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Darrell Vincent Lewis Jr.

Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics
Pediatrics, Neurology
Box 3936 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710
125 Bell Bldg, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


MRI for assessing the impact of febrile status epilepticus and predicting outcomes

Chapter · January 1, 2022 Over the past decade, MRI studies have revealed that febrile status epilepticus (FSE) can lead to acute hippocampal signal changes that likely signify swelling/edema. In some cases, these volume changes, apparent within days, are accompanied by a visibly i ... Full text Cite

Plasma cytokines associated with febrile status epilepticus in children: A potential biomarker for acute hippocampal injury.

Journal Article Epilepsia · June 2017 OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore the association between plasma cytokines and febrile status epilepticus (FSE) in children, as well as their potential as biomarkers of acute hippocampal injury. METHODS: Analysis was performed on residual samples of childr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quantitative Evaluation of Medial Temporal Lobe Morphology in Children with Febrile Status Epilepticus: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

Journal Article AJNR Am J Neuroradiol · December 2016 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors for subsequent febrile seizures in the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Epilepsia · July 2016 OBJECTIVES: To identify risk and risk factors for developing a subsequent febrile seizure (FS) in children with a first febrile status epilepticus (FSE) compared to a first simple febrile seizure (SFS). To identify home use of rescue medications for subseq ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hippocampal Malrotation Is Associated With Prolonged Febrile Seizures: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

Journal Article AJR Am J Roentgenol · November 2015 OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal malrotation is characterized by incomplete hippocampal inversion with a rounded shape and blurred internal architecture. There is still debate about whether hippocampal malrotation has pathologic significance. We present findings fro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus.

Journal Article J Neurosci · June 10, 2015 We identified a family in which a translocation between chromosomes X and 14 was associated with cognitive impairment and a complex genetic disorder termed "Genetic Epilepsy and Febrile Seizures Plus" (GEFS(+)). We demonstrate that the breakpoint on the X ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply: To PMID 24318290.

Journal Article Ann Neurol · August 2014 Full text Link to item Cite

Hippocampal sclerosis after febrile status epilepticus: the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Ann Neurol · February 2014 OBJECTIVE: Whether febrile status epilepticus (FSE) produces hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has long been debated. Our objective is to determine whether FSE produces acute hippocampal injury that evolves to HS. METHODS: FEBSTAT ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors for febrile status epilepticus: a case-control study.

Journal Article J Pediatr · October 2013 OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for developing a first febrile status epilepticus (FSE) among children with a first febrile seizure (FS). STUDY DESIGN: Cases were children with a first FS that was FSE drawn from the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Se ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cerebrospinal fluid findings in children with fever-associated status epilepticus: results of the consequences of prolonged febrile seizures (FEBSTAT) study.

Journal Article J Pediatr · December 2012 This prospective multicenter study of 200 patients with fever-associated status epilepticus (FSE), of whom 136 underwent a nontraumatic lumbar puncture, confirms that FSE rarely causes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis. CSF glucose and protein levels w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Acute EEG findings in children with febrile status epilepticus: results of the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Neurology · November 27, 2012 OBJECTIVE: The FEBSTAT (Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures) study is prospectively addressing the relationships among serial EEG, MRI, and clinical follow-up in a cohort of children followed from the time of presentation with febrile status epilept ... Full text Link to item Cite

Design and phenomenology of the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Epilepsia · September 2012 PURPOSE: Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) has been associated with hippocampal injury and subsequent hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy. The FEBSTAT study was designed to prospectively examine the association between prolonged febrile se ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 in febrile status epilepticus: the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Epilepsia · September 2012 PURPOSE: In a prospective study, Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood (FEBSTAT), we determined the frequency of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and HHV-7 infection as a cause of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). METHODS: Children ages 1 month ... Full text Link to item Cite

MRI abnormalities following febrile status epilepticus in children: the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Neurology · August 28, 2012 OBJECTIVE: The FEBSTAT study is a prospective study that seeks to determine the acute and long-term consequences of febrile status epilepticus (FSE) in childhood. METHODS: From 2003 to 2010, 199 children age 1 month to 5 years presenting with FSE (>30 minu ... Full text Link to item Cite

The NMDA receptor in epilepsy

Chapter · March 22, 2012 Few things have generated more excitement in the field of epilepsy than studies suggesting that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may play a role in the development and expression of seizures. It is possible that antagonists of the NMDA receptor channe ... Full text Cite

Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP): randomized trial to assess the effects of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among 9,438 patients with chronic kidney disease.

Journal Article Am Heart J · November 2010 BACKGROUND: Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with statin therapy has been shown to reduce the incidence of atherosclerotic events in many types of patient, but it remains uncertain whether it is of net benefit among people with chronic ki ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of vagus nerve stimulation therapy on body mass index in children.

Journal Article Epilepsy Behav · September 2010 The effects of vagus nerve stimulation on weight in individuals with epilepsy are not fully characterized. A retrospective review was performed of all pediatric patients who underwent placement of a vagus nerve stimulator at Duke University Medical Center. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rebuttal to Hasan and Pedraza in comments and controversies: "Improving the reliability of manual and automated methods for hippocampal and amygdala volume measurements".

