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Charles Michael Cotten

Professor of Pediatrics
Pediatrics, Neonatology
Box 102509 DUMC, Durham, NC 27710
2400 Pratt Street, 8th Floor, Durham, NC 27710
Office hours Available to be scheduled. Most weekdays 8 AM - 5 PM  

Selected Publications


Association of maternal pre-pregnancy or first trimester body mass index with neurodevelopmental impairment or death in extremely low gestational age neonates.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 23, 2024 OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of death or survival with severe neurodevelopmental impairment (sNDI) at 2 years among extremely preterm infants in relation to pre-pregnancy or first-trimester maternal body mass index (BMI). METHODS: This retrospective coh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Social distancing and extremely preterm births in the initial COVID-19 pandemic period.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 22, 2024 HYPOTHESIS: Increased social distancing was associated with a lower incidence of extremely preterm live births (EPLB) during the initial COVID-19 pandemic period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study at the NICHD Neonatal Research Network sites comparing EPLB ( ... Full text Link to item Cite

Longitudinal Choroidal Development in Preterm Infants.

Journal Article Ophthalmol Sci · 2024 PURPOSE: To characterize changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness in preterm infants from 30 to 60 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). DESIGN: The prospective, observational Study of Eye Imaging in Preterm infantS (BabySTEPS) enrolled infants eligible for reti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Late-Onset Sepsis Evaluation and Empiric Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: Little is known about late-onset sepsis (LOS) evaluations in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). We describe frequencies of LOS evaluation in ELGANs, infant characteristics, and empiric therapy choices during evaluations. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of term reference infants in assessing the developmental outcome of extremely preterm infants: lessons learned in a multicenter study.

Journal Article J Perinatol · November 2023 OBJECTIVE: Extremely preterm (EP) impairment rates are likely underestimated using the Bayley III norm-based thresholds scores and may be better assessed relative to concurrent healthy term reference (TR) infants born in the same hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Bl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic Predisposition to Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · September 19, 2023 OBJECTIVE:  This study aimed to evaluate whether there are genetic variants associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN:  We conducted a candidate gene association study in two well-defined ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tissue Oxygenation Changes After Transfusion and Outcomes in Preterm Infants: A Secondary Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study of the Transfusion of Prematures Randomized Clinical Trial (TOP NIRS).

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · September 5, 2023 IMPORTANCE: Preterm infants with varying degrees of anemia have different tissue oxygen saturation responses to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and low cerebral saturation may be associated with adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether RBC trans ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early-Life Outcomes in Relation to Social Determinants of Health for Children Born Extremely Preterm.

Journal Article J Pediatr · August 2023 OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationships between social determinants of health (SDOH) and outcomes for children born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cohort study of infants born at 22-26 weeks of gestation in National Institute of Child Heal ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Pilot Phase I Trial of Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Neonates With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

Journal Article Stem Cells Transl Med · June 15, 2023 Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonates causes increased mortality and long-term morbidity in surviving babies. Hypothermia (HT) has improved outcomes, however, mortality remains high with ~half of surviving babies developing neurological impairm ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early pumping frequency and coming to volume for mother's own milk feeding in hospitalized infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · May 2023 OBJECTIVE: To identify daily pumping frequencies associated with coming to volume (CTV: producing > 500 milliliters of milk per day by postnatal day 14) for mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: We compared demographi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations between systemic health and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in preterm infants at 36 weeks postmenstrual age.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · February 2023 BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neonatal insults from systemic diseases have been implicated in the pathway of impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants. We aimed to investigate the associations between systemic health factors and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cortisol awakening response and developmental outcomes at 6-7 years in children born extremely preterm.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · February 2023 BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm (EPT) birth has been related to dysregulation of stress responses and behavioral/learning problems at school age. Early adverse experiences can blunt HPA axis reactivity. We hypothesized that an attenuated cortisol awakening r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Overview of the neonatal research network: History, contributions, challenges, and future.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · November 2022 The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network (NRN) has been a leader in neonatal research since 1986. In this chapter we review its history and achievements in (1) continuing observat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Contributions of the NICHD neonatal research network to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · November 2022 Despite improvements in the care and outcomes of infants born extremely preterm, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a common and frustrating complication of prematurity. This review summarizes the BPD-focused research conducted by the Eunice Kennedy ... Full text Link to item Cite

Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterm Infants: Changes over Time.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · October 19, 2022 OBJECTIVE:  Our objective was to examine changes in the use of indomethacin prophylaxis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between 2008 and 2018. STUDY DESIGN:  The design of the study included cohort of 19,715 infants born between 220/7 and 266/7 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early brain and abdominal oxygenation in extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · October 2022 BACKGROUND: Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants are at risk for end-organ hypoxia and ischemia. Regional tissue oxygenation of the brain and gut as monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may change with postnatal age, but normal ranges are ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exposure-safety relationship for acyclovir in the treatment of neonatal herpes simplex virus disease.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · July 2022 BACKGROUND: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease has been treated with high-dose (20 mg/kg/dose) acyclovir since 1991. AIMS: Determine the safety of acyclovir in infants with neonatal HSV treated with high-dose acyclovir; examine the association bet ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Online clinical tool to estimate risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants.

Journal Article Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed · June 21, 2022 OBJECTIVE: Develop an online estimator that accurately predicts bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) severity or death using readily-available demographic and clinical data. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of data entered into a prospective registry. SETTING: I ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcomes of Moderately Preterm Infants of Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Mothers.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · May 27, 2022 OBJECTIVE:  Little is known about the hospital outcomes of moderately preterm (MPT; 29 0/7-33 6/7 weeks gestational age) infants born to insulin-dependent diabetic mothers (IDDMs). We evaluated characteristics and outcomes of MPT infants born to IDDMs comp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of maternal pre-pregnancy or first trimester body mass index with neurodevelopmental impairment or death in extremely low gestational age neonates.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 23, 2024 OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of death or survival with severe neurodevelopmental impairment (sNDI) at 2 years among extremely preterm infants in relation to pre-pregnancy or first-trimester maternal body mass index (BMI). METHODS: This retrospective coh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Social distancing and extremely preterm births in the initial COVID-19 pandemic period.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 22, 2024 HYPOTHESIS: Increased social distancing was associated with a lower incidence of extremely preterm live births (EPLB) during the initial COVID-19 pandemic period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study at the NICHD Neonatal Research Network sites comparing EPLB ( ... Full text Link to item Cite

Longitudinal Choroidal Development in Preterm Infants.

Journal Article Ophthalmol Sci · 2024 PURPOSE: To characterize changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness in preterm infants from 30 to 60 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA). DESIGN: The prospective, observational Study of Eye Imaging in Preterm infantS (BabySTEPS) enrolled infants eligible for reti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Late-Onset Sepsis Evaluation and Empiric Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns.

Journal Article J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc · December 26, 2023 BACKGROUND: Little is known about late-onset sepsis (LOS) evaluations in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). We describe frequencies of LOS evaluation in ELGANs, infant characteristics, and empiric therapy choices during evaluations. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of term reference infants in assessing the developmental outcome of extremely preterm infants: lessons learned in a multicenter study.

Journal Article J Perinatol · November 2023 OBJECTIVE: Extremely preterm (EP) impairment rates are likely underestimated using the Bayley III norm-based thresholds scores and may be better assessed relative to concurrent healthy term reference (TR) infants born in the same hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Bl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic Predisposition to Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · September 19, 2023 OBJECTIVE:  This study aimed to evaluate whether there are genetic variants associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN:  We conducted a candidate gene association study in two well-defined ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tissue Oxygenation Changes After Transfusion and Outcomes in Preterm Infants: A Secondary Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study of the Transfusion of Prematures Randomized Clinical Trial (TOP NIRS).

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · September 5, 2023 IMPORTANCE: Preterm infants with varying degrees of anemia have different tissue oxygen saturation responses to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and low cerebral saturation may be associated with adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether RBC trans ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early-Life Outcomes in Relation to Social Determinants of Health for Children Born Extremely Preterm.

