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Teh Yu Tan

Professor Emeritus in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
Thomas Lord Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
Box 90300, Durham, NC 27708-0300
186 Engineering Bldg, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Point Defects and Diffusion in Semiconductors

Chapter · April 10, 2017 Solid state electronic products have become an integral part of modern day life. Integrated circuit chips fabricated using Si as the substrate material are widely used in computers, communication devices such as smart phones, and entertaining machines, as ... Full text Cite

Dissolution of Oxygen Precipitate Nuclei in n-Type CZ-Si Wafers to Improve Their Material Quality: Experimental Results

Journal Article IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics · January 1, 2017 We present experimental results which show that oxygen-related precipitate nuclei (OPN) present in p-doped, n-Type, Czochralski wafers can be dissolved using a flash-Annealing process, yielding very high quality wafers for high-efficiency solar cells. Flas ... Full text Cite

Notice of Removal: Dissolution of oxygen precipitate nuclei in N-type CZ Si wafers to improve their material quality: Experimental results

Conference 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017 · January 1, 2017 We present experimental results that show oxygen related precipitate nuclei (OPN) present in P-doped, N type, CZ wafers can be dissolved using a Flash Annealing process yielding very high quality wafers for high efficiency solar cells. Flash annealing cons ... Full text Cite

A nucleation-growth model of nanowires produced by the vapor-liquid-solid process

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · August 14, 2013 Within the framework of the vapor-liquid-solid process of Si nanowire growth, an expression describing the Si nanowire growth rate is derived and fitted to multiple experimental data sets with excellent agreement. The derivation is based on the two-dimensi ... Full text Cite

Photovoltaic materials and devices

Journal Article International Journal of Photoenergy · January 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Thermodynamics of carbon in iron nanoparticles at low temperature: Reduced solubility and size-induced nucleation of cementite

Journal Article Physics Procedia · January 1, 2010 In this manuscript we present the thermodynamics of iron-carbon nano particles at low temperature. By combining classical molecular dynamics simulations, ab initio calculations, finite temperature thermodynamics modeling, and the "size/pressure approximati ... Full text Cite

Transition region width of nanowire hetero- and pn-junctions grown using vapor-liquid-solid processes

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing · March 1, 2008 The transition region width of nanowire heterojunctions and pn-junctions grown using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) processes has been modeled. With two constituents or dopants I and II, the achievable width or abruptness of the junctions is attributed to the re ... Full text Cite

Crystallization of amorphous SiO2 microtubes catalyzed by lithium

Journal Article Advanced Functional Materials · August 13, 2007 Amorphous silica formed by thermally oxidizing silicon is commonly eligible for lithographic patterning or can be grown on patterned substrates. However, it is still a challenge to combine controlled microstructuring with controlled crystallization of SiO2 ... Full text Cite

Chemical tension and global equilibrium in VLS nanostructure growth process: From nanohillocks to nanowires

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing · March 1, 2007 We formulate a global equilibrium model to describe the growth of one-dimensional nanostructures in the VLS process by including also the chemical tension in addition to the physical tensions, i.e. surface energies. The chemical tension derives from the Gi ... Full text Cite

Chemical tension in VLS nanostructure growth process: From nanohillocks to nanowires

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 2007 We formulate a global equilibrium model to describe the growth of 1-d nanostructures in the VLS process by including also the chemical tension in addition to the physical tensions. The chemical tension derives from the Gibbs free energy release due to the ... Full text Cite

Predominance of alternate diffusion mechanisms for the interstitial- substitutional impurity gold in silicon

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 2007 Full text Cite

Diffusion in semiconductors

Journal Article · December 1, 2005 This chapter discusses diffusion phenomena in the semiconductors Si, Ge, and GaAs. Silicon and GaAs are the two main materials used in fabricating electronic and optoelectronic devices. Diffusion in Ge will also be mentioned for the reason that it is the s ... Full text Cite

Silicon nanowhiskers grown on 〈111〉Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · June 14, 2004 The growth of silicon nanowhiskers on 〈111〉-oriented silicon substrates was investigated. Molecular-beam epitaxy method was used for the growth of the nanowhiskers. The dependence of the nanowhiskrers on the nanowhiskers diameter was also analyzed, using t ... Full text Cite

On the thermodynamic size limit of nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing · March 1, 2004 For nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process, expressions of the thermodynamically allowed minimum sizes of the nanowire and the liquid phase droplet as functions of the relevant thermodynamic variables have been obtained using Si nanowires ... Full text Cite

Metallic precipitate contribution to carrier generation in metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors due to the Schottky effect

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 2004 The modeling work on the electrical behavior of metallic precipitates in the depletion region of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, which is also based on the Schottky effect is reported. Besides the pn junction, the MOS capacitor is the most abun ... Full text Cite

Metallic precipitate contribution to generation and recombination currents in p-n junction devices due to the Schottky effect

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · October 15, 2003 The metallic precipitate contribution to generation and recombination currents in p-n junction devices due to the Schottky effect was described. It was found that the precipitate changed from a highly effective carrier recombination center to a carrier gen ... Full text Cite

Is there a thermodynamic size limit of nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process?

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · August 11, 2003 The thermodynamic size limit of nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process was investigated. A unique set of external M and Si vapor phase pressure values were used to determine the minimum size. It was found that the Si nanowire minimum size expres ... Full text Cite

A model for growth directional features in silicon nanowires

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. (Germany) · 2002 Long silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown by laser ablation or by thermal evaporation of monoxide source materials are primarily oriented in the (112) direction, and some in the (110) direction, but rarely in the (100) or (111) directions. We propose a model to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recent progresses in understanding gettering in silicon

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2002 For IC fabrications using CZ Si, intrinsic gettering utilizing oxygen precipitation has been extensively studied in the past, with the main efforts concentrated on the engineering and scientific aspects of the creation of gettering sites. The present revie ... Full text Cite

Point Defects and Diffusion in Semiconductors

Chapter · April 10, 2017 Solid state electronic products have become an integral part of modern day life. Integrated circuit chips fabricated using Si as the substrate material are widely used in computers, communication devices such as smart phones, and entertaining machines, as ... Full text Cite

Dissolution of Oxygen Precipitate Nuclei in n-Type CZ-Si Wafers to Improve Their Material Quality: Experimental Results

Journal Article IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics · January 1, 2017 We present experimental results which show that oxygen-related precipitate nuclei (OPN) present in p-doped, n-Type, Czochralski wafers can be dissolved using a flash-Annealing process, yielding very high quality wafers for high-efficiency solar cells. Flas ... Full text Cite

Notice of Removal: Dissolution of oxygen precipitate nuclei in N-type CZ Si wafers to improve their material quality: Experimental results

Conference 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017 · January 1, 2017 We present experimental results that show oxygen related precipitate nuclei (OPN) present in P-doped, N type, CZ wafers can be dissolved using a Flash Annealing process yielding very high quality wafers for high efficiency solar cells. Flash annealing cons ... Full text Cite

A nucleation-growth model of nanowires produced by the vapor-liquid-solid process

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · August 14, 2013 Within the framework of the vapor-liquid-solid process of Si nanowire growth, an expression describing the Si nanowire growth rate is derived and fitted to multiple experimental data sets with excellent agreement. The derivation is based on the two-dimensi ... Full text Cite

Photovoltaic materials and devices

Journal Article International Journal of Photoenergy · January 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Thermodynamics of carbon in iron nanoparticles at low temperature: Reduced solubility and size-induced nucleation of cementite

Journal Article Physics Procedia · January 1, 2010 In this manuscript we present the thermodynamics of iron-carbon nano particles at low temperature. By combining classical molecular dynamics simulations, ab initio calculations, finite temperature thermodynamics modeling, and the "size/pressure approximati ... Full text Cite

Transition region width of nanowire hetero- and pn-junctions grown using vapor-liquid-solid processes

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing · March 1, 2008 The transition region width of nanowire heterojunctions and pn-junctions grown using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) processes has been modeled. With two constituents or dopants I and II, the achievable width or abruptness of the junctions is attributed to the re ... Full text Cite

Crystallization of amorphous SiO2 microtubes catalyzed by lithium

Journal Article Advanced Functional Materials · August 13, 2007 Amorphous silica formed by thermally oxidizing silicon is commonly eligible for lithographic patterning or can be grown on patterned substrates. However, it is still a challenge to combine controlled microstructuring with controlled crystallization of SiO2 ... Full text Cite

Chemical tension and global equilibrium in VLS nanostructure growth process: From nanohillocks to nanowires

