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Warren M. Grill

Edmund T. Pratt, Jr. School Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Box 90281, Dept Biomedical Engineering, Durham, NC 27708-0281
Ciemas 1139, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Calcium image analysis in the moving gut.

Journal Article Neurogastroenterology and motility · December 2023 BackgroundThe neural control of gastrointestinal muscle relies on circuit activity whose underlying motifs remain limited by small-sample calcium imaging recordings confounded by motion artifact, paralytics, and muscle dissections. We present a se ... Full text Cite

Pathways and parameters of sacral neuromodulation in rats.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · December 2023 The stimulation paradigm for sacral neuromodulation has remained largely unchanged since its inception. We sought to determine, in rats, whether stimulation-induced increases in bladder capacity correlated with the proportion of sensory pudendal (PudS) neu ... Full text Cite

Towards a more accurate quasi-static approximation of the electric potential for neurostimulation with kilohertz-frequency sources.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · December 2023 Objective.Our goal was to determine the conditions for which a more precise calculation of the electric potential than the quasi-static approximation may be needed in models of electrical neurostimulation, particularly for signals with kilohertz-fre ... Full text Cite

Network model of nociceptive processing in the superficial spinal dorsal horn reveals mechanisms of hyperalgesia, allodynia, and spinal cord stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · November 2023 The spinal dorsal horn (DH) processes sensory information and plays a key role in transmitting nociception to supraspinal centers. Loss of DH inhibition during neuropathic pain unmasks a pathway from nonnociceptive Aβ-afferent inputs to superficial dorsal ... Full text Cite

The Fifth Bioelectronic Medicine Summit: today's tools, tomorrow's therapies.

Journal Article Bioelectronic medicine · October 2023 The emerging field of bioelectronic medicine (BEM) is poised to make a significant impact on the treatment of several neurological and inflammatory disorders. With several BEM therapies being recently approved for clinical use and others in late-phase clin ... Full text Cite

Rapid estimation of cortical neuron activation thresholds by transcranial magnetic stimulation using convolutional neural networks.

Journal Article Neuroimage · July 15, 2023 BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can modulate neural activity by evoking action potentials in cortical neurons. TMS neural activation can be predicted by coupling subject-specific head models of the TMS-induced electric field (E-field) t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relative contributions of different neural sources to the EEG.

Journal Article NeuroImage · July 2023 Dogma dictates that the EEG signal is generated by postsynaptic currents (PSCs) because there are an enormous number of synapses in the brain, and PSCs have relatively long durations. However, PSCs are not the only potential source of electric fields in th ... Full text Cite

The Therapeutic Frequency Profile of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Rats Is Shaped by Antidromic Spike Failure.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · July 2023 The therapeutic mechanisms of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) may depend on antidromic activation of cortex via the hyperdirect pathway. However, hyperdirect pathway neurons cannot reliably follow high-stimulation frequencies, and th ... Full text Cite

Optimized monophasic pulses with equivalent electric field for rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Journal Article J Neural Eng · June 6, 2023 Objective.Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with monophasic pulses achieves greater changes in neuronal excitability but requires higher energy and generates more coil heating than TMS with biphasic pulses, and this limits the use of monophasic pulse ... Full text Link to item Cite

In Vivo Measurements Reveal that Both Low- and High-frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation Heterogeneously Modulate Superficial Dorsal Horn Neurons.

Journal Article Neuroscience · June 2023 Current sub-perception spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is characterized by the use of high-frequency pulses to achieve paresthesia-free analgesic effects. High-frequency SCS demonstrates distinctive properties from paresthesia-based SCS, such as a longer tim ... Full text Cite

Spatiotemporal parameters for energy efficient kilohertz-frequency nerve block with low onset response.

Journal Article Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation · June 2023 BackgroundElectrical nerve conduction block has great potential for treatment of disease through reversible and local inactivation of somatic and autonomic nerves. However, the relatively high energy requirements and the presence of undesired exci ... Full text Cite

Validated computational models predict vagus nerve stimulation thresholds in preclinical animals and humans.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · June 2023 Objective.We demonstrated how automated simulations to characterize electrical nerve thresholds, a recently published open-source software for modeling stimulation of peripheral nerves, can be applied to simulate accurately nerve responses to electr ... Full text Cite

Fibers in smaller fascicles have lower activation thresholds with cuff electrodes due to thinner perineurium and smaller cross-sectional area.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · April 2023 Objective. In nerve stimulation therapies, fibers in larger fascicles generally have higher activation thresholds, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We implemented and analyzed computational models to uncover the effects of morphological p ... Full text Cite

Offline Learning of Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation Controllers for Parkinson Disease Treatment.

Journal Article ArXiv · March 16, 2023 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown great promise toward treating motor symptoms caused by Parkinson's disease (PD), by delivering electrical pulses to the Basal Ganglia (BG) region of the brain. However, DBS devices approved by the U.S. Food and Drug A ... Link to item Cite

Asynchronous axonal firing patterns evoked via continuous subthreshold kilohertz stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · March 2023 Objective.Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves is a common technique to assist or rehabilitate impaired muscle activation. However, conventional stimulation paradigms activate nerve fibers synchronously with action potentials t ... Full text Cite

A message from the incoming editor.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · March 2023 Full text Cite

Spatially selective stimulation of the pig vagus nerve to modulate target effect versus side effect.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · February 2023 Electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve using implanted electrodes (VNS) is FDA-approved for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy, treatment-resistant depression, and most recently, chronic ischemic stroke rehabilitation. However, VNS is cri ... Full text Cite

Measuring and modeling the effects of vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate and laryngeal muscles.

Journal Article Bioelectronic medicine · February 2023 BackgroundReduced heart rate (HR) during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is associated with therapy for heart failure, but stimulation frequency and amplitude are limited by patient tolerance. An understanding of physiological responses to parameter ... Full text Cite

Responses of model cortical neurons to temporal interference stimulation and related transcranial alternating current stimulation modalities.

Journal Article J Neural Eng · January 3, 2023 Objective.Temporal interference stimulation (TIS) was proposed as a non-invasive, focal, and steerable deep brain stimulation method. However, the mechanisms underlying experimentally-observed suprathreshold TIS effects are unknown, and prior simulation st ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ideal current dipoles are appropriate source representations for simulating neurons for intracranial recordings.

Journal Article Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology · January 2023 ObjectiveTo determine whether dipoles are an appropriate simplified representation of neural sources for stereo-EEG (sEEG).MethodsWe compared the distributions of voltages generated by a dipole, biophysically realistic cortical neuron mod ... Full text Cite

Calcium image analysis in the moving gut.

Journal Article Neurogastroenterology and motility · December 2023 BackgroundThe neural control of gastrointestinal muscle relies on circuit activity whose underlying motifs remain limited by small-sample calcium imaging recordings confounded by motion artifact, paralytics, and muscle dissections. We present a se ... Full text Cite

Pathways and parameters of sacral neuromodulation in rats.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · December 2023 The stimulation paradigm for sacral neuromodulation has remained largely unchanged since its inception. We sought to determine, in rats, whether stimulation-induced increases in bladder capacity correlated with the proportion of sensory pudendal (PudS) neu ... Full text Cite

Towards a more accurate quasi-static approximation of the electric potential for neurostimulation with kilohertz-frequency sources.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · December 2023 Objective.Our goal was to determine the conditions for which a more precise calculation of the electric potential than the quasi-static approximation may be needed in models of electrical neurostimulation, particularly for signals with kilohertz-fre ... Full text Cite

Network model of nociceptive processing in the superficial spinal dorsal horn reveals mechanisms of hyperalgesia, allodynia, and spinal cord stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · November 2023 The spinal dorsal horn (DH) processes sensory information and plays a key role in transmitting nociception to supraspinal centers. Loss of DH inhibition during neuropathic pain unmasks a pathway from nonnociceptive Aβ-afferent inputs to superficial dorsal ... Full text Cite

The Fifth Bioelectronic Medicine Summit: today's tools, tomorrow's therapies.

Journal Article Bioelectronic medicine · October 2023 The emerging field of bioelectronic medicine (BEM) is poised to make a significant impact on the treatment of several neurological and inflammatory disorders. With several BEM therapies being recently approved for clinical use and others in late-phase clin ... Full text Cite

Rapid estimation of cortical neuron activation thresholds by transcranial magnetic stimulation using convolutional neural networks.

Journal Article Neuroimage · July 15, 2023 BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can modulate neural activity by evoking action potentials in cortical neurons. TMS neural activation can be predicted by coupling subject-specific head models of the TMS-induced electric field (E-field) t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relative contributions of different neural sources to the EEG.

Journal Article NeuroImage · July 2023 Dogma dictates that the EEG signal is generated by postsynaptic currents (PSCs) because there are an enormous number of synapses in the brain, and PSCs have relatively long durations. However, PSCs are not the only potential source of electric fields in th ... Full text Cite

The Therapeutic Frequency Profile of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Rats Is Shaped by Antidromic Spike Failure.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · July 2023 The therapeutic mechanisms of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) may depend on antidromic activation of cortex via the hyperdirect pathway. However, hyperdirect pathway neurons cannot reliably follow high-stimulation frequencies, and th ... Full text Cite

Optimized monophasic pulses with equivalent electric field for rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Journal Article J Neural Eng · June 6, 2023 Objective.Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with monophasic pulses achieves greater changes in neuronal excitability but requires higher energy and generates more coil heating than TMS with biphasic pulses, and this limits the use of monophasic pulse ... Full text Link to item Cite

In Vivo Measurements Reveal that Both Low- and High-frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation Heterogeneously Modulate Superficial Dorsal Horn Neurons.

Journal Article Neuroscience · June 2023 Current sub-perception spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is characterized by the use of high-frequency pulses to achieve paresthesia-free analgesic effects. High-frequency SCS demonstrates distinctive properties from paresthesia-based SCS, such as a longer tim ... Full text Cite

Spatiotemporal parameters for energy efficient kilohertz-frequency nerve block with low onset response.

Journal Article Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation · June 2023 BackgroundElectrical nerve conduction block has great potential for treatment of disease through reversible and local inactivation of somatic and autonomic nerves. However, the relatively high energy requirements and the presence of undesired exci ... Full text Cite

Validated computational models predict vagus nerve stimulation thresholds in preclinical animals and humans.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · June 2023 Objective.We demonstrated how automated simulations to characterize electrical nerve thresholds, a recently published open-source software for modeling stimulation of peripheral nerves, can be applied to simulate accurately nerve responses to electr ... Full text Cite

Fibers in smaller fascicles have lower activation thresholds with cuff electrodes due to thinner perineurium and smaller cross-sectional area.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · April 2023 Objective. In nerve stimulation therapies, fibers in larger fascicles generally have higher activation thresholds, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We implemented and analyzed computational models to uncover the effects of morphological p ... Full text Cite

Offline Learning of Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation Controllers for Parkinson Disease Treatment.

Journal Article ArXiv · March 16, 2023 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown great promise toward treating motor symptoms caused by Parkinson's disease (PD), by delivering electrical pulses to the Basal Ganglia (BG) region of the brain. However, DBS devices approved by the U.S. Food and Drug A ... Link to item Cite

Asynchronous axonal firing patterns evoked via continuous subthreshold kilohertz stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · March 2023 Objective.Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves is a common technique to assist or rehabilitate impaired muscle activation. However, conventional stimulation paradigms activate nerve fibers synchronously with action potentials t ... Full text Cite

A message from the incoming editor.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · March 2023 Full text Cite

Spatially selective stimulation of the pig vagus nerve to modulate target effect versus side effect.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · February 2023 Electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve using implanted electrodes (VNS) is FDA-approved for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy, treatment-resistant depression, and most recently, chronic ischemic stroke rehabilitation. However, VNS is cri ... Full text Cite

Measuring and modeling the effects of vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate and laryngeal muscles.

Journal Article Bioelectronic medicine · February 2023 BackgroundReduced heart rate (HR) during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is associated with therapy for heart failure, but stimulation frequency and amplitude are limited by patient tolerance. An understanding of physiological responses to parameter ... Full text Cite

Responses of model cortical neurons to temporal interference stimulation and related transcranial alternating current stimulation modalities.