Journal Article J Pediatr · August 2023 OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationships between social determinants of health (SDOH) and outcomes for children born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cohort study of infants born at 22-26 weeks of gestation in National Institute of Child Heal ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Pilot Phase I Trial of Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Neonates With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

Journal Article Stem Cells Transl Med · June 15, 2023 Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonates causes increased mortality and long-term morbidity in surviving babies. Hypothermia (HT) has improved outcomes, however, mortality remains high with ~half of surviving babies developing neurological impairm ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early pumping frequency and coming to volume for mother's own milk feeding in hospitalized infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · May 2023 OBJECTIVE: To identify daily pumping frequencies associated with coming to volume (CTV: producing > 500 milliliters of milk per day by postnatal day 14) for mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: We compared demographi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations between systemic health and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in preterm infants at 36 weeks postmenstrual age.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · February 2023 BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neonatal insults from systemic diseases have been implicated in the pathway of impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants. We aimed to investigate the associations between systemic health factors and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cortisol awakening response and developmental outcomes at 6-7 years in children born extremely preterm.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · February 2023 BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm (EPT) birth has been related to dysregulation of stress responses and behavioral/learning problems at school age. Early adverse experiences can blunt HPA axis reactivity. We hypothesized that an attenuated cortisol awakening r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Overview of the neonatal research network: History, contributions, challenges, and future.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · November 2022 The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network (NRN) has been a leader in neonatal research since 1986. In this chapter we review its history and achievements in (1) continuing observat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Contributions of the NICHD neonatal research network to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · November 2022 Despite improvements in the care and outcomes of infants born extremely preterm, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a common and frustrating complication of prematurity. This review summarizes the BPD-focused research conducted by the Eunice Kennedy ... Full text Link to item Cite

Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterm Infants: Changes over Time.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · October 19, 2022 OBJECTIVE:  Our objective was to examine changes in the use of indomethacin prophylaxis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between 2008 and 2018. STUDY DESIGN:  The design of the study included cohort of 19,715 infants born between 220/7 and 266/7 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early brain and abdominal oxygenation in extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · October 2022 BACKGROUND: Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants are at risk for end-organ hypoxia and ischemia. Regional tissue oxygenation of the brain and gut as monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may change with postnatal age, but normal ranges are ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exposure-safety relationship for acyclovir in the treatment of neonatal herpes simplex virus disease.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · July 2022 BACKGROUND: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease has been treated with high-dose (20 mg/kg/dose) acyclovir since 1991. AIMS: Determine the safety of acyclovir in infants with neonatal HSV treated with high-dose acyclovir; examine the association bet ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Online clinical tool to estimate risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants.

Journal Article Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed · June 21, 2022 OBJECTIVE: Develop an online estimator that accurately predicts bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) severity or death using readily-available demographic and clinical data. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of data entered into a prospective registry. SETTING: I ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcomes of Moderately Preterm Infants of Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Mothers.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · May 27, 2022 OBJECTIVE:  Little is known about the hospital outcomes of moderately preterm (MPT; 29 0/7-33 6/7 weeks gestational age) infants born to insulin-dependent diabetic mothers (IDDMs). We evaluated characteristics and outcomes of MPT infants born to IDDMs comp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Potential missed opportunities for antenatal corticosteroid exposure and outcomes among periviable births: observational cohort study.

Journal Article BJOG · May 24, 2022 OBJECTIVE: Test the hypothesis potential missed opportunities for antenatal corticosteroids increase as gestational age decreases and are associated with adverse outcomes. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: 24 US centers in the Neonatal Research ... Full text Link to item Cite

DNA methylation in former extremely low birth weight newborns: association with cardiovascular and endocrine function.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · May 2022 BACKGROUND: There is increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and hypertensive disorders in later life in the preterm population. We studied school-age children who had been born extremely premature who had undergone endocrine, cardiovascular, and anth ... Full text Link to item Cite

Duration of noninvasive respiratory support and risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death.

Journal Article J Perinatol · April 2022 OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the duration of noninvasive respiratory support exposure is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in preterm infants. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective study of infants born at <29 weeks' gestation. The ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hydrocortisone to Improve Survival without Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · March 24, 2022 BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a prevalent complication after extremely preterm birth. Inflammation with mechanical ventilation may contribute to its development. Whether hydrocortisone treatment after the second postnatal week can improve survi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Blanket temperature during therapeutic hypothermia and outcomes in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

Journal Article J Perinatol · March 2022 OBJECTIVE: Determine whether blanket temperatures during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) are associated with 18-22 month outcomes for infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 181 infants with HIE who rece ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mortality, In-Hospital Morbidity, Care Practices, and 2-Year Outcomes for Extremely Preterm Infants in the US, 2013-2018.

Journal Article JAMA · January 18, 2022 IMPORTANCE: Despite improvement during recent decades, extremely preterm infants continue to contribute disproportionately to neonatal mortality and childhood morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To review survival, in-hospital morbidities, care practices, and neurodevel ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pulmonary Hypoplasia

Chapter · January 1, 2022 Lungs first develop via epithelial branching and extension into mesenchymal tissue, then by septation and subdivision. ... Full text Cite

Association Between Increased Seizures During Rewarming After Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy and Abnormal Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2-Year Follow-up: A Nested Multisite Cohort Study.

Journal Article JAMA Neurol · December 1, 2021 IMPORTANCE: Compared with normothermia, hypothermia has been shown to reduce death or disability in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy but data on seizures during rewarming and associated outcomes are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether electrogr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of Increased Seizures During Rewarming With Abnormal Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2-Year Follow-up: A Nested Multisite Cohort Study.

Journal Article JAMA Neurol · October 18, 2021 IMPORTANCE: Compared with normothermia, hypothermia has been shown to reduce death or disability in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy but data on seizures during rewarming and associated outcomes are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether electrogr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Therapies for neonatal encephalopathy: Targeting the latent, secondary and tertiary phases of evolving brain injury.

Journal Article Semin Fetal Neonatal Med · October 2021 In term and near-term neonates with neonatal encephalopathy, therapeutic hypothermia protocols are well established. The current focus is on how to improve outcomes further and the challenge is to find safe and complementary therapies that confer additiona ... Full text Link to item Cite

Growth Rates of Infants Randomized to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure or Intubation After Extremely Preterm Birth.

Journal Article J Pediatr · October 2021 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on nutritional intake and in-hospital growth rates of extremely preterm (EPT) infants. STUDY DESIGN: EPT infants (240/7-276/7 weeks of gestation) enrolled ... Full text Link to item Cite

Initial Laparotomy Versus Peritoneal Drainage in Extremely Low Birthweight Infants With Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis or Isolated Intestinal Perforation: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article Ann Surg · October 1, 2021 OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine which initial surgical treatment results in the lowest rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or isolated intestinal perforation (IP). ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neurodevelopmental outcomes following neonatal late-onset sepsis and blood culture-negative conditions.

Journal Article Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed · September 2021 OBJECTIVE: Determine risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in infants with late-onset sepsis (LOS) versus late-onset, antibiotic-treated, blood culture-negative conditions (LOCNC). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 24 neonatal cen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Breast Milk and Saliva Lactoferrin Levels and Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · August 2021 OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight preterm infants are at risk for life-threatening infections in the NICU. Breast milk protects against infections but carries the risk of infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) shed in mother's milk. Lactoferrin is a breast milk ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants enrolled in myo-inositol randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article J Perinatol · August 2021 OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the 24-month follow-up for the NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) Inositol for Retinopathy Trial. STUDY DESIGN: Bayley Scales of Infants Development-III and a standardized neurosensory examination were performed in infant ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between neonatal intensive care unit medication safety practices, adverse events, and death.

Journal Article J Perinatol · July 2021 OBJECTIVE: Determine the associations between neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) medication safety practices, laboratory-based adverse events (lab-AEs), and death. STUDY DESIGN: We combined data from a 2016 survey of Pediatrix NICUs on use of medication s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Macular OCT Characteristics at 36 Weeks' Postmenstrual Age in Infants Examined for Retinopathy of Prematurity.

Journal Article Ophthalmol Retina · June 2021 PURPOSE: To report our ability to capture,-grade reliably, and analyze bedside macular OCT images from preterm infants and relate OCT findings to biological factors and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) status at a single time window in the Study of Eye Ima ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antibiotic Safety and Effectiveness in Premature Infants With Complicated Intraabdominal Infections.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · June 1, 2021 BACKGROUND: In premature infants, complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although universally prescribed, the safety and effectiveness of commonly used antibiotic regimens have not been established in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early Determination of Prognosis in Neonatal Moderate or Severe Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 2021 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early determination of prognosis is important in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our objective was to test scoring systems developed earlier (original scoring system) and develop new prognostic models. METHOD ... Full text Link to item Cite

Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in extremely low gestational age neonates.

Journal Article Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed · May 2021 OBJECTIVE: To identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (WWLST) for extremely low gestational age neonates. DESIGN: Observational study of prospectively collected registry data from ... Full text Link to item Cite

Umbilical Cord Milking vs Delayed Cord Clamping and Associations with In-Hospital Outcomes among Extremely Premature Infants.

Conference J Pediatr · May 2021 OBJECTIVE: To compare in-hospital outcomes after umbilical cord milking vs delayed cord clamping among infants <29 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective study of infants born <29 weeks of gestation from 2016 to 2018 without congenital ... Full text Link to item Cite

Preterm Infant Stress During Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography vs Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscopy Examination for Retinopathy of Prematurity.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · May 1, 2021 IMPORTANCE: Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO) examination for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a well-known cause of repeated preterm infant stress. OBJECTIVE: To compare stress during investigational optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Limitations of Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Predictor of Death or Disability Following Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in the Late Hypothermia Trial.