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing · March 1, 2007 We formulate a global equilibrium model to describe the growth of one-dimensional nanostructures in the VLS process by including also the chemical tension in addition to the physical tensions, i.e. surface energies. The chemical tension derives from the Gi ... Full text Cite

Chemical tension in VLS nanostructure growth process: From nanohillocks to nanowires

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 2007 We formulate a global equilibrium model to describe the growth of 1-d nanostructures in the VLS process by including also the chemical tension in addition to the physical tensions. The chemical tension derives from the Gibbs free energy release due to the ... Full text Cite

Predominance of alternate diffusion mechanisms for the interstitial- substitutional impurity gold in silicon

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 2007 Full text Cite

Diffusion in semiconductors

Journal Article · December 1, 2005 This chapter discusses diffusion phenomena in the semiconductors Si, Ge, and GaAs. Silicon and GaAs are the two main materials used in fabricating electronic and optoelectronic devices. Diffusion in Ge will also be mentioned for the reason that it is the s ... Full text Cite

Silicon nanowhiskers grown on 〈111〉Si substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · June 14, 2004 The growth of silicon nanowhiskers on 〈111〉-oriented silicon substrates was investigated. Molecular-beam epitaxy method was used for the growth of the nanowhiskers. The dependence of the nanowhiskrers on the nanowhiskers diameter was also analyzed, using t ... Full text Cite

On the thermodynamic size limit of nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing · March 1, 2004 For nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process, expressions of the thermodynamically allowed minimum sizes of the nanowire and the liquid phase droplet as functions of the relevant thermodynamic variables have been obtained using Si nanowires ... Full text Cite

Metallic precipitate contribution to carrier generation in metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors due to the Schottky effect

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 2004 The modeling work on the electrical behavior of metallic precipitates in the depletion region of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, which is also based on the Schottky effect is reported. Besides the pn junction, the MOS capacitor is the most abun ... Full text Cite

Metallic precipitate contribution to generation and recombination currents in p-n junction devices due to the Schottky effect

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · October 15, 2003 The metallic precipitate contribution to generation and recombination currents in p-n junction devices due to the Schottky effect was described. It was found that the precipitate changed from a highly effective carrier recombination center to a carrier gen ... Full text Cite

Is there a thermodynamic size limit of nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process?

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · August 11, 2003 The thermodynamic size limit of nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process was investigated. A unique set of external M and Si vapor phase pressure values were used to determine the minimum size. It was found that the Si nanowire minimum size expres ... Full text Cite

A model for growth directional features in silicon nanowires

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. (Germany) · 2002 Long silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown by laser ablation or by thermal evaporation of monoxide source materials are primarily oriented in the (112) direction, and some in the (110) direction, but rarely in the (100) or (111) directions. We propose a model to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recent progresses in understanding gettering in silicon

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2002 For IC fabrications using CZ Si, intrinsic gettering utilizing oxygen precipitation has been extensively studied in the past, with the main efforts concentrated on the engineering and scientific aspects of the creation of gettering sites. The present revie ... Full text Cite

Modeling growth directional features of silicon nanowires obtained using SiO

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2002 Full text Cite

Extended high temperature Al gettering for improvement and homogenization of minority carrier diffusion lengths in multicrystalline Si

Journal Article Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells · December 15, 2001 Multicrystalline Si for photovoltaic applications is a very inhomogeneous material with localized regions of high dislocation density and large impurity and precipitate concentrations which limit solar cell efficiency by acting as carrier recombination sit ... Full text Cite

Effect of Al-induced gettering and back surface field on the efficiency of Si solar cells

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · November 15, 2001 In silicon solar cell fabrication, impurity gettering from Si by an aluminum layer and indiffusion of Al for creating the back surface field (BSF) are inherently carried out in the same process. We have modeled these two processes and analyzed their impact ... Full text Cite

Adaptive resource negotiation based control for real time applications

Journal Article Comput. Commun. (Netherlands) · 2001 In this paper, we focus on providing quality-of-service (QoS) control in terms of packet loss and delay for interactive real-time applications. We propose a new scheme to find the optimal values of token bucket parameters, token generation rate r and token ... Full text Link to item Cite

A quantitative model of the electrical activity of metal silicide precipitates in silicon based on the Schottky effect

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2001 A quantitative model of the electrical activity of metallic precipitates in Si is presented. An emphasis is placed on the properties of the Schottky junction at the precipitate-Si interface, as well as the carrier diffusion and drift in the Si space charge ... Full text Cite

Schottky effect model of electrical activity of metallic precipitates in silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · June 19, 2000 A quantitative model of the electrical activity of metallic precipitates in Si is formulated with an emphasis on the Schottky junction effects of the precipitate-Si system. Carrier diffusion and carrier drift in the Si space charge region are accounted for ... Full text Cite

Fermi-level effect and junction carrier concentration effect on p-type dopant distribution in III-V compound superlattices

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · December 1, 1999 The pronounced segregation phenomenon in the distribution of p-type dopants Zn and Be in GaAs and related III-V compound heterostructures has been explained quantitatively by treating simultaneously the processes of dopant atom diffusion, segregation, and ... Cite

Fermi-level effect and junction carrier concentration effect on boron distribution in Ge^Si^/Si heterostructures

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · December 1, 1999 Dopant segregation mechanism in general involves the chemical effect, the Fermi-level effect, and the effect of the junction carrier concentrations. Satisfactory fits of available B distribution profiles in GexSij.x/Si heterostructures have been obtained u ... Cite

Dopant diffusion and segregation in semiconductor heterostructures: Part III, Diffusion of Si into GaAs

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing · September 1, 1999 We have mentioned previously that in the third part of the present series of papers, a variety of n-doping associated phenomena will be treated. Instead, we have decided that this paper, in which the subject treated is diffusion of Si into GaAs, shall be t ... Full text Cite

The contribution of vacancies to carbon out-diffusion in silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 18, 1999 Diffusion of carbon is mostly assumed to be governed by carbon interstitials via the kick-out mechanism. Carbon in-diffusion experiments are associated with thermal equilibrium concentrations of point defects, whereas in the case of carbon out-diffusion a ... Full text Cite

Dopant diffusion and segregation in semiconductor heterostructures. Pt. 2. B in GexSi1-x/Si structures

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. (Germany) · 1999 For pt.1 see ibid., vol.68, p.9-18, 1999. This is the second of a series of papers treating the shallow dopant diffusion and segregation problems in semiconductor heterostructures. Employing a segregation mechanism model, which incorporates the chemical ef ... Full text Link to item Cite

Thermal equilibrium concentrations of the amphoteric dopant Si and the associated carrier concentrations in GaAs

Journal Article J. Appl. Phys. (USA) · 1999 Expressions of the thermal equilibrium concentrations of Si in GaAs have been obtained in terms of fundamental constants of the involved materials. Silicon is an amphoteric dopant in GaAs, with four species: a neutral and an ionized shallow donor species o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dopant diffusion and segregation in semiconductor heterostructures. Pt. 1. Zn and Be in III-V compound superlattices

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. (Germany) · 1999 Distribution of shallow dopants in semiconductor heterostructures in general exhibits a pronounced segregation phenomenon, which requires the description of the dopant atom diffusion and segregation processes simultaneously. We treat this class of problems ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modeling of gettering of precipitated impurities from Si for carrier lifetime improvement in solar cell applications

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 1999 The liquid aluminum layer method for gettering metallic impurities in multicrystalline Si wafers used for solar cell fabrication is modeled. Aspects modeled include impurity atom diffusion and segregation, and precipitate dissolution using Fe as the impuri ... Full text Cite

A "smarter-cut" approach to low temperature silicon layer transfer

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1998 Silicon wafers were first implanted at room temperature by B+ with 5.0×1012 to 5.0×1015 ions/ cm2 at 180 keV, and subsequently implanted by H2+ with 5.0×1016 ions/cm2 at an energy which locates the H-peak concentration in the silicon wafers at the same pos ... Full text Cite

Carbon-induced undersaturation of silicon self-interstitials

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1998 Carbon diffusion into silicon is well behaved and does not generate any nonequilibrium point defects. We show that, in contrast, the diffusion of carbon incorporated in silicon well above its solid solubility will cause an undersaturation of silicon self-i ... Full text Cite

Mass transport equations unifying descriptions of isothermal diffusion, thermomigration, segregation, and position-dependent diffusivity

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1998 Via the combined use of the jump frequency and chemical force formulation methods, a set of generalized mass transport equations has been derived. This set of equations unifies the descriptions of isothermal diffusion, thermomigration induced by a thermal ... Full text Cite

Fermi-level effect on group III atom interdiffusion in III-V compounds: bandgap heterogeneity and low silicon-doping