Journal Article J Neural Eng · January 3, 2023 Objective.Temporal interference stimulation (TIS) was proposed as a non-invasive, focal, and steerable deep brain stimulation method. However, the mechanisms underlying experimentally-observed suprathreshold TIS effects are unknown, and prior simulation st ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ideal current dipoles are appropriate source representations for simulating neurons for intracranial recordings.

Journal Article Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology · January 2023 ObjectiveTo determine whether dipoles are an appropriate simplified representation of neural sources for stereo-EEG (sEEG).MethodsWe compared the distributions of voltages generated by a dipole, biophysically realistic cortical neuron mod ... Full text Cite

Temporally non-regular patterns of deep brain stimulation (DBS) enhance assessment of evoked potentials while maintaining motor symptom management in Parkinson's disease (PD).

Journal Article Brain Stimul · 2023 BACKGROUND: Traditional deep brain stimulation (DBS) at fixed regular frequencies (>100 Hz) is effective in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Temporally non-regular patterns of DBS are a new parameter space that may help increase efficac ... Full text Link to item Cite

Optimization of patient-specific stereo-EEG recording sensitivity.

Journal Article Brain communications · January 2023 Stereo-EEG is a minimally invasive technique used to localize the origin of epileptic activity (the epileptogenic zone) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, current stereo-EEG trajectory planning methods are agnostic to the spatial recording ... Full text Cite

Multi-scale model of axonal and dendritic polarization by transcranial direct current stimulation in realistic head geometry.

Journal Article Brain Stimul · 2023 BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that can alter cortical excitability. However, it remains unclear how the subcellular elements of different neuron types are polarized by specific elect ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fascicles split or merge every ∼560 microns within the human cervical vagus nerve.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · November 2022 Objective.Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is Food and Drug Administration-approved for epilepsy, depression, and obesity, and stroke rehabilitation; however, the morphological anatomy of the vagus nerve targeted by stimulatation is poorly understood. ... Full text Cite

Evaluating optimized temporal patterns of spinal cord stimulation (SCS).

Journal Article Brain stimulation · September 2022 BackgroundTemporal patterns of stimulation represent a novel dimension for improving the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation to treat chronic neuropathic pain.ObjectiveWe hypothesized that nonregular temporal patterns of stimulation desig ... Full text Cite

Surround Inhibition Mediates Pain Relief by Low Amplitude Spinal Cord Stimulation: Modeling and Measurement.

Journal Article eNeuro · September 2022 Low-frequency (<200 Hz), subperception spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a novel modality demonstrating therapeutic efficacy for treating chronic neuropathic pain. When stimulation parameters were carefully titrated, patients experienced rapid onset (second ... Full text Cite

Data from: Stimulation of the pelvic nerve increases bladder capacity in the Prostaglandin E2 rat model of overactive bladder

Dataset · August 8, 2022 This dataset contains data used for the publication: Langdale et al. 2017 (DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00116.2017). The abstract for that paper is as follows: Original Paper Abstract: Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is a highly prevalent condition that may lea ... Full text Cite

Initial Clinical Outcome With Bilateral, Dual-Target Deep Brain Stimulation Trial in Parkinson Disease Using Summit RC + S.

Journal Article Neurosurgery · July 1, 2022 BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy in advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Although both subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP) DBS show equivalent efficacy in PD, combined stimulation may demonstrate synergism. OBJECT ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Isolating two sources of variability of subcortical stimulation to quantify fluctuations of corticospinal tract excitability.

Journal Article Clin Neurophysiol · June 2022 OBJECTIVE: Investigate the variability previously found with cortical stimulation and handheld transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils, criticized for its high potential of coil position fluctuations, bypassing the cortex using deep brain electrical ... Full text Link to item Cite

The cortical evoked potential corresponds with deep brain stimulation efficacy in rats.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · May 2022 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) antidromically activates the motor cortex (M1), and this cortical activation appears to play a role in the treatment of hypokinetic motor behaviors (Gradinaru V, Mogri M, Thompson KR, Henderson ... Full text Cite

Characterizing the short-latency evoked response to intracortical microstimulation across a multi-electrode array.

Journal Article J Neural Eng · April 20, 2022 Objective.Persons with tetraplegia can use brain-machine interfaces to make visually guided reaches with robotic arms. Without somatosensory feedback, these movements will likely be slow and imprecise, like those of persons who retain movement but have los ... Full text Link to item Cite

Characterization of bilateral, pudendal nerve-evoked, urethral rhabdosphincter contractions in anesthetized cats

Journal Article Continence · March 1, 2022 Pudendal (PUD) efferent activity contracts urethral rhabdosphincters to resist urine leakage. This study evaluates the potential for PUD nerve stimulation to provide benefit for urinary incontinence. Acute responses of the urethral rhabdosphincter to modul ... Full text Cite

Stoney vs. Histed: Quantifying the spatial effects of intracortical microstimulation.

Journal Article Brain stimulation · January 2022 BackgroundIntracortical microstimulation (ICMS) is used to map neural circuits and restore lost sensory modalities such as vision, hearing, and somatosensation. The spatial effects of ICMS remain controversial: Stoney and colleagues proposed that ... Full text Cite

Offline Policy Evaluation for Learning-based Deep Brain Stimulation Controllers

Conference Proceedings - 13th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, ICCPS 2022 · January 1, 2022 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective procedure to treat motor symptoms caused by nervous system disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although existing implantable DBS devices can suppress PD symptoms by delivering fixed periodic stimuli to t ... Full text Cite

Evoked potentials generated by deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

Journal Article Brain Stimul · 2022 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The goal of this review is to describe the general features, mechanisms, technical recording factors, and clinical applications of brain evoked potentials (EPs) generated by deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (P ... Full text Link to item Cite

Temporally optimized patterned stimulation (TOPS®) as a therapy to personalize deep brain stimulation treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Journal Article Frontiers in human neuroscience · January 2022 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established therapy for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but there remains an opportunity to improve symptom relief. The temporal pattern of stimulation is a new parameter to consider in DBS therapy, an ... Full text Cite

Activation of ENS Circuits in Mouse Colon: Coordination in the Mouse Colonic Motor Complex as a Robust, Distributed Control System.

Journal Article Advances in experimental medicine and biology · January 2022 The characteristic motor patterns of the colon are coordinated by the enteric nervous system (ENS) and involve enterochromaffin (EC) cells, enteric glia, smooth muscle fibers, and interstitial cells. While the fundamental control mechanisms of colonic moto ... Full text Cite

Dysfunctional voiding behavior and impaired muscle contractility in a rat model of detrusor underactivity.

Journal Article Neurourology and urodynamics · November 2021 AimsDetrusor underactivity (DU) is an understudied health concern with inadequate clinical management. The pathophysiology of DU is unclear, and current therapies fail to improve symptoms. The current studies characterized voiding function and con ... Full text Cite

ASCENT (Automated Simulations to Characterize Electrical Nerve Thresholds): A pipeline for sample-specific computational modeling of electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves.

Journal Article PLoS computational biology · September 2021 Electrical stimulation and block of peripheral nerves hold great promise for treatment of a range of disease and disorders, but promising results from preclinical studies often fail to translate to successful clinical therapies. Differences in neural anato ... Full text Cite

Voiding behavior in awake unrestrained untethered spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar control rats.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · August 2021 The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a genetic model of high blood pressure, has also been studied as a potential model of overactive bladder. In vivo studies have confirmed the presence of surrogate markers of overactive bladder, including detrusor o ... Full text Cite

Control of colonic motility using electrical stimulation to modulate enteric neural activity.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology · April 2021 Electrical stimulation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is an attractive approach to modify gastrointestinal transit. Colonic motor complexes (CMCs) occur with a periodic rhythm, but the ability to elicit a premature CMC depends, at least in part, upon ... Full text Cite

Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia Is Mediated by Cortical Gamma Oscillations in Experimental Parkinsonism.

Journal Article Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society · April 2021 Full text Cite

Non-monotonic kilohertz frequency neural block thresholds arise from amplitude- and frequency-dependent charge imbalance.

Journal Article Scientific reports · March 2021 Reversible block of nerve conduction using kilohertz frequency electrical signals has substantial potential for treatment of disease. However, the ability to block nerve fibers selectively is limited by poor understanding of the relationship between wavefo ... Full text Cite

Technology of deep brain stimulation: current status and future directions.

Journal Article Nature reviews. Neurology · February 2021 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure that allows targeted circuit-based neuromodulation. DBS is a standard of care in Parkinson disease, essential tremor and dystonia, and is also under active investigation for other conditions linked ... Full text Cite

Effects of intravesical prostaglandin E2 on bladder function are preserved in capsaicin-desensitized rats.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · February 2021 Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) instilled into the bladder generates symptoms of urinary urgency in healthy women and reduces bladder capacity and urethral pressure in both humans and female rats. Systemic capsaicin desensitization, which cau ... Full text Cite

Excitation properties of computational models of unmyelinated peripheral axons.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · January 2021 Biophysically based computational models of nerve fibers are important tools for designing electrical stimulation therapies, investigating drugs that affect ion channels, and studying diseases that affect neurons. Although peripheral nerves are primarily c ... Full text Cite

State-dependent bioelectronic interface to control bladder function.

Journal Article Scientific reports · January 2021 Electrical stimulation therapies to promote bladder filling and prevent incontinence deliver continuous inhibitory stimulation, even during bladder emptying. However, continuous inhibitory stimulation that increases bladder capacity (BC) can reduce the eff ... Full text Cite

Functions of Interoception: From Energy Regulation to Experience of the Self.

Journal Article Trends in neurosciences · January 2021 We review recent work on the functions of interoceptive processing, by which the nervous system anticipates, senses, and integrates signals originating from the body. We focus on several exemplar functions of interoception, including energy regulation (ing ... Full text Cite

Adaptive Parameter Modulation of Deep Brain Stimulation Based on Improved Supervisory Algorithm.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2021 Clinically deployed deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease operates in an open loop with fixed stimulation parameters, and this may result in high energy consumption and suboptimal therapy. The objective of this manuscript is ... Full text Cite

In vivo Visualization of Pig Vagus Nerve "Vagotopy" Using Ultrasound.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2021 Background: Placement of the clinical vagus nerve stimulating cuff is a standard surgical procedure based on anatomical landmarks, with limited patient specificity in terms of fascicular organization or vagal anatomy. As such, the therapeutic effect ... Full text Cite

Evoked potentials reveal neural circuits engaged by human deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Brain stimulation · November 2020 BackgroundDeep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for reducing the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but the mechanisms of action of DBS and neural correlates of symptoms remain unknown.ObjectiveTo use the neural respons ... Full text Cite

A comprehensive model-based framework for optimal design of biomimetic patterns of electrical stimulation for prosthetic sensation.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · September 2020 ObjectiveTouch and proprioception are essential to motor function as shown by the movement deficits that result from the loss of these senses, e.g. due to neuropathy of sensory nerves. To achieve a high-performance brain-controlled prosthetic arm/ ... Full text Cite

Quantitative comparisons of block thresholds and onset responses for charge-balanced kilohertz frequency waveforms.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · September 2020 ObjectiveThere is growing interest in delivering kilohertz frequency (KHF) electrical signals to block conduction in peripheral nerves for treatment of various diseases. Previous studies used different KHF waveforms to achieve block, and it remain ... Full text Cite

Sources of off-target effects of vagus nerve stimulation using the helical clinical lead in domestic pigs.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · July 2020 ObjectiveClinical data suggest that efficacious vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is limited by side effects such as cough and dyspnea that have stimulation thresholds lower than those for therapeutic outcomes. VNS side effects are putatively caused b ... Full text Cite

Stimulation of the pelvic nerve increases bladder capacity in the PGE2 cat model of overactive bladder.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · June 2020 Selective electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve exhibits promise as a potential therapy for treating overactive bladder (OAB) across species (rats, cats, and humans). More recently, pelvic nerve (PelN) stimulation was demonstrated to improve cystome ... Full text Cite

Kilohertz waveforms optimized to produce closed-state Na+ channel inactivation eliminate onset response in nerve conduction block.

Journal Article PLoS computational biology · June 2020 The delivery of kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) generates rapid, controlled, and reversible conduction block in motor, sensory, and autonomic nerves, but causes transient activation of action potentials at the onset of the blocking current. ... Full text Cite

Spinal cord stimulation for the restoration of bladder function after spinal cord injury.

