article Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · November 2015 Dishonesty and unethical behavior are widespread in the public and private sectors and cause immense annual losses. For instance, estimates of U.S. annual losses indicate $1 trillion paid in bribes, $270 billion lost due to unreported income, and $42 billi ... Full text Cite

Being Irrationally Funny as a Cognitive Psychologist: Interview With Dan Ariely.

Journal Article Europe's journal of psychology · November 2015 The idea of interviewing Dan Ariely was somehow latent on my mind since I started being interested in cognitive psychology and cognitive behavior psychotherapy, but actually got more ardent ever since irrationality became a research topic for his team at D ... Full text Cite

Neural substrates underlying the tendency to accept anger-infused ultimatum offers during dynamic social interactions.

Journal Article NeuroImage · October 2015 In managing our way through interpersonal conflict, anger might be crucial in determining whether the dispute escalates to aggressive behaviors or resolves cooperatively. The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a social decision-making paradigm that provides a framewor ... Full text Cite

The budget contraction effect: How contracting budgets lead to less varied choice

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · June 1, 2015 How do consumers adjust their spending when their budget changes? A common view is that the allocation of one's current budget should not depend on previous budget allocations. Contrary to this, the authors find that when the budget contracts to a particul ... Full text Cite

Money, time, and the stability of consumer preferences

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · April 1, 2015 Consumers often make product choices that involve the consideration of money and time. Building on dual-process models, the authors propose that these two basic resources activate qualitatively different modes of processing: while money is processed analyt ... Full text Cite

When does familiarity promote versus undermine interpersonal attraction? A proposed integrative model from erstwhile adversaries.

Journal Article Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · January 2015 This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear t ... Full text Cite

Fairness requires deliberation: the primacy of economic over social considerations.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2015 While both economic and social considerations of fairness and equity play an important role in financial decision-making, it is not clear which of these two motives is more primal and immediate and which one is secondary and slow. Here we used variants of ... Full text Cite

The slow decay and quick revival of self-deception.

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2015 People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves-for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-dece ... Full text Cite

Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

Journal Article Frontiers in psychology · January 2015 Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self- ... Full text Cite

In pain thou shalt bring forth children: the peak-and-end rule in recall of labor pain.

Journal Article Psychological science · December 2014 Childbirth is usually the most painful event of a mother's life, and resonates in individual and collective memory for years. The current study examined the relationship between the experience of labor pain and its recollection 2 days and 2 months after de ... Full text Cite

The not-so-common-wealth of Australia: Evidence for a cross-cultural desire for a more equal distribution of wealth

Journal Article Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy · December 1, 2014 Recent evidence suggests that Americans underestimate wealth inequality in the United States and favor a more equal wealth distribution (Norton & Ariely, 2011). Does this pattern reflect ideological dynamics unique to the United States, or is the phenomeno ... Full text Cite

Contingent match incentives increase donations

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · December 1, 2014 The authors propose a new means by which nonprofits can induce donors to give today and commit to giving in the future: contingent match incentives, in which matching is made contingent on the percentage of others who give (e.g., "if X% of others give, we ... Full text Cite

Keeping your gains close but your money closer: The prepayment effect in riskless choices

Journal Article Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization · November 1, 2014 Although research on loss aversion now spans more than three decades, researchers are still debating whether (or in which cases) the finding holds true for money. We contribute to this debate by exploring how prepayment affects financial decisions. In one ... Full text Cite

Ego depletion decreases trust in economic decision making.

Journal Article Journal of experimental social psychology · September 2014 Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 t ... Full text Cite

Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

Journal Article Journal of consumer psychology : the official journal of the Society for Consumer Psychology · July 2014 Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral ... Full text Cite

Financial deprivation selectively shifts moral standards and compromises moral decisions

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · March 1, 2014 Previous research suggests people firmly value moral standards. However, research has also shown that various factors can compromise moral behavior. Inspired by the recent financial turmoil, we investigate whether financial deprivation might shift people's ... Full text Cite

Healthier by precommitment.

Journal Article Psychological science · February 2014 We tested a voluntary self-control commitment device to help grocery shoppers make healthier food purchases. Participants, who were already enrolled in a large-scale incentive program that discounts the price of eligible groceries by 25%, were offered the ... Full text Cite

Better medicine by default.

Journal Article Med Decis Making · February 2014 BACKGROUND: American health care is transitioning to electronic physician ordering. These computerized systems are unique because they allow custom order interfaces. Although these systems provide great benefits, there are also potential pitfalls, as the b ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pay-for-performance: toxic to quality? Insights from behavioral economics.

Journal Article International journal of health services : planning, administration, evaluation · January 2014 Pay-for-performance programs aim to upgrade health care quality by tailoring financial incentives for desirable behaviors. While Medicare and many private insurers are charging ahead with pay-for-performance, researchers have been unable to show that it be ... Full text Cite

True context-dependent preferences? The causes of market-dependent valuations

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral Decision Making · January 1, 2014 A central assumption of neoclassical economics is that reservation prices for familiar products express people's true preferences for these products; that is, they represent the total benefit that a good confers to the consumers and are, thus, independent ... Full text Cite

Everybody else is doing it: exploring social transmission of lying behavior.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2014 Lying is a common occurrence in social interactions, but what predicts whether an individual will tell a lie? While previous studies have focused on personality factors, here we asked whether lying tendencies might be transmitted through social networks. U ... Full text Cite

Focused on fairness: Alcohol intoxication increases the costly rejection of inequitable rewards

Journal Article Journal of Experimental Social Psychology · January 1, 2014 This research examined the effect of alcohol intoxication on the propensity to behave inequitably and responses to inequitable divisions of rewards. Intoxicated and sober participants played ten rounds of a modified ultimatum game in two studies. Whereas i ... Full text Cite

Less is often more, but not always: additional evidence that familiarity breeds contempt and a call for future research.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · December 2013 Ullrich, Krueger, Brod, and Groschupf (2013)-using a replication of the trait paradigm from Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007)-suggest that less information does not always equal greater liking. We first ground the current debate in a larger historical debat ... Full text Cite

Self-Serving Altruism? The Lure of Unethical Actions that Benefit Others.