Journal Article Neuroimage · November 15, 2009 Here we address the critiques offered by Hasan and Pedraza to our recently published manuscript comparing the performance of two automated segmentation programs, FSL/FIRST and FreeSurfer (Morey R, Petty C, Xu Y, Pannu Hayes J, Wagner H, Lewis D, LaBar K, S ... Full text Link to item Cite

A comparison of automated segmentation and manual tracing for quantifying hippocampal and amygdala volumes.

Journal Article Neuroimage · April 15, 2009 Large databases of high-resolution structural MR images are being assembled to quantitatively examine the relationships between brain anatomy, disease progression, treatment regimens, and genetic influences upon brain structure. Quantifying brain structure ... Full text Link to item Cite

MRI for assessing the impact of febrile status epilepticus and predicting outcomes

Chapter · January 1, 2022 Over the past decade, MRI studies have revealed that febrile status epilepticus (FSE) can lead to acute hippocampal signal changes that likely signify swelling/edema. In some cases, these volume changes, apparent within days, are accompanied by a visibly i ... Full text Cite

Plasma cytokines associated with febrile status epilepticus in children: A potential biomarker for acute hippocampal injury.

Journal Article Epilepsia · June 2017 OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore the association between plasma cytokines and febrile status epilepticus (FSE) in children, as well as their potential as biomarkers of acute hippocampal injury. METHODS: Analysis was performed on residual samples of childr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quantitative Evaluation of Medial Temporal Lobe Morphology in Children with Febrile Status Epilepticus: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

Journal Article AJNR Am J Neuroradiol · December 2016 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors for subsequent febrile seizures in the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Epilepsia · July 2016 OBJECTIVES: To identify risk and risk factors for developing a subsequent febrile seizure (FS) in children with a first febrile status epilepticus (FSE) compared to a first simple febrile seizure (SFS). To identify home use of rescue medications for subseq ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hippocampal Malrotation Is Associated With Prolonged Febrile Seizures: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

Journal Article AJR Am J Roentgenol · November 2015 OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal malrotation is characterized by incomplete hippocampal inversion with a rounded shape and blurred internal architecture. There is still debate about whether hippocampal malrotation has pathologic significance. We present findings fro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus.

Journal Article J Neurosci · June 10, 2015 We identified a family in which a translocation between chromosomes X and 14 was associated with cognitive impairment and a complex genetic disorder termed "Genetic Epilepsy and Febrile Seizures Plus" (GEFS(+)). We demonstrate that the breakpoint on the X ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply: To PMID 24318290.

Journal Article Ann Neurol · August 2014 Full text Link to item Cite

Hippocampal sclerosis after febrile status epilepticus: the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Ann Neurol · February 2014 OBJECTIVE: Whether febrile status epilepticus (FSE) produces hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has long been debated. Our objective is to determine whether FSE produces acute hippocampal injury that evolves to HS. METHODS: FEBSTAT ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors for febrile status epilepticus: a case-control study.

Journal Article J Pediatr · October 2013 OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for developing a first febrile status epilepticus (FSE) among children with a first febrile seizure (FS). STUDY DESIGN: Cases were children with a first FS that was FSE drawn from the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Se ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cerebrospinal fluid findings in children with fever-associated status epilepticus: results of the consequences of prolonged febrile seizures (FEBSTAT) study.

Journal Article J Pediatr · December 2012 This prospective multicenter study of 200 patients with fever-associated status epilepticus (FSE), of whom 136 underwent a nontraumatic lumbar puncture, confirms that FSE rarely causes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis. CSF glucose and protein levels w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Acute EEG findings in children with febrile status epilepticus: results of the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Neurology · November 27, 2012 OBJECTIVE: The FEBSTAT (Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures) study is prospectively addressing the relationships among serial EEG, MRI, and clinical follow-up in a cohort of children followed from the time of presentation with febrile status epilept ... Full text Link to item Cite

Design and phenomenology of the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Epilepsia · September 2012 PURPOSE: Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) has been associated with hippocampal injury and subsequent hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy. The FEBSTAT study was designed to prospectively examine the association between prolonged febrile se ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 in febrile status epilepticus: the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Epilepsia · September 2012 PURPOSE: In a prospective study, Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood (FEBSTAT), we determined the frequency of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and HHV-7 infection as a cause of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). METHODS: Children ages 1 month ... Full text Link to item Cite

MRI abnormalities following febrile status epilepticus in children: the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Neurology · August 28, 2012 OBJECTIVE: The FEBSTAT study is a prospective study that seeks to determine the acute and long-term consequences of febrile status epilepticus (FSE) in childhood. METHODS: From 2003 to 2010, 199 children age 1 month to 5 years presenting with FSE (>30 minu ... Full text Link to item Cite

The NMDA receptor in epilepsy

Chapter · March 22, 2012 Few things have generated more excitement in the field of epilepsy than studies suggesting that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may play a role in the development and expression of seizures. It is possible that antagonists of the NMDA receptor channe ... Full text Cite

Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP): randomized trial to assess the effects of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol among 9,438 patients with chronic kidney disease.