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · December 1, 1998 Heavy n-doping enhanced disordering of GaAs based III-V semiconductor superlattice or quantum well layers, as well as the diffusion of Si in GaAs have been previously explained by the Fermi-level effect model with the triply-negatively-charged group III la ... Cite

Simulation of under- and supersaturation of gallium vacancies in gallium arsenide during silicon in- and outdiffusion

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · December 1, 1998 The diffusivity of Si in GaAs shows a dependence on the cubic power of its concentration or the concentration of electrons n under both in- and outdiffusion conditions. Hence, the diffusion of Si in GaAs is consistent with the Fermi-level effect model invo ... Cite

Gold diffusion in silicon during gettering by an aluminum layer

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · December 1, 1998 Previous modeling of Al gettering of Au in Si indicated that, for an Al gettering layer placed on one surface of a Si wafer, Au will be gettered from both surface regions of the wafer to progressively greater depths with time. This is because, in Si, Au is ... Cite

Nucleation and growth of voids in silicon

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · December 1, 1998 Nucleation of voids and vacancy-type dislocation loops in Si under vacancy supersaturation conditions has been considered. Based upon nucleation barrier calculations, it has been found that voids can be nucleated, but not dislocation loops. The homogeneous ... Cite

Modeling of nucleation and growth of voids in silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 15, 1998 During Si crystal growth, nucleation and growth of voids and vacancy-type dislocation loops under Si vacancy supersaturation conditions have been modeled. From nucleation barrier calculations, it is shown that voids can be nucleated, but not dislocation lo ... Full text Cite

Experimental and computer simulation studies of diffusion mechanisms on the arsenic sublattice of gallium arsenide

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · May 15, 1998 Interdiffusion experiments with GaAsP/GaAs and GaAsSb/GaAs superlattice samples were performed at various temperatures and arsenic vapor pressures. From the depth-concentration profiles effective diffusion coefficients were calculated. The dependence of th ... Full text Cite

A model of strain relaxation in hetero-epitaxial films on compliant substrates

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing · January 1, 1998 We propose a model for relaxing the lattice mismatch between a pseudomorphic heteroepitaxial film and its substrate, which is a thin film on a handling wafer with a relaxed twist boundary consisting of a cross-grid of screw dislocations. The model scheme p ... Full text Cite

Cathodoluminescence investigation of diffusion studies on the arsenic sublattice in galium arsenide

Journal Article Solid State Phenomena · January 1, 1998 While the diffusion mechanism on the Ga sublattice of GaAs is fairly well understood, the diffusion on the As sublattice is still under discussion. In this contribution the use of spectrally resolved and imaging cathodoluminescence (CL) for investigating d ... Cite

Grain enhancement of polycrystalline silicon films aided by optical excitation

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 1998 A new technique for making large-grain thin Si films is described in which optical excitation is used to enhance the grain growth. Grain sizes much larger than the film thickness can be obtained at low temperatures and in short process times. This method i ... Cite

Point defects, diffusion and gettering in silicon

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · December 1, 1997 The status of our knowledge on intrinsic point defects and diffusion mechanisms is reviewed. Special attention is given to the question of the possible role of carbon in influencing effective diffusivities of intrinsic point defects and the resulting conse ... Cite

Interdiffusion studies in GaAsP/GaAs and GaAsSb/GaAs superlattices under various arsenic vapor pressures

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · May 1, 1997 Interdiffusion coefficients on the group V sublattice of GaAs were determined in GaAsP/GaAs and GaAsSb/GaAs superlattices. Strained GaAs0.86P0.14/GaAs, GaAs0.8P0.2/GaAs0.975P0.025 and GaAs0.98Sb0.02/GaAs superlattices were annealed between 850°C and 1100°C ... Full text Cite

Nucleation barrier of voids and dislocation loops in silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · March 31, 1997 We have calculated the nucleation energy barrier of voids and vacancy (V) type dislocation loops in Si under V-supersaturation conditions. The barrier of V-type dislocation loops is higher than that of voids by more than one order of magnitude, with the fo ... Full text Cite

Oxide precipitation at silicon grain boundaries

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 20, 1997 Oxygen precipitates at various grain boundaries in crystalline silicon, formed after prolonged high temperature annealing, grow within a narrow size distribution. This narrow size distribution appears to depend on the specific grain boundary. On the basis ... Full text Cite

Diffusion in GaAs and related compounds: Recent developments

Journal Article Defect and Diffusion Forum · January 1, 1997 This paper reviews recent developments in our understanding of self- and impurity diffusion processes in gallium arsenide with special emphasis on incorporating recent gallium isotope diffusion data. Specific diffusion mechanisms for carbon, phosphorus, an ... Full text Cite

Twist wafer bonded "fixed-film" versus "compliant" substrates: Correlated misfit dislocation generation and contaminant gettering

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing · January 1, 1997 Compliant film substrates, which ideally are free-standing thin-film substrates, can be used to grow lattice-mismatched hetero-epitaxial films without misfit dislocation generation to thicknesses beyond the usual critical conditions, because the elastic st ... Full text Cite

Twist wafer bonded "fixed-film" versus "compliant" substrates: Correlated misfit dislocation generation and contaminant gettering

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing · 1997 Compliant film substrates, which ideally are free-standing thin-film substrates, can be used to grow lattice-mismatched hetero-epitaxial films without misfit dislocation generation to thicknesses beyond the usual critical conditions, because the elastic st ... Cite

Grain enhancement of thin silicon layers using optical processing

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 1997 We describe a new technique for producing large-grain, poly-Si thin films on low-cost glass substrates for solar cell applications. A layer of fine-grain poly-Si is deposited on metal-coated substrate followed by a grain enhancement using optical/thermal a ... Full text Cite

Comparison of gettering in single- and multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

Journal Article Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference · December 1, 1996 The differences in the impurity gettering between single and multicrystalline silicon are discussed. These differences arise from impurity-defect interactions that occur during thermal processing of multicrystalline material. A gettering model is proposed ... Cite

Feasibility study of VLSI device layer transfer by CMP PETEOS direct bonding

Journal Article IEEE International SOI Conference · December 1, 1996 The feasibility of using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition TEOS (PETEOS) oxide and associated chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)to form a flat layer on the surface of a processed VLSI bulk Si wafer for direct bonding was evaluated. Results show th ... Cite

Effects of p-type dopants on enhancing AlAs/GaAs superlattice disordering

Journal Article Materials Chemistry and Physics · January 1, 1996 It is quantitatively shown that the mechanism reponsible for enhancing AlAs/GaAs superlattice disordering by the p-type dopants Zn and Be is essentially the Fermi-level effect occurring in Ga-rich crystals. In the abundance of holes, the Fermi-level effect ... Full text Cite

Improvement of minority carrier diffusion length in Si by Al gettering

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1995 Gettering is already an integral part of fabricating integrated circuits using Si substrates. It is anticipated that this will also be true for solar cell fabrication in the near future. A readily available technique compatible with solar cell processing i ... Full text Cite

Sulfur diffusion and the interstitial contribution to arsenic self-diffusion in GaAs

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1995 A quantitative determination of the contribution of As self-interstitials to the As self-diffusion coefficient in GaAs has been carried out. Values of the As self-interstitial contributions are deduced from sulfur indiffusion profiles in GaAs, which are si ... Full text Cite

Model of partitioning of point defect species during precipitation of a misfitting compound in Czochralski silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1995 The partitioning of point defect species during diffusion controlled precipitation of a misfitting compound in Czochralski silicon is studied using the principle of maximum degradation rate of the total system free energy. The degradation rate of the syste ... Full text Cite

Wafer bonding of Si with dissimilar materials

Journal Article International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology Proceedings · December 1, 1995 Wafer bonding provides a high degree of flexibility in material integration. However, the major concerns of Si wafer bonding with dissimilar materials are their thermal mismatch and the bubble generation during the annealing process. In this article, a low ... Cite

On the validity of the amphoteric-defect model in gallium arsenide and a criterion for Fermi-level pinning by defects

Journal Article Applied Physics A Materials Science & Processing · October 1, 1995 Using the theoretically calculated point-defect total-energy values of Baraff and Schlüter in GaAs, an amphoteric-defect model has been proposed by Walukiewicz to explain a large number of experimental results. The suggested amphoteric-defect system consis ... Full text Cite

On the validity of the amphoteric-defect model in gallium arsenide and a criterion for Fermi-level pinning by defects

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process. (Germany) · 1995 Using the theoretically calculated point-defect total-energy values of Baraff and Schlueter in GaAs, an amphoteric-defect model has been proposed by Walukiewicz to explain a large number of experimental results. The suggested amphoteric-defect system consi ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Simple Chemical Treatment for Preventing Thermal Bubbles in Silicon Wafer Bonding