Journal Article Journal of economic behavior & organization · September 2013 In three experiments, we propose and find that individuals cheat more when others can benefit from their cheating and when the number of beneficiaries of wrongdoing increases. Our results indicate that people use moral flexibility to justify their self-int ... Full text Cite

A Bird's Eye View of Unethical Behavior: Commentary on Trautmann et al. (2013).

Journal Article Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · September 2013 Results from Trautmann and colleagues' large, representative survey of Dutch people suggest a more nuanced relationship between class and ethics than previous research has demonstrated (Trautmann, Van de Kuilen, & Zeckhauser, 2013, this issue). Following t ... Full text Cite

Preference exploration and learning: The role of intensiveness and extensiveness of experience

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · July 1, 2013 In this article, the authors partition the construct of experience into intensiveness (i.e., amount) and extensiveness (i.e., breadth) and examine the impact of the two specific types of experience on preference learning. In the first three studies, the au ... Full text Cite

Investigation momentum: the relentless pursuit to resolve uncertainty.

Journal Article JAMA internal medicine · May 27, 2013 Cite

American's desire for less wealth inequality does not depend on how you ask them

Journal Article Judgment and Decision Making · May 1, 2013 A large body of survey research offers evidence that citizens are not always fully aware of the economic and political realities in their respective countries. Norton and Ariely (2011) extended this research to the domain of wealth inequality, showing that ... Cite

Choosing among employer-sponsored health plans: what drives employee choices?

Journal Article Journal of occupational and environmental medicine · March 2013 ObjectiveTo probe employee basis for choosing health plans.MethodsIn a Web study, 337 employees from large private and public employers were asked to choose among health plans varying on several common dimensions.ResultsOn per-do ... Full text Cite

Moral masochism: on the connection between guilt and self-punishment.

Journal Article Emotion (Washington, D.C.) · February 2013 Do people sometimes seek to atone for their transgressions by harming themselves physically? The current results suggest that they do. People who wrote about a past guilt-inducing event inflicted more intense electric shocks on themselves than did those wh ... Full text Open Access Cite

The effect of nonverbal cues on relationship formation

Journal Article Computers in Human Behavior · January 23, 2013 An unprecedented number of relationships begin online, propelling online dating into a billion-dollar industry. However, while the online dating industry has created an effective mechanism for matching and accessing profiles, it has largely neglected the q ... Full text Cite

The (Honest) Truth about Dishonesty How We Lie to Everyone - Especially Ourselves

Book · 2013 If you've ever wondered how a whole company can turn a blind eye to evident misdemeanours within their ranks, whether people are born dishonest and whether you can really be successful by being totally, brutally honest, then Dan Ariely has ... ... Cite

True context-dependent preferences? The causes of market-dependent valuations

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral Decision Making · 2013 Cite

Design to learn: Customizing services when the future matters

Journal Article Pesquisa Operacional · January 1, 2013 Internet-based customization tools can be used to design service encounters that maximize customers' utility in the present or explore their tastes to provide more value in the future, where these two goals conflict with each other. Maximizing expected cus ... Full text Cite

Risk preferences and aging: the "certainty effect" in older adults' decision making.

Journal Article Psychology and aging · December 2012 A prevalent stereotype is that people become less risk taking and more cautious as they get older. However, in laboratory studies, findings are mixed and often reveal no age differences. In the current series of experiments, we examined whether age differe ... Full text Cite

Bolstering and restoring feelings of competence via the IKEA effect

Journal Article International Journal of Research in Marketing · December 1, 2012 We examine the underlying process behind the IKEA effect, which is defined as consumers' willingness to pay more for self-created products than for identical products made by others, and explore the factors that influence both consumers' willingness to eng ... Full text Cite

The pot calling the kettle black: distancing response to ethical dissonance.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. General · November 2012 Six studies demonstrate the "pot calling the kettle black" phenomenon whereby people are guilty of the very fault they identify in others. Recalling an undeniable ethical failure, people experience ethical dissonance between their moral values and their be ... Full text Cite

Signing at the beginning makes ethics salient and decreases dishonest self-reports in comparison to signing at the end.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · September 2012 Many written forms required by businesses and governments rely on honest reporting. Proof of honest intent is typically provided through signature at the end of, e.g., tax returns or insurance policy forms. Still, people sometimes cheat to advance their fi ... Full text Cite

Liar, liar

Journal Article Foreign Policy · September 1, 2012 Cite

Why pay for performance may be incompatible with quality improvement.

Journal Article BMJ (Clinical research ed.) · August 2012 Full text Cite

The IKEA effect: When labor leads to love

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · July 1, 2012 In four studies in which consumers assembled IKEA boxes, folded origami, and built sets of Legos, we demonstrate and investigate boundary conditions for the IKEA effect-the increase in valuation of self-made products. Participants saw their amateurish crea ... Full text Cite

Higher medical morbidity burden is associated with external locus of control.