Journal Article Am Heart J · November 2010 BACKGROUND: Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol with statin therapy has been shown to reduce the incidence of atherosclerotic events in many types of patient, but it remains uncertain whether it is of net benefit among people with chronic ki ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of vagus nerve stimulation therapy on body mass index in children.

Journal Article Epilepsy Behav · September 2010 The effects of vagus nerve stimulation on weight in individuals with epilepsy are not fully characterized. A retrospective review was performed of all pediatric patients who underwent placement of a vagus nerve stimulator at Duke University Medical Center. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rebuttal to Hasan and Pedraza in comments and controversies: "Improving the reliability of manual and automated methods for hippocampal and amygdala volume measurements".

Journal Article Neuroimage · November 15, 2009 Here we address the critiques offered by Hasan and Pedraza to our recently published manuscript comparing the performance of two automated segmentation programs, FSL/FIRST and FreeSurfer (Morey R, Petty C, Xu Y, Pannu Hayes J, Wagner H, Lewis D, LaBar K, S ... Full text Link to item Cite

A comparison of automated segmentation and manual tracing for quantifying hippocampal and amygdala volumes.

Journal Article Neuroimage · April 15, 2009 Large databases of high-resolution structural MR images are being assembled to quantitatively examine the relationships between brain anatomy, disease progression, treatment regimens, and genetic influences upon brain structure. Quantifying brain structure ... Full text Link to item Cite

Extrahippocampal involvement in human herpesvirus 6 encephalitis depicted at MR imaging.

Journal Article Radiology · December 2008 PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that patterns of signal intensity abnormality in human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6)-positive patients would allow distinction from patients who did not test positive for HHV6 encephalitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phenomenology of prolonged febrile seizures: results of the FEBSTAT study.

Journal Article Neurology · July 15, 2008 BACKGROUND: Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) has been associated with hippocampal injury and subsequent mesial temporal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. However, little is known about the semiology of FSE. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter study of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hippocampal MRI signal hyperintensity after febrile status epilepticus is predictive of subsequent mesial temporal sclerosis.

Journal Article AJR Am J Roentgenol · April 2008 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the finding of hyperintense hippocampal signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images soon after febrile status epilepticus is associated with subsequent hippocampal volume loss and persiste ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of gamma hydroxybutyric acid on inhibition and excitation in rat neocortex.

Journal Article Neuroscience · November 30, 2007 Featured Publication The mechanism by which the sedative and amnestic recreational drug gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) acts is controversial. Some studies indicate that it acts at its unique receptor, while others demonstrate effects mediated through the GABAB receptor. We ex ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors for Febrile status epilepticus

Conference EPILEPSIA · January 1, 2006 Link to item Cite

Parry-Romberg syndrome with fatal brain stem involvement.

Journal Article J Pediatr · March 2005 We report the case of a 4 year-old boy with Parry-Romberg syndrome who had intractable seizures, progressive cerebral hemisphere atrophy, and fatal brain stem involvement. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Losing neurons: selective vulnerability and mesial temporal sclerosis.

Journal Article Epilepsia · 2005 Featured Publication Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is found in about two-thirds of patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and surgical removal of the sclerotic structures eliminates seizures in the majority of cases undergoing surgical resection. Although mul ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dietary prenatal choline supplementation alters postnatal hippocampal structure and function.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · April 2004 Choline, a compound present in many foods, has recently been classified as an essential nutrient for humans. Studies with animal models indicate that the availability of choline during the prenatal period influences neural and cognitive development. Specif ... Full text Link to item Cite

NMDA receptor antagonists disinhibit rat posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortices: a potential mechanism of neurotoxicity.

Journal Article J Neurosci · April 15, 2002 Featured Publication NMDA receptor antagonists produce region-specific neurodegeneration by an undetermined mechanism, but one proposed mechanism involves disinhibition. In certain areas of the brain, NMDA receptors mediate excitatory drive onto inhibitory interneurons. Thus, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Do prolonged febrile seizures produce medial temporal sclerosis? Hypotheses, MRI evidence and unanswered questions.

Journal Article Prog Brain Res · 2002 Featured Publication Whether or not severe febrile seizures in infancy cause hippocampal injury and subsequent medial temporal sclerosis is an often debated question in epilepsy. Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of infants suffering from febrile seizures has provided pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lateralized seizure termination: relationship to outcome following anterior temporal lobectomy.

Journal Article Epilepsy Res · November 2001 Determination of side of seizure onset is critical for a successful outcome following epilepsy surgery. Little is known about the significance of lateralized seizure termination. Sustained seizure activity contralateral to side of seizure onset, following ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human herpesvirus 6 limbic encephalitis after stem cell transplantation.

Journal Article Ann Neurol · November 2001 Featured Publication Central nervous system complications are common in stem cell transplant recipients, but selective involvement of the medial temporal area is unusual. The 5 patients reported here presented after stem cell transplantation with increased hippocampal T2 signa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply.

Other J Cogn Neurosci · September 2000 Full text Link to item Cite

Three children with a syndrome of obesity and overgrowth, atypical psychosis, and seizures: a problem in neuropsychopharmacology.