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1995 A periodic acid aqueous solution has been shown to remove thermally unstable hydrocarbons from silicon surfaces resulting in residual hydrocarbon concentrations which are much lower than those after RCA cleaning. Bonded pairs of silicon wafers cleaned in t ... Full text Cite

Coprecipitation of oxygen and carbon in Czochralski silicon: A growth kinetic approach

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 1995 Oxygen (O) and carbon (C) coprecipitation in Czochralski Si is studied in terms of a diffusion-limited growth model. The interfacial energy increase upon C incorporation into oxide precipitates as well as the changes of O and C concentrations in the Si mat ... Full text Cite

Point defects and diffusion mechanisms pertinent to the Ga sublattice of GaAs

Journal Article Materials Chemistry & Physics · January 1, 1995 For the Ga sublattice of GaAs, the recent understanding of the impurity and self-diffusion mechanisms and the nature of the point defects responsible are discussed. Analyses of doping enhanced AlAs GaAs superlattice disordering data and impurity diffusion ... Full text Cite

Minority carrier diffusion length improvement in Czochralski silicon by aluminum gettering

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 1995 Gettering is widely used for fabricating integrated circuits using Si substrates, and has great potential for solar cell fabrications as well. Recently available solar cell efficiency studies have shown the benefits of the wafer backside Al, attributable t ... Full text Cite

Phosphorus and aluminum gettering of gold in silicon: simulation and optimization considerations

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 1995 Using the diffusion-segregation equation, modeling and simulations of gettering Au (a substitutional-interstitial species in Si) away from the Si bulk have been performed. Three external gettering schemes have been considered: wafer frontside P indiffusion ... Full text Cite

High resistivity Co and Ti silicide formation on silicon-on-insulator substrates

Journal Article Thin Solid Films · December 15, 1994 Under the condition of excess metal deposition, the formation of Co and Ti silicides on (001) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates was investigated. In the Co silicide case, a high-resistivity Co silicide film was formed after a high temperature anneal (1 ... Full text Cite

Assured epitaxial CoSi2 phase formation on (001) Si-on-insulator substrates using CoSi/Ti bimetallic source materials

Journal Article Digest of Technical Papers - Symposium on VLSI Technology · December 1, 1994 We report an assured way of forming epitaxial CoSi2 films on (001) SOI Si substrates when Co is inexhaustible. This is to use bimetallic CoSi/Ti source materials. For the more commonly used Co/Ti source material, epitaxial CoSi2 film forms before the Si la ... Cite

Thermal equilibrium concentrations of point defects in gallium arsenide

Journal Article Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids · January 1, 1994 Expressions of the thermal equilibrium concentrations of point defects in GaAs, including the neutral and charged species, are derived. These expressions are explicit functions of well-defined thermodynamic quantities, which in turn yield explicit expressi ... Full text Cite

Precipitate strain relief via point defect interaction: models for SiO2 in silicon

Journal Article Materials Chemistry and Physics · January 1, 1994 Full text Cite

Chapter 9 Mechanisms of Oxygen Precipitation: Some Quantitative Aspects

Journal Article Semiconductors and Semimetals · January 1, 1994 Full text Cite

Arsenic diffusion and segregation behavior at the interface of epitaxial CoSi2 film and Si substrate

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 1994 Arsenic diffusion and segregation properties at the interface of the epitaxial CoSi2 and Si substrate have been studied. Samples have been prepared using Co-Ti bimetallic source materials and two types of (001) Si substrates: n+ (doped by As to approx.2×10 ... Cite

CoSi and CoSi2 phase formation on bulk and SOI Si substrates

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 1994 We have studied the CoSi and CoSi2 phase formation sequence in (001) bulk and SOI Si wafers, using Co/Ti bimetallic layers as source materials which are suitable for growing epitaxial CoSi2 films on (001) Si. In bulk Si, co-formation of polycrystalline CoS ... Cite

Diffusion-segregation equation for simulation in heterostructures

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 1994 Diffusion of impurity atoms or point defect species occurs simultaneously with segregation in materials that are inhomogeneous or consisting of heterostructures. Based on thermodynamic principles, a general diffusion-segregation equation (DSE) simultaneous ... Cite

Simulation of the transient indiffusion-segregation process of triply negatively charged Ga vacancies in GaAs and AlAs/GaAs superlattices

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1993 In GaAs and AlAs/GaAs superlattice crystals containing n-type regions, several sets of recent experimental results obtained from diffusion studies require the interpretation that the responsible point defect species, the triply negatively charged Ga vacanc ... Full text Cite

Diffusion of Fe in InP via the kick-out mechanism

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1993 The diffusion of iron in indium phosphide is found to proceed via the kick-out diffusion mechanism. A Fe diffusion profile in InP available from the literature is simulated using the complete set of three partial differential equations for the kick-out mec ... Full text Cite

Carbon precipitation in silicon: Why is it so difficult

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1993 It is well-established that oxygen precipitation in silicon occurs readily and is further facilitated by the presence of carbon. In contrast, carbon precipitation in silicon appears to be a difficult process which takes place only in the presence of a suff ... Full text Cite

Modeling of zinc-indiffusion-induced disordering of GaAs/AlAs superlattices

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1993 A model for the effect of Zn indiffusion on enhancing the GaAs/AlAs superlattice (SL) disordering process, which combines recently proposed models for Ga self-diffusion and Zn diffusion in GaAs, is presented. Four coupled partial differential equations des ... Full text Cite

A study of Si outdiffusion from predoped GaAs

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1993 Experiments have been conducted to study the Si outdiffusion behavior in GaAs using predoped samples. The results showed that the Si diffusivity values are dependent on the As4 vapor-phase pressure in the ambient, and on the electron concentration in the c ... Full text Cite

Formation of void/Ga-precipitate pairs during Zn diffusion into GaAs: The competition of two thermodynamic driving forces

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1993 An experiment of diffusing Zn into GaAs has been conducted at 900°C using Zn metal as the source material in a quartz ampoule, with or without As being included. For cases without further including As in the ampoule, the Zn profile is box shaped and the Zn ... Full text Cite

Formation mechanism of epitaxial CoSi2 films on (001) Si using Ti-Co bimetallic layer source materials

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · December 1, 1993 The mechanism of formation of epitaxial CoSi2 film on (001) Si substrate, produced using sequentially deposited Ti-Co bimetallic layer source materials for which Ti was deposited onto the Si substrates first, has been studied by studied by observing the Co ... Cite

Thermal equilibrium concentrations and effects of negatively charged Ga vacancies in n-type GaAs

Journal Article Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces · March 1, 1993 We have calculated the thermal equilibrium concentrations of the various negatively charged Ga vacancy species in GaAs. The triply-negatively-charged Ga vacancy, VGa3-, has been emphasized, since it dominates Ga self-diffusion and Ga-Al interdiffusion unde ... Full text Cite

Thermal equilibrium concentrations and effects of negatively charged Ga vacancies in n-type GaAs

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Solids Surf. (Germany) · 1993 The authors have calculated the thermal equilibrium concentrations of the various negatively charged Ga vacancy species in GaAs. The triply-negatively-charged Ga vacancy, VGa3-, has been emphasized, since it dominates Ga self-diffusion and Ga-Al interdiffu ... Cite

Layer disordering and carrier concentration in heavily carbon-doped AlGaAs/GaAs superlattices

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 1993 Al-Ga interdiffusion, carbon acceptor diffusion, and hole reduction were studied in carbon-doped Al0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs superlattices (SL). Al-Ga interdiffusion was found to be most prominent for Ga-rich annealing, with the hole concentrations in the SL almost ... Full text Cite

Precipitate strain relief via point defect interaction: models for SiO2 in silicon

Journal Article Materials Chemistry and Physics · January 1, 1993 Precipitation in the solid state is often accompanied by a volume mismatch, creating strain which inhibits precipitation. For the SiO2 Si system, this strain, if unrelieved, is large enough to prevent precipitation altogether. The strain is usually assumed ... Full text Cite

Al-Ga interdiffusion, carbon acceptor diffusion, and hole reduction in carbon-doped Al0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs superlattices: the As4 pressure effect

Journal Article J. Appl. Phys. (USA) · 1993 Al-Ga interdiffusion, carbon acceptor diffusion, and hole reduction were studied in carbon doped Al0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs superlattices (SL) annealed under different ambient As4 pressure conditions in the temperature range of 825°C-960°C. The SL were dope ... Full text Link to item Cite