Journal Article J Am Geriatr Soc · April 2012 OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between an increasing number of coexisting conditions and locus of control (LOC), a psychological construct reflecting the degree to which one perceives circumstances to be controlled by personal actions (internal LO ... Full text Link to item Cite

The dark side of creativity: original thinkers can be more dishonest.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · March 2012 Creativity is a common aspiration for individuals, organizations, and societies. Here, however, we test whether creativity increases dishonesty. We propose that a creative personality and a creative mindset promote individuals' ability to justify their beh ... Full text Cite

The persuasive " power" of stigma?

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · March 1, 2012 We predicted that able-bodied individuals and White Americans would have a difficult time saying no to persuasive appeals offered by disabled individuals and Black Americans, due to their desire to make such interactions proceed smoothly. In two experiment ... Full text Cite

Inviting consumers to downsize fast-food portions significantly reduces calorie consumption.

Journal Article Health affairs (Project Hope) · February 2012 Policies that mandate calorie labeling in fast-food and chain restaurants have had little or no observable impact on calorie consumption to date. In three field experiments, we tested an alternative approach: activating consumers' self-control by having se ... Full text Cite

Turning personal calendars into scheduling assistants

Conference Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings · January 1, 2012 Personal calendars have long played a major role in time management, but they have evolved little over the years, and their contribution to productivity has stagnated. Inspired by logical theories of intention as well as experimental results on human produ ... Full text Cite

Temporal view of the costs and benefits of self-deception.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · September 2011 Researchers have documented many cases in which individuals rationalize their regrettable actions. Four experiments examine situations in which people go beyond merely explaining away their misconduct to actively deceiving themselves. We find that those wh ... Full text Cite

Does familiarity breed contempt or liking? Comment on Reis, Maniaci, Caprariello, Eastwick, and Finkel (2011).

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · September 2011 Reis, Maniaci, Caprariello, Eastwick, and Finkel (see record 2011-04644-001) conducted 2 studies that demonstrate that in certain cases, familiarity can lead to liking--in seeming contrast to the results of our earlier article (see record 2006-23056-008). ... Full text Cite

What Was The Question?

Journal Article HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW · September 1, 2011 Link to item Cite

Column: What was the question?

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · September 1, 2011 Cite

Unable to resist temptation: How self-control depletion promotes unethical behavior

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · July 1, 2011 Across four experimental studies, individuals who were depleted of their self-regulatory resources by an initial act of self-control were more likely to " impulsively cheat" than individuals whose self-regulatory resources were intact. Our results demonstr ... Full text Cite

The Upside of Irrationality The Unexpected Benefits of Defying Logic

Book · May 17, 2011 The Upside of Irrationality will change the way we see ourselves at work and at home—and cast our irrational behaviors in a more nuanced light. ... Cite

The Upside of Useless Stuff

Journal Article HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW · May 1, 2011 Link to item Cite

Column: The upside of useless stuff

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · May 1, 2011 Cite

Who Benefits from Religion?

Journal Article Social Indicators Research · March 1, 2011 Many studies have documented the benefits of religious involvement. Indeed, highly religious people tend to be healthier, live longer, and have higher levels of subjective well-being. While religious involvement offers clear benefits to many, in this paper ... Full text Cite

In Praise of The Handshake

Journal Article HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW · March 1, 2011 Link to item Cite

Column: In praise of the handshake

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · March 1, 2011 Cite

Are consumers too trusting? The effects of relationships with expert advisers

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · January 1, 2011 Many important and complex consumer decisions rely on the advice of trusted professional experts. Many experts, however, such as doctors, financial advisers, and accountants, may be prone to conflicts of interest. As such, consumers may seek a second opini ... Full text Cite

Building a Better America-One Wealth Quintile at a Time.

Journal Article Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · January 2011 Disagreements about the optimal level of wealth inequality underlie policy debates ranging from taxation to welfare. We attempt to insert the desires of "regular" Americans into these debates, by asking a nationally representative online panel to estimate ... Full text Cite

From thinking too little to thinking too much: a continuum of decision making.

Journal Article Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science · January 2011 Due to the sheer number and variety of decisions that people make in their everyday lives-from choosing yogurts to choosing religions to choosing spouses-research in judgment and decision making has taken many forms. We suggest, however, that much of this ... Full text Cite

Winning the battle but losing the war: The psychology of debt management

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · January 1, 2011 When consumers carry multiple debts, how do they decide which debt to repay first? Normatively, consumers should repay the debt with the highest interest rate most quickly. However, because people tend to break complicated tasks into more manageable parts, ... Full text Cite

The HBR agenda

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · January 1, 2011 Cite

What makes you click?-mate preferences in online dating

Journal Article Quantitative Marketing and Economics · December 1, 2010 We estimate mate preferences using a novel data set from an online dating service. The data set contains detailed information on user attributes and the decision to contact a potential mate after viewing his or her profile. This decision provides the basis ... Full text Cite

Good Decisions. Bad Outcomes.

Journal Article HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW · December 1, 2010 Link to item Cite

Column: Work Pray Love

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · December 1, 2010 Cite

Want People to Save? Force Them

Journal Article HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW · September 1, 2010 Link to item Cite

Wanting, liking, and preference construction.