Journal Article J Pediatr · March 2021 OBJECTIVE: To investigate if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an accurate predictor for death or moderate-severe disability at 18-22 months of age among infants with neonatal encephalopathy in a trial of cooling initiated at 6-24 hours. STUDY DESIGN: Su ... Full text Link to item Cite

Blood myo-inositol concentrations in preterm and term infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 2021 OBJECTIVE: To describe relationship between cord blood (representing fetal) myo-inositol concentrations and gestational age (GA) and to determine trends of blood concentrations in enterally and parenterally fed infants from birth to 70 days of age. DESIGN/ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic predictors of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely low-birthweight infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 2021 OBJECTIVE: To test associations between grades 3 or 4 (severe) intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coagulation, inflammation, angiogenesis, and organ development in an exploratory study. STUDY DESIGN ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perspectives from the Society for Pediatric Research. Neonatal encephalopathy clinical trials: developing the future.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · January 2021 The next phase of clinical trials in neonatal encephalopathy (NE) focuses on hypothermia adjuvant therapies targeting alternative recovery mechanisms during the process of hypoxic brain injury. Identifying infants eligible for neuroprotective therapies beg ... Full text Link to item Cite

Higher or Lower Hemoglobin Transfusion Thresholds for Preterm Infants.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · December 31, 2020 BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that higher hemoglobin thresholds for red-cell transfusions may reduce the risk of cognitive delay among extremely-low-birth-weight infants with anemia. METHODS: We performed an open, multicenter trial in which infants with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infection control and other stewardship strategies in late onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and localized infection in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · December 2020 Suspected or proven late onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, urinary tract infections, and ventilator associated pneumonia occurring after the first postnatal days contribute significantly to the total antibiotic exposures in neonatal intensive care u ... Full text Link to item Cite

Beyond the First Wave: Consequences of COVID-19 on High-Risk Infants and Families.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · October 2020 The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting care for high-risk newborns in ways that will likely be sustained beyond the initial pandemic response. These novel challenges present an urgent imperative to understand how COVID-19 impac ... Full text Link to item Cite

Attention-Based Network for Weak Labels in Neonatal Seizure Detection.

Journal Article Proc Mach Learn Res · August 2020 Seizures are a common emergency in the neonatal intesive care unit (NICU) among newborns receiving therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The high incidence of seizures in this patient population necessitates continuous electroencepha ... Link to item Cite

Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis 2015 to 2017, the Rise of Escherichia coli, and the Need for Novel Prevention Strategies.

Journal Article JAMA Pediatr · July 1, 2020 IMPORTANCE: Early-onset sepsis (EOS) remains a potentially fatal newborn condition. Ongoing surveillance is critical to optimize prevention and treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: To describe the current incidence, microbiology, morbidity, and mortality of EO ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic variation in dopamine neurotransmission and motor development of infants born extremely-low-birthweight.

Journal Article Dev Med Child Neurol · June 2020 AIM: To determine if genetic variation associated with decreased dopamine neurotransmission predicts a decrease in motor development in a convenience cohort study of infants born extremely-low-birthweight (ELBW). METHOD: Four hundred and ninety-eight infan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of Early-Onset Sepsis and Antibiotic Use on Death or Survival with Neurodevelopmental Impairment at 2 Years of Age among Extremely Preterm Infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · June 2020 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that early-onset sepsis increases risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among preterm infants; and that among infants without early-onset sepsis, prolonged early antibiotics alters risk of death/NDI. STU ... Full text Link to item Cite

Urine gastrin-releasing peptide in the first week correlates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and post-prematurity respiratory disease.

Journal Article Pediatr Pulmonol · April 2020 RATIONALE: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is associated with post-prematurity respiratory disease (PRD) in survivors of extreme preterm birth. Identifying early biomarkers that correlate with later development of BPD and PRD may provide insights for inte ... Full text Link to item Cite

Behavior Profiles at 2 Years for Children Born Extremely Preterm with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Journal Article J Pediatr · April 2020 OBJECTIVE: To characterize behavior of 2-year-old children based on the severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). STUDY DESIGN: We studied children born at 22-26 weeks of gestation and assessed at 22-26 months of corrected age with the Child Behavior C ... Full text Link to item Cite

Timing of postnatal steroids for bronchopulmonary dysplasia: association with pulmonary and neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Journal Article J Perinatol · April 2020 OBJECTIVE: To determine the associations between age at first postnatal corticosteroids (PNS) exposure and risk for severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study of 951 infants born <27 weeks ge ... Full text Link to item Cite

Disparities in the use of antenatal corticosteroids among women with hypertension in North Carolina.

Journal Article J Perinatol · March 2020 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) use in pregnant women with hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of ANS use in the Perinatal Quality Collaborative of North Carolina between 2015 and 2017. RESULTS: Twenty-five centers par ... Full text Link to item Cite

Opioid and benzodiazepine use during therapeutic hypothermia in encephalopathic neonates.

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 2020 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of sedatives and analgesics during therapeutic hypothermia in encephalopathic neonates and assess associations between medication exposure and hospital outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We identified neonates ≥35 weeks gestational age ... Full text Link to item Cite

Developmental Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants with a Need for Child Protective Services Supervision.

Journal Article J Pediatr · December 2019 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants with need for Child Protective Services (CPS) supervision at hospital discharge compared with those discharged without CPS supervision. STUDY DESIGN: For infants born at <27 weeks of ges ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Genocentric Approach to Discovery of Mendelian Disorders.

Journal Article Am J Hum Genet · November 7, 2019 The advent of inexpensive, clinical exome sequencing (ES) has led to the accumulation of genetic data from thousands of samples from individuals affected with a wide range of diseases, but for whom the underlying genetic and molecular etiology of their cli ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Gastrostomy Tube Feeding in Extremely Low Birthweight Infants: Frequency, Associated Comorbidities, and Long-term Outcomes.

Journal Article J Pediatr · November 2019 OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of gastrostomy tube (GT) placement in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, associated comorbidities, and long-term outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of ELBW infants from 25 centers enrolled in the National Institute ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk of development of treated retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · November 2019 OBJECTIVE: Quantify the risk of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) among infants meeting current U.S. screening guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: Among infants ≤1500 g birth weight or ≤30 weeks gestation screened for ROP from 2006-2015, we developed a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inadequate oral feeding as a barrier to discharge in moderately preterm infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · September 2019 OBJECTIVES: The objectives describe the frequency that inadequate oral feeding (IOF) is the reason why moderately preterm (MPT) infants remain hospitalized and its association with neonatal morbidities. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study using the NICHD Neona ... Full text Link to item Cite

Disrupted Maturation of the Microbiota and Metabolome among Extremely Preterm Infants with Postnatal Growth Failure.

Journal Article Sci Rep · June 3, 2019 Growth failure during infancy is a major global problem that has adverse effects on long-term health and neurodevelopment. Preterm infants are disproportionately affected by growth failure and its effects. Herein we found that extremely preterm infants wit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prolonged duration of early antibiotic therapy in extremely premature infants.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · June 2019 BACKGROUND: Prolonged early antibiotics in extremely premature infants may have negative effects. We aimed to assess prevalence and outcomes of provision of prolonged early antibiotics to extremely premature infants in the absence of culture-confirmed infe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rifampin Pharmacokinetics and Safety in Preterm and Term Infants.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · June 2019 Rifampin is active against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal species and tuberculosis (TB). We performed a multicenter, prospective pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety study of intravenous rifampin in infants of <121 days postnatal age (PNA). We enrolled 27 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between Policy Changes for Oxygen Saturation Alarm Settings and Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality in Infants Born Very Preterm.

Journal Article J Pediatr · June 2019 OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of policy changes for pulse oximetry oxygen saturation (SpO2) alarm limits on neonatal mortality and morbidity among infants born very preterm. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of infants born very pret ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetics of ticarcillin-clavulanate in premature infants.

Journal Article Br J Clin Pharmacol · May 2019 Ticarcillin-clavulanate covers a broad spectrum of pathogens that are common in premature infants. In infants <30 weeks gestational age, pharmacokinetic data to guide ticarcillin-clavulanate dosing are lacking. We enrolled 15 premature infants <30 weeks ge ... Full text Link to item Cite

Black Race Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Journal Article J Pediatr · April 2019 OBJECTIVE: To use a large current prospective cohort of infants <29 weeks to compare bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) rates in black and white infants. STUDY DESIGN: The Prematurity and Respiratory Outcome Program (PROP) enrolled 835 infants born in 2011-2 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic variants associated with patent ductus arteriosus in extremely preterm infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · March 2019 OBJECTIVE: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a commonly observed condition in preterm infants. Prior studies have suggested a role for genetics in determining spontaneous ductal closure. Using samples from a large neonatal cohort we tested the hypothesis t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modifiable Risk Factors in Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Journal Article Clin Perinatol · March 2019 Multicenter groups have reported reductions in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) among preterm infants over the past 2 decades. These large-scale prevalence studies have coincided with reports from multicenter consortia and single centers of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neurodevelopmental outcomes among extremely premature infants with linear growth restriction.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 2019 OBJECTIVE: To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes in linear growth-restricted (LGR) infants born <29 weeks with and without weight gain out of proportion to linear growth. STUDY DESIGN: We compared 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes between infants with an ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Mutations in NCAPG2 Cause a Severe Neurodevelopmental Syndrome that Expands the Phenotypic Spectrum of Condensinopathies.

Journal Article Am J Hum Genet · January 3, 2019 The use of whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing has been a catalyst for a genotype-first approach to diagnostics. Under this paradigm, we have implemented systematic sequencing of neonates and young children with a suspected genetic disorder. Here, we r ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Behavioral Deficits at 18-22 Months of Age Are Associated with Early Cerebellar Injury and Cognitive and Language Performance in Children Born Extremely Preterm.