Thermal equilibrium concentrations and effects of Ga vacancies in n-type GaAs

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 1993 We have calculated the thermal equilibrium concentrations of the various Ga vacancy species in GaAs. That of the triply-negatively-charged Ga vacancy, VGa3-, has been emphasized, since it dominates Ga self-diffusion and Ga-Al interdiffusion under intrinsic ... Full text Cite

Co-precipitation of carbon and oxygen in silicon: The dominant flux criterion

Journal Article Japanese Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 1993 Due to the need of relieving the strain associated with the formation of SiC-2 precipitates in silicon, co-precipitation of carbon with oxygen in silicon wafers may involve a large number of atomic and point defect species: oxygen, carbon, vacancies, and s ... Full text Cite

Co-precipitation of carbon and oxygen in silicon: The dominant flux criterion

Journal Article Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1: Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers · 1993 Due to the need of relieving the strain associated with the formation of SiO2 precipitates in silicon, co-precipitation of carbon with oxygen in silicon wafers may involve a large number of atomic and point defect species: oxygen, carbon, vacancies, and si ... Cite

Crystal surface stoichiometry and the Fermi level effects on outdiffusion of Si in GaAs

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 1993 GaAs samples doped with Si to a concentration of approximately 2.7×1018 cm-3 were annealed at temperatures between 800 and 1000 °C for 3 to 20 hours under As-rich and As-poor conditions for Si outdiffusion which were then measured using the capacitance-vol ... Cite

Resistance and structural stabilities of epitaxial CoSi2 films on (001) Si substrates

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1992 The resistance and structural stabilities of the epitaxial CoSi2 films, grown on (001) Si substrates using sequentially deposited Ti-Co bimetallic layer source materials, have been investigated by further anneals under extended conditions. In contrast to r ... Full text Cite

SiO2 precipitate strain relief in Czochralski Si: Self-interstitial emission versus prismatic dislocation loop punching

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1992 Formation of SiO2 precipitates in Czochralski Si is associated with a volume expansion of more than 100%. The needed extra volume for precipitate growth to occur is primarily supplied by emission of Si self-interstitials (I) into the Si matrix, in balance ... Full text Cite

Disordering in 69GaAs/71GaAs isotope superlattice structures

Journal Article J. Appl. Phys. (USA) · 1992 Undoped 69GaAs/71GaAs isotope superlattice structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on n-type GaAs substrates, doped by Si to ~3×1018 cm-3, have been used to study Ga self-diffusion in GaAs by disordering reactions. In the temperature range of 850- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Liquid silicide formation of the Si wafer free structure during Ni diffusion at 1200°C

Journal Article J. Appl. Phys. (USA) · 1992 An investigation of nickel diffusion in silicon wafers at 1200 °C, which is above a few Ni-Si eutectic and peritectic temperatures, has been performed. Czochralski Si wafers with nickel film on the back surfaces and mechanical damages on the front surf ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enhancement of gold solubility in silicon wafers

Journal Article J. Appl. Phys. (USA) · 1992 Edge-defined film-fed grown silicon wafers with a thin Au film deposited on one side were annealed at 950°C for various times. Spreading resistance probe measurements showed that at the wafer free surface the Au concentration was higher than the Au sol ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determination of vacancy and self-interstitial contributions to gallium self-diffusion in GaAs

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1991 A quantitative determination of the contributions of the triply negatively charged Ga vacancies (V3-Ga) and of the doubly positively charged Ga self-interstitials (I2+Ga) to the Ga self-diffusion coefficient in GaAs has been carried out. Under thermal equi ... Full text Cite

Oxygen precipitation in silicon: The role of strain and self-interstitials

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1991 Formation of SiO2 precipitates in silicon is associated with a large volume expansion. This leads to the generation of strain and a self-interstitial (I) supersaturation in the Si matrix, which in turn influence both the precipitate nucleation and growth p ... Full text Cite

Diffusion mechanism of zinc and beryllium in gallium arsenide

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1991 The outstanding features associated with Zn and Be diffusion in GaAs substrates and GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices are explained either quantitatively or semiquantitatively using the kick-out mechanism, in which it is assumed that the doubly positively charged ... Full text Cite

Diffusion mechanism of chromium in GaAs

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1991 The diffusion of the substitutional Cr atoms (Crs) in GaAs results from the rapid migration of the interstitial atoms (Cri) and their subsequent changeover to occupy Ga sites (or vise versa), a typical substitutional-interstitial-diffusion (SID) process. T ... Full text Cite

Formation of epitaxial CoSi2 films on (001) silicon using Ti-Co alloy and bimetal source materials

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1991 Using coevaporated Ti-Co alloy and sequentially evaporated Ti-Co bimetallic layer source materials, CoSi2 films have been grown on (001) Si. The film resistivity and resistance thermal stability are excellent. The CoSi 2 are epitaxial single-crystal films ... Full text Cite

Distribution mechanism of voids in Si-implanted GaAs

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1991 Voids, formed by the condensation of an excess of implantation-induced vacancies, have been recently identified as the defect directly responsible for dopant diffusion and electrical activation anomalies in Si-implanted and annealed GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs su ... Full text Cite

Point defect thermal equilibria in GaAs

Journal Article Materials Science and Engineering B · November 30, 1991 The thermal equilibrium concentrations of the six electrically neutral single point defect species in GaAs are expressed as explicit functions of well-defined thermodynamic quantities. The difference between the Gibbs free energies of an arsenic atom in th ... Full text Cite

Point defects, diffusion mechanisms, and superlattice disordering in GaAs-based materials

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1991 We discuss mechanisms of Ga self-diffusion and impurity diffusion in GaAs, and of disordering enhancement in GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices. Ga self-diffusion and Ga-Al interdiffusion are governed by VGa3- under instrinsic and n-doping conditions, and by IGa2+ ... Cite

Point defects, diffusion mechanisms, and superlattice disordering in gallium arsenide-based materials

Journal Article Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences · January 1, 1991 This article reviews recent progresses in our understanding of the mechanisms of Ga self-diffusion and impurity diffusion in GaAs, and of the disordering of GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices. Gallium self-diffusion and Al-Ga interdiffusion under intrinsic and n-do ... Full text Cite

Physical modeling of zinc and beryllium diffusion in gallium arsenide

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1991 We have examines a large number of the outstanding features associated with Zn and Be diffusion in GaAs and in GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices. All features are qualitatively consistent with the kick-out mechanism which assumes that the group III element self-in ... Cite

Atomistic mechanisms of dopant-induced multiple quantum well mixing and related phenomena

Journal Article Optical and Quantum Electronics · January 1, 1991 We discuss mechanisms of Ga self-diffusion and impurity diffusion in GaAs, and of layer mixing enhancement in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs). Ga self-diffusion and Ga-Al interdiffusion are governed by the triply negatively charged Ga vacancies, ... Full text Cite

Anomalous electrical activation in Si-implanted GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices

Journal Article Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, Beam Interact. Mater. At. (Netherlands) · 1991 Electrical activation in Si-implanted and annealed GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices (SLs) has been studied as a function of implantation temperature and dose. Carrier concentration, measured by the electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling, is shown to be str ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modeling the enhanced diffusion of implanted boron in silicon

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1991 A simulation model was developed to describe the anomalous transient enhanced diffusion of implanted boron in silicon characterized by profiles in which a secondary peak is formed near the amorphous/crystalline interface. In this model, the diffusion equat ... Cite

Point defect thermal equilibria in GaAs

Journal Article Materials Science and Engineering B · 1991 The thermal equilibrium concentrations of the six electrically neutral single point defect species in GaAs are expressed as explicit functions of well-defined thermodynamic quantities. The difference between the Gibbs free energies of an arsenic atom in th ... Cite

Void formation, electrical activation, and layer intermixing in Si-implanted GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices

Journal Article Appl. Phys. Lett. (USA) · 1990 Direct experimental evidence is presented for the correlation between void formulation, dopant electrical activation, and layer intermixing in GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices (SLs). Maximum layer intermixing is observed in the regions of maximum carrier concentr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Void formation and its effect on dopant diffusion and carrier activation in Si-implanted GaAs

Journal Article Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2, Lett. (Japan) · 1990 GaAs samples, implanted with 220 keV Si to doses ranging from 3×1013 to 1×1015 cm-2 and annealed at 850°C were studied. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), voids were found in samples with implant doses ⩾3×1014 cm-2 afte ... Cite

Growth, shrinkage, and stability of interfacial oxide layers between directly bonded silicon wafers

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Solids Surf. (West Germany) · 1990 Models for the growth and shrinkage of an interfacial oxide layer and for the stability of the interfacial oxide layer are formulated. Predictions of these models are compared to results obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Wafers ... Cite