Journal Article Emotion (Washington, D.C.) · June 2010 According to theories on preference construction, multiple preferences result from multiple contexts (e.g., loss vs. gain frames). This implies that people can have different representations of a preference in different contexts. Drawing on Berridge's (199 ... Full text Cite

You Are What You Measure

Journal Article HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW · June 1, 2010 Link to item Cite

Column: You are what you measure

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · June 1, 2010 Cite

The counterfeit self: the deceptive costs of faking it.

Journal Article Psychological science · May 2010 Although people buy counterfeit products to signal positive traits, we show that wearing counterfeit products makes individuals feel less authentic and increases their likelihood of both behaving dishonestly and judging others as unethical. In four experim ... Full text Cite

Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business.

Journal Article Nature reviews. Neuroscience · April 2010 The application of neuroimaging methods to product marketing - neuromarketing - has recently gained considerable popularity. We propose that there are two main reasons for this trend. First, the possibility that neuroimaging will become cheaper and faster ... Full text Cite

Why Businesses Don't Experiment

Journal Article HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW · April 1, 2010 Link to item Cite

Column: Why businesses don't experiment

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · April 1, 2010 Cite

How to spend a token? Trade-offs between food variety and food preference in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

Journal Article Behavioural processes · March 2010 Humans and non-human animals often choose among different alternatives by seeking variety. Here we assessed whether variety-seeking, i.e. the tendency to look for diversity in services and goods, occurs in capuchin monkeys--South-American primates which--a ... Full text Cite

Matching and sorting in online dating

Journal Article American Economic Review · March 1, 2010 Using data on user attributes and interactions from an online dating site, we estimate mate preferences, and use the Gale-Shapley algorithm to predict stable matches. The predicted matches are similar to the actual matches achieved by the dating site, and ... Full text Open Access Cite

The long-term effects of short-term emotions.

Journal Article Harvard business review · January 2010 Cite

The long-term effects of short-term emotions.

Journal Article Harvard business review · January 2010 Cite

The Budget Contraction Effect: Cutting Categories to Cope with Shrinking Budgets

Conference ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVII · January 1, 2010 Link to item Cite

Column: The long-term effects of short-term emotions

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · January 1, 2010 Cite

A Manager s guide to human irrationalities

Journal Article MIT Sloan Management Review · December 1, 2009 Ariely's insights should make executives think twice about the wisdom of the decisions they regularly make - as well as the inner processes they rely on to make those decisions. Why, for example, will managers veto a 10% cost increase for a $1 million proj ... Cite

I really want to like it: Motivated liking

Conference Advances in Consumer Research · December 1, 2009 Cite

In search of homo economicus: Cognitive noise and the role of emotion in preference consistency

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Research · August 1, 2009 Understanding the role of emotion in forming preferences is critical in helping firms choose effective marketing strategies and consumers make appropriate consumption decisions. In five experiments, participants made a set of binary product choices under c ... Full text Cite

The End of Rational Economics

Journal Article HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW · July 1, 2009 Link to item Cite

The end of rational economics

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · July 1, 2009 Standard economic theory assumes that human beings are capable of making rational decisions and that markets and institutions, in the aggregate, are healthily self-regulating. But the global economic crisis, argues Ariely, has shattered, these two articles ... Cite

Gender differences in the motivational processing of babies are determined by their facial attractiveness.

Journal Article PloS one · June 2009 BackgroundThis study sought to determine how esthetic appearance of babies may affect their motivational processing by the adults.Methodology and principal findingsHealthy men and women were administered two laboratory-based tasks: a) key ... Full text Cite

The impact of add-on features on consumer product evaluations

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Research · June 1, 2009 The research presented in this article provides evidence that add-on features sold to enhance a product can be more than just discretionary benefits. We argue that consumers draw inferences from the mere availability of add-ons, which in turn lead to signi ... Full text Cite

How concepts affect consumption

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · June 1, 2009 Cite

The researcher as a consumer of scientific publications: How do name-ordering conventions affect inferences about contribution credits?

Journal Article Marketing Science · May 1, 2009 When researchers from different fields with different norms collaborate, the question arises of how name-ordering conventions are chosen and how they affect contribution credits. In this paper, we answer these questions by studying two disciplines that exe ... Full text Cite

The enduring impact of transient emotions on decision making

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · May 1, 2009 People often do not realize they are being influenced by an incidental emotional state. As a result, decisions based on a fleeting incidental emotion can become the basis for future decisions and hence outlive the original cause for the behavior (i.e., the ... Full text Open Access Cite

Large stakes and big mistakes

Scholarly Edition · April 15, 2009 Workers in a wide variety of jobs are paid based on performance, which is commonly seen as enhancing effort and productivity relative to non-contingent pay schemes. However, psychological research suggests that excessive rewards can, in some cases, result ... Full text Cite

Contagion and differentiation in unethical behavior: the effect of one bad apple on the barrel.

Journal Article Psychological science · March 2009 In a world where encounters with dishonesty are frequent, it is important to know if exposure to other people's unethical behavior can increase or decrease an individual's dishonesty. In Experiment 1, our confederate cheated ostentatiously by finishing a t ... Full text Cite

Large Stakes and Big Mistakes

Journal Article The Review of Economic Studies · 2009 Workers in a wide variety of jobs are paid based on performance, which is commonly seen as enhancing effort and productivity relative to non-contingent pay schemes. However, psychological research suggests that excessive rewards can, in some cases, resu ... Cite

Too Tired to Tell the Truth: Self-Control Resource Depletion and Dishonesty.