Journal Article J Pediatr · January 2019 OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations in toddlers born extremely preterm (<28 weeks) between neonatal neuroimaging and 18- to 22-month developmental and behavioral outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort analysis from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute ... Full text Link to item Cite

Weaning of Moderately Preterm Infants from the Incubator to the Crib: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article J Pediatr · January 2019 OBJECTIVE: To assess whether length of hospital stay is decreased among moderately preterm infants weaned from incubator to crib at a lower vs higher weight. STUDY DESIGN: This trial was conducted in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child H ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intranasal midazolam and fentanyl for procedural sedation and analgesia in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Neonatal Perinatal Med · 2019 BACKGROUND: The intranasal route is a minimally invasive method for rapidly delivering midazolam and fentanyl to provide short-term analgesia and sedation in infants. However, intranasal use of midazolam and fentanyl is not labeled for infants and safety d ... Full text Link to item Cite

National Survey of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Medication Safety Practices.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · December 2018 OBJECTIVE: We conducted a detailed survey to identify medication safety practices among a large network of United States neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). METHODS: We created a 53-question survey to assess 300 U.S. NICU's demographics, medication safe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Predictors of Prolonged Breast Milk Provision to Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · November 2018 OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with prolonged maternal breast milk (BM) provision in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cohort study of VLBW infants who initially received maternal BM and were born at one of 197 neona ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and safety of diazoxide in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Perinatol · November 2018 OBJECTIVE: Diazoxide is used to treat infants with persistent hypoglycemia, but the prevalence of its use and adverse effects are not well described. We report demographic and clinical characteristics of infants treated with diazoxide in neonatal intensive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of Myo-inositol on Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity Among Preterm Infants <28 Weeks' Gestational Age: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA · October 23, 2018 IMPORTANCE: Previous studies of myo-inositol in preterm infants with respiratory distress found reduced severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and less frequent ROP, death, and intraventricular hemorrhage. However, no large trials have tested its eff ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exome sequencing identifies gene variants and networks associated with extreme respiratory outcomes following preterm birth.

Journal Article BMC Genet · October 20, 2018 BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified genetic variants associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely preterm infants. However, findings with genome-wide significance have been rare, and not replicated. We hypothesized that whole exom ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcomes of preterm infants treated with hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · October 2018 BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia reduces the risk of death, or moderate to severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Reports of its safety and efficacy in preterm infants are scarce. OBJECTIVE ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antifungal Susceptibility and Clinical Outcome in Neonatal Candidiasis.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · September 2018 BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis is an important cause of sepsis in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, < 1000 g), is often fatal, and frequently results in neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among survivors. We sought to assess the antifungal minim ... Full text Link to item Cite

Extreme Preterm Infant Rates of Overweight and Obesity at School Age in the SUPPORT Neuroimaging and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Cohort.

Journal Article J Pediatr · September 2018 OBJECTIVE: To identify rates of overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥85th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) at 6-7 years of age and associated risk factors among extremely preterm infants born at <28 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Anthropomet ... Full text Link to item Cite

HANDHELD SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IMAGING THROUGH THE UNDILATED PUPIL IN INFANTS BORN PRETERM OR WITH HYPOXIC INJURY OR HYDROCEPHALUS.

Journal Article Retina · August 2018 PURPOSE: The authors investigated feasibility of undilated handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) retinal imaging in preterm infants and children with neurologic abnormalities. METHODS: Under an institutional review board-approved pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Establishing the Cause of Anemia in a Premature Newborn Infant.

Journal Article Lab Med · July 5, 2018 The three major causes of anemia in neonates are blood loss, decreased red blood cell production, and increased degradation of erythrocytes. Establishing the cause of anemia in a neonate born prematurely can be challenging. Clinically, fetomaternal hemorrh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Preterm Neuroimaging and School-Age Cognitive Outcomes.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 2018 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children born extremely preterm are at risk for cognitive difficulties and disability. The relative prognostic value of neonatal brain MRI and cranial ultrasound (CUS) for school-age outcomes remains unclear. Our objectives were ... Full text Link to item Cite

Acute Responses to Diuretic Therapy in Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns: Results from the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program Cohort Study.

Journal Article J Pediatr · June 2018 OBJECTIVE: To determine if daily respiratory status improved more in extremely low gestational age (GA) premature infants after diuretic exposure compared with those not exposed in modern neonatal intensive care units. STUDY DESIGN: The Prematurity and Res ... Full text Link to item Cite

Surgical necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely premature neonates is associated with genetic variations in an intergenic region of chromosome 8.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · May 2018 BackgroundTwin studies suggest that genetic factors may account for up to 50% increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but genome-wide association studies for NEC are lacking.MethodsGenotyping was done on Illumina BeadChip, followed by analysis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcome of Preterm Infants with Transient Cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia on Serial Cranial Imaging Up to Term Equivalent Age.

Journal Article J Pediatr · April 2018 OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of preterm infants whose cystic periventricular leukomalacia "disappeared" on serial screening cranial imaging studies. STUDY DESIGN: Infants ≤26 weeks of gestation born between 2002 and 2012 who had cranial imaging stud ... Full text Link to item Cite

Delivery Room Resuscitation and Short-Term Outcomes in Moderately Preterm Infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · April 2018 OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and extent of delivery room resuscitation and evaluate the association of delivery room resuscitation with neonatal outcomes in moderately preterm (MPT) infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational cohort study of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Admission Temperature and Associated Mortality and Morbidity among Moderately and Extremely Preterm Infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · January 2018 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the temperature distribution among moderately preterm (MPT, 29-33 weeks) and extremely preterm (EPT, <29 weeks) infants upon neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission in 2012-2013, the change in admission temperature distribution ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neurodevelopmental and Behavioral Outcomes in Extremely Premature Neonates With Ventriculomegaly in the Absence of Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage.

Journal Article JAMA Pediatr · January 1, 2018 IMPORTANCE: Studies of cranial ultrasonography and early childhood outcomes among cohorts of extremely preterm neonates have linked periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes ... Full text Link to item Cite

A definition of gentle ventilation in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a survey of neonatologists and pediatric surgeons.

Journal Article J Perinat Med · December 20, 2017 Ventilation practices have changed significantly since the initial reports in the mid 1980 of successful use of permissive hypercapnia and spontaneous ventilation [often called gentle ventilation (GV)] in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcomes of Preterm Infants following Discussions about Withdrawal or Withholding of Life Support.

Journal Article J Pediatr · November 2017 OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency of postnatal discussions about withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining therapy (WWLST), ensuing WWLST, and outcomes of infants surviving such discussions. We hypothesized that such survivors have poor outcomes. ST ... Full text Link to item Cite

Barriers to enrollment in a randomized controlled trial of hydrocortisone for cardiovascular insufficiency in term and late preterm newborn infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · November 2017 OBJECTIVE: To analyze reasons for low enrollment in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the effect of hydrocortisone for cardiovascular insufficiency on survival without neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in term/late preterm newborns. STUDY DESIGN: Th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of Extremely Premature Infants at Low Risk for Early-Onset Sepsis.

Journal Article Pediatrics · November 2017 BACKGROUND: Premature infants are at high risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS) relative to term infants, and most are administered empirical antibiotics after birth. We aimed to determine if factors evident at birth could be used to identify premature infants ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of Therapeutic Hypothermia Initiated After 6 Hours of Age on Death or Disability Among Newborns With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA · October 24, 2017 IMPORTANCE: Hypothermia initiated at less than 6 hours after birth reduces death or disability for infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at 36 weeks' or later gestation. To our knowledge, hypothermia trials have not been performed in infants present ... Full text Link to item Cite

Markers of Successful Extubation in Extremely Preterm Infants, and Morbidity After Failed Extubation.

Journal Article J Pediatr · October 2017 OBJECTIVES: To identify variables associated with successful elective extubation, and to determine neonatal morbidities associated with extubation failure in extremely preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a secondary analysis of the National Inst ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study of sepsis in extremely premature infants.

Journal Article Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed · September 2017 OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic variants associated with sepsis (early-onset and late-onset) using a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis in a cohort of extremely premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Previously generated GWA data from the Neonatal Research Ne ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antenatal Determinants of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Late Respiratory Disease in Preterm Infants.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · August 1, 2017 RATIONALE: Mechanisms contributing to chronic lung disease after preterm birth are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: To identify antenatal risk factors associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and respiratory disease during ea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neonatal outcomes of moderately preterm infants compared to extremely preterm infants.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · August 2017 BackgroundExtremely preterm infants (EPT, <29 weeks' gestation) represent only 0.9% of births in the United States; yet these infants are the focus of most published research. Moderately preterm neonates (MPT, 29-336/7 weeks) are an understudied group of h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Late-onset Sepsis in Extremely Premature Infants: 2000-2011.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · August 2017 BACKGROUND: Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is an important cause of death and neurodevelopmental impairment in premature infants. The purpose of this study was to assess overall incidence of LOS, distribution of LOS-causative organisms and center variation in inc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pulmonary hypoplasia.