Journal Article J Child Neurol · August 2000 Three children presented with a complex syndrome of atypical psychotic and extremely immature behavior, obesity and overgrowth, borderline retardation, and seizures (prominent in two). Weight overgrowth exceeded height overgrowth and was stratospheric (up ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early diffusion-weighted MR imaging abnormalities in sustained seizure activity.

Journal Article AJR Am J Roentgenol · May 2000 Featured Publication Full text Link to item Cite

Seizure outcome after temporal lobectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy: a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

Journal Article Neurology · February 8, 2000 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: To determine seizure outcome and its predictors in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) after temporal lobectomy (TL). BACKGROUND: TL is the most common surgical procedure performed in adolescents and adults for the tr ... Full text Link to item Cite

GABAB-Receptor-mediated currents in interneurons of the dentate-hilus border.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · September 1999 Featured Publication GABA(B)-receptor-mediated inhibition was investigated in anatomically identified inhibitory interneurons located at the border between the dentate gyrus granule cell layer and hilus. Biocytin staining was used to visualize the morphology of recorded cells. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Febrile convulsions and mesial temporal sclerosis.

Journal Article Curr Opin Neurol · April 1999 Patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis often have histories of severe febrile convulsions as infants. Diagnostic advances made possible by magnetic resonance imaging have shown that very prolonged febrile convulsions ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of chronic antiepileptic drug therapy on California achievement test scores

Journal Article Journal of Epilepsy · July 1, 1998 We retrospectively studied the effect of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy on academic achievement of children with epilepsy from child neurology clinics at two medical centers. Fifty-four school-age children in regular classroom placements who had been on ... Full text Cite

Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of hippocampal injury after prolonged focal febrile convulsions.

Journal Article Ann Neurol · April 1998 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed after complex febrile convulsions (CFCs) in 27 infants. Definite MRI abnormalities were seen in 6 of the 15 infants with focal or lateralized CFCs and in none of the 12 infants with generalized CFCs. In 2 of t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Involvement of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in mu-opioid modulation of NMDA-mediated synaptic currents.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · August 1997 We have previously reported dual effects of mu-opioids on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-mediated synaptic events in the hippocampal dentate gyrus: an indirect facilitating effect via suppression of GABAergic interneurons (disinhibition) and a direct ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interneurons of the dentate-hilus border of the rat dentate gyrus: morphological and electrophysiological heterogeneity.

Journal Article J Neurosci · June 1, 1997 Interneurons located near the border of the dentate granule cell layer and the hilus were studied in hippocampal slices using whole-cell current clamp and biocytin staining. Because these interneurons exhibit both morphological and electrophysiological div ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical and electroencephalographic correlates in Rasmussen's encephalitis.

Journal Article Epilepsia · February 1997 PURPOSE: Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a progressive childhood disease characterized by unilateral brain dysfunction, seizures, and inflammatory histopathology. Converging lines of evidence suggest that an autoimmune process is important in the pathogen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hippocampal long-term potentiation and spatial learning in the rat: effects of GABAB receptor blockade.

Journal Article Neuroscience · September 1996 This series of experiments assessed the role of GABAB receptors in the induction of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus in vivo, and spatial learning and memory in three different tasks. In urethane-anesthetized rats, the GABAB receptor antagonist ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcome of temporal lobectomy in adolescents

Journal Article Journal of Epilepsy · January 1, 1996 We performed temporal lobectomy in 23 young patients with intractable complex partial seizures (CPS) at an average age of 14.5 years. At a mean follow-up interval of 4.8 years, we reevaluated the patients to assess the surgical outcome; 74% were seizure-fr ... Full text Cite

Fast spin-echo, magnetic resonance imaging-measured hippocampal volume: correlation with neuronal density in anterior temporal lobectomy patients.

Journal Article Epilepsia · September 1995 To assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured hippocampal volume in the detection of hippocampal sclerosis, we studied 28 patients undergoing anterior temporal lobectomy for medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Depression of LTP in rat dentate gyrus by naloxone is reversed by GABAA blockade.

Journal Article Brain Res · August 7, 1995 Long-term potentiation (LTP) of the lateral perforant path (LPP) to dentate granule cell (DGC) synapse is suppressed by the opioid antagonist, naloxone, and thus appears to be dependent upon the release of endogenous opioids from the LPP. It has been sugge ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endogenous opioids regulate long-term potentiation of synaptic inhibition in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus.

Journal Article J Neurosci · May 1995 Long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory transmission in the hippocampus has been extensively studied as a synaptic model of learning and memory. Here we report a new form of LTP in which inhibitory synaptic signals are potentiated following tetanic stim ... Full text Link to item Cite

GABAB receptors modulate synaptically-evoked responses in the rat dentate gyrus, in vivo.

Journal Article Brain Res · April 24, 1995 We assessed the effects of systemically injected baclofen, a GABAB agonist, on single and paired-pulse responses in the dentate gyrus of urethane-anesthetized rats, in vivo. Baclofen (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the duration of single excitatory resp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Discontinuing antiepileptic drugs in children with epilepsy. A comparison of a six-week and a nine-month taper period.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · May 19, 1994 BACKGROUND: The optimal regimen for discontinuing antiepileptic medications in children with epilepsy is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned 149 children to either a six-week or a nine-month period of drug tapering, after which therapy was discontinued. ... Full text Link to item Cite

A splice junction mutation in a new myopathic variant of phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency (PGK North Carolina).