Journal Article Journal of experimental social psychology · January 2009 The opportunity to profit from dishonesty evokes a motivational conflict between the temptation to cheat for selfish gain and the desire to act in a socially appropriate manner. Honesty may depend on self-control given that self-control is the capacity tha ... Full text Cite

Conceptual consumption.

Journal Article Annual review of psychology · January 2009 As technology has simplified meeting basic needs, humans have cultivated increasingly psychological avenues for occupying their consumption energies, moving from consuming food to consuming concepts; we propose that consideration of such "conceptual consum ... Full text Cite

How behavioral decision research can enhance consumer welfare: From freedom of choice to paternalistic intervention

Conference Marketing Letters · December 1, 2008 Decision-making researchers have largely focused on showing errors and biases in consumers' decision-making processes without paying much attention to the social welfare and policy implications of these systematic behaviors. In this paper, we explore how f ... Full text Cite

The dissociation between monetary assessment and predicted utility

Journal Article Marketing Science · November 1, 2008 We study the dissociation between two common measures of value - monetary assessment of purchase options versus the predicted utility associated with owning or consuming those options, a disparity that is reflected in well-known judgment anomalies and that ... Full text Cite

Getting off the hedonic treadmill, one step at a time: The impact of regular religious practice and exercise on well-being

Journal Article Journal of Economic Psychology · November 1, 2008 Many studies have shown that few events in life have a lasting impact on subjective well-being because of people's tendency to adapt quickly; worse, those events that do have a lasting impact tend to be negative. We suggest that while major events may not ... Full text Cite

Better than average? When can we say that subsampling of items is better than statistical summary representations?

Journal Article Perception & psychophysics · October 2008 Myczek and Simons (2008) have described a computational model that subsamples a few items from a set with high accuracy, showing that this approach can do as well as, or better than, a model that captures statistical representations of the set. Although th ... Full text Cite

Resting on laurels: the effects of discrete progress markers as subgoals on task performance and preferences.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition · September 2008 This article investigates the influence of progress certainty and discrete progress markers (DPMs) on performance and preferences. The authors suggest that the effects of DPMs depend on whether progress certainty is high or low. When the distance to the go ... Full text Cite

When rational sellers face nonrational buyers: Evidence from herding on eBay

Journal Article Management Science · September 1, 2008 People often observe others' decisions before deciding themselves. Using eBay data for DVD auctions we explore the consequences of neglecting nonsalient information when making such inferences. We show that bidders herd into auctions with more existing bid ... Full text Cite

Man's search for meaning: The case of Legos

Journal Article Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization · September 1, 2008 We investigate how perceived meaning influences labor supply. In a laboratory setting, we manipulate the perceived meaning of simple, repetitive tasks and find a strong influence on subjects' labor supply. Despite the fact that the wage and the task are id ... Full text Open Access Cite

If I'm not hot, are you hot or not? Physical attractiveness evaluations and dating preferences as a function of one's own attractiveness.

Journal Article Psychological science · July 2008 Prior research has established that people's own physical attractiveness affects their selection of romantic partners. This article provides further support for this effect and also examines a different, yet related, question: When less attractive people a ... Full text Cite

Gender differences in the motivational processing of facial beauty.

Journal Article Learning and motivation · May 2008 Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) ... Full text Cite

How honest people cheat

Journal Article HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW · February 1, 2008 Link to item Cite

Predictably Irrational, Revised and Expanded Edition The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions

Book · 2008 But are we? In this newly revised and expanded edition of the groundbreaking New York Times bestseller, Dan Ariely refutes the common assumption that we behave in fundamentally rational ways. ... Cite

How actions create--not just reveal--preferences.

Journal Article Trends in cognitive sciences · January 2008 The neo-classical economics view that behavior is driven by - and reflective of - hedonic utility is challenged by psychologists' demonstrations of cases in which actions do not merely reveal preferences but rather create them. In this view, preferences ar ... Full text Open Access Cite

The tree of experience in the forest of information: Overweighing experienced relative to observed information

Journal Article Games and Economic Behavior · January 1, 2008 Standard economic models assume that the weight given to information from different sources depends exclusively on its diagnosticity. In this paper we study whether the same piece of information is weighted more heavily simply because it arose from direct ... Full text Cite

The dishonesty of honest people: A theory of self-concept maintenance

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · January 1, 2008 People like to think of themselves as honest. However, dishonesty pays-and it often pays well. How do people resolve this tension? This research shows that people behave dishonestly enough to profit but honestly enough to delude themselves of their own int ... Full text Cite

People are experience goods: Improving online dating with virtual dates

Journal Article Journal of Interactive Marketing · January 1, 2008 We suggest that online dating frequently fails to meet user expectations because people, unlike many commodities available for purchase online, are experience goods: Daters wish to screen potential romantic partners by experiential attributes (such as sens ... Full text Cite

"On the Discontinuity of Demand Curves Around Zero: Charging More and Selling More"

Conference ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL 35 · January 1, 2008 Link to item Cite

More ways to cheat: Expanding the scope of dishonesty

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · January 1, 2008 Cite

"Probabilistic Discounts: When Retailing and Las Vegas Meet"

Conference ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL 35 · January 1, 2008 Link to item Cite

"The "IKEA Effect": Why Labor Leads to Love"

Conference ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL 35 · January 1, 2008 Link to item Cite