Journal Article Semin Fetal Neonatal Med · August 2017 To survive the transition to extrauterine life, newborn infants must have lungs that provide an adequate surface area and volume to allow for gas exchange. The dynamic activities of fetal breathing movements and accumulation of lung luminal fluid are key t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Perinatal Characteristics Predict 1-Year Respiratory Outcomes in Newborns Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Journal Article J Pediatr · August 2017 OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of clinical predictors of persistent respiratory morbidity in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled ELGANs (<29 weeks' gestation) at ≤7 postnatal days and collected antenatal and neonata ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of Depth and Duration of Cooling on Death or Disability at Age 18 Months Among Neonates With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA · July 4, 2017 IMPORTANCE: Hypothermia for 72 hours at 33.5°C for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability, but rates continue to be high. OBJECTIVE: To determine if cooling for 120 hours or to a temperature of 32.0°C reduces death or disabili ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between Use of Prophylactic Indomethacin and the Risk for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · July 2017 OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between prophylactic indomethacin and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in a recent, large cohort of extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected data for infants with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patterns of Oxygenation, Mortality, and Growth Status in the Surfactant Positive Pressure and Oxygen Trial Cohort.

Journal Article J Pediatr · July 2017 OBJECTIVE: To characterize actual achieved patterns of oxygenation in infants born appropriate vs small for gestational age (SGA) randomized to a lower (85-89%) vs higher (91%-95%) oxygen saturation target in the Surfactant Positive Pressure and Oxygen Tri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Gene Association Studies in Neonatal Sepsis.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · June 2017 Background Association studies of various gene variants in neonatal sepsis show conflicting results. Objective We performed a systematic review of candidate gene association studies in neonatal sepsis to provide pooled estimates of risk for selected gene v ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of in utero magnesium exposure and spontaneous intestinal perforations in extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · June 2017 OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine whether antenatal exposure to magnesium is associated with spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (⩽1000 g). STUDY DESIGN: We identified all ELBW infants ... Full text Link to item Cite

Survival and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes among Periviable Infants.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · February 16, 2017 BACKGROUND: Data reported during the past 5 years indicate that rates of survival have increased among infants born at the borderline of viability, but less is known about how increased rates of survival among these infants relate to early childhood neurod ... Full text Link to item Cite

A case of infant delirium in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Neonatal Perinatal Med · 2017 Infant delirium is an under-recognized clinical entity in neonatal intensive care, and earlier identification and treatment could minimize morbidities associated with this condition. We describe a case of a 6-month-old former 32 weeks gestation infant unde ... Full text Link to item Cite

Survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes among periviable infants

Journal Article Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey · January 1, 2017 Full text Cite

Gastrostomy tube placement in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: Frequency, predictors, and growth outcomes.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · December 2016 BACKGROUND: Gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement is a common intervention for newborns with severe feeding difficulties. Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are at high risk for feeding problems. Prevalence of G-tube placement and consequent ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevention and management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Lessons learned from the neonatal research network.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · October 2016 Despite remarkable improvements in survival of extremely premature infants, the burden of BPD among survivors remains a frustrating problem for parents and caregivers. Advances, such as antenatal steroids and surfactant replacement, which have dramatically ... Full text Link to item Cite

Growth Outcomes of Preterm Infants Exposed to Different Oxygen Saturation Target Ranges from Birth.

Journal Article J Pediatr · September 2016 OBJECTIVE: To test whether infants randomized to a lower oxygen saturation (peripheral capillary oxygen saturation [SpO2]) target range while on supplemental oxygen from birth will have better growth velocity from birth to 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety and pharmacokinetics of multiple dose myo-inositol in preterm infants.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · August 2016 BACKGROUND: Preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) given inositol had reduced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), death and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics of daily inositol to select a d ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety of histamine-2 receptor blockers in hospitalized VLBW infants.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · August 2016 BACKGROUND: Histamine-2 receptor (H2) blockers are often used in very low birth weight infants despite lack of population specific efficacy and safety data. AIMS: We sought to describe safety and temporal trends in histamine-2 receptor (H2) blocker use in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Blood Cytokine Profiles Associated with Distinct Patterns of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · July 2016 OBJECTIVE: To explore differences in blood cytokine profiles among distinct bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patterns. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated blood spots collected from 943 infants born at ≤1000 g and surviving to 28 days on postnatal days 1, 3, 7, 14, ... Full text Link to item Cite

S-Nitrosylated fetal hemoglobin in neonatal human blood.

Journal Article Biochem Biophys Res Commun · May 13, 2016 BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives play important roles in the cardiopulmonary transition upon birth and in other oxygen-sensitive developmental milestones. One mechanism for the coupling of oxygen sensing and signaling by NO species is via ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clindamycin Pharmacokinetics and Safety in Preterm and Term Infants.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · May 2016 Clindamycin may be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a common pathogen causing sepsis in infants, but optimal dosing in this population is unknown. We performed a multicenter, prospective pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety study of c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Daily mortality of infants born at less than 30weeks' gestation.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · May 2016 BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported odds of mortality for hospitalized premature infants stratified by postnatal age and adjusted for severity of illness. Our objective was to examine day-by-day mortality of premature infants in a large multicenter cohor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Necrotizing enterocolitis and the use of loop diuretics in very low birth weight neonates.

Journal Article Am J Surg · April 2016 BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a gastrointestinal disease of premature, very low birth weight neonates resulting in sepsis and death. Loop diuretics are widely used in neonates as a treatment for pulmonary fluid retention. An association be ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adverse consequences of neonatal antibiotic exposure.

Journal Article Curr Opin Pediatr · April 2016 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antibiotics have not only saved lives and improved outcomes, but they also influence the evolving microbiome. This review summarizes reports on neonatal infections and variation in antibiotic utilization, discusses the emergence of resis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Improved survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes among extremely premature infants born near the limit of viability.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · April 2016 BACKGROUND: Infants born near the limit of viability are at high risk for death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. It is unclear whether these outcomes have improved over the past 15 years. AIM: To determine if death and neurodevelopmental impairment ... Full text Link to item Cite

Insulin, Hyperglycemia, and Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · March 2016 OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the association between hyperglycemia, insulin therapy, and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective database study, we included all EL ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gabapentin Use in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Journal Article J Pediatr · February 2016 Gabapentin was used for the treatment of term and preterm infants with suspected visceral hyperalgesia caused by a variety of neurologic and gastrointestinal morbidities. Improved feeding tolerance and decreased irritability were seen, as well as decreased ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differences in Eccentricity Index and Systolic-Diastolic Ratio in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia at Risk of Pulmonary Hypertension.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · January 2016 OBJECTIVE: To compare the left ventricular eccentricity index (EI) and tricuspid valve systolic-diastolic (SD) ratio in infants at risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH). STUDY DESIGN: Review of echocardiograms performed o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in Care Practices, Morbidity, and Mortality of Extremely Preterm Neonates, 1993-2012

Journal Article Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey · January 1, 2016 Full text Cite

Genes and environment in neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · December 2015 Emerging data suggest intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the preterm neonate is a complex disorder with contributions from both the environment and the genome. Environmental analyses suggest factors mediating both cerebral blood flow and angiogenesis con ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genomics in the neonatal nursery: Focus on ROP.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · December 2015 Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a complex disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Several small studies have found genetic variants in EPAS1, VEGF, SOD, and members of the WNT family in association with ROP. Design in gene ... Full text Link to item Cite

Thinner Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Very Preterm Versus Term Infants and Relationship to Brain Anatomy and Neurodevelopment.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · December 2015 PURPOSE: To assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at term-equivalent age in very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age) vs term-born infant cohorts, and compare very preterm infant RNFL thickness with brain anatomy and neurodevelopment. DESIGN: Co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Elucidating the role of genomics in neonatal sepsis.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · December 2015 Sepsis is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in vulnerable preterm populations. Immature immune defenses, and environmental and maternal factors contribute to this risk, with as many as a third of very preterm infants experiencin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Introduction.

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · December 2015 Full text Link to item Cite

Right ventricular echocardiographic indices predict poor outcomes in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

Journal Article Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging · November 2015 AIMS: Infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) have elevated pulmonary vascular resistance that can lead to right ventricular (RV) failure and death. Clinicians must decide which infants will fail conventional therapy and requir ... Full text Link to item Cite

FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF YOUNG INFANTS WITH AND WITHOUT MACULAR EDEMA.

Journal Article Retina · October 2015 PURPOSE: The authors relate posterior segment microanatomy from perinatal spectral domain optical coherence tomography to visual acuity, brain abnormalities, and neurodevelopment. METHODS: Thirteen infants (11 preterm and 2 term birth), imaged in the nurse ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between positive urine cultures and necrotizing enterocolitis in a large cohort of hospitalized infants.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · October 2015 OBJECTIVE: We used a large research database to examine the association between urinary tract infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants. METHODS: This retrospective data analysis included infants ≤32week gestational age and ≤1500g ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in Care Practices, Morbidity, and Mortality of Extremely Preterm Neonates, 1993-2012.