Journal Article Ann Neurol · March 1994 We report on a 12-year-old boy with the myopathic form of phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency, and unique kinetic and physical characteristics of the mutant enzyme (PGK North Carolina). A G-to-T substitution at the 5' end of intron 4 was identified in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neuronal migration disorders: positron emission tomography correlations.

Journal Article Ann Neurol · March 1994 We analyzed the interictal [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (PET) findings of 17 epileptic patients with neuronal migration disorders (NMDs). Fifteen patients had abnormal PET findings, i.e., focal hypometabolism in 9 patients and ... Full text Link to item Cite

The pharmacology and function of central GABAB receptors.

Journal Article Int Rev Neurobiol · 1994 In conclusion, GABAB receptors enable GABA to modulate neuronal function in a manner not possible through GABAA receptors alone. These receptors are present at both pre- and postsynaptic sites and can exert both inhibitory and disinhibitory effects. In par ... Full text Link to item Cite

Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of hippocampal sclerosis in progression: a case report.

Journal Article Epilepsia · 1994 A 32-month-old child presented in status epilepticus (SE) involving the left side of the body. Fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (FSE-MRI) with hippocampal volumetry performed < or = 24 h after the seizure showed increased T2 signal of the right hi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Positron emission tomography: Comparison of clinical utility in temporal lobe and extratemporal epilepsy

Journal Article Journal of Epilepsy · January 1, 1994 Sixty consecutive patients admitted for possible surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) as part of a standardized presurgical protocol. Patients were classified as having tempora ... Full text Cite

Complex partial seizures and mesial temporal sclerosis: evaluation with fast spin-echo MR imaging.

Journal Article Radiology · December 1993 PURPOSE: This study was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in detecting mesial temporal sclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with a diagnosis of complex partial se ... Full text Link to item Cite

Temporal lobe hypometabolism on PET: predictor of seizure control after temporal lobectomy.

Journal Article Neurology · June 1993 To investigate the relationship of temporal lobe hypometabolism demonstrated on PET to surgical outcome and underlying pathology, we reviewed 30 consecutive epilepsy patients who underwent interictal PET studies with 18F fluorodeoxyglucose before temporal ... Full text Link to item Cite

GABAB autoreceptors mediate activity-dependent disinhibition and enhance signal transmission in the dentate gyrus.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · March 1993 1. Activity-dependent depression (fading) of polysynaptic inhibition and the effects of this disinhibition on signal transmission were studied in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal slice with the use of intracellular and extracellular recordings. 2. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antiepileptic effects of GABAb receptor activation in area CA3 of rat hippocampus.

Journal Article Brain Res · January 15, 1993 The role of GABAb receptor activation in the expression of both interictal and ictal phenomena was investigated in slices of area CA3 of the rat hippocampal formation. Interictal-like bursts occurred following application of high frequency trains to the Sc ... Full text Link to item Cite

False lateralization of scalp EEG seizure onset

Journal Article Journal of Epilepsy · January 1, 1993 We report a patient with lateralized right-sided ictal scalp EEG activity contralateral to left mesial temporal seizure onset as documented by depth electrodes. Subsequent left temporal lobectomy revealed mesial temporal sclerosis and resulted in a marked ... Full text Cite

Protein synthesis inhibition blocks maintenance but not induction of epileptogenesis in hippocampal slice.

Journal Article Brain Res · December 25, 1992 We have been examining the role of protein synthesis in the development and maintenance of spontaneous bursting in the rat hippocampal slice. We used stimulus train induced bursting (STIB) as an in vitro model for epileptogenesis, to study the effects of 3 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Accuracy and interobserver reliability of scalp ictal EEG.

Journal Article Neurology · December 1992 We studied the accuracy and reliability of scalp ictal EEG in 137 complex partial seizures (119 temporal and 18 extratemporal) in 35 patients in whom we knew the correct site of seizure origin because all patients had been seizure-free for more than 2 year ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mu opioid receptor-mediated modulation of synaptic currents in dentate granule cells of rat hippocampus.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · October 1992 1. The effect of a selective mu opioid agonist, [N-MePhe3-D-Pro4]morphiceptin (PL017), on synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus was examined in hippocampal slices. Synaptic currents were evoked by stimulation of the outer molecular layer and recorded ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rasmussen's encephalitis: neuroimaging findings in four patients.

Journal Article AJR Am J Roentgenol · June 1992 Rasmussen's encephalitis is a devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurologic deficits and intractable seizure activity. Patients frequently have episodes of epilepsia partialis continua and, much less frequently, generalized status epilept ... Full text Link to item Cite

GABAB receptors mediate disinhibition and facilitate long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus.

Journal Article Epilepsy Res Suppl · 1992 We examined the role of synaptic inhibition in regulating the development of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal slice. LTP was produced by delivering repetitive stimulation to the molecular layer at 5 Hz, a frequency i ... Link to item Cite

Ethanol and magnesium ions inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated synaptic potentials in an interactive manner.