Psychology and experimental economics: A gap in abstraction

Journal Article Current Directions in Psychological Science · December 1, 2007 Experimental economics and social psychology share an interest in a widening subset of topics, relying on similar lab-based methods to address similar questions about human behavior, yet dialogue between the two fields remains in its infancy. We propose a ... Full text Cite

The customers' revenge

Journal Article Harvard Business Review · December 1, 2007 Venerable Detroit automaker Atida Motors has a new call center in Bangalore that the company hopes will raise its reputation for customer service. But it doesn't appear to be doing so yet. Complaints about the Andromeda XL - the hip new model Atida hopes w ... Cite

Zero as a special price: The true value of free products

Journal Article Marketing Science · November 1, 2007 When faced with a choice of selecting one of several available products (or possibly buying nothing), according to standard theoretical perspectives, people will choose the option with the highest cost-benefit difference. However, we propose that decisions ... Full text Cite

Less is more: the lure of ambiguity, or why familiarity breeds contempt.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · January 2007 The present research shows that although people believe that learning more about others leads to greater liking, more information about others leads, on average, to less liking. Thus, ambiguity--lacking information about another--leads to liking, whereas f ... Full text Cite

Decisions by rules: The case of unwillingness to pay for beneficial delays

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · January 1, 2007 Since the emergence of neoclassical economics, individual decision making has been viewed largely from an outcome-maximizing perspective. Building on previous work, the authors suggest that when people make payment decisions, they consider not only their p ... Full text Cite

Improving online dating with virtual dates

Journal Article Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting · January 1, 2007 Online dating, a practice where singles visit a website to locate other singles, frequently fails to meet users' expectations. We suggest that this disappointment is due in part to online dating websites' failure to simulate face-to-face interactions, an e ... Full text Cite

Try it, you'll like it: the influence of expectation, consumption, and revelation on preferences for beer.

Journal Article Psychological science · December 2006 Patrons of a pub evaluated regular beer and "MIT brew" (regular beer plus a few drops of balsamic vinegar) in one of three conditions. One group tasted the samples blind (the secret ingredient was never disclosed). A second group was informed of the conten ... Full text Cite

Color blindness and interracial interaction: playing the political correctness game.

Journal Article Psychological science · November 2006 Two experiments explored the ramifications of endorsing color blindness as a strategy for appearing unprejudiced. In Study 1, Whites proved adept at categorizing faces on the basis of race, but understated their ability to do so. In Study 2, Whites playing ... Full text Cite

Path dependent preferences: The role of early experience and biased search in preference development

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · November 1, 2006 What is the role of early experiences in shaping preferences? What are the mechanisms by which such early encounters influence the way preferences are formed? In this research, we examine the impact of the entry position and favorability of initial (and on ... Full text Cite

Virtual dates: Bridging the online and offline dating gap

Conference ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Research Posters, SIGGRAPH 2006 · July 30, 2006 Full text Cite

Shopping goals, goal concreteness, and conditional promotions

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Research · June 1, 2006 We propose a two-stage model to describe the increasing concreteness of consumers' goals during the shopping process, testing the model with a series of field experiments at a convenience store. Using a number of different process measures (experiment 1), ... Full text Cite

Tom Sawyer and the construction of value

Scholarly Edition · May 1, 2006 This paper challenges the common assumption that economic agents know their tastes. After reviewing previous research showing that valuation of ordinary products and experiences can be manipulated by non-normative cues, we present three studies showing tha ... Full text Open Access Cite

Dishonesty in everyday life and its policy implications

Scholarly Edition · January 1, 2006 Dishonest acts are all too prevalent in day-to-day life. This article examines some possible psychological causes for dishonesty that go beyond the standard economic considerations of probability and value of external payoffs. The authors propose a general ... Full text Cite

The heat of the moment: The effect of sexual arousal on sexual decision making

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral Decision Making · January 1, 2006 Despite the social importance of decisions taken in the "heat of the moment," very little research has examined the effect of sexual arousal on judgment and decision making. Here we examine the effect of sexual arousal, induced by self-stimulation, on judg ... Full text Cite

Hedonic versus informational evaluations: Task dependent preferences for sequences of outcomes

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral Decision Making · January 1, 2006 This work examines how people form evaluations of extended experiences that vary in valence and intensity. It is documented that when people retrospectively evaluate such experiences, not all information is weighted equally. Some prior research demonstrate ... Full text Cite

An experimental analysis of ending rules in Internet auctions

Journal Article RAND Journal of Economics · December 1, 2005 A great deal of late bidding has been observed on eBay, which employs a second price auction with a fixed deadline. Much less late bidding has been observed on Amazon, which can only end when ten minutes have passed without a bid. In controlled experiments ... Cite

Psychology, behavioral economics, and public policy

Conference Marketing Letters · December 1, 2005 Economics has typically been the social science of choice to inform public policy and policymakers. In the current paper we contemplate the role behavioral science can play in enlightening policymakers. In particular, we provide some examples of research t ... Full text Open Access Cite

Probing reward function in post-traumatic stress disorder with beautiful facial images.

Journal Article Psychiatry research · June 2005 Reward dysfunction may be implicated in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain reward regions, to subjects with PTSD. Male heterosexual Vietnam veterans with (n = 12) or without (n = 11) curren ... Full text Cite

A comparison of learning schemes for recommender software agents: A case study in home furniture

Journal Article International Journal of Technology Marketing · January 1, 2005 Recommender agents will personalise the shopping experience of e-commerce users. In addition, the same technology can be used to support experimentation so that companies can implement systematic market learning methodologies. This paper presents a compari ... Full text Cite

When do losses loom larger than gains?