Gettering phenomena in directly bonded silicon wafers

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · 1990 Gold and copper gettering was investigated near the bonding interface of directly bonded silicon wafers. Boron-doped (100) float-zone silicon wafers were rotationally misoriented against each other by 1$DGR, 25° or 6$DGR, and then bonded and annealed a ... Cite

Growth, shrinkage, and stability of interfacial oxide layers between directly bonded silicon wafers

Journal Article Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces · January 1, 1990 Models for the growth and shrinkage of an interfacial oxide layer and for the stability of the interfacial oxide layer are formulated. Predictions of these models are compared to results obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Wafers ... Full text Cite

Transition metal silicide precipitation in silicon induced by rapid thermal processing and free-surface gettering

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1989 We have investigated the effect of nickel and copper on defect formation in silicon employing the rapid thermal processing (RTP) scheme. Treatment by RTP induces haze in the silicon wafer front side when its back side is contaminated by either nickel or co ... Full text Cite

Influence of dislocations on diffusion-induced nonequilibrium point defects in III-V compounds

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1989 Diffusion of elements migrating via a substitutional-interstitial mechanism in III-V compounds may induce nonequilibrium concentrations of native point defects. It has generally been assumed in the literature that, in the presence of dislocations, the poin ... Full text Cite

Stability of interfacial oxide layers during silicon wafer bonding

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1989 The stability of thin interfacial oxide layers between bonded silicon wafers is investigated experimentally and theoretically. For usual bonding temperatures around 1100°C and typical times of a few hours, the oxygen diffusivity is not high enough to allow ... Full text Cite

The role of silicon self-interstitial supersaturation in the retardation of oxygen precipitation in Czochralski silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1989 The retardation phenomenon of oxygen precipitation in Czochralski silicon has been studied simultaneously with the growth of surface stacking faults under a silicon nitride capping layer. The surface faults were intentionally introduced to monitor the bulk ... Full text Cite

Void formation and inhibition of layer intermixing in ion-impIanted GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1989 Voids have been found in the near-surface region of GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices in a transmission electron microscopy study. The superlattices were Si- or Al-implanted and subsequently either furnace or rapid thermally annealed. Concurrent with the presence ... Full text Cite

Do oxygen molecules contribute to oxygen diffusion and thermal donor formation in silicon?

Journal Article Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces · March 1, 1989 In- and out-diffusion experiments of oxygen in silicon indicate the existence of an oxygen-containing species diffusing much faster than interstitial oxygen at temperatures below about 700°C. The formation of oxygen-related thermal donors in the temperatur ... Full text Cite

The diffusivity of silicon self-interstitials

Journal Article Radiat. Eff. Defects Solids (UK) · 1989 The diffusivity Dl of silicon self-interstitials plays an important role in the quantitative modeling of many technological processes for microelectronic and photovoltaic silicon devices. Examples are swirl-defect formation during crystal growth, oxygen pr ... Cite

A model of Si diffusion in GaAs based on the effect of the Fermi level

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 1989 We propose a quantitative model for Si diffusion in GaAs. In this model we incorporate the experimental result that Si is an amphoteric impurity which constitutes a shallow donor when occupying the Ga site, Si+Ga, and a shallow acceptor when occupying the ... Full text Cite

Do oxygen molecules contribute to oxygen diffusion and thermal donor formation in silicon?

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Solids Surf. (West Germany) · 1989 In- and out-diffusion experiments of oxygen in silicon indicate the existence of an oxygen-containing species diffusing much faster than interstitial oxygen at temperatures below 700°C. The formation of oxygen-related thermal donors in the temperature ... Cite

A model for the silicon wafer bonding process

Journal Article Japanese Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 1989 The bonding speed (or contact wave velocity) of silicon and fused quartz wafers has been measured as a function of temperature. The results show that the bonding process stops to operate at temperatures above 90°C and 320°;C for fused quartz and bare silic ... Full text Cite

Mechanisms of doping-enhanced superlattice disordering and of gallium self-diffusion in GaAs

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1988 Recently available Ga-Al interdiffusion results in GaAs/AlAs superlattices allow us to conclude that Ga self-diffusion in GaAs is carried by triply negatively charged Ga vacancies under intrinsic and n-doping conditions. The mechanism of the Si-enhanced su ... Full text Cite

Point defects and diffusion in silicon and gallium arsenide

Journal Article Diffus. Defect Data, Solid State Data A, Defect Diffus. Forum (Liechtenstein) · 1988 Point defects and diffusion mechanisms in silicon and gallium arsenide are discussed with special emphasis on charge and non-equilibrium effects. For understanding diffusion processes in silicon and in GaAs both vacancies and self-interstitials in various ... Cite

Diffusion mechanisms and superlattice disordering in GaAs

Journal Article Materials Science and Engineering B · January 1, 1988 This paper reports recent progress in our understanding of mechanisms of gallium self-diffusion, of impurity diffusion, and of doping-enhanced superlattice disordering in GaAs. An analysis of the available results of Ga-Al interdiffusion in GaAs/AlAs super ... Full text Cite

Investigation of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting materials by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Journal Article High-Temperature Superconducting Materials. Preparations, Properties, and Processing · 1988 Positrons can be used as a probe for crystal defects, such as vacancies. The authors use positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy as a tool for studying the effect of oxygen vacancies on the superconducting transition of YBa2Cu3O7-x ... Cite

Diffusion mechanisms and superlattice disordering in GaAs

Journal Article Materials Science and Engineering B · 1988 This paper reports recent progress in our understanding of mechanisms of gallium self-diffusion, of impurity diffusion, and of doping-enhanced superlattice disordering in GaAs. An analysis of the available results of Ga-Al interdiffusion in GaAs/AlAs super ... Cite

Destruction mechanism of III-V compound quantum well structures due to impurity diffusion

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 1987 Recent experiments have shown that quantum well structures grown on a GaAs substrate can be destroyed by dopant diffusion. It is observed that existing models proposed to explain the phenomena are not in accordance with most available experimental results. ... Full text Cite

ON OXYGEN PRECIPITATION RETARDATION/RECOVERY PHENOMENA, NUCLEATION INCUBATION PHENOMENON, AND THE EXIGENT-ACCOMMODATION-VOLUME FACTOR OF PRECIPITATION.

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · December 1, 1986 We describe the nature of an exigent-accommodation-volume factor associated with oxygen (O//i) precipitation in Czochralski (CZ) Si. This factor is regarded as a causal or characteristic factor which influences many aspects of the SiO//2 precipitate nuclea ... Cite

Oxygen precipitation retardation and recovery phenomena in Czochralski silicon: Experimental observations, nuclei dissolution model, and relevancy with nucleation issues

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1986 We report experimental results of an oxygen precipitation study carried out using Czochralski silicon wafers. A two-step anneal scheme was employed: a lower-temperature step (at 650 or 750 °C for 0-128 h) for SiO2 precipitate nucleation and a higher temper ... Full text Cite

ARE SELF-INTERSTITIALS REQUIRED TO EXPLAIN NONEQUILIBRIUM DIFFUSION PHENOMENON IN SILICON?

Journal Article Chemtronics · December 1, 1986 The possibility that vacancies are the only type of intrinsic point defects present in silicon is investigated using enhanced and retarded diffusion phenomena of substitutional dopants, such as oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) and oxidation-retarded diff ... Cite

ON THE QUESTION OF OXYGEN DIFFUSION DURING OXYGEN RELATED THERMAL DONOR FORMATION IN SILICON.

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings · December 1, 1986 In an attempt to decide the question whether enhanced oxygen diffusion is important for heat-treatments of silicon at approximately 450 degree C where thermal donors are formed the authors conducted two types of experiments aimed at providing a measure of ... Cite

On the kinetics of oxygen clustering and thermal donor formation in Czochralski silicon

Journal Article Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen in Crystalline Silicon · 1986 The authors report the results of an experiment of annealing Czochralski silicon at 450°C for up to 500 hrs. Concentrations of oxygen atoms (Ci) and thermal donors (TD) have both been monitored. Analyses of the oxygen concentration data yielded the app ... Cite

Exigent-accommodation-volume of precipitation and formation of oxygen precipitates in silicon

Journal Article Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen in Crystalline Silicon · 1986 The author describes in some detail, the nature of an exigent-accommodation-volume factor associated with oxygen (Oi) precipitation in Czochralski (CZ) Si. This factor is regarded as a causal or characteristic factor which influences many aspects of the Si ... Cite

Observation of a doping-dependent orientation effect of the depletion of silicon self-interstitials during oxidation

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1985 We conducted an experiment to study the growth kintetics of the oxidation-induced stacking faults (OSF) of n- and p-type (100) and (111) Si wafers with resistivities of 0.8-15 Ω cm. The OSF size data are as expected for the p-type (100) and (111) wafers as ... Full text Cite

ON THE INTERACTION OF INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC GETTERING SCHEMES IN SILICON.