Journal Article Neuropharmacology · November 1991 The role of magnesium ions in the inhibitory effect of ethanol on NMDA receptor-mediated population synaptic potentials (pEPSPs) in area CA1 of the hippocampus of the adult rat, was studied. The excitatory amino acid (non-NMDA) receptor antagonist, DNQX an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Facilitation of the induction of long-term potentiation by GABAB receptors.

Journal Article Science · June 21, 1991 Long-term potentiation (LTP), an in vitro model of learning, was induced in hippocampal slices by 5-hertz stimulation. During induction, gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) inhibition decreased, causing the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated excitation t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy of childhood: treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin.

Journal Article Neurology · June 1991 We treated four children with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). All patients received 400 mg/kg of IVIG a day for 5 days during relapses, and one patient received additional p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Opioid-mediated facilitation of long-term potentiation at the lateral perforant path-dentate granule cell synapse.

Journal Article J Pharmacol Exp Ther · January 1991 Opioid effects on the development of long-term potentiation (LTP) were investigated at the lateral perforant path (LPP)-dentate granule cell synapse of the hippocampal slice. High frequency stimuli were delivered to the outer molecular layer of the dentate ... Link to item Cite

Temporal lobectomy and independent bitemporal interictal activity: what degree of lateralization is sufficient?

Journal Article Epilepsia · 1991 We attempted to determine whether the degree of lateralization of independent bitemporal interictal spikes and sharp waves (ISSW) is correlated with good results after temporal lobectomy. Three observers independently counted ISSW in the scalp EEGs of 59 c ... Full text Link to item Cite

GABAB-receptor-mediated inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate component of synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus.

Journal Article J Neurosci · January 1991 GABA receptor regulation of NMDA-receptor-mediated synaptic responses was studied in area CA1 of the rat hippocampus using extracellular and intracellular recording techniques. Picrotoxin (PTX) was used to suppress GABAA inhibition and 6,7-dinitroquinoxali ... Full text Link to item Cite

HLA-DR and -DQ genotyping in anti-GBM disease.

Journal Article Dis Markers · 1991 Anti-GBM disease has been associated with the HLA genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in previous serological studies, with an increased incidence of HLA-DR2 in patients. In this study, 36 patients with anti-GBM disease were genotyped by re ... Link to item Cite

Scalp EEG differs in temporal and extratemporal complex partial seizures

Journal Article Journal of Epilepsy · January 1, 1991 We compared scalp ictal EEG in complex partial seizures originating in extratemporal regions with seizures originating in the temporal lobe. All patients were seizure-free for 2 or more years after appropriate cortical resection confirming focus of seizure ... Full text Cite

Reduced sensitivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate component of synaptic transmission to magnesium in hippocampal slices from immature rats.

Journal Article Brain Res Dev Brain Res · November 1, 1990 This study describes the measurement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of the CA1 subregion of transverse hippocampal slices from immature and adult rats. Our methods permit extracellular measurement of NMDA ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hippocampal epileptiform activity induced by magnesium-free medium: differences between areas CA1 and CA2-3.

Journal Article Epilepsy Res · July 1990 Hippocampal slices, from which the entorhinal cortex had been removed, were exposed to artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing no magnesium (0-Mg ACSF) to elicit interictal bursts (IIBs) and electrographic seizures (EGSs). In 0-Mg ACSF, IIBs and EGSs occ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Baclofen facilitates the development of long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus.

Journal Article Neurosci Lett · May 31, 1990 The effect of baclofen on the development of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus was examined. Stimulus trains applied to the perforant path in the presence of baclofen produced significantly more potentiation of the perforant path-evoked res ... Full text Link to item Cite

Opioid-induced epileptiform bursting in hippocampal slices: higher susceptibility in ventral than dorsal hippocampus.

Journal Article J Pharmacol Exp Ther · May 1990 The disparity between the seizure sensitivity of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus to opioid peptides was studied by an in vitro electrophysiological method. Slices taken from the ventral (temporal) and dorsal (septal) regions of rat hippocampi were perfu ... Link to item Cite

Phaclofen antagonizes post-tetanic disinhibition in the rat dentate gyrus.

Journal Article Neurosci Lett · March 2, 1990 Tetanic mossy fiber stimulation transiently reduced recurrent inhibition in the rat dentate gyrus. The post-tetanic depression of inhibition was maximal 200 ms after the tetanus and typically lasted for about 2 s. Phaclofen, a selective gamma-aminobutyric ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anterior temporal lobectomy for complex partial seizures: evaluation, results, and long-term follow-up in 100 cases.

Journal Article Neurology · March 1990 We report evaluation and results in 100 patients who had undergone anterior temporal lobectomy for intractable complex partial seizures. Average follow-up was 9.0 years (range, 2 to 21 years). In the 2nd postoperative year, 63% were seizure free, 16% were ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) on CA3 and CA1 responses in rat hippocampus.

Journal Article Mol Chem Neuropathol · 1990 Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP), an insecticide, is a potent anticholinesterase that binds essentially irreversibly to acetylcholinesterase, resulting in severe, acute neurologic pathology, and less severe, but longer-lasting, delayed neuropathy. We ... Full text Link to item Cite

Baclofen induces spontaneous, rhythmic sharp waves in the rat hippocampal slice.