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · January 1, 2005 In defining limits to loss aversion, Novemsky and Kahneman (2005) offer important new data and a needed summary of appropriate ways to think about loss aversion. In this comment to Novemsky and Kahneman's article, the authors consider the new empirical res ... Full text Cite

Placebo effects of marketing actions: Consumers may get what they pay for

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · January 1, 2005 The authors demonstrate that marketing actions, such as pricing, can alter the actual efficacy of products to which they are applied. These placebo effects stem from activation of expectancies about the efficacy of the product, a process that appears not t ... Full text Cite

Ruminating about placebo effects of marketing actions

Journal Article Journal of Marketing Research · January 1, 2005 In Shiv, Carmon, and Ariely (2005), the authors demonstrate that marketing actions such as price promotions and advertising evoke consumer expectations, which can alter the actual efficacy of the marketed product, a phenomenon they call "placebo effects of ... Full text Cite

Effort for payment. A tale of two markets.

Journal Article Psychological science · November 2004 The standard model of labor is one in which individuals trade their time and energy in return for monetary rewards. Building on Fiske's relational theory (1992), we propose that there are two types of markets that determine relationships between effort and ... Full text Cite

AntiGroupWare and second messenger

Journal Article BT Technology Journal · October 1, 2004 Decision-making in groups has great potential due to the possibilities for pooling ideas and sharing knowledge, but also great drawbacks due to the social pressures inherent in these situations that can limit free exchange of these ideas and knowledge. Thi ... Full text Cite

Learning by Collaborative and Individual-Based Recommendation Agents

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · January 1, 2004 Intelligent recommendation systems can be based on 2 basic principles: collaborative filters and individual-based agents. In this work we examine the learning function that results from these 2 general types of learning-smart agents. There has been signifi ... Full text Cite

Keeping doors open: The effect of unavailability on incentives to keep options viable

Journal Article Management Science · January 1, 2004 Many of the options available to decision makers, such as college majors and romantic partners, can become unavailable if sufficient effort is not invested in them (taking classes, sending flowers). The question asked in this work is whether a threat of di ... Full text Cite

Auction fever: The effect of opponents and quasi-endowment on product valuations

Journal Article Journal of Interactive Marketing · January 1, 2004 The wide adoption of dynamic second-price auctions as the format of choice for Internet-based (online) transactions has created an interest in understanding how individuals behave in such environments. The current work concentrates on two dynamic effects, ... Full text Cite

“Coherent arbitrariness”: Stable demand curves without stable preferences

Journal Article Quarterly Journal of Economics · January 1, 2003 In six experiments we show that initial valuations of familiar products and simple hedonic experiences are strongly influenced by arbitrary "anchors" (sometimes derived from a person'S social security number). Because subsequent valuations are also coheren ... Full text Cite

Differential partitioning of extended experiences

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · January 1, 2003 This article focuses on the effect of the perceived cohesiveness of experiences, whether composed of single or multiple parts, on their overall hedonic evaluations. Four experiments demonstrate the effects of partitioning on decision makers' evaluation of ... Full text Cite

Buying, bidding, playing, or competing? Value assessment and decision dynamics in online auctions

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · January 1, 2003 We propose an analytical framework for studying bidding behavior in online auctions. The framework focuses on three key dimensions: the multi-stage process, the types of value-signals employed at each phase, and the dynamics of bidding behavior whereby ear ... Full text Cite

Procrastination, deadlines, and performance: self-control by precommitment.

Journal Article Psychological science · May 2002 Procrastination is all too familiar to most people. People delay writing up their research (so we hear!), repeatedly declare they will start their diets tomorrow, or postpone until next week doing odd jobs around the house. Yet people also sometimes attemp ... Full text Cite

Expressing preferences in a principal-agent task: A comparison of choice, rating, and matching

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · January 1, 2002 One of the more disturbing yet important findings in the social sciences is the observation that alternative tasks result in different expressed preferences among choice alternatives. We examine this problem not from the perspective of an individual making ... Full text Cite

A visual preference-modeling and decision-support technique for buyers of multi- Attribute products

Journal Article Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings · December 1, 2001 We describe an intuitive, visual technique by which buyers of multi-attribute goods and services in electronic marketplaces can express their preferences, and receive real-time feedback about which transaction partners can most suitably meet their needs. O ... Full text Cite

Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioral evidence.

Journal Article Neuron · November 2001 The brain circuitry processing rewarding and aversive stimuli is hypothesized to be at the core of motivated behavior. In this study, discrete categories of beautiful faces are shown to have differing reward values and to differentially activate reward cir ... Full text Cite

A timely account of the role of duration in decision making.

Journal Article Acta psychologica · September 2001 The current work takes a general perspective on the role of time in decision making. There are many different relationships and interactions between time and decision making, and no single summary can do justice to this topic. In this paper we will describ ... Full text Cite

Seeing sets: representation by statistical properties.

Journal Article Psychological science · March 2001 Sets of similar objects are common occurrences--a crowd of people, a bunch of bananas, a copse of trees, a shelf of books, a line of cars. Each item in the set may be distinct, highly visible, and discriminable. But when we look away from the set, what inf ... Full text Cite

Joint comment on "when does duration matter in judgment and decision making?" (Ariely & Loewenstein, 2000).