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings · December 1, 1985 We report some results of an experiment designed to study the interaction of extrinsic-gettering (EG) and intrinsic-gettering (IG) schemes. We found that mechanical abrasion introduces interstitial type dislocations into the wafer backside, and produces a ... Cite

INFLUENCE OF POINT DEFECTS ON DIFFUSION AND GETTERING IN SILICON.

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings · December 1, 1985 In a first part, we deal with the influence of intrinsic point defects (vacancies and self-interstitials) on self- and impurity diffusion in silicon. Estimates of the diffusivities and thermal equilibrium concentrations of vacancies and self-interstitials ... Cite

Point defects, diffusion processes, and swirl defect formation in silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces · May 1, 1985 The paper consists of three parts. In the first part we review the basic experimental and theoretical results which shaped our present knowledge on point defects and diffusion processes in silicon. These results concern on one side oxidation effects which ... Full text Cite

Point defects, diffusion processes, and swirl defect formation in silicon

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Solids Surf. (West Germany) · 1985 The paper consists of three parts. In the first part the authors review the basic experimental and theoretical results which shaped the present knowledge on point defects and diffusion processes in silicon. These results concern on one side oxidation effec ... Cite

In depth generation lifetime profiling of heat‐treated czochralski silicon

Journal Article physica status solidi (a) · January 1, 1985 A technique is given for measuring the MOS generation lifetime of minority carriers as a function of depth from the silicon wafer surface. The technique monitors a transient current instead of the more commonly utilized transient capacitance, and is capabl ... Full text Cite

POINT DEFECTS AND DIFFUSION PROCESSES IN SILICON.

Journal Article Electrochemical Society Extended Abstracts · December 1, 1984 The last few years have seen some quite exciting progresses in our understanding of the nature of point defects and diffusion processes in Si at high temperatures. In accordance with earlier suggestions, self-consistent analyses of experimental results on ... Cite

POINT DEFECTS AND DIFFUSION PROCESSES IN SILICON.

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · December 1, 1984 We review two subjects: oxidation effects which established that vacancies (V) and self-interstitials (I) coexist in Si; and Au diffusion into dislocation-free Si which allowed a determination of the I-component and an estimate of the V-component of the Si ... Cite

Characterization of semiconductor silicon by transmission electron microscopy

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · May 10, 1984 In this review some basics of the transmission electron microscopy, the instrument, its operations and the types of scientific information obtainable from crystalline materials are first discussed and then some subjects pertaining to recent characterizatio ... Full text Cite

Chemical reaction and Schottky-barrier formation at V/Si interfaces

Journal Article Physical Review B · January 1, 1984 The behavior of the V/Si interface has been studied under atomically clean interface conditions for a variety of Si surfaces [Si(111)-(7×7), Si(111)-(2×1), and Si(100)-c(4×2)] as a function of annealing used to promote the silicide formation reaction. Inte ... Full text Cite

Chemical and structural aspects of reaction at the Ti/Si interface

Journal Article Physical Review B · January 1, 1984 Chemical bonding and reactions at the Ti/Si(111) interface have been studied as a function of Ti overlayer thickness and annealing temperature and time. The chemical properties (composition, electronic structure, and reactivity) were observed under ultrahi ... Full text Cite

ROLE OF VACANCIES AND SELF-INTERSTITIALS IN DIFFUSION AND AGGLOMERATION PHENOMENA IN SILICON.

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · December 1, 1983 Cite

DETERMINATION OF VACANCY AND SELF-INTERSTITIAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE Si SELF-DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT.

Journal Article Electrochemical Society Extended Abstracts · December 1, 1983 Cite

GRAIN GROWTH AND GRAIN-BOUNDARY DISLOCATIONS IN POLYSILICON.

Journal Article Advances in Ceramics · December 1, 1983 Cite

EXAMINATION OF VACANCY AND SELF-INTERSTITIAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO SILICON SELF-DIFFUSION AND SWIRL DEFECT FORMATION.

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · December 1, 1983 Cite

Observation of oxidation-enhanced and oxidation-retarded diffusion of antimony in silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1983 An experiment was carried out to study oxidation-enhanced and oxidation-retarded diffusion (OED and ORD) of Sb in (100) and (111) Si wafers oxidized in dry O2 at 1160°C. The ORD data of (100) wafers agree well with those of Mizuo and Higuchi and with the p ... Full text Cite

On the nature of point defects and the effect of oxidation on substitutional dopant diffusion in silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces · June 1, 1983 An extensive analysis of the substitutional dopant diffusion phenomena in silicon during oxidation is presented. The analysis covers qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of the oxidation-enhanced and -retarded diffusion (OED and ORD) phenomena, and ... Full text Cite

ON THE NATURE OF POINT DEFECTS AND THE EFFECT OF OXIDATION ON SUBSTITUTIONAL DOPANT DIFFUSION IN SILICON.

Journal Article Applied Physics A: Solids and Surfaces · 1983 An extensive analysis of the substitutional dopant diffusion phenomena in silicon during oxidation is presented. The analysis covers qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of the oxidation-enhanced and -retarded diffusion (OED and ORD) phenomena, and ... Cite

Effects of variations of silicide characteristics on the Schottky-barrier height of silicide-silicon interfaces

Journal Article Physical Review B · January 1, 1983 One basic question concerning Schottky-barrier formation at the silicide-Si interface is whether the barrier height is influenced by the material characteristics of the silicide. This question was investigated by studying the barrier formation at Pd-Si and ... Full text Cite

On the nature of point defects and the effect of oxidation on substitutional dopant diffusion in silicon

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Solids Surf. (West Germany) · 1983 An extensive analysis of the substitutional dopant diffusion phenomena in silicon during oxidation is presented. The analysis covers qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of the oxidation-enhanced and -retarded diffusion (OED and ORD) phenomena, and ... Cite

THERMAL DONOR FORMATION BY THE AGGLOMERATION OF OXYGEN IN SILICON.

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings · January 1, 1983 Cite

NATURE OF POINT DEFECTS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON DIFFUSION PROCESSES IN SILICON AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings · January 1, 1983 Cite

OBSERVATION OF OXIDATION-ENHANCED AND -RETARDED DIFFUSION OF ANTIMONY IN SILICON: THE BEHAVIOR OF (111) WAFERS.

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings · January 1, 1983 Cite

Kinetics of silicon stacking fault growth/shrinkage in an oxidizing ambient containing a chlorine compound

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1982 A kinetic model for the growth and shrinkage of oxidation-induced stacking faults (OSF) in silicon in an oxidizing ambient containing a chlorine compound is developed. The main assumption used in the model is that the vacancy injection rate due to Si-Cl co ... Full text Cite

Oxidation-enhanced or retarded diffusion and the growth or shrinkage of oxidation-induced stacking faults in silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1982 An analysis of the conditions for obtaining oxidation-enhanced or retarded dopant diffusions (OED or ORD), in accordance with the stacking fault growth/shrinkage phenomena, is carried out for the oxidation of Si by assuming that vacancy and Si self-interst ... Full text Cite

EFFECT OF DOPING AND OXIDATION ON GRAIN GROWTH IN POLYSILICON.

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings · December 1, 1982 Cite

Oxygen diffusion and thermal donor formation in silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces · June 1, 1982 The information available on the diffusion of oxygen and on the formation of thermal donors in silicon is critically reviewed. In this context the effects of intrinsic point defects on the diffusion-controlled growth of oxygen precipitates is investigated ... Full text Cite

Correlation between Schottky barrier height and phase stoichiometry/structure of silicide-silicon interfaces

Journal Article J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (USA) · 1982 Summary form only given. The authors investigate to what extent the stoichiometry and microstructure of the bulk silicide affect the Schottky barrier height (SHB) at the interface by measuring the SHB of Ni and Pd silicide-Si interfaces focused on (100) an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Oxygen diffusion and thermal donor formation in silicon

Journal Article Appl. Phys. A, Solids Surf. (West Germany) · 1982 The information available on the diffusion of oxygen and on the formation of thermal donors in silicon is critically reviewed. In this context the effects of intrinsic point defects on the diffusion-controlled growth of oxygen precipitates is investigated ... Cite

PRECIPITATION OF OXYGEN AND INTRINSIC GETTERING IN SILICON.