Journal Article Exp Neurol · November 1989 In rat hippocampal slices, low concentrations of (+/-) baclofen (0.1 to 1.5 microM) elicited spontaneous, rhythmic sharp waves (SRSWs). These low amplitude (0.1 to 0.3 mV) SRSWs were visible with high amplification in the extracellular recordings from the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Baclofen has a proepileptic effect in the rat dentate gyrus.

Journal Article J Pharmacol Exp Ther · June 1989 Effects of the gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist baclofen on evoked responses and recurrent inhibition in the dentate gyrus were examined in rat hippocampal slices. Granule cell firing was induced by perforant path stimulation; recurrent inhibition ... Link to item Cite

The effects of baclofen and pertussis toxin on epileptiform activity induced in the hippocampal slice by magnesium depletion.

Journal Article Epilepsy Res · 1989 Bathing hippocampal slices in artificial cerebrospinal fluid without magnesium elicits repetitive, long ictal-like discharges termed ictaform events. The ictaform events are separated by interictal periods that are initially silent with no interictal burst ... Full text Link to item Cite

Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of cinromide in patients with the Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

Journal Article Epilepsia · 1989 This study evaluated the effects of cinromide in patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. No difference between cinromide and placebo was shown in terms of seizure reduction or global evaluations. This study is important, however, because it represents an ef ... Cite

A calcium-activated, nonselective cationic conductance in Aplysia silent neurons.

Journal Article Brain Res Bull · May 1988 We have previously reported the activation of a triphasic current response by calcium injection in voltage-clamped, nonbursting neurons of Aplysia californica. Present evidence indicates that the second phase, a delayed inward current that peaks 10-20 seco ... Full text Link to item Cite

Seizure activity in vitro: a dual focus model.

Journal Article Epilepsy Res · 1988 Recently, we have reported that the exposure of hippocampal slices in vitro to artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) containing no added magnesium results in ictal-like (ictaform) activity in area CA3 of the hippocampal formation. Other reports describe su ... Full text Link to item Cite

Calcium-activated inward spike after-currents in bursting neurone R15 of Aplysia.

Journal Article J Physiol · January 1988 1. Slow inward and outward after-currents follow action potentials in the bursting pacemaker neurone, R 15, of Aplysia californica. These experiments were performed to examine the role of axo-dendritic calcium influx in activating these after currents. 2. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intractable complex partial seizures: the "initial motionless stare" and surgical outcome following temporal lobectomy.

Journal Article Neurology · July 1987 Complex partial seizures (CPSs) beginning with an initial motionless stare (IMS) have been reported to respond well to temporal lobectomy. CPSs without the IMS or with early lateralizing motor phenomena often persisted after temporal lobectomy. We have stu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Seizure-like events in brain slices: suppression by interictal activity.

Journal Article Brain Res · May 5, 1987 A major concern in epilepsy research is the relationship between ictal (seizure) electrophysiological activity and interictal (between seizure) activity. Much research is carried out in vitro using brain slice models. Although they allow detailed electroph ... Full text Link to item Cite

Magnesium-free medium activates seizure-like events in the rat hippocampal slice.

Journal Article Brain Res · November 19, 1986 The effect of magnesium-free medium on the electrical activity in CA3 of the rat hippocampal slice was examined. Magnesium removal resulted in the development of spontaneous and triggered interictal-like bursting, followed by spontaneous ictal-like events ... Full text Link to item Cite

A novel, calcium-induced triphasic current response in silent, non-bursting Aplysia neurons.

Journal Article Brain Res · October 15, 1986 The iontophoretic injection of Ca2+ ions into voltage-clamped, silent neurons of Aplysia californica results in a prolonged, triphasic current response. This response consists of: a tetraethylammonium-sensitive outward current during the injection; followe ... Full text Link to item Cite

RATE OF TAPER FOR ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS

Conference EPILEPSIA · September 1, 1986 Link to item Cite

Changes in cerebral blood volume and cytochrome aa3 during hypertensive peaks in preterm infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · June 1986 Relative changes in cerebral blood volume and in the oxidation/reduction state of cytochrome aa3, the terminal member of the electron transport chain in oxidative metabolism, can be simultaneously observed with near infrared spectroscopy. Using this techni ... Full text Link to item Cite

Juvenile acute intermittent porphyria with hypercholesterolemia and epilepsy: a case report and review of the literature.

Journal Article J Child Neurol · January 1986 A case of acute intermittent porphyria in a 10-year-old boy with seizures and hypercholesterolemia is presented. The problems of management when seizures and porphyria coincide and discussion of hypercholesterolemia are included. A comprehensive review of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Membrane currents underlying bursting pacemaker activity and spike frequency adaptation in invertebrates.