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. General · December 2000 Recent research has demonstrated that people care about the temporal relationships within a sequence of experiences. There is considerable evidence that people pay particular attention to the way experiences improve or deteriorate over time and to their ma ... Full text Cite

When does duration matter in judgment and decision making?

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. General · December 2000 Research on sequences of outcomes shows that people care about features of an experience, such as improvement or deterioration over time, and peak and end levels, which the discounted utility model (DU) assumes they do not care about. In contrast to the fi ... Full text Cite

The effects of averaging subjective probability estimates between and within judges.

Journal Article Journal of experimental psychology. Applied · June 2000 The average probability estimate of J > 1 judges is generally better than its components. Two studies test 3 predictions regarding averaging that follow from theorems based on a cognitive model of the judges and idealizations of the judgment situation. Pre ... Full text Cite

Wine online: Search costs affect competition on price, quality, and distribution

Journal Article Marketing Science · January 1, 2000 A fundamental dilemma confronts retailers with stand-alone sites on the World Wide Web and those attempting to build electronic malls for delivery via the Internet, online services, or interactive television (Alba et al. 1997). For consumers, the main pote ... Full text Cite

Controlling the information flow: Effects on consumers' decision making and preferences

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Research · January 1, 2000 One of the main objectives facing marketers is to present consumers with information on which to base their decisions. In doing so, marketers have to select the type of information system they want to utilize in order to deliver the most appropriate inform ... Full text Cite

Sequential choice in group settings: Taking the road less traveled and less enjoyed

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Research · January 1, 2000 Many individual decisions take place in a group context wherein group members voice their choices sequentially. In this article we examine the impact of this dynamic decision process on individuals' choices and satisfaction with their outcomes. We propose ... Full text Cite

Focusing on the forgone: How value can appear so different to buyers and sellers

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Research · January 1, 2000 We propose that buying-and selling-price estimates reflect a focus on what the consumer forgoes in the potential exchange and that this notion offers insight into the well-known difference between those two types of value assessment. Buyers and sellers dif ... Full text Cite

On the making of an experience: The effects of breaking and combining experiences on their overall evaluation

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral Decision Making · January 1, 2000 How do people create overall evaluations for experiences that change in intensity over time? What 'rules' do they use for combining such different intensities into single overall evaluations? And what factors influence these integration rules? This paper s ... Full text Cite

Gestalt characteristics of experiences: The defining features of summarized events

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral Decision Making · January 1, 2000 In this paper we take stock of recent research on how people summarize and evaluate extended experiences. Summary assessments do not simply integrate all the components of the evaluated events, but tend to focus on only a few features (gestalt characterist ... Full text Cite

The Joy of Experimental Psychology

Book · January 1, 1999 Cite

Goal-based construction of preferences: task goals and the prominence effect

Journal Article Management Science · January 1, 1999 Preferences inferred from choice are more likely to favor the alternative that is superior with respect to the prominent (most important or salient) attribute than are preferences inferred from matching (direct tradeoff) judgments. This prominence effect v ... Full text Cite

Agents to the Rescue?

Journal Article Marketing Letters · January 1, 1999 The advent of electronic environments is bound to have profound effects on consumer decision making. While the exact nature of these influences is only partially known it is clear that consumers could benefit from properly designed electronic agents that k ... Full text Cite

Contextual and procedural determinants of partner selection: Of asymmetric dominance and prominence

Conference Social Cognition · January 1, 1999 The early stage of partner selection is conceptualized as a decision-making process amenable to at least two types of influence: contextual and procedural. An example of contextual influence is the asymmetric dominance effect. According to this effect, int ... Full text Cite

Constructing stable preferences: A look into dimensions of experience and their impact on preference stability

Journal Article Journal of Consumer Psychology · January 1, 1999 There are 2 polar schools of thought regarding the existence of preferences. The economics tradition is based on the assumption of existing preferences. The emerging constructive processing approach assumes preferences are constructed based on the task and ... Full text Cite

Combining experiences over time: The effects of duration, intensity changes and on-line measurements on retrospective pain evaluations

Journal Article Journal of Behavioral Decision Making · January 1, 1998 Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various factors on retrospective pain evaluation. The factors examined in Experiment 1 were the rate and pattern of change, the intensity (particularly the final intensity), and the duration of the p ... Full text Cite

Occlusion edge blur: a cue to relative visual depth.

Journal Article Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision · April 1996 We studied whether the blur/sharpness of an occlusion boundary between a sharply focused surface and a blurred surface is used as a relative depth cue. Observers judged relative depth in pairs of images that differed only in the blurriness of the common bo ... Full text Cite

Linking object boundaries at scale: a common mechanism for size and shape judgments.

Journal Article Vision research · February 1996 The area over which boundary information contributes to the determination of the center of an extended object was inferred from results of a bisection task. The object to be bisected was a rectangle with two long sinusoidally modulated sides, i.e. a wiggly ... Full text Cite

The effect of past-injury on pain threshold and tolerance.

Journal Article Pain · February 1995 Forty male veterans who had been injured during their military service in the Israeli Defense Forces were assessed for pain threshold and tolerance in a thermal pain procedure. Based on their medical records, subjects were classified by three independent j ... Full text Cite

Seeking subjective dominance in multidimensional space: An explanation of the asymmetric dominance effect

Journal Article Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes · January 1, 1995 An important example of the influence of context on elicited values and choice is the effect of asymmetrically dominated alternatives, first studied by Huber, Payne, and Puto (1982). A theory of dynamic choice reconstruction is presented to account for thi ... Full text Cite