Journal Article JAMA · September 8, 2015 IMPORTANCE: Extremely preterm infants contribute disproportionately to neonatal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To review 20-year trends in maternal/neonatal care, complications, and mortality among extremely preterm infants born at Neonatal Research N ... Full text Link to item Cite

Between-hospital variation in treatment and outcomes in extremely preterm infants

Journal Article Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey · September 1, 2015 Full text Cite

Management Practice and Mortality for Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · July 2015 OBJECTIVE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is fatal in 20 to 40% of cases, largely due to pulmonary dysmaturity, lung hypoplasia, and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Evidence for survival benefit of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), extracorporeal membr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Necrotizing enterocolitis in infants with ductal-dependent congenital heart disease.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · June 2015 OBJECTIVE: Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) receiving prostaglandins (PGEs) may be at an increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Enteral feeding may further increase the risk of NEC in these patients. We evaluated the incidence of NE ... Full text Link to item Cite

Developmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants born to adolescent mothers.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 2015 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extremely preterm infants and infants born to adolescent mothers are at risk for adverse developmental. The objectives were to evaluate development and behavior outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to adoles ... Full text Link to item Cite

Between-hospital variation in treatment and outcomes in extremely preterm infants.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · May 7, 2015 BACKGROUND: Between-hospital variation in outcomes among extremely preterm infants is largely unexplained and may reflect differences in hospital practices regarding the initiation of active lifesaving treatment as compared with comfort care after birth. M ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of a palliative care program on end-of-life care in a neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Perinatol · March 2015 OBJECTIVE: Evaluate changes in end-of-life care following initiation of a palliative care program in a neonatal intensive care unit. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study comparing infant deaths before and after implementation of a Palliative Care Program comp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes associated with cystoid macular edema identified in preterm infants in the intensive care nursery.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · March 2015 PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between cystoid macular edema (CME) observed in very preterm infants and developmental outcomes at 18 to 24 months corrected age. DESIGN: Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Infants born at or less than 1500 g or at or less tha ... Full text Link to item Cite

PaCO2 in surfactant, positive pressure, and oxygenation randomised trial (SUPPORT).

Journal Article Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed · March 2015 OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide PaCO2 with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (sIVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18-22 months in premature infants. DE ... Full text Link to item Cite

Integrated genomic analyses in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Journal Article J Pediatr · March 2015 OBJECTIVE: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and pathways associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) because O2 requirement at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age risk is strongly influenced by heritable factors. STUDY DESIGN: A genome-wide ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antibiotic stewardship: reassessment of guidelines for management of neonatal sepsis.

Journal Article Clin Perinatol · March 2015 In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provided updated guidelines for prevention of perinatal group B streptococcus disease. In 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on the Fetus and Newborn (COFN) provided a clinical ... Full text Link to item Cite

Causes and timing of death in extremely premature infants from 2000 through 2011.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · January 22, 2015 BACKGROUND: Understanding the causes and timing of death in extremely premature infants may guide research efforts and inform the counseling of families. METHODS: We analyzed prospectively collected data on 6075 deaths among 22,248 live births, with gestat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anaerobic antimicrobial therapy after necrotizing enterocolitis in VLBW infants.

Journal Article Pediatrics · January 2015 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of anaerobic antimicrobial therapy for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) on clinical outcomes in very low birth weight (≤1500 g) infants. METHODS: We identified very low birth weight infants with NEC from 348 US NICUs from 1 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Ameliorate Motor Deficits in Rabbits in a Cerebral Palsy Model.

Journal Article Dev Neurosci · 2015 Cerebral palsy (CP) has a significant impact on both patients and society, but therapy is limited. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC), containing various stem and progenitor cells, have been used to treat various brain genetic conditions. In small an ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Antenatal magnesium sulfate exposure and acute cardiorespiratory events in preterm infants.

Journal Article Am J Obstet Gynecol · January 2015 OBJECTIVE: Antenatal magnesium (anteMg) is used for various obstetric indications including fetal neuroprotection. Infants exposed to anteMg may be at risk for respiratory depression and delivery room (DR) resuscitation. The study objective was to compare ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inhaled PGE1 in neonates with hypoxemic respiratory failure: two pilot feasibility randomized clinical trials.

Journal Article Trials · December 12, 2014 BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (INO), a selective pulmonary vasodilator, has revolutionized the treatment of neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure (NHRF). However, there is lack of sustained improvement in 30 to 46% of infants. Aerosolized prostaglandin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antenatal magnesium sulfate and spontaneous intestinal perforation in infants less than 25 weeks gestation.

Journal Article J Perinatol · November 2014 OBJECTIVE: Evaluate spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP)/death among extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants before, during and after initiation of an antenatal magnesium for neuroprotection protocol (MgPro). STUDY DESIGN: We tested associations betwe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Predictive performance of a gentamicin population pharmacokinetic model in neonates receiving full-body hypothermia.

Journal Article Ther Drug Monit · October 2014 BACKGROUND: Population pharmacokinetic (popPK) models derived from small pharmacokinetics (PK) studies in neonates are often underpowered to detect clinically important characteristics that drive dosing. External validation of such models is crucial. In th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluation of optic nerve development in preterm and term infants using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · September 2014 PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of prematurity on early optic nerve (ON) development and the usefulness of ON parameters as indicators of central nervous system (CNS) development and pathology. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional, longitudinal study. PARTICI ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic variants associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · August 12, 2014 PURPOSE: To determine genetic variants associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a candidate gene cohort study of US preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants in the discovery cohort were enrolled through the Eunice Kennedy Shriver Nationa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pulmonary artery thrombus in a premature neonate treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.

Journal Article J Perinatol · July 2014 Pulmonary artery thrombus is a rarely reported complication in premature neonates. The management of life-threatening thrombotic events in neonates is controversial, especially regarding the use of thrombolytics versus anticoagulation alone for treatment. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Feasibility of autologous cord blood cells for infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Journal Article J Pediatr · May 2014 OBJECTIVE: To assess feasibility and safety of providing autologous umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells to neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled infants in the intensive care nursery who were cooled for HIE and had ava ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Feeding practices and other risk factors for developing transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · May 2014 AIMS: The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of and risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and transfusion-associated NEC (TANEC) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants pre/post implementation of a peri-transfusion feeding pro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Apolipoprotein E genotype and outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · March 2014 BACKGROUND: Adults with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene alleles e4 and e2 are at high risk of poor neurological outcome after brain injury. The e4 allele has been associated with cerebral palsy (CP), and the e2 allele has been associated with worse neurol ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mortality and morbidity of VLBW infants with trisomy 13 or trisomy 18.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 2014 OBJECTIVE: Little is known about how very low birth weight (VLBW) affects survival and morbidities among infants with trisomy 13 (T13) or trisomy 18 (T18). We examined the care plans for VLBW infants with T13 or T18 and compared their risks of mortality an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Therapeutic hypothermia for treatment of neonatal encephalopathy: Current research and nursing care

Journal Article Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews · January 1, 2014 Neonatal encephalopathy, a condition resulting from perinatal asphyxia, occurs in 2.0-6.0 of every 1000 live births. Without treatment, prognosis is poor and resulting complications such as intellectual delay and cerebral palsy are often severe. Therapeuti ... Full text Cite

Pharmacokinetics and safety of a single intravenous dose of myo-inositol in preterm infants of 23-29 wk.

Journal Article Pediatr Res · December 2013 BACKGROUND: Myo-inositol given to preterm infants with respiratory distress has reduced death, increased survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and reduced severe retinopathy of prematurity in two randomized trials. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in ex ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early administration of oropharyngeal colostrum to extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article Breastfeed Med · December 2013 BACKGROUND: Human milk reduces morbidities in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. However, clinical instability often precludes ELBW infants from receiving early enteral feeds. This study compared clinical outcomes before and after implementing an o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of low-dose dopamine on urine output in normotensive very low birth weight neonates.

Journal Article J Perinatol · August 2013 OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of low-dose dopamine on urine output (UOP) in very low birth weight premature neonates. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of all low-dose (3-5 μg kg(-1) per min) dopamine infusions >24-h duration in neonates 1500 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Blood stream infection is associated with altered heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immune responses in very low birth weight infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · August 2013 OBJECTIVE: Sepsis in older children and adults modifies immune system function. We compared serotype-specific antibody responses to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in very low birth weight infants (<1500 g,VLBWs) with and without blood st ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rescuing the neonatal brain from hypoxic injury with autologous cord blood.

Journal Article Bone Marrow Transplant · July 2013 Brain injury resulting from perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of acute mortality in infants and chronic neurologic disability in surviving children. Recent multicenter clinical trials demonstrated the effectiveness of hypothe ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Individual and center-level factors affecting mortality among extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 2013 OBJECTIVE: To examine factors affecting center differences in mortality for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: We analyzed data for 5418 ELBW infants born at 16 Neonatal Research Network centers during 2006-2009. The primary outcomes of ea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight infants from singleton and multiple-gestation births.

Journal Article J Pediatr · June 2013 OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare the incidence of late-onset sepsis (LOS) and demographic and clinical characteristics associated with LOS in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants from singleton and multiple births, and to examine the heritability of sus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early sepsis does not increase the risk of late sepsis in very low birth weight neonates.

Journal Article J Pediatr · May 2013 OBJECTIVE: To examine whether preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have an increased risk of late-onset sepsis (LOS) following early-onset sepsis (EOS). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of VLBW infants (401-1500 g) born September 1998 through D ... Full text Link to item Cite

Duration of empirical antibiotic therapy for infants suspected of early-onset sepsis.