Journal Article Adv Neurol · 1986 Invertebrate systems have proved to be quite useful for the development of an understanding of some processes in the central nervous system (CNS). An understanding of the basic mechanisms of epilepsy will result from understanding not only how populations ... Link to item Cite

The ionic mechanism of the slow outward current in Aplysia neurons.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · August 1985 A slow outward current associated with spike frequency adaptation has been studied in the giant Aplysia neurons R2 and LP1. The current was observed during 60-s voltage clamp commands to potentials just below spike threshold. The slow outward current shows ... Full text Link to item Cite

Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants: preliminary observations.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 1985 A noninvasive optical method for bedside monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in small preterm infants was evaluated. Through differential absorbance of near infrared light, changes in the oxidation-reduction level of cytochrome aa3, in the oxygenation state ... Link to item Cite

Dopamine reduces slow outward current and calcium influx in burst-firing neuron R15 of Aplysia.

Journal Article J Neurosci · December 1984 Dopamine's effect on calcium influx into the bursting neuron, R15, of Aplysia californica was tested by tail current measurements and by measurement of absorbance of intracellular Arsenazo III, a calcium-sensitive indicator. Slow outward tail currents were ... Full text Link to item Cite

Spike aftercurrents in R15 of Aplysia: their relationship to slow inward current and calcium influx.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · February 1984 Spikes in the bursting neuron, R15, are followed by depolarizing afterpotentials (35) and often by delayed hyperpolarizing afterpotentials as well. Placing the cell in a voltage clamp after a spike allows measurement of the depolarizing aftercurrent (DAC) ... Full text Link to item Cite

ABSENCE SEIZURES IN FARBERS LIPOGRANULOMATOSIS

Conference ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AND CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY · January 1, 1983 Link to item Cite

Cs+ loading reveals Na+-dependent persistent inward current and negative slope resistance region in Aplysia giant neurons

Journal Article Journal of Neurophysiology · 1982 The giant, nonbursting neurons R2 and LP1 of Aplysia californica were loaded iontophoretically with Cs+ to study the slow inward current and its ionic sensitivity, in isolation from K+ outward currents. In the relative absence of the normally large K+ outw ... Cite

Case report. Atypical findings in adrenoleukodystrophy.

Journal Article J Comput Assist Tomogr · December 1981 Computed tomography (CT) in a child with typical clinical and biochemical features of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) revealed striking pathologic enhancement in the centra semiovalia, posterior corpus callosum, and corticospinal tracts within the internal caps ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diphenylhydantoin enhances early adaptation in Aplysia giant neurons.

Journal Article J Pharmacol Exp Ther · July 1981 Diphenylhydantoin effect on excitability in the molluscan giant neuron was investigated. This model of neuronal excitability was convenient for investigating drug mechanisms because the giant somata of these neurons have multiple current systems and can be ... Link to item Cite

Diphenylhydantoin reduces the outward current of the action potential in Aplysia.

Journal Article Brain Res · February 23, 1981 Diphenylhydantoin (DPH) has been shown to prolong the repolarization phase of action potentials in Aplysia and to reduce the spike after hyperpolarization. We voltage-clamped somata of Aplysia giant neurons and measured the action potential currents to det ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fluorometric monitoring of NADH levels in cerebral cortex: preliminary observations in human epilepsy.

Journal Article Neurosurgery · 1978 In 14 patients operated upon for focal cerebral seizures under local anesthesia, cortical electrical activity was compared with the levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) observed fluorometrically. NADH levels fell 3 to 15% in response to 5-sec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Potassium clearance and reactive gliosis in the alumina gel lesion.

Journal Article Epilepsia · December 1977 Potassium accumulation or impaired potassium clearance has been hypothesized to contribute to epileptogenesis in gliotic epileptogenic foci. To test this hypothesis, potassium clearance rates following direct cortical stimulation were measured in the corte ... Full text Link to item Cite

The electroencephalogram in pediatric practice: its use and abuse.

Journal Article Pediatrics · September 1977 Utilized appropriately, the EEG is a helpful diagnostic tool; however, it is currently much abused and much overutilized. Understanding its limitations and its usefulness may lead to less frequent but more appropriate requests for EEGs. Realization that th ... Link to item Cite

The contribution of local blood flow to the rapid clearance of potassium from the cortical extracellular space.

Journal Article Brain Res · November 12, 1976 The transport of potassium to the blood stream following stimulation of the cortex in cats is evaluated by means of a potassium sensitive microelectrode technique. Potassium levels are measured in cortical veins, the sagittal sinus and the extracellular sp ... Full text Link to item Cite

NADH fluorescence, [K+]0 and oxygen consumption in cat cerebral cortex during direct cortical stimulation.

Journal Article Brain Res · July 16, 1976 NADH fluorescence, sagittal sinus blood flow and sinus hemoglobin saturation were monitored simultaneously during direct cortical stimulation of a wide area of the anterior and mid suprasylvian and marginal gyri. The area monitored flurorometrically was lo ... Full text Link to item Cite

NADH fluorescence and [K+]o changes during hippocampal electrical stimulation.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · March 1975 1. Short (2 s) trains of stimuli were applied to the dorsal hippocampal surface of cats, producing an increase in [K+]o and a decrease in NADH fluorescence (the latter being indicative of an increase in tissue oxygen utilization). 2. The [K+]o rose rapidly ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recurrent seizures induced by potassium in the penicillin treated hippocampus.

Journal Article Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol · April 1974 Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of potassium on oxidative metabolism and seizures.

Journal Article Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol · August 1973 Full text Link to item Cite