Journal Article Healthcare technology letters · June 2020 Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in the inability to empty the bladder voluntarily, and neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) negatively impact both the health and quality of life of persons with SCI. Current appro ... Full text Cite

Data and code from: Waveforms optimized to produce closed-state Na+ inactivation eliminate onset response in nerve conduction block

Dataset · May 19, 2020 The delivery of kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) generates rapid, controlled, and reversible conduction block in motor, sensory, and autonomic nerves, but causes transient activation of action potentials at the onset of the blocking current. ... Full text Cite

Frequency-Specific Optogenetic Deep Brain Stimulation of Subthalamic Nucleus Improves Parkinsonian Motor Behaviors.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · May 2020 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective therapy for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the neural elements mediating symptom relief are unclear. A previous study concluded that direct optogenetic ... Full text Cite

Functional vagotopy in the cervical vagus nerve of the domestic pig: implications for the study of vagus nerve stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · April 2020 ObjectiveGiven current clinical interest in vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), there are surprisingly few studies characterizing the anatomy of the vagus nerve in large animal models as it pertains to on-and off-target engagement of local fibers. We s ... Full text Cite

Model-based design of closed loop deep brain stimulation controller using reinforcement learning

Conference Proceedings - 2020 ACM/IEEE 11th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, ICCPS 2020 · April 1, 2020 Parkinson's disease (PD) currently Influences around one million people in the US. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment for the motor symptoms of PD that delivers electrical stimulation to the basal ganglia (BG) region of the brain. Existin ... Full text Cite

Effects of ramped-frequency thalamic deep brain stimulation on tremor and activity of modeled neurons.

Journal Article Clin Neurophysiol · March 2020 OBJECTIVE: We conducted intraoperative measurements of tremor to quantify the effects of temporally patterned ramped-frequency DBS trains on tremor. METHODS: Seven patterns of stimulation were tested in nine subjects with thalamic DBS for essential tremor: ... Full text Link to item Cite

In vivo quantification of excitation and kilohertz frequency block of the rat vagus nerve.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · March 2020 ObjectiveThere is growing interest in treating diseases by electrical stimulation and block of peripheral autonomic nerves, but a paucity of studies on the excitation and block of small-diameter autonomic axons. We conducted in vivo quantification ... Full text Cite

Energy Optimal Stimulation Waveforms, Or Not: Comments on "An Investigation of Neural Stimulation Efficiency With Gaussian Waveforms".

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · March 2020 Full text Cite

Simulation of transcranial magnetic stimulation in head model with morphologically-realistic cortical neurons.

Journal Article Brain Stimul · 2020 BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) enables non-invasive modulation of brain activity with both clinical and research applications, but fundamental questions remain about the neural types and elements TMS activates and how stimulation param ... Full text Link to item Cite

Continuous deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus may not modulate beta bursts in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Journal Article Brain Stimul · 2020 BACKGROUND: Neural oscillations represent synchronous neuronal activation and are ubiquitous throughout the brain. Oscillatory activity often includes brief high-amplitude bursts in addition to background oscillations, and burst activity may predict perfor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: Advances in Neurophysiology, Adaptive DBS, Virtual Reality, Neuroethics and Technology.

Journal Article Frontiers in human neuroscience · January 2020 The Seventh Annual Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Think Tank held on September 8th of 2019 addressed the most current: (1) use and utility of complex neurophysiological signals for development of adaptive neurostimulation to improve clinical outcomes; (2) Ad ... Full text Cite

Quantified Morphology of the Cervical and Subdiaphragmatic Vagus Nerves of Human, Pig, and Rat.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2020 It is necessary to understand the morphology of the vagus nerve (VN) to design and deliver effective and selective vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) because nerve morphology influences fiber responses to electrical stimulation. Specifically, nerve diameter (an ... Full text Cite

Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Impact of High Concentration Intraurethral Lidocaine on Urodynamic Voiding Parameters.

Journal Article Urology · November 2019 OBJECTIVE: To assess whether intraurethral anesthesia decreased voiding efficiency (VE), reduced catheterization pain, and impacted urodynamic parameters in healthy adult females. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Accuracy of robotic coil positioning during transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Journal Article J Neural Eng · September 17, 2019 OBJECTIVE: Robotic positioning systems for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) promise improved accuracy and stability of coil placement, but there is limited data on their performance. Investigate the usability, accuracy, and limitations of robotic co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multimodal characterization of the human nucleus accumbens.

Journal Article NeuroImage · September 2019 Dysregulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Treatments targeting this area directly (e.g. deep brain stimulation) demonstrate variable efficacy, perhaps owing to non-specific targeting of a functionall ... Full text Cite

Beta Frequency Oscillations in the Subthalamic Nucleus Are Not Sufficient for the Development of Symptoms of Parkinsonian Bradykinesia/Akinesia in Rats.

Journal Article eNeuro · September 2019 Substantial correlative evidence links the synchronized, oscillatory patterns of neural activity that emerge in Parkinson's disease (PD) in the beta (β) frequency range (13-30 Hz) with bradykinesia in PD. However, conflicting evidence exists, and whether t ... Full text Cite

Empirically Based Guidelines for Selecting Vagus Nerve Stimulation Parameters in Epilepsy and Heart Failure.

Journal Article Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine · July 2019 Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a promising therapy to treat patients with epilepsy and heart failure. Outcomes of preclinical studies and clinical trials indicate that the selection of stimulation parameters has a direct impact on therapeutic efficacy an ... Full text Cite

Electrodeposited platinum-iridium coating improves in vivo recording performance of chronically implanted microelectrode arrays.

Journal Article Biomaterials · June 2019 Reliable single unit neuron recordings from chronically implanted microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are essential tools in the field of neural engineering. However, following implantation, MEAs undergo a foreign body response that functionally isolates them fro ... Full text Cite

Average firing rate rather than temporal pattern determines metabolic cost of activity in thalamocortical relay neurons.

Journal Article Scientific reports · May 2019 Thalamocortical (TC) relay cells exhibit different temporal patterns of activity, including tonic mode and burst mode, to transmit sensory information to the cortex. Our aim was to quantify the metabolic cost of different temporal patterns of neural activi ... Full text Cite

Innovative device illuminates the horizon of bioelectronic medicines.

Journal Article Nature reviews. Urology · April 2019 Full text Cite

On the parameters used in finite element modeling of compound peripheral nerves.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · February 2019 ObjectiveComputational modeling is an important tool for developing and optimizing implantable neural stimulation devices, but requires accurate electrical and geometrical parameter values to improve predictive value. We quantified the effects of ... Full text Cite

Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Impact of Intraurethral Lidocaine on Urodynamic Voiding Parameters.

Journal Article Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg · 2019 OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether intraurethral anesthesia decreases voiding efficiency (VE; voided volume/(voided volume + residual volume)) and impacts other urodynamic parameters in healthy female volunteers during urodynamic stu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modulation of neuroinflammation and memory dysfunction using percutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in mice.

Journal Article Brain Stimul · 2019 BACKGROUND: The vagus nerve is involved in regulating immunity and resolving inflammation. Current strategies aimed at modulating neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, in many cases, are limited and ineffective. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a minimal ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sensory pudendal nerve stimulation increases bladder capacity through sympathetic mechanisms in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis rats.

Journal Article Neurourology and urodynamics · January 2019 AimsInterstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome is a prevalent health concern with inadequate treatments. Neuromodulation has emerged as a therapeutic option to treat patients refractory to standard care. The objective of this study was to det ... Full text Cite

Model-Based Evaluation of Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation Controller to Adapt to Dynamic Changes in Reference Signal.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2019 High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is effective in suppressing the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Current clinically-deployed DBS technology operates in an open-loop fashion, i.e., fixed parameter high ... Full text Cite

Biophysically realistic neuron models for simulation of cortical stimulation.

Journal Article J Neural Eng · December 2018 OBJECTIVE: We implemented computational models of human and rat cortical neurons for simulating the neural response to cortical stimulation with electromagnetic fields. APPROACH: We adapted model neurons from the library of Blue Brain models to reflect bio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Temporal Pattern of Electrical Stimulation is a New Dimension of Therapeutic Innovation.

Journal Article Current opinion in biomedical engineering · December 2018 Artificial activation of the nervous system requires selection of appropriate stimulation parameters including stimulation amplitude, stimulation pulse duration, and stimulation pulse repetition rate. The temporal pattern of stimulation, i.e., the timing b ... Full text Cite

Patterned low-frequency deep brain stimulation induces motor deficits and modulates cortex-basal ganglia neural activity in healthy rats.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · November 2018 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), although the mechanisms of action remain unclear. Abnormal oscillatory neural activity is correlated with motor symptoms, and pharmacological o ... Full text Cite

Frequency-dependent antidromic activation in thalamocortical relay neurons: effects of synaptic inputs.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · October 2018 ObjectiveDeep brain stimulation (DBS) generates action potentials (APs) in presynaptic axons and fibers of passage. The APs may be antidromically propagated to invade the cell body and/or orthodromically transmitted to downstream structures, there ... Full text Cite

Platform for Model-Based Design and Testing for Deep Brain Stimulation

Conference Proceedings - 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, ICCPS 2018 · August 21, 2018 Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is effective at alleviating symptoms of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Yet, despite its safety-critical nature, there does not exist a platform for integrated design and testing of new algorithms or devices ... Full text Cite

Learning-Based Control Design for Deep Brain Stimulation

Conference Proceedings - 9th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, ICCPS 2018 · August 21, 2018 By employing low-voltage electrical stimulation of the basal ganglia (BG) regions of the brain, deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices are used to alleviate the symptoms of several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we have ... Full text Cite

Effects of vagal neuromodulation on feeding behavior.

Journal Article Brain research · August 2018 Implanted vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for obesity was recently approved by the FDA. However, its efficacy and mechanisms of action remain unclear. Herein, we synthesize clinical and preclinical effects of VNS on feeding behavior and energy balance and di ... Full text Cite

Model-based deconstruction of cortical evoked potentials generated by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · August 2018 Parkinson's disease is associated with altered neural activity in the motor cortex. Chronic high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is effective in suppressing parkinsonian motor symptoms and modulates cortical activity ... Full text Cite

Translating promising strategies for bowel and bladder management in spinal cord injury.

Journal Article Experimental neurology · August 2018 Loss of control over voiding following spinal cord injury (SCI) impacts autonomy, participation and dignity, and can cause life-threatening complications. The importance of SCI bowel and bladder dysfunction warrants significantly more attention from resear ... Full text Cite

Detection of Bladder Contractions From the Activity of the External Urethral Sphincter in Rats Using Sparse Regression.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · August 2018 Bladder overactivity and incontinence and dysfunction can be mitigated by electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve applied at the onset of a bladder contraction. Thus, it is important to predict accurately both bladder pressure and the onset of bladder ... Full text Cite

Coupling Magnetically Induced Electric Fields to Neurons: Longitudinal and Transverse Activation.

Journal Article Biophys J · July 3, 2018 We present a theory and computational models to couple the electric field induced by magnetic stimulation to neuronal membranes. Based on the characteristics of magnetically induced electric fields and the modified cable equation that we developed previous ... Full text Link to item Cite

Stimulation Efficiency With Decaying Exponential Waveforms in a Wirelessly Powered Switched-Capacitor Discharge Stimulation System.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · May 2018 The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using a switched-capacitor discharge stimulation (SCDS) system for electrical stimulation, and, subsequently, determine the overall energy saved compared to a conventional stimulator. We have constru ... Full text Open Access Cite

Stimulation of the sensory pudendal nerve increases bladder capacity in the rat.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · April 2018 Pudendal nerve stimulation is a promising treatment approach for lower urinary tract dysfunction, including symptoms of overactive bladder. Despite some promising clinical studies, there remain many unknowns as to how best to stimulate the pudendal nerve t ... Full text Cite

Modified cable equation incorporating transverse polarization of neuronal membranes for accurate coupling of electric fields.

Journal Article J Neural Eng · April 2018 OBJECTIVE: We present a theory and computational methods to incorporate transverse polarization of neuronal membranes into the cable equation to account for the secondary electric field generated by the membrane in response to transverse electric fields. T ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sensory percepts induced by microwire array and DBS microstimulation in human sensory thalamus.

Journal Article Brain Stimul · 2018 BACKGROUND: Microstimulation in human sensory thalamus (ventrocaudal, VC) results in focal sensory percepts in the hand and arm which may provide an alternative target site (to somatosensory cortex) for the input of prosthetic sensory information. Sensory ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modeling Current Sources for Neural Stimulation in COMSOL.

Journal Article Frontiers in computational neuroscience · January 2018 Background: Computational modeling provides an important toolset for designing and analyzing neural stimulation devices to treat neurological disorders and diseases. Modeling enables efficient exploration of large parameter spaces, where preclinical ... Full text Cite

Waveforms for Neural Stimulation

Chapter · January 1, 2018 The stimulation waveform describes the applied current, i(t), or voltage, v(t), as a function of time. The characteristics of the stimulation waveform contribute to the effectiveness, efficiency, and risks of electrical stimulation, and thus consideration ... Full text Cite

An improved genetic algorithm for designing optimal temporal patterns of neural stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · December 2017 ObjectiveElectrical neuromodulation therapies typically apply constant frequency stimulation, but non-regular temporal patterns of stimulation may be more effective and more efficient. However, the design space for temporal patterns is exceedingly ... Full text Cite

Electrical stimulation of gut motility guided by an in silico model.

Journal Article J Neural Eng · December 2017 OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases-ranging from Parkinson's Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestin ... Full text Link to item Cite

OAB without an overactive bladder in the acute prostaglandin E2 rat model.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · November 2017 Intravesical prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was previously used to induce overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms, as it reduces bladder capacity in rats and causes a "strong urgency sensation" in healthy women. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. T ... Full text Cite

Multiple Reflex Pathways Contribute to Bladder Activation by Intraurethral Stimulation in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury.

Journal Article Urology · November 2017 OBJECTIVE: To measure the urodynamic effects of electrical co-stimulation of 2 individual sites in the proximal and distal urethra in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). This work was motivated by preclinical findings that selective co-stimulation of th ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effects of neuromodulation in a novel obese-prone rat model of detrusor underactivity.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · September 2017 Obesity is a global epidemic associated with an increased risk for lower urinary tract dysfunction. Inefficient voiding and urinary retention may arise in late-stage obesity when the expulsive force of the detrusor smooth muscle cannot overcome outlet resi ... Full text Cite

Stimulation of the pelvic nerve increases bladder capacity in the prostaglandin E2 rat model of overactive bladder.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · September 2017 Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is a highly prevalent condition that may lead to medical complications and decreased quality of life. Emerging therapies focusing on selective electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves associated with lower urinary tract ... Full text Cite

Real-time decoding of bladder pressure from pelvic nerve activity CP

Conference International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER · August 10, 2017 Real time algorithms for decoding physiological signals from peripheral nerve recordings form an important component of closed loop bioelectronic medicine (electroceutical) systems. As a feasibility CP demonstration, we considered the problem of decoding b ... Full text Cite

Modeling the response of small myelinated axons in a compound nerve to kilohertz frequency signals.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · August 2017 ObjectiveThere is growing interest in electrical neuromodulation of peripheral nerves, particularly autonomic nerves, to treat various diseases. Electrical signals in the kilohertz frequency (KHF) range can produce different responses, including c ... Full text Cite

Sensory feedback from the urethra evokes state-dependent lower urinary tract reflexes in rat.

Journal Article The Journal of physiology · August 2017 Key pointsThe lower urinary tract is regulated by reflexes responsible for maintaining continence and producing efficient voiding. It is unclear how sensory information from the bladder and urethra engages differential, state-dependent reflexes to ... Full text Cite

Loss of Ranbp2 in motoneurons causes disruption of nucleocytoplasmic and chemokine signaling, proteostasis of hnRNPH3 and Mmp28, and development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like syndromes.

Journal Article Dis Model Mech · May 1, 2017 The pathogenic drivers of sporadic and familial motor neuron disease (MND), such amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are unknown. MND impairs the Ran GTPase cycle, which controls nucleocytoplasmic transport, ribostasis and proteostasis; however, cause-eff ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neuroprosthetic control of lower urinary tract function

Chapter · March 10, 2017 Lower urinary tract dysfunction is highly prevalent, leads to a decreased quality of life, and is associated with a high economic burden. In the past decade electrical stimulation has emerged as a valid treatment modality for those with lower urinary tract ... Full text Cite

Frequency-dependent, transient effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on methamphetamine-induced circling and neuronal activity in the hemiparkinsonian rat.

Journal Article Behavioural brain research · March 2017 Methamphetamine-induced circling is used to quantify the behavioral effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in hemiparkinsonian rats. We observed a frequency-dependent transient effect of DBS on circling, and quantified this effec ... Full text Cite

Optimized temporal pattern of brain stimulation designed by computational evolution.

Journal Article Sci Transl Med · January 4, 2017 Brain stimulation is a promising therapy for several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Stimulation parameters are selected empirically and are limited to the frequency and intensity of stimulation. We varied the temporal pattern of dee ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modulation of activity and conduction in single dorsal column axons by kilohertz-frequency spinal cord stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · January 2017 Kilohertz-frequency spinal cord stimulation (KHF-SCS) is a potential paresthesia-free treatment for chronic pain. However, the effects of KHF-SCS on spinal dorsal column (DC) axons and its mechanisms of action remain unknown. The objectives of this study w ... Full text Cite

Biomarkers and Stimulation Algorithms for Adaptive Brain Stimulation.

Journal Article Front Neurosci · 2017 The goal of this review is to describe in what ways feedback or adaptive stimulation may be delivered and adjusted based on relevant biomarkers. Specific treatment mechanisms underlying therapeutic brain stimulation remain unclear, in spite of the demonstr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evolving Applications, Technological Challenges and Future Opportunities in Neuromodulation: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2017 The annual Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Think Tank provides a focal opportunity for a multidisciplinary ensemble of experts in the field of neuromodulation to discuss advancements and forthcoming opportunities and challenges in the field. The proceedings o ... Full text Cite

Temporal pattern of stimulation modulates reflex bladder activation by pudendal nerve stimulation.

Journal Article Neurourology and urodynamics · November 2016 AimsReflex bladder activation and inhibition by electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve (PN) afferents is a promising approach to restore control of bladder function in persons with lower urinary tract dysfunction caused by disease or injury. The ... Full text Cite

Phasic activation of the external urethral sphincter increases voiding efficiency in the rat and the cat.

Journal Article Experimental neurology · November 2016 ObjectiveElectrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve (PN) is a potential therapy for bladder dysfunction, but voiding efficiency (VE) produced by PN stimulation appears limited to 60-70%. We conducted experiments in rats and cats to investigate t ... Full text Cite

Sensory and circuit mechanisms mediating lower urinary tract reflexes.

Journal Article Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical · October 2016 Neural control of continence and micturition is distributed over a network of interconnected reflexes. These reflexes integrate sensory information from the bladder and urethra and are modulated by descending influences to produce different physiological o ... Full text Cite

Estimating postvoid residual volume without measuring residual bladder volume during serial cystometrograms.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · August 2016 The postvoid residual volume (PVR) is a common urodynamic parameter used to quantify the severity of lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, the serial cystometrograms that are typically used to assess bladder function in animal models make measuring PVR ... Full text Cite

Nerve excitation using an amplitude-modulated signal with kilohertz-frequency carrier and non-zero offset.

Journal Article Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation · July 2016 BackgroundIncorporating kilohertz-frequency signals in transcutaneous electrical stimulation has been proposed as a means to overcome the impedance of the skin, thereby reaching deeper nerves. In particular, a transdermal amplitude modulated signa ... Full text Cite

Failure to suppress low-frequency neuronal oscillatory activity underlies the reduced effectiveness of random patterns of deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · June 2016 Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms of action of DBS are unknown. Random temporal patterns of DBS are less effective than regular DBS ... Full text Cite

Modeling the spinal pudendo-vesical reflex for bladder control by pudendal afferent stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of computational neuroscience · June 2016 Electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve (PN) is a promising approach to restore continence and micturition following bladder dysfunction resulting from neurological disease or injury. Although the pudendo-vesical reflex and its physiological propertie ... Full text Cite

Effects of Electrical Stimulation in the Inferior Colliculus on Frequency Discrimination by Rhesus Monkeys and Implications for the Auditory Midbrain Implant.

Journal Article J Neurosci · May 4, 2016 UNLABELLED: Understanding the relationship between the auditory selectivity of neurons and their contribution to perception is critical to the design of effective auditory brain prosthetics. These prosthetics seek to mimic natural activity patterns to achi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A biophysical model of the cortex-basal ganglia-thalamus network in the 6-OHDA lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

Journal Article Journal of computational neuroscience · April 2016 Electrical stimulation of sub-cortical brain regions (the basal ganglia), known as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Chronic high frequency (HF) DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus pallidus int ... Full text Cite

Short pauses in thalamic deep brain stimulation promote tremor and neuronal bursting.

Journal Article Clin Neurophysiol · February 2016 OBJECTIVE: We conducted intraoperative measurements of tremor during DBS containing short pauses (⩽50 ms) to determine if there is a minimum pause duration that preserves tremor suppression. METHODS: Nine subjects with ET and thalamic DBS participated duri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modulation of heart rate by temporally patterned vagus nerve stimulation in the anesthetized dog.

Journal Article Physiological reports · February 2016 Despite current knowledge of the myriad physiological effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in various mammalian species (including humans), the impact of varying stimulation parameters on nerve recruitment and physiological responses is not well unders ... Full text Cite

Enhancement of Neuromodulation with Novel Pulse Shapes Generated by Controllable Pulse Parameter Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

Journal Article Brain Stimul · 2016 BACKGROUND: Standard repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) devices generate bidirectional biphasic sinusoidal pulses that are energy efficient, but may be less effective than monophasic pulses that induce a more unidirectional electric field. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Kilohertz Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation Is Ineffective at Regularizing the Firing of Model Thalamic Neurons.

Journal Article Frontiers in computational neuroscience · January 2016 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders, including tremor, dystonia, and Parkinson's disease, but the mechanisms of action are not well understood. Symptom suppression by DBS typically requires stimulation frequencies ... Full text Cite

Proceedings of the Third Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: A Review of Emerging Issues and Technologies.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroscience · January 2016 The proceedings of the 3rd Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank summarize the most contemporary clinical, electrophysiological, imaging, and computational work on DBS for the treatment of neurological and neuropsychiatric disease. Significant innovatio ... Full text Cite

Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: A Review of Emerging Issues and Technologies.

Journal Article Frontiers in integrative neuroscience · January 2016 This paper provides an overview of current progress in the technological advances and the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, as presented by participants of the Fourth Annual DBS Think Tank, which was ... Full text Cite

Effects of frequency-dependent membrane capacitance on neural excitability.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · October 2015 ObjectiveModels of excitable cells consider the membrane specific capacitance as a ubiquitous and constant parameter. However, experimental measurements show that the membrane capacitance declines with increasing frequency, i.e., exhibits dispersi ... Full text Open Access Cite

Dynamics of the sensory response to urethral flow over multiple time scales in rat.

Journal Article The Journal of physiology · August 2015 Key pointsSensory information from the urethra is essential to maintain continence and to achieve efficient micturition and when compromised by disease or injury can lead to substantial loss of function. Despite the key role urethral sensory infor ... Full text Cite

Design and in vivo evaluation of more efficient and selective deep brain stimulation electrodes.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · August 2015 ObjectiveDeep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders and a promising therapy for treating epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Despite its clinical success, the efficiency and selectivity of DBS can be improved. Ou ... Full text Open Access Cite

Spinal sensory projection neuron responses to spinal cord stimulation are mediated by circuits beyond gate control.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · July 2015 Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a therapy used to treat intractable pain with a putative mechanism of action based on the Gate Control Theory. We hypothesized that sensory projection neuron responses to SCS would follow a single stereotyped response curve ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modeling the response of small myelinated and unmyelinated axons to kilohertz frequency signals

Conference International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER · July 1, 2015 The effects of kilohertz frequency signals on action potential conduction in small myelinated (1 to 5.7 μm diameter) and unmyelinated axons are poorly understood, but could have important therapeutic applications. We developed a finite element model of a c ... Full text Cite

Phantom model of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with kilohertz signals

Conference International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER · July 1, 2015 Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) of nerve fibers may be optimized by overcoming the impedance of the skin using high-frequency (HF) stimulation signals. The excitation properties of nerve fibers depend on the spatiotemporal distribution of the e ... Full text Cite

Design of electrodes for stimulation and recording

Chapter · March 4, 2015 This review describes the fundamental principles of electrode design for neural stimulation and recording and how these principles can be used to advance the efficacy of neural prostheses. In the first section, we cover the design of stimulation electrodes ... Full text Cite

Electrical stimulation for the treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction after spinal cord injury.