Journal Article Curr Opin Pediatr · April 2013 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinicians' adherence to the Centers for Disease Control guidelines to prevent group B Streptococcus (GBS) early-onset sepsis (EOS) has reduced GBS EOS. Although evidence-based testing and empirical antibiotic initiation are likely savin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perinatal factors associated with poor neurocognitive outcome in early school age congenital diaphragmatic hernia survivors.

Journal Article J Pediatr Surg · April 2013 OBJECTIVE: Determine predictors of neurocognitive outcome in early school age congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of infants with CDH at Duke University Medical Center. Neurocognitive delay (NCD) at school age ( ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of gestational age on death and neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants with severe intracranial hemorrhage.

Journal Article J Perinatol · January 2013 OBJECTIVE: To determine whether death and/or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) after severe intracranial hemorrhage (ICH; grade 3 or 4) differs by gestational age (GA) at birth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: Demographic, peri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcome of extremely preterm infants (<1,000 g) with congenital heart defects from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network.

Journal Article Pediatr Cardiol · December 2012 Little is known about the outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants with congenital heart defects (CHDs). The aim of this study was to assess the mortality, morbidity, and early childhood outcomes of ELBW infants with isolated CHD compa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Very low birth weight neonates who survive early-onset sepsis do not have an increased risk of developing late-onset sepsis.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · November 2012 BACKGROUND: Very low birth weight neonates (≤ 1500 g, VLBWs) have a high rate of infection and distinct baseline immune function compared with more mature populations. In critically ill children and adults, sepsis increases subsequent infection risk. It is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Empiric antifungal therapy and outcomes in extremely low birth weight infants with invasive candidiasis.

Journal Article J Pediatr · August 2012 OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of empiric antifungal therapy for invasive candidiasis on subsequent outcomes in premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cohort study of infants with a birth weight ≤ 1000 g receiving care at Neonatal Research Network si ... Full text Link to item Cite

Approach to infants born at 22 to 24 weeks' gestation: relationship to outcomes of more-mature infants.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 2012 OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if a center's approach to care of premature infants at the youngest gestational ages (22-24 weeks' gestation) is associated with clinical outcomes among infants of older gestational ages (25-27 weeks' gestation). METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic assessment of severity of cystoid macular edema in retinopathy of prematurity.

Journal Article Arch Ophthalmol · May 2012 OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the severity of cystoid macular edema (CME) in neonates who were 31 to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, as viewed by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)imaging, predicts the severity of retinopathy of prematu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antibiotic use and misuse in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article Clin Perinatol · March 2012 Neonatal sepsis causes significant morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm infants. Clinicians are compelled to treat with empiric antibiotics at the first signs of suspected sepsis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics and prolonged treatment with empiric an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Metoclopramide, H2 blockers, and proton pump inhibitors: pharmacotherapy for gastroesophageal reflux in neonates.

Journal Article Clin Perinatol · March 2012 Pharmacotherapy for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in neonates, aimed at interfering with this physiologic process and potentially reducing the negative sequelae that providers often attribute to GER, consists primarily of drugs that increase the viscosity ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcomes following candiduria in extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 1, 2012 BACKGROUND: Candidiasis carries a significant risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW; <1000 g). We sought to determine the impact of candiduria in ELBW preterm infants. METHODS: Our study was a seco ... Full text Link to item Cite

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Chapter · January 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Dynamics of human foveal development after premature birth.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · December 2011 PURPOSE: To determine the dynamic morphologic development of the human fovea in vivo using portable spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). DESIGN: Prospective, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one prematurely born neonates, 9 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity.

Journal Article Retina · September 2011 PURPOSE: To compare vitreoretinal pathology imaged with portable handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to conventional indirect ophthalmoscopic examination in neonates undergoing screening for retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS: S ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia by postnatal age in extremely premature infants.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · June 15, 2011 RATIONALE: Benefits of identifying risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants include providing prognostic information, identifying infants likely to benefit from preventive strategies, and stratifying infants for clinical t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Repeat lumbar punctures in infants with meningitis in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article J Perinatol · June 2011 OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine the results of repeat lumbar puncture in infants with initial positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures in order to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of infants with repeat positive cul ... Full text Link to item Cite

Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus with bidirectional flow in neonates.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · May 2011 BACKGROUND: Patent ductus arteriosus is a common occurrence among prematurely born neonates and is believed to play a role in the development of other complications of prematurity including intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recombinant activated factor VIIa treatment for refractory hemorrhage in infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · March 2011 OBJECTIVE: Report clinical response to recombinant factor VIIa in a cohort of critically ill infants. STUDY DESIGN: We identified all infants who received factor VIIa in the Duke Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 2005 and July 2008. Hematologica ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reversible retinal edema in an infant with neonatal hemochromatosis and liver failure.

Journal Article J AAPOS · February 2011 We present a case of bilateral severe retinal edema with subretinal fluid in an infant diagnosed with neonatal hemochromatosis and liver failure. A macular cherry-red spot in each eye mimicked the clinical appearance of many metabolic storage diseases. Bot ... Full text Link to item Cite

Beyond bacteria: a study of the enteric microbial consortium in extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2011 Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants have high morbidity and mortality, frequently due to invasive infections from bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The microbial communities present in the gastrointestinal tracts of preterm infants may serve as a reservo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Does IVIg administration yield improved immune function in very premature neonates?

Journal Article J Perinatol · October 2010 Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been evaluated as an adjunctive therapy for neonatal sepsis with modest clinical success despite strong biological plausibility. Multiple factors contribute to this outcome, but perhaps none greater than the limited im ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vasopressin for refractory hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article J Pediatr · September 2010 Intravenous vasopressin at 0.01 to 0.04 units/kg/h increased median mean blood pressure from 26 mm Hg (range 18-44) to 41 mm Hg (range 17-90) by 12 hours of infusion (P=.002) and allowed weaning of catecholamines in a group of extremely low birth weight in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Protocolized approach to the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: benefits of reducing variability in care.

Journal Article J Pediatr Surg · June 2010 PURPOSE: Variable approaches to the care of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) by multiple providers may contribute to inconsistent care. Our institution developed a comprehensive evidence-based protocol to standardize the management of CDH ... Full text Link to item Cite

Long-term morbidities associated with vocal cord paralysis after surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article J Perinatol · June 2010 OBJECTIVE: Determine associations between left vocal cord paralysis (LVCP) and poor respiratory, feeding and/or developmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants following surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). STUDY DESIGN ... Full text Link to item Cite

Target ranges of oxygen saturation in extremely preterm infants.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · May 27, 2010 BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of retinopathy is lower in preterm infants with exposure to reduced levels of oxygenation than in those exposed to higher levels of oxygenation. However, it is unclear what range of oxygen satu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early CPAP versus surfactant in extremely preterm infants.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · May 27, 2010 BACKGROUND: There are limited data to inform the choice between early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and early surfactant treatment as the initial support for extremely-low-birth-weight infants. METHODS: We performed a randomized ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety and effectiveness of indomethacin versus ibuprofen for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus.

Journal Article Am J Perinatol · May 2010 We compared the rates of medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and complications (renal dysfunction, necrotizing enterocolitis, spontaneous intestinal perforation, and intraventricular hemorrhage) between infants treated with indomethacin and i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · May 2010 PURPOSE: To describe age-related considerations and methods to improve hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography (HH-SD OCT) imaging of eyes of neonates, infants, and children. METHODS: Based on calculated optical parameters for neonatal and i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Preliminary observations of the use of high-frequency jet ventilation as rescue therapy in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Journal Article J Pediatr Surg · April 2010 BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is associated with mortality of 10% to 50%. Several investigators have reported outcomes from centers using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in their management of CDH, but there are no recent ... Full text Link to item Cite

Digital microfluidics: a future technology in the newborn screening laboratory?

Journal Article Semin Perinatol · April 2010 Expansion of newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders using tandem mass spectrometry has generated interest in screening for other treatable conditions, including lysosomal storage diseases. Limitations to expansion include labor and equipment c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of renal anomalies after urinary tract infections in hospitalized infants less than 2 months of age.

Journal Article J Perinatol · April 2010 OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the incidence of anatomical abnormalities after a urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants <2 months of age hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, single-center c ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products.

Journal Article J Pediatr · April 2010 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the health benefits of an exclusively human milk-based diet compared with a diet of both human milk and bovine milk-based products in extremely premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Infants fed their own mothers' milk were randomized to 1 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Journal Article Expert Rev Obstet Gynecol · March 1, 2010 Moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic injury in newborn infants, manifested as encephalopathy immediately or within hours after birth, is associated with a high risk of either death or a lifetime with disability. In recent multicenter clinical trials, hypoth ... Full text Link to item Cite

Predicting time to hospital discharge for extremely preterm infants.