Journal Article Mat Res Soc Symp Proc · December 1, 1981 Cite

Growth kinetics of oxidation-induced stacking faults in silicon: A new concept

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1981 It is reasonable to assume that the volume increase of about 120% associated with the formation of a SiO2 molecule from a Si atom during thermal oxidation of Si is facilitated by viscoelastic flow of the newly formed SiO2 layer at the SiO2-Si interface. Th ... Full text Cite

UNDISSOCIATED DISLOCATIONS AND INTERMEDIATE DEFECTS IN As** plus ION DAMAGED SILICON.

Journal Article Mat Res Soc Symp Proc · December 1, 1981 Cite

Ion-induced defects in semiconductors

Journal Article Nuclear Instruments and Methods · January 1, 1981 The status of our knowledge of ion-induced defects in semiconductors will be reviewed, including the charge-state dependence of defects, novel defect migration mechanism and enhanced damage production mechanisms. The main emphasis will be on defects in sil ... Full text Cite

Atomic modelling of homogeneous nucleation of dislocations from condensation of point defects in silicon

Journal Article Philos. Mag. A, Phys. Condens. Matter Defects Mech. Prop. (UK) · 1981 An energetically favourable atomic modelling scheme for homogeneous nucleation of dislocations in silicon by condensation of point defects is described. For extrinsic dislocation dipoles, a chain of interstitial atoms is used to form intermediate defect co ... Cite

On the diamond-cubic to hexagonal phase transformation in silicon

Journal Article Philos. Mag. A, Phys. Condens. Matter Defects Mech. Prop. (UK) · 1981 An analysis of electron diffraction data from silicon wafers implanted with 80 keV As+ at high dose rates has shown the presence of a hexagonal phase of Si (a one-element wurtzite structure). The hexagonal silicon consists of small rod-like particles with ... Cite

Ion-induced defects in semiconductors

Journal Article Nuclear Instruments and Methods · 1981 The status of our knowledge of ion-induced defects in semiconductors will be reviewed, including the charge-state dependence of defects, novel defect migration mechanism and enhanced damage production mechanisms. The main emphasis will be on defects in sil ... Cite

Detection of extended interstitial chains in ion-damaged silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1980 We have carried out a high-resolution electron microscope lattice imaging study of As+ ion-damaged silicon. Along with dislocation dipoles and intermediate defect configurations from which the dislocation dipoles are generated,〈110〉 chain-type defects have ... Full text Cite

Laser annealing of silicon implanted with both argon and arsenic

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1980 Silicon samples implanted with both Ar and As at fluences of 1×1016/cm2 were irradiated with Q-switched Nd:YAG double-frequency laser pulses. Reordering of the damaged layers occurs for 30- and 130-keV Ar implants at about 0.6 and 1.3 J/cm2, respectively. ... Full text Cite

Submicron mask alignment by coherent light sources

Journal Article IBM Tech. Discl. Bull. (USA) · 1980 A method of fabricating integrated circuits is disclosed based on the use of interference or diffraction patterns produced by coherent light sources which can be used for accurate alignment of multi-level masks. The principle of this method consists of two ... Cite

Residual stacking-fault-type contrast in silicon after apparent unfaulting reactions

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 1, 1979 Faint residual fringe contrast was observed in some regions of stacking faults (SF) in Si for which unfaulting reactions had apparently occurred. This phenomenon is attributed to an error which occurred in the apparent unfaulting process. Such an error pro ... Full text Cite

CHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF THE Pd/Si INTERFACE DURING THE INITIAL STAGES OF SILICIDE FORMATION.

Journal Article Journal of vacuum science & technology · January 1, 1979 The initial stage of silicide formation of the Pd/Si interface has been studied during Pd deposition on the Si(111) surface using a combination of AES and TEM techniques. The formation of silicide was found to change the valence state of Si significantly a ... Full text Cite

Order-disorder transition in single-crystal silicon induced by pulsed uv laser irradiation

Journal Article Physical Review Letters · January 1, 1979 Single-crystal silicon samples have been made disordered by irradiation with pulses from a frequency-quadrupled neodynium-doped-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser with 10-8-s pulse length. We have studied the resulting amorphous layer by transmission electron m ... Full text Cite

Low energy planes for tilt grain boundaries in gold

Journal Article Acta Metallurgica · January 1, 1978 Thin film bicrystals of gold were annealed to create a large variety of grain boundaries of controlled crystal misorientation. The faceting of these boundaries has been studied and some low energy boundary planes identified. Tilt boundaries with a 〈110〉 mi ... Full text Cite

Intrinsic gettering by oxide precipitate induced dislocations in Czochralski Si

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1977 Conditions for effective intrinsic gettering by oxide precipitate induced dislocations, which we suggest as an important mechanism in explaining device leakage limited yield enhancement due to oxygen in Czochralski-grown Si wafers, are examined. The effect ... Full text Cite

Nucleation of stacking faults at oxide precipitate-dislocation complexes in silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1976 Nucleation sites of thermal oxidation-induced stacking faults in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals have been studied by transmission electron microscopy. Such sites are commonly found to consist of oxide precipitate-dislocation complexes, which appear as ... Full text Cite

Nucleation of CuSi precipitate colonies in oxygen-rich silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1976 The nucleation of CuSi precipitate colonies in silicon containing substantial amounts of oxygen has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that oxygen in Si can influence precipitation of Cu by generating prismatic dislocation loops ... Full text Cite

Preparation and applications of thin film specimens containing grain boundaries of controlled geometry

Journal Article Thin Solid Films · March 15, 1976 A novel welding and annealing method for the convenient production of thin film specimens containing different types of controlled grain boundary structures has been developed. Bicrystals containing controlled grain boundaries in their midplane were produc ... Full text Cite

Oxygen precipitation and the generation of dislocations in silicon

Journal Article Philosophical Magazine · January 1, 1976 Oxygen-rich precipitates in silicon, and the generation of dislocations at the interfaces between the precipitates and the matrix were observed. The precipitates are square-shaped plates with <110> sides and (100) habit planes. Prismatic dislocation loops ... Full text Cite

The detection of the periodic structure of high-angle twist boundaries II. High resolution electron microscopy study

Journal Article Philosophical Magazine · January 1, 1975 High-resolution electron microscopy was used to image directly the 0-lattice of (001) twist boundaries with misorientations up to 25° and 0-lattice spacings as small as 7 A. The results were entirely consistent with the conclusions reached on the basis of ... Full text Cite

The detection of the periodic structure of high-angle twist boundaries I.Electron diffraction study

Journal Article Philosophical Magazine · January 1, 1975 An electron diffraction technique was developed to study the structure of high-angle grain boundaries. Diffraction patterns were obtained from the grain boundary region, and it was demonstrated for the first time that high-anglo <001> twist boundaries have ... Full text Cite

Faceting of high-angle grain boundaries in the coincidence lattice

Journal Article Philosophical Magazine · January 1, 1974 Faceting of high-angle grain boundaries in Σ =3 and Σ = 5 coincidence lattices of the f.c.c. structure was studied using thin-film bicrystal gold specimens of controlled geometry. A number of relatively high-index boundaries in the coincidence lattices (co ... Full text Cite

Crystal thickness dependence of Kikuchi line spacing

Journal Article Philos. Mag. (UK) · 1971 Contrary to a common assumption that the Kikuchi line spacing should be the same as that of the corresponding Bragg spot pattern if diffraction geometry is properly considered, experimental results obtained by using high-purity silicon single crystal speci ... Cite

Wave interactions in saturable absorbers

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1967 The interaction between waves in an idealized saturable absorber is discussed. It is shown that the presence of a strong wave will cause the line to appear to be ''hole-burned'' when probed by a second wave, even though the broadening mechanisms are conven ... Full text Cite

Azimuthally periodic electrostatically focused electron ribbon beams

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · 1966 Methods of enhancing transmission of ribbon-shaped electron beams undergoing circular motion in azimuthally periodic cylindrical electrostatic lenses are treated. Lens forces add to the naturally occurring curvature focusing to achieve this increase in bea ... Cite

Electrostatically-focused ribbon beams employing periodic-cylindrical electron lenses

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · 1964 A brief report of an investigation of the focusing properties of an electrostatic lens formed by segmented electrodes on the surfaces of a coaxial cylindrical system, the average potential of the outer electrodes being Vs, the inner Vc and a differential v ... Cite

Control of stacking fault generation in recessed oxide processing

Journal Article IBM Tech. Discl. Bull. (USA) Typically, a standard semi-recessed oxidation process (SROX) can generate a large number of stacking faults under the recessed thick oxide, which is manifested in unacceptably low carrier lifetimes and high leakage current. The defect density can be improv ... Cite