Journal Article J Spinal Cord Med · March 2015 Electrical stimulation for bladder control is an alternative to traditional methods of treating neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI). In this review, we systematically discuss the neurophysiology of bla ... Full text Link to item Cite

A neuron model of stochastic resonance using rectangular pulse trains.

Journal Article Journal of computational neuroscience · February 2015 Stochastic resonance (SR) is the enhanced representation of a weak input signal by the addition of an optimal level of broadband noise to a nonlinear (threshold) system. Since its discovery in the 1980s the domain of input signals shown to be applicable to ... Full text Cite

Measurement of evoked potentials during thalamic deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Brain Stimul · 2015 BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) treats the symptoms of several movement disorders, but optimal selection of stimulation parameters remains a challenge. The evoked compound action potential (ECAP) reflects synchronized neural activation near the DB ... Full text Link to item Cite

Model-based analysis and design of waveforms for efficient neural stimulation.

Journal Article Progress in brain research · January 2015 The design space for electrical stimulation of the nervous system is extremely large, and because the response to stimulation is highly nonlinear, the selection of stimulation parameters to achieve a desired response is a challenging problem. Computational ... Full text Cite

Volume conductor model of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with kilohertz signals.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · December 2014 ObjectiveIncorporating high-frequency components in transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) waveforms may make it possible to stimulate deeper nerve fibers since the impedance of tissue declines with increasing frequency. However, the mechanis ... Full text Cite

Selective co-stimulation of pudendal afferents enhances bladder activation and improves voiding efficiency.

Journal Article Neurourology and urodynamics · November 2014 AimsClinical application of pudendal nerve (PN) afferent stimulation to restore bladder emptying in persons with neurological disorders requires increased stimulation-evoked voiding efficiencies (VEs). We tested the hypothesis that selective co-st ... Full text Cite

A spinal GABAergic mechanism is necessary for bladder inhibition by pudendal afferent stimulation.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Renal physiology · October 2014 Electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents can inhibit bladder contractions and increase bladder capacity. Recent results suggest that stimulation-evoked bladder inhibition is mediated by a mechanism other than activation of sympathetic bladder efferents ... Full text Cite

Modeling effects of spinal cord stimulation on wide-dynamic range dorsal horn neurons: influence of stimulation frequency and GABAergic inhibition.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · August 2014 Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a clinical therapy for chronic, neuropathic pain, but an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms underlying SCS contributes to the lack of improvement in SCS efficacy over time. To study the mechanisms underlying SCS, we ... Full text Cite

Analysis of deep brain stimulation electrode characteristics for neural recording.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · August 2014 ObjectiveClosed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems have the potential to optimize treatment of movement disorders by enabling automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters based on a feedback signal. Evoked compound action potentials (ECAP ... Full text Cite

Simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and single-neuron recording in alert non-human primates.

Journal Article Nat Neurosci · August 2014 Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used, noninvasive method for stimulating nervous tissue, yet its mechanisms of effect are poorly understood. Here we report new methods for studying the influence of TMS on single neurons in the brain of ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Evaluation of high-perimeter electrode designs for deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · August 2014 ObjectiveDeep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders and a promising therapy for treating epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Despite its clinical success, complications including infections and mis-programing fol ... Full text Open Access Cite

Investigation of deep brain stimulation mechanisms during implantable pulse generator replacement surgery.

Journal Article Neuromodulation · July 2014 BACKGROUND: Direct testing of deep brain stimulation (DBS) mechanisms in humans is needed to assess therapy and to understand stimulation effects. OBJECTIVE: We developed an innovative paradigm for investigation of DBS on human movement disorders. Temporar ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mechanisms and models of spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Journal Article Brain research · June 2014 Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an established and cost-effective therapy for treating severe chronic pain. However, despite over 40 years of clinical practice and the development of novel electrode designs and treatment protocols, increases in clinical s ... Full text Cite

Bioelectronic medicines: a research roadmap.

Journal Article Nature reviews. Drug discovery · June 2014 Full text Cite

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus reestablishes neuronal information transmission in the 6-OHDA rat model of parkinsonism.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · May 2014 Pathophysiological activity of basal ganglia neurons accompanies the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. High-frequency (>90 Hz) deep brain stimulation (DBS) reduces parkinsonian symptoms, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that parkinson ... Full text Cite

Influences of interpolation error, electrode geometry, and the electrode-tissue interface on models of electric fields produced by deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · February 2014 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders, but the fundamental mechanisms by which DBS has its effects remain unknown. Computational models can provide insights into the mechanisms of DBS, but to be useful, the models mu ... Full text Open Access Cite

Response of human thalamic neurons to high-frequency stimulation.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2014 Thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for tremor, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. Previous studies of human thalamic neurons to noted transient rebound bursting activity followed by prolonged inhibition after cessatio ... Full text Cite

Simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation and single-neuron recording in alert non-human primates

Journal Article Nature Neuroscience · January 1, 2014 Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used, noninvasive method for stimulating nervous tissue, yet its mechanisms of effect are poorly understood. Here we report new methods for studying the influence of TMS on single neurons in the brain of ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of intradural stimulation efficiency and selectivity in a computational model of spinal cord stimulation.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an alternative or adjunct therapy to treat chronic pain, a prevalent and clinically challenging condition. Although SCS has substantial clinical success, the therapy is still prone to failures, including lead breakage, lead ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Theory and Physiology of Electrical Stimulation of the Central Nervous System

Chapter · January 1, 2014 Electrical stimulation is a widespread method to study the form and function of the nervous system and a technique to restore function following disease or injury. Central nervous system (CNS) includes the brain and spinal cord. This chapter presents a rev ... Full text Cite

Stimulation location within the substantia nigra pars reticulata differentially modulates gait in hemiparkinsonian rats

Conference International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER · December 1, 2013 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves the distal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but long-term improvements in gait and postural disturbances are less pronounced. The effects of stimulation location, within the large nuclear region of the substantia ... Full text Cite

Temporal patterns of pudendal afferent stimulation modulate reflex bladder activation

Conference International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER · December 1, 2013 Electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve (PN) afferents to cause reflex activation or inhibition of the bladder is a promising approach to restore control of bladder function in persons with dysfunction caused by disease or injury. The objective of this wo ... Full text Cite

Model-based optimization of electrode designs for deep brain stimulation

Conference International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER · December 1, 2013 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders and a promising therapy for treating epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Despite its success, the clinical efficacy of DBS can be improved; for example, by reducing the number of ... Full text Cite

Network model of the effects of spinal cord stimulation

Conference International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER · December 1, 2013 Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an established treatment for chronic pain. However, SCS only provides 50% or greater pain relief to approximately 60% of patients, and the efficacy of SCS tends to decline over time. Efforts to optimize SCS have focused on ... Full text Cite

Circuit and volume conductor models of transcutaneous electrical stimulation

Conference International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER · December 1, 2013 Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves is a widespread technique for the treatment of neurological diseases and disorders. However, peripheral stimulation typically requires surgical implantation of an electrode and a pulse generator. Transcutaneous s ... Full text Cite

Activation of peripheral nerve fibers by electrical stimulation in the sole of the foot.

Journal Article BMC neuroscience · October 2013 BackgroundHuman nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (NWR) can be evoked by electrical stimulation applied to the sole of the foot. However, elicitation of NWRs is highly site dependent, and NWRs are especially difficult to elicit at the heel. The aim ... Full text Cite

Experimental and model-based analysis of differences in perception of cutaneous electrical stimulation across the sole of the foot.

Journal Article Medical & biological engineering & computing · September 2013 During electrocutaneous stimulations, variation in skin properties across locations can lead to differences in neural activation. However, little focus has been given to the effect of different skin thicknesses on neural activation. Electrical stimulation ... Full text Cite

Neural origin of evoked potentials during thalamic deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · August 2013 Closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems could provide automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters and improve outcomes in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor. The evoked compound action potential (ECAP), generated by activ ... Full text Cite

Model-based analysis of multiple electrode array stimulation for epiretinal visual prostheses.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · June 2013 ObjectiveEpiretinal stimulation, which uses an array of electrodes implanted on the inner retinal surface to relay a representation of the visual scene to the neuronal elements of the retina, has seen considerable success. The objective of the pre ... Full text Cite

Model-based analysis and design of nerve cuff electrodes for restoring bladder function by selective stimulation of the pudendal nerve.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · June 2013 ObjectiveElectrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve (PN) is being developed as a means to restore bladder function in persons with spinal cord injury. A single nerve cuff electrode placed on the proximal PN trunk may enable selective stimulation ... Full text Cite

High-resolution measurement of electrically-evoked vagus nerve activity in the anesthetized dog.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · April 2013 ObjectiveNot fully understanding the type of axons activated during vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is one of several factors that limit the clinical efficacy of VNS therapies. The main goal of this study was to characterize the electrical recruitme ... Full text Cite

Improved efficacy of temporally non-regular deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

Journal Article Exp Neurol · January 2013 High frequency deep brain stimulation is an effective therapy for motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. However, the relative clinical efficacy of regular versus non-regular temporal patterns of stimulation in Parkinson's disease remains unclear. To deter ... Full text Link to item Cite

Principles of electrical stimulation of neural tissue.

Journal Article Handbook of clinical neurology · January 2013 Deep brain stimulation is a remarkable therapy that has mainstreamed electrical stimulation of the brain for the treatment of neurological dysfunction. To appreciate the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation, we need to understand the excitability of neural ... Full text Cite

Effective deep brain stimulation suppresses low-frequency network oscillations in the basal ganglia by regularizing neural firing patterns.

Journal Article The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience · November 2012 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The effects of DBS depend strongly on stimulation frequency: high frequencies (>90 Hz) improve motor symptoms, while ... Full text Cite

Electrochemical charge storage properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotube films: Effects of thermal oxidation

Journal Article Journal of Physical Chemistry C · September 13, 2012 Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) films were synthesized and investigated in vitro for their potential use as a neural stimulation electrode. Materials and electrochemical (EC) characterization (cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectr ... Full text Cite

Characterizing effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on methamphetamine-induced circling behavior in hemi-Parkinsonian rats.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · September 2012 The unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat model is frequently used to study the effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, systematic knowledge of the effects of DBS par ... Full text Cite

Effects of stimulation site and stimulation parameters on bladder inhibition by electrical nerve stimulation.

Journal Article BJU international · July 2012 UnlabelledWhat's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Electrical stimulation of the dorsal nerve of the penis, the compound pudendal nerve and the S1 sacral nerve have been used clinically to treat the symptoms of overactive bladder, ... Full text Cite

Relative contributions of local cell and passing fiber activation and silencing to changes in thalamic fidelity during deep brain stimulation and lesioning: a computational modeling study.

Journal Article Journal of computational neuroscience · June 2012 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and lesioning are two surgical techniques used in the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients whose symptoms are not well controlled by drugs, or who experience dyskinesias as a side effect of medications. Al ... Full text Cite

Recording evoked potentials during deep brain stimulation: development and validation of instrumentation to suppress the stimulus artefact.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · June 2012 The clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of movement disorders depends on the identification of appropriate stimulation parameters. Since the mechanisms of action of DBS remain unclear, programming sessions can be time consum ... Full text Cite

Urethral flow-responsive afferents in the cat sacral dorsal root ganglia.

Journal Article Neuroscience letters · May 2012 Although sensory feedback from the urethra plays an integral role in the regulation of lower urinary tract function, little is known about the properties of flow-responsive primary afferent neurons. The purpose of this study was to characterize the activit ... Full text Cite

Tremor reduction and modeled neural activity during cycling thalamic deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology · May 2012 ObjectiveThe effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (DBS) depends on both the frequency and the temporal pattern of stimulation. We quantified responses to cycling DBS with constant frequency to determine if there was a critical on and/or off tim ... Full text Cite

Bilateral pudendal afferent stimulation improves bladder emptying in rats with urinary retention.

Journal Article BJU international · April 2012 ObjectiveTo determine whether bilateral electrical stimulation (BiES) of the transected pudendal sensory nerves could further enhance the voiding efficiency beyond that produced by unilateral electrical stimulation (UniES) of transected pudendal a ... Full text Cite

Computer-based model of epidural motor cortex stimulation: effects of electrode position and geometry on activation of cortical neurons.

Journal Article Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology · January 2012 ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the effects of electrode placement, geometry, and polarity during epidural cortical stimulation (ECS) on thresholds for direct activation of cortical neurons.MethodsWe used a computational m ... Full text Cite

Stimulus features underlying reduced tremor suppression with temporally patterned deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · January 2012 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides dramatic tremor relief when delivered at high-stimulation frequencies (more than ∼100 Hz), but its mechanisms of action are not well-understood. Previous studies indicate that high-frequency stimulation is less effecti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Peripheral nerve stimulation in regional anesthesia.

Journal Article Reg Anesth Pain Med · 2012 Peripheral nerve stimulation has a long history in regional anesthesia. Despite the advent of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade, nerve stimulation remains a popular technique used alone or, now, in combination with ultrasound-guided techniques. I ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of stimulation parameters and electrode location on thresholds for epidural stimulation of cat motor cortex.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · December 2011 Epidural electrical stimulation (ECS) of the motor cortex is a developing therapy for neurological disorders. Both placement and programming of ECS systems may affect the therapeutic outcome, but the treatment parameters that will maximize therapeutic outc ... Full text Cite

Irregular high frequency patterns decrease the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

Journal Article 2011 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER 2011 · July 20, 2011 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment of Parkinson's disease, but its mechanisms are still unclear. To test the hypothesis that DBS alleviates motor symptoms by regularizing neuronal firing, we applied regular frequency stimulation between ... Full text Cite

Mechanisms of reflex bladder activation by pudendal afferents.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology · February 2011 Activation of pudendal afferents can evoke bladder contraction or relaxation dependent on the frequency of stimulation, but the mechanisms of reflex bladder excitation evoked by pudendal afferent stimulation are unknown. The objective of this study was to ... Full text Cite

Closed-loop control of deep brain stimulation: a simulation study.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · February 2011 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy to treat movement disorders including essential tremor, dystonia, and Parkinson's disease. Despite over a decade of clinical experience the mechanisms of DBS are still unclear, and this lack of understan ... Full text Cite

Multiple pudendal sensory pathways reflexly modulate bladder and urethral activity in patients with spinal cord injury.

Journal Article J Urol · February 2011 PURPOSE: Electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents can evoke reflex bladder contractions with relaxation of the external urethral sphincter in cats. This voiding reflex is mediated by pudendal sensory fibers innervating the penile and prostatic urethra ... Full text Link to item Cite

Electrical stimulation of the urethra evokes bladder contractions and emptying in spinal cord injury men: case studies.

Journal Article The journal of spinal cord medicine · January 2011 ObjectiveElectrical stimulation of the urethra can evoke bladder contractions in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The objective of this study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of the urethra could evoke bladder contractions tha ... Full text Cite

Excitation properties of the right cervical vagus nerve in adult dogs.

Journal Article Experimental neurology · January 2011 Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approved treatment for epilepsy and depression, and it is currently under investigation for applications in Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, heart failure, and obesity. However, the mechanism(s) by which VNS has its effects ... Full text Cite

Instrumentation to record evoked potentials for closed-loop control of deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference · January 2011 Closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems offer promise in relieving the clinical burden of stimulus parameter selection and improving treatment outcomes. In such a system, a feedback signal is used to adjust automatically stimulation parameters and ... Full text Cite

Selective control of physiological responses by temporally-patterned electrical stimulation of the canine vagus nerve.

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference · January 2011 Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is effective for treating epilepsy and depression, and has emerging indications for anxiety and heart failure. However, stimulation-evoked side effects remain a challenge for long-term compliance. We investigated the feasibili ... Full text Cite

Selective co-stimulation of pudendal afferents enhances reflex bladder activation.

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference · January 2011 The loss of normal bladder function is common in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and negatively impacts their quality of life. Electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents is a promising approach to restore control of bladder function. Pudendal ... Full text Cite

Modeling deep brain stimulation: point source approximation versus realistic representation of the electrode.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · December 2010 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as an effective treatment for movement disorders; however, the fundamental mechanisms by which DBS works are not well understood. Computational models of DBS can provide insights into these fundamental mechanisms an ... Full text Cite

Optimizing the geometry of deep brain stimulating electrodes

Journal Article IFMBE Proceedings · November 8, 2010 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders, including essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia, and is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and depression. Despite the rapid clinical growth of DBS, t ... Full text Cite

Deep brain stimulation alleviates parkinsonian bradykinesia by regularizing pallidal activity.

Journal Article J Neurophysiol · August 2010 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the basal ganglia can alleviate the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease although the therapeutic mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that DBS relieves symptoms by minimizing pathologically disordered neuronal activity i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Energy-efficient waveform shapes for neural stimulation revealed with a genetic algorithm.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · August 2010 The energy efficiency of stimulation is an important consideration for battery-powered implantable stimulators. We used a genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the energy-optimal waveform shape for neural stimulation. The GA was coupled to a computational mo ... Full text Cite

Efficiency analysis of waveform shape for electrical excitation of nerve fibers.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · June 2010 Stimulation efficiency is an important consideration in the stimulation parameters of implantable neural stimulators. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of waveform shape and duration on the charge, power, and energy efficiency of neura ... Full text Cite

Finite element modeling and in vivo analysis of electrode configurations for selective stimulation of pudendal afferent fibers.

Journal Article BMC urology · May 2010 BackgroundIntraurethral electrical stimulation (IES) of pudendal afferent nerve fibers can evoke both excitatory and inhibitory bladder reflexes in cats. These pudendovesical reflexes are a potential substrate for restoring bladder function in per ... Full text Cite

Functional electrical stimulation helps replenish progenitor cells in the injured spinal cord of adult rats.

Journal Article Experimental neurology · April 2010 Functional electrical stimulation (FES) can restore control and offset atrophy to muscles after neurological injury. However, FES has not been considered as a method for enhancing CNS regeneration. This paper demonstrates that FES dramatically enhanced pro ... Full text Cite

Conditional and continuous electrical stimulation increase cystometric capacity in persons with spinal cord injury.

Journal Article Neurourol Urodyn · March 2010 AIMS: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) causing high intravesicle pressures and incontinence. The first aim was to measure changes in maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) evoked by electrical stimulation ... Full text Link to item Cite

Electrical stimulation of the urethra evokes bladder contractions in a woman with spinal cord injury.

Journal Article The journal of spinal cord medicine · January 2010 ObjectiveElectrical stimulation of pudendal urethral afferents generates coordinated micturition in animals and bladder contractions in men after spinal cord injury (SCI), but there is no evidence of an analogous excitatory urethra-spinal-bladder ... Full text Cite

Neural interfaces

Journal Article American Scientist · January 1, 2010 Full text Cite

Intraurethral activation of excitatory bladder reflexes in persons with spinal cord injury.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · December 1, 2009 Electrical activation of an excitatory reflex between sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve and the bladder has been demonstrated in cats and is a potential means of restoring micturition function in persons with spinal cord injury. We investigated the clin ... Cite

High efficiency electrodes for deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · December 1, 2009 Deep brain stimulators are powered with primary cell batteries and require surgical replacement when they are depleted. We sought to decrease power consumption, and thereby increase device lifetime by increasing neuronal stimulating efficiency with novel e ... Cite

Genetic algorithm reveals energy-efficient waveforms for neural stimulation.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · December 1, 2009 Energy consumption is an important consideration for battery-powered implantable stimulators. We used a genetic algorithm (GA) that mimics biological evolution to determine the energy-optimal waveform shape for neural stimulation. The GA was coupled to NEU ... Cite

Deep brain stimulation that abolishes Parkinsonian activity in basal ganglia improves thalamic relay fidelity in a computational circuit.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · December 1, 2009 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus reduces the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, but the therapeutic mechanisms are not understood. We hypothesize that clinically effective high frequency DBS suppresses disordered neuronal activ ... Cite

Electrical stimulation for control of bladder function.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · December 1, 2009 Electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve can generate either inhibition or activation of the bladder, and this is a promising approach to restoration of continence and micturition in neurological disease or injury. We review studies o ... Cite

Effect of electrode geometry on deep brain stimulation: Monopolar point source vs. medtronic 3389 lead

Journal Article IFMBE Proceedings · November 6, 2009 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as an effective treatment for a variety of neurological and movement disorders; however, the fundamental mechanisms by which DBS works are not well understood. Computational models of DBS can be used to gain insight ... Full text Cite

Hindlimb endpoint forces predict movement direction evoked by intraspinal microstimulation in cats.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · August 2009 We measured the forces produced at the cat's hindpaw by microstimulation of the lumbar spinal cord and the movements resulting from those forces. We also measured the forces and movements produced by co- and sequential activation of two intraspinal sites. ... Full text Cite

Impedance characteristics of deep brain stimulation electrodes in vitro and in vivo.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · August 2009 The objective of this study was to quantify the electrode-tissue interface impedance of electrodes used for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We measured the impedance of DBS electrodes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in vitro in a carbonate- and ... Full text Cite

Intraurethral stimulation evokes bladder responses via 2 distinct reflex pathways.

Journal Article The Journal of urology · July 2009 PurposeRecent animal studies have shown that selective activation of pudendal nerve branches can evoke bladder responses through 2 distinct reflex pathways. We examined intraurethral electrical stimulation as a minimally invasive means of selectiv ... Full text Cite

Measurement of the current-distance relationship using a novel refractory interaction technique.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · June 2009 It is important to know the spatial extent of neural activation around the stimulating electrodes when using extracellular electrical stimulation for the determination of the structure and function of neural circuit connections or for the restoration of fu ... Full text Cite

Computer-based finite element modeling of insulated Tuohy needles used in regional anesthesia.

Journal Article Anesthesiology · June 2009 BACKGROUND: Differences in needle design may impact nerve localization. This study evaluates the electrical properties of two insulated Tuohy needles using computational finite element modeling. METHODS: Three-dimensional geometric computer-based models we ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myoclonus and tremor response to thalamic deep brain stimulation parameters in a patient with inherited myoclonus-dystonia syndrome.

Journal Article Clin Neurol Neurosurg · April 2009 We present a 74-year-old woman with inherited myoclonus-dystonia, with predominant myoclonus and a novel mutation in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene. The patient reports a life-long history of rapid, jerking movements, most severe in the upper extremities as ... Full text Link to item Cite

Implanted neural interfaces: biochallenges and engineered solutions.

Journal Article Annual review of biomedical engineering · January 2009 Neural interfaces are connections that enable two-way exchange of information with the nervous system. These connections can occur at multiple levels, including with peripheral nerves, with the spinal cord, or with the brain; in many instances, fundamental ... Full text Cite

Intraurethral activation of excitatory bladder reflexes in persons with spinal cord injury.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2009 Electrical activation of an excitatory reflex between sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve and the bladder has been demonstrated in cats and is a potential means of restoring micturition function in persons with spinal cord injury. We investigated the clin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Deep brain stimulation that abolishes Parkinsonian activity in basal ganglia improves thalamic relay fidelity in a computational circuit.

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference · January 2009 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus reduces the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, but the therapeutic mechanisms are not understood. We hypothesize that clinically effective high frequency DBS suppresses disordered neuronal activ ... Full text Cite

High efficiency electrodes for deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference · January 2009 Deep brain stimulators are powered with primary cell batteries and require surgical replacement when they are depleted. We sought to decrease power consumption, and thereby increase device lifetime by increasing neuronal stimulating efficiency with novel e ... Full text Cite

High efficiency electrodes for deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · 2009 Cite

Electrical stimulation for control of bladder function.

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference · January 2009 Electrical stimulation of sensory fibers in the pudendal nerve can generate either inhibition or activation of the bladder, and this is a promising approach to restoration of continence and micturition in neurological disease or injury. We review studies o ... Full text Cite

Genetic algorithm reveals energy-efficient waveforms for neural stimulation.

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference · January 2009 Energy consumption is an important consideration for battery-powered implantable stimulators. We used a genetic algorithm (GA) that mimics biological evolution to determine the energy-optimal waveform shape for neural stimulation. The GA was coupled to NEU ... Full text Cite

Genetic algorithm reveals energy-efficient waveforms for neural stimulation.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · 2009 Cite

Analysis of high-perimeter planar electrodes for efficient neural stimulation.

Journal Article Frontiers in neuroengineering · January 2009 Planar electrodes are used in epidural spinal cord stimulation and epidural cortical stimulation. Electrode geometry is one approach to increase the efficiency of neural stimulation and reduce the power required to produce the level of activation required ... Full text Cite

Principles of Electric Field Generation for Stimulation of the Central Nervous System

Journal Article · January 1, 2009 This chapter focuses on the various principles of electric field generation for stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS). Electrical stimulation is used to study the form and function of the nervous system and is a technique to restore function foll ... Full text Cite

Somatic innervation of the feline lower urinary tract.

Journal Article Brain research · December 2008 Electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve sensory pathways can evoke excitatory bladder reflexes. However, the precise peripheral innervation pattern of these somatic fibers remains unclear. In adult male cats, we investigated pudendal nerve innervation of ... Full text Cite

Computational modeling of epidural cortical stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · December 2008 Epidural cortical stimulation (ECS) is a developing therapy to treat neurological disorders. However, it is not clear how the cortical anatomy or the polarity and position of the electrode affects current flow and neural activation in the cortex. We develo ... Full text Cite

Deep brain stimulation reduces neuronal entropy in the MPTP-primate model of Parkinson's disease.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · November 2008 High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or internal segment of the globus pallidus is a clinically successful treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanisms by which HFS alleviates these symptoms ... Full text Cite

A model predicting optimal parameters for deep brain stimulation in essential tremor.

Journal Article Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society · October 2008 In nine patients with essential tremor (14 thalami), the authors varied frequency, voltage, and pulsewidth of thalamic deep brain stimulation, and quantified postural tremor. Low frequency stimulation aggravated tremor; the effect increased with increasing ... Full text Cite

A method to estimate the spatial extent of activation in thalamic deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology · September 2008 ObjectiveThe goal of this study was to develop, evaluate, and apply a method to quantify the unknown spatial extent of activation in deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermedius nucleus (Vim) of the thalamus.MethodsThe amplitud ... Full text Cite

Computational evaluation of methods for measuring the spatial extent of neural activation.

Journal Article Journal of neuroscience methods · August 2008 Knowing of the spatial extent of neural activation around extracellular stimulating electrodes is necessary to ensure that only the desired neurons are activated or to determine which neurons are responsible for an observed response. Various approaches hav ... Full text Cite

Bladder activation by selective stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents in the cat.

Journal Article Experimental neurology · July 2008 Bladder contractions evoked by pudendal nerve stimulation in both spinal intact and spinal transected cats support the possibility of restoring urinary function in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, electrically evoked bladder response ... Full text Cite

Activation and inhibition of the micturition reflex by penile afferents in the cat.

Journal Article American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology · June 2008 Coordination of the urinary bladder and the external urethral sphincter is controlled by descending projections from the pons and is also subject to modulation by segmental afferents. We quantified the effects on the micturition reflex of sensory inputs fr ... Full text Cite

Improved bladder emptying in urinary retention by electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents

Journal Article Journal Of Neural Engineering · June 2008 Urinary retention is the inability to empty the bladder completely, and may result from bladder hypocontractility, increases in outlet resistance or both. Chronic urinary retention can lead to several urological complications and is often refractory to pha ... Cite

Tremor varies as a function of the temporal regularity of deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Neuroreport · March 26, 2008 The frequency of stimulation is one of the primary factors determining the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in relieving tremor. DBS efficacy, however, may depend not only on the average frequency of stimulation, but also on the temporal patte ... Full text Link to item Cite

Analysis of the quasi-static approximation for calculating potentials generated by neural stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · March 2008 In models of electrical stimulation of the nervous system, the electric potential is typically calculated using the quasi-static approximation. The quasi-static approximation allows Maxwell's equations to be simplified by ignoring capacitive, inductive and ... Full text Cite

Mechanisms underlying reversal of motor unit activation order in electrically evoked contractions after spinal cord injury.

Journal Article Muscle & nerve · February 2008 Extracellular stimulation normally activates larger-diameter axons, innervating motor units producing higher force, at lower stimulation intensities than required to activate small-diameter axons innervating motor units producing low force. However, activa ... Full text Cite

Antidromic propagation of action potentials in branched axons: implications for the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of computational neuroscience · February 2008 Electrical stimulation of the central nervous system creates both orthodromically propagating action potentials, by stimulation of local cells and passing axons, and antidromically propagating action potentials, by stimulation of presynaptic axons and term ... Full text Cite

Role of pudendal afferents in voiding efficiency in the rat

Journal Article American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology · 2008 Cite

Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation in movement disorders as revealed by changes in stimulus frequency.

Journal Article Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics · January 2008 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for symptoms in movement disorders and is under investigation for symptom management in persons with psychiatric disorders and epilepsy. Nevertheless, there remains disagreement regarding the physiol ... Full text Cite

Dorsal genital nerve stimulation for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms.

Journal Article Neurourol Urodyn · 2008 AIM: To evaluate percutaneous placement of electrodes adjacent to the dorsal genital nerve (DGN) and measure the effects of electrical stimulation on symptoms of urge incontinence during 1 week of home use. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter study. Subjects ... Full text Link to item Cite

Basal ganglia modeling in healthy and Parkinson's disease state. II. network-based multi-units simulation

Journal Article Proceedings of the American Control Conference · December 1, 2007 Parkinson's disease (PD) is treated by means of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), a therapy based on the injection of current on a regular basis into the basal ganglia, a set of small subcortical nervous system nuclei. DBS is effective in relief of motor sympt ... Full text Cite

Basal ganglia modeling in healthy and Parkinson's disease state. I. isolated neurons activity

Journal Article Proceedings of the American Control Conference · December 1, 2007 Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neuro-degenerative pathology affecting the basal ganglia, a set of small subcortical nervous system nuclei. It induces a progressive necrosis of dopaminergic (i.e., releasing dopamine, a neurotransmitter) cells and, as a conse ... Full text Cite

Pulse-to-pulse changes in the frequency of deep brain stimulation affect tremor and modeled neuronal activity.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · September 2007 The effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in relieving the symptoms of movement disorders is dependent on the average frequency of stimulation. However, no one has yet examined whether the effectiveness of DBS in relieving tremor is dependent on th ... Full text Cite

How does deep brain stimulation work?

Journal Article EXPERT REVIEW OF MEDICAL DEVICES · July 1, 2007 Link to item Cite

Amplitude- and frequency-dependent changes in neuronal regularity parallel changes in tremor With thalamic deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · June 2007 The mechanisms by which deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates tremor remain unclear, but successful treatment can be achieved with properly selected frequency and amplitude. The clinical tremor response to thalamic DBS for essential tremor is dependent o ... Full text Cite

Guest editorial: Special theme on deep brain stimulation

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering · March 1, 2007 Full text Cite

NAKFI smart prosthetics: exploring assistive devices for the body and mind.

Journal Article Expert review of medical devices · March 2007 Full text Cite

Signal considerations for chronically implanted electrodes for brain interfacing

Chapter · January 1, 2007 The fundamental unit of communication within the nervous system is the action potential. The action potential is an electrochemical signal mediated by the flow of ions across the membrane of individual neurons between the intracellular and extracellular sp ... Cite

Minimally-invasive electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve: a pre-clinical study for neural control of the lower urinary tract.

Journal Article Neurourology and urodynamics · January 2007 AimsElectrical stimulation of afferent pudendal nerve fibers can evoke sustained bladder contractions (SBC) in cats, yet evidence of therapeutic efficacy in human subjects is lacking. This pre-clinical study was undertaken to test the hypothesis t ... Full text Cite

Fabrication and evaluation of conductive elastomer electrodes for neural stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition · January 2007 This study explored the feasibility of applying nanocomposites derived from conducting organic polymers and silicone elastomers to fabricate electrodes for neural stimulation. A novel combination of nanoparticulate polypyrrole polymerized within a processa ... Full text Cite

Role of biomechanics and muscle activation strategy in the production of endpoint force patterns in the cat hindlimb.

Journal Article Journal of biomechanics · January 2007 We used a musculoskeletal model of the cat hindlimb to compare the patterns of endpoint forces generated by all possible combination of 12 hindlimb muscles under three different muscle activation rules: homogeneous activation of muscles based on uniform ac ... Full text Cite

Lead design and initial applications of a new lead for long-term endovascular vagal stimulation.

Journal Article Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE · January 2007 BackgroundVagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has negative chronotropic and dromotropic effects. We developed and tested an endovascular spiral vagal stimulation lead (ESVL) designed to follow the projection of the cardiac branches of the vagus nerve ar ... Full text Cite

Pudendal nerve stimulation evokes reflex bladder contractions in persons with chronic spinal cord injury.

Journal Article Neurourol Urodyn · 2007 AIMS: Although electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve has been shown to evoke reflex micturition-like bladder contractions in both intact and spinalized cats, there is little evidence to suggest that an analogous excitatory reflex exists in humans, p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Basal ganglia modeling in healthy and Parkinson's disease state. I. Isolated neurons activity

Conference 2007 AMERICAN CONTROL CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-13 · January 1, 2007 Link to item Cite

Frequency-dependent selection of reflexes by pudendal afferents in the cat.

Journal Article The Journal of physiology · November 2006 Activation of urethral or genital afferents of the pudendal nerve can elicit or inhibit micturition, and low frequency stimulation of the compound pudendal nerve (PN) is known to produce a continence response. The present study demonstrates that PN stimula ... Full text Cite

Clinical response to varying the stimulus parameters in deep brain stimulation for essential tremor.

Journal Article Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society · November 2006 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus for essential tremor is sometimes limited by side effects. The mechanisms by which DBS alleviates tremor or causes side effects are unclear; thus, it is difficult to select st ... Full text Cite

NIH Neural Interfaces Workshop: August 21-23, 2006, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Journal Article Expert review of medical devices · November 2006 Full text Cite

Topography of spinal neurons active during hindlimb withdrawal reflexes in the decerebrate cat.

Journal Article Neuroscience · September 2006 There exists a spatial organization of receptive fields and a modular organization of the flexion withdrawal reflex system. However, the three dimensional location and organization of interneurons interposed in flexion reflex pathways has not been systemat ... Full text Cite

Closed loop electrical control of urinary continence.

Journal Article The Journal of urology · April 2006 PurposeIndividuals with spinal cord injury or neurological disorders may have neurogenic detrusor contractions at low volumes (bladder hyperreflexia), which cause incontinence and can lead to significant health problems. Bladder contractions can b ... Full text Cite

Sites of neuronal excitation by epiretinal electrical stimulation.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · March 2006 Action potentials arising from retinal ganglion cells ultimately create visual percepts. In persons blind from retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, viable retinal ganglion cells remain, and the retina can be stimulated electrically to ... Full text Cite

Bladder emptying by intermittent electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · March 2006 Persons with a suprasacral spinal cord injury cannot empty their bladder voluntarily. Bladder emptying can be restored by intermittent electrical stimulation of the sacral nerve roots (SR) to cause bladder contraction. However, this therapy requires sensor ... Full text Cite

Detection of neurogenic detrusor contractions from the activity of the external anal sphincter in cat and human.

Journal Article Neurourology and urodynamics · January 2006 AimsIndividuals with spinal cord injury or neurological disorders may develop bladder contractions at low volumes (neurogenic detrusor overactivity), which can lead to significant health problems. Present devices can inhibit unwanted contractions ... Full text Cite

Current density distributions, field distributions and impedance analysis of segmented deep brain stimulation electrodes.

Journal Article Journal of neural engineering · December 2005 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes are designed to stimulate specific areas of the brain. The most widely used DBS electrode has a linear array of 4 cylindrical contacts that can be selectively turned on depending on the placement of the electrode and ... Full text Cite

Fascicular anatomy and surgical access of the human pudendal nerve.

Journal Article World journal of urology · December 2005 The ability to access selectively distal nerve branches at the level of the compound pudendal nerve (PN) would allow control of multiple neural pathways and genitourinary functions at a single location. Nerve cuff electrodes can selectively stimulate indiv ... Full text Cite

Event-triggered electrical control of urinary continence

Journal Article 2nd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering · December 1, 2005 Individuals with spinal cord injury or neurological disorders may develop involuntary bladder contraction at low volumes (bladder hyper-reflexia), which can lead to significant health problems. Current devices can eliminate nascent contractions through con ... Full text Cite

Antidromic action potential propagation in branched axons

Journal Article 2nd International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering · December 1, 2005 Electrical stimulation in the central nervous system can generate both orthodromic activity, by stimulation of local cells and passing axons, as well as antidromic activity, by stimulation of presynaptic axons and terminals. We used computational models to ... Full text Cite

Detecting the onset of hyper-reflexive bladder contractions from the electrical activity of the pudendal nerve.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · September 2005 Individuals with a spinal cord injury or neurological disorders may develop involuntary bladder contractions at low volumes (bladder hyper-reflexia), which can lead to significant health problems. Present devices can inhibit unwanted contractions through c ... Full text Cite

Safety considerations for deep brain stimulation: review and analysis.

Journal Article Expert review of medical devices · July 2005 Deep brain stimulation has emerged rapidly as an effective therapy for movement disorders. Deep brain stimulation includes an implanted brain electrode and a pacemaker-like implanted pulse generator. The clinical application of deep brain stimulation proce ... Full text Cite

Polarization of a spherical cell in a nonuniform extracellular electric field.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · May 2005 Polarization of cells by extracellular fields is relevant to neural stimulation, cardiac pacing, cardiac defibrillation, and electroporation. The electric field generated by an extracellular electrode may be nonuniform, and highly nonuniform fields are pro ... Full text Cite

Spinal micturition reflex mediated by afferents in the deep perineal nerve.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · May 2005 Reflexes mediated by urethral sensory pathways are integral to urinary function. This study investigated the changes in bladder pressure and urethral sphincter activity resulting from electrical stimulation of afferents in the deep perineal nerve (DP), whi ... Full text Cite

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human lumbar spinal cord.

Journal Article Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI · May 2005 PurposeTo determine whether consistent regions of activity could be observed in the lumbar spinal cord of single subjects with spin-echo functional MRI (fMRI) if several repeated experiments were performed within a single imaging session.Mater ... Full text Cite

Temporal excitation properties of paresthesias evoked by thalamic microstimulation.

Journal Article Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology · May 2005 ObjectiveThe neuronal elements mediating the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) are unknown. The objective was to determine the strength-duration properties of the neuronal elements that mediate paresthesias evoked by thalamic microstimulatio ... Full text Cite

Structural mechanisms to produce differential dendritic gains.

Journal Article Brain research · February 2005 The axons of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PGNs) originate on a primary dendrite between 10 and 110 mum from the soma. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the location of the axon origin would impact the relative efficacy of ipsilateral and ... Full text Cite

Applied electric fields accelerate the diffusion rate and increase the diffusion distance of DiI in fixed tissue.

Journal Article Journal of neuroscience methods · January 2005 Lipophilic carbocyanine dyes are effective neuronal tracers in fixed tissue. However, their application has been limited by the slow diffusion, short tracing distances, and long durations of incubation in fixed tissue. We used applied dc electric fields, t ... Full text Cite

Electrical localization of neural activity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord: a modeling study.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · December 2004 Intraspinal microstimulation is a means of eliciting coordinated motor responses for restoration of function. However, detailed maps of the neuroanatomy of the human spinal cord are lacking, and it is not clear where electrodes should be implanted. We deve ... Full text Cite

Selection of stimulus parameters for deep brain stimulation.

Journal Article Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology · November 2004 ObjectiveTo provide an analysis of stimulation parameters for deep brain stimulation (DBS).MethodsSynthesis of theoretical and empirical findings is used to provide guidance for the selection of stimulus parameters. Finite element modelin ... Full text Cite

Deep brain stimulation creates an informational lesion of the stimulated nucleus.

Journal Article Neuroreport · May 2004 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but the mechanisms are unclear. DBS generates inhibition of neurons surrounding the electrode while simultaneously activating the output axons of local neurons. This dual effect ... Full text Cite

A urethral afferent mediated excitatory bladder reflex exists in humans.

Journal Article Neuroscience letters · April 2004 An excitatory reflex between urethral flow receptors and the bladder has been established in animals, but attempts to demonstrate this reflex in humans using urethral fluid flow have been inconclusive. Intraurethral electrical stimulation has recently been ... Full text Cite

Cellular effects of deep brain stimulation: model-based analysis of activation and inhibition.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · April 2004 Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for medically refractory movement disorders. However, fundamental questions remain about the effects of DBS on neurons surrounding the electrode. Experimental studies have produced apparently contradicto ... Full text Cite

Prediction of myelinated nerve fiber stimulation thresholds: limitations of linear models.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · February 2004 Computer models of neurons are used to simulate neural behavior, and are important tools for designing neural prostheses. Computation time remains an issue when simulating large numbers of neurons or applying models to real time applications. Warman et al. ... Full text Cite

Sensitivity of temporal excitation properties to the neuronal element activated by extracellular stimulation.

Journal Article Journal of neuroscience methods · January 2004 Measurements of the chronaxies and refractory periods with extracellular stimuli have been used to conclude that large diameter axons are responsible for the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS). We hypothesized that because action potential initiation ... Full text Cite

Detecting the onset of hyper-reflexive bladder contractions from pudendal nerve electrical activity.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference · January 2004 Individuals with spinal cord injury or neurological disorders may develop involuntary bladder contraction at low volumes (bladder hyper-reflexia), which can lead to significant health problems. Current devices can eliminate nascent contractions through con ... Full text Cite

Modularity of motor output evoked by intraspinal microstimulation in cats.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · January 2004 We studied the forces produced at the cat's hindpaw by microstimulation of the ipsi- and contralateral lumbar spinal cord in spinal intact alpha-chloralose anesthetized (n = 3) or decerebrate (n = 3) animals. Isometric force and EMG responses were measured ... Full text Cite

Using External Anal Sphincter Activity to Detect the Onset of Hyper-Reflexive Bladder Contractions

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2003 Individuals with spinal cord injury or neurological disorders may develop, involuntary bladder contraction at low volumes (bladder hyper-reflexia), which can lead to significant health problems. Current devices can eliminate nascent contractions through co ... Cite

Stimulation of the Deep Perineal Nerve Elicits Bladder Contractions

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2003 Spinal cord injury (SCI) eliminates voluntary control of bladder function. This study examined the ability to elicit and sustain bladder contractions with deep perineal nerve (DP) stimulation in 3 cats. The DP was stimulated at 2, 10, 20, 33, and 40 Hz ove ... Cite

Experimental and biomechanical model force fields produced by intraspinal microstimulation of the cat lumbar spinal cord

Journal Article Bioengineering, Proceedings of the Northeast Conference · August 22, 2003 Using a biomechanical model of the cat hindlimb, we studied patterns of endpoint forces created by all muscle combinations of fourteen selected muscles, and compared them to the force patterns produced by intraspinal microstimulation of the lumbar spinal g ... Cite

A catheter based method to activate urethral sensory nerve fibers.

Journal Article The Journal of urology · July 2003 PurposeThe ability to control bladder activity would provide a valuable tool to assist individuals with neurological disorders or spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent studies in animal models have shown that bladder contractions can be evoked by elect ... Full text Cite

An excitatory urethra-to-bladder reflex in humans

Conference JOURNAL OF UROLOGY · April 1, 2003 Link to item Cite

Experimental and biomechanical model force fields produced by intraspinal microstimulation of the cat lumbar spinal cord

Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, NEBEC · January 1, 2003 Using a biomechanical model of the cat hindlimb, we studied patterns of endpoint forces created by all muscle combinations of fourteen selected muscles, and compared them to the force patterns produced by intraspinal microstimulation of the lumbar spinal g ... Cite

Control of bladder function by electrical activation of spinal neural circuits

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2002 Loss of bladder function has significant medical and quality of life impact. We are developing a novel approach to restoration of bladder function by electrical stimulation of afferent nerve fibers in the pudendal nerve. Stimulation of genital afferent fib ... Cite

Model-based analysis of deep brain stimulation of the thalamus

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2002 High-frequency (∼150 Hz) deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a rapidly emerging therapy in the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders. However, fundamental questions remain about the effects of DBS at both the single cell and network leve ... Cite

Polarization of a spherical cell in a non-uniform electric field: Transient response and comparison with polarization in a uniform field

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2002 Polarization of cells by extracellular fields is relevant to neural stimulation, cardiac pacing, and cardiac defibrillation. When electrodes are positioned close to cells the electric field is non-uniform, but in many cases has been assumed to be uniform. ... Cite

Generation of bladder contractions via electrical stimulation of urethral afferent nerves and intra-urethral stimulation

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2002 Neurological disease or spinal cord injury (SCI) can eliminate voluntary bladder control. Our long-term mission is to develop neural prostheses for restoration or neuro-rehabilitation of bladder function based on stimulation of afferent neural pathways tha ... Cite

Source localization in the spinal cord: A modeling study

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2002 Intraspinal microstimulation of the spinal cord is being investigated as a means of eliciting coordinated motor responses for restoration of function. However, detailed maps of the neuroanatomy of the human spinal cord are lacking, and thus it is not clear ... Cite

Extracellular stimulation of central neurons: influence of stimulus waveform and frequency on neuronal output.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · October 2002 The objective of this project was to examine the influence of stimulus waveform and frequency on extracellular stimulation of neurons with their cell bodies near the electrode (local cells) and fibers of passage in the CNS. Detailed computer-based models o ... Full text Cite

Electrical stimulation for the treatment of bladder dysfunction: current status and future possibilities.

Journal Article Neurological research · July 2002 Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves can be used to cause muscle contraction, to activate reflexes, and to modulate some functions of the central nervous system (neuromodulation). If applied to the spinal cord or nerves controlling the lower urinary ... Full text Cite

Effects of stochastic sodium channels on extracellular excitation of myelinated nerve fibers.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · June 2002 The effects of the stochastic gating properties of sodium channels on the extracellular excitation properties of mammalian nerve fibers was determined by computer simulation. To reduce computation time, a hybrid multicompartment cable model including five ... Full text Cite

Evaluation of command algorithms for control of upper-extremity neural prostheses.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · June 2002 Five new command control algorithms were created to enable increased control over grasp force in upper-extremity neural prostheses. Most of these algorithms took advantage of the ability to lock or assign a steady command value to the hand neural prosthesi ... Full text Cite

Modeling the excitability of mammalian nerve fibers: influence of afterpotentials on the recovery cycle.

Journal Article Journal of neurophysiology · February 2002 Human nerve fibers exhibit a distinct pattern of threshold fluctuation following a single action potential known as the recovery cycle. We developed geometrically and electrically accurate models of mammalian motor nerve fibers to gain insight into the bio ... Full text Cite

Extracellular electrical stimulation of central neurons: Quantitative studies

Chapter · January 1, 2002 Electrical activation of the nervous system is a method to restore function to persons with neurological disorders due to disease or injury and a technique to study the form and function of the nervous system. Application of electrical stimulation, in the ... Cite

Endpoint forces obtained during intraspinal microstimulation of the cat lumbar spinal cord - Experimental and biomechanical model results

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, NEBEC · January 1, 2002 We studied the structure of endpoint forces produced by microstimulation of the cat spinal cord, and from combinations of muscles using a biomechanical model of the eat hindlimb. The forces evoked by microstimulation were of four types. At some stimulation ... Cite

Model-based design of stimulus trains for selective microstimulation of targeted neuronal populations

Journal Article Annual Reports of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University · December 1, 2001 Selective activation of targeted neuronal populations is required for central nervous system (CNS) neuroprosthetic device efficacy. However in many regions of the CNS, cells and fibers of passages are intermingled. The goal of this project was to design st ... Cite

Neural modeling in neuromuscular and rehabilitation research

Journal Article Annual Reports of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University · December 1, 2001 Computation models of neurons are important tools in neuromuscular and rehabilitation research. Advances in knowledge about the anatomy and electrical properties of neurons in combination with parallel advances in computing speed and