Journal Article Pediatrics · January 2010 BACKGROUND: As extremely preterm infant mortality rates have decreased, concerns regarding resource use have intensified. Accurate models for predicting time to hospital discharge could aid in resource planning, family counseling, and stimulate quality-imp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early and late onset sepsis in late preterm infants.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · December 2009 BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is increasing worldwide, and late preterm births, which comprise more than 70% of all preterm births, account for much of the increase. Early and late onset sepsis results in significant mortality in extremely preterm infants, but ... Full text Link to item Cite

Group B streptococcal meningitis: cerebrospinal fluid parameters in the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis.

Journal Article Early Hum Dev · October 2009 OBJECTIVE: Describe cerebrospinal fluid parameters in infants with culture-proven Group B streptococcal meningitis in the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study of the first lumbar puncture from 13,495 infants cared for at 15 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Transpyloric tube feeding in very low birthweight infants with suspected gastroesophageal reflux: impact on apnea and bradycardia.

Journal Article J Perinatol · May 2009 OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the safety and efficacy of transpyloric tube feeding as a therapeutic option to reduce apnea and bradycardia in hospitalized very low birthweight (VLBW) infants with clinical signs suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER ... Full text Link to item Cite

Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Chapter · January 1, 2009 Full text Cite

Prolonged duration of initial empirical antibiotic treatment is associated with increased rates of necrotizing enterocolitis and death for extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article Pediatrics · January 2009 OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to identify factors associated with the duration of the first antibiotic course initiated in the first 3 postnatal days and to assess associations between the duration of the initial antibiotic course and subsequent necrotiz ... Full text Link to item Cite

Traumatic lumbar punctures in neonates: test performance of the cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · December 2008 BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings are often used to diagnose meningitis in neonates given antibiotics before the lumbar puncture is performed. Traumatic lumbar punctures are common and complicate interpretation of CSF white blood cell counts. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vocal fold paralysis following surgical ductal closure in extremely low birth weight infants: a case series of feeding and respiratory complications.

Journal Article J Perinatol · November 2008 Surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) continues to be a frequent procedure among extremely preterm infants. Recent evidence indicates surgical closure is associated with worse outcomes than after medical closure. Left vocal fold paralysis is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aggressive vs. conservative phototherapy for infants with extremely low birth weight.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · October 30, 2008 BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether aggressive phototherapy to prevent neurotoxic effects of bilirubin benefits or harms infants with extremely low birth weight (1000 g or less). METHODS: We randomly assigned 1974 infants with extremely low birth weight at 1 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is an increased dwell time of a peripherally inserted catheter associated with an increased risk of bloodstream infection in infants?

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · August 2008 OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of bloodstream infection associated with catheter dwell time in infants. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Duke University Medical Center neonatal intensive care unit, an academic, level 3 nursery in Durham, North Caroli ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between thrombosis and bloodstream infection in neonates with peripherally inserted catheters.

Journal Article Thromb Res · 2008 INTRODUCTION: Peripherally inserted catheters are essential for infants in the neonatal intensive care nursery for administration of medications, parenteral nutrition and blood transfusions. We hypothesized that there is an association between catheter ass ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of medications for gastroesophageal reflux at discharge among extremely low birth weight infants.

Journal Article Pediatrics · January 2008 OBJECTIVES: Our goals were (1) to determine the use of medications to treat gastroesophageal reflux in extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight of < 1000 g) at discharge; (2) to identify risk factors associated with the use of medications to treat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dynamic change of fecal calprotectin in very low birth weight infants during the first month of life.

Journal Article Neonatology · 2008 BACKGROUND: Calprotectin is a cytosolic component of neutrophils. Fecal calprotectin (FC) level is a useful marker for exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease in children. FC may be a useful marker for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). OBJECTIVE: To dete ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dietary fat for infants with enterostomies.

Journal Article J Pediatr Surg · November 2007 BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Infants with enterostomies frequently have signs of short bowel syndrome. Our goal was to assess the effect of dietary lipids on ostomy output and weight gain in infants with enterostomies. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 10 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Predictive value of cerebrospinal fluid parameters in neonates with intraventricular drainage devices.

Journal Article J Neurosurg · September 2007 OBJECT: Infection is a common and potentially devastating complication following placement of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reservoirs in neonates. The goal of this study was to determine the normal ranges for cell count pa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a systematic review and summary of best-evidence practice strategies.

Journal Article J Perinatol · September 2007 OBJECTIVES: Recent reports suggest that specific care strategies improve survival of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). This review presents details of care from centers reporting high rates of survival among CDH infants. STUDY DESIGN: We ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mechanical ventilation strategies in the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Journal Article Semin Pediatr Surg · May 2007 Most infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) require respiratory support. The goal of this report is to present an overview of mechanical ventilation strategies in the management of infants with CDH. The anatomic and physiologic limitations in t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Caspofungin for the treatment of azole resistant candidemia in a premature infant.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 2007 Candidemia is common in extremely low birth weight infants and is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. Treatment options have traditionally been limited to amphotericin B deoxycholate or fluconazole. We present a case of a premature infant ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neonatal Candida meningitis: significance of cerebrospinal fluid parameters and blood cultures.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 2007 OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in Candida meningitis and the proportion of candidemia associated with Candida meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated the initial lumbar punctu ... Full text Link to item Cite

In reply [2]

Journal Article Pediatrics · October 1, 2006 Full text Cite

The association of third-generation cephalosporin use and invasive candidiasis in extremely low birth-weight infants.

Journal Article Pediatrics · August 2006 OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that incidence of invasive candidiasis varies substantially among centers, and previous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is a risk factor for candidiasis in extremely low birth-weight infants. Differences in center ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intestinal malrotation in neonates with nonbilious emesis.

Journal Article J Perinatol · June 2006 Intestinal malrotation is a relatively uncommon condition with diverse outcomes. Familiarity with variations in the presentation of malrotation is imperative as early diagnosis and prompt subsequent surgical intervention are essential to optimizing outcome ... Full text Link to item Cite

A blinded, randomized, multicenter study of an intravenous Staphylococcus aureus immune globulin.

Journal Article J Perinatol · May 2006 OBJECTIVES: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are vulnerable to nosocomial infections and subsequent morbidity; including infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus: 85% of nosocomial S. aureus infections are caused by capsular polysaccharide (CPS) type ... Full text Link to item Cite

Corticosteroids for fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: can we show benefit?

Journal Article J Pediatr Surg · April 2006 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prenatal corticosteroids have been used in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We tested the utility of steroids by 2 methods. METHODS: Mothers carrying fetuses with CDH were randomized to 3 weekly doses of betametha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neonatal meningitis: what is the correlation among cerebrospinal fluid cultures, blood cultures, and cerebrospinal fluid parameters?

Journal Article Pediatrics · April 2006 BACKGROUND: Meningitis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Clinicians frequently use the presence of positive blood cultures to determine whether neonates should undergo lumbar puncture. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) paramet ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of H2-blocker therapy and higher incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants.

Journal Article Pediatrics · February 2006 OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if an association exists between the use of histamine-2 receptor (H2) blockers and the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in infants of 401 to 1500 g in birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the National Institut ... Full text Link to item Cite

A comparison of neonatal Gram-negative rod and Gram-positive cocci meningitis.

Journal Article J Perinatol · February 2006 OBJECTIVE: Neonatal meningitis is an illness with potentially devastating consequences. Early identification of potential risk factors for Gram-negative rod (GNR) infections versus Gram-positive cocci (GPC) infection prior to obtaining final culture result ... Full text Link to item Cite

Whole-body hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · October 13, 2005 BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is protective against brain injury after asphyxiation in animal models. However, the safety and effectiveness of hypothermia in term infants with encephalopathy is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of hypothermia i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prolonged hospital stay for extremely premature infants: risk factors, center differences, and the impact of mortality on selecting a best-performing center.

Journal Article J Perinatol · October 2005 OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to identify factors associated with prolonged hospital stay (PHS: hospitalized >42 weeks postmenstrual age) in extremely premature (EP: born less than or equal to 28 weeks gestation) infants. The second objective was to i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mortality following blood culture in premature infants: increased with Gram-negative bacteremia and candidemia, but not Gram-positive bacteremia.

Journal Article J Perinatol · March 2004 OBJECTIVE: To describe survival following nosocomial bloodstream infections and quantify excess mortality associated with positive blood culture. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study of premature infants. RESULTS: First blood culture was negative for 464 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Postconception age and other risk factors associated with mortality following Gram-negative rod bacteremia.

Journal Article J Perinatol · March 2004 BACKGROUND: Neonatal nosocomial Gram-negative rod bacteremia (GNR-b) is considered ominous. DESIGN: Multi-center cohort study of premature infants (N=6172) who had a blood culture after day of life 3 and whose birthweight was < or =1250 g. RESULTS: A total ... Full text Link to item Cite

The science of neonatal high-frequency ventilation.

Journal Article Respir Care Clin N Am · December 2001 Despite improvements in respiratory care, ventilator-induced lung injury remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates who require assisted ventilation. Animal data clearly demonstrate that high-frequency ventilation can be used success ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bacteremia, central catheters, and neonates: when to pull the line.

Journal Article Pediatrics · June 2001 OBJECTIVES: Physicians who treat neonates who become bacteremic while dependent on central venous catheters face a serious and common dilemma. We sought 1) to evaluate the relationship between central venous catheter removal and outcome in bacteremic neona ... Full text Link to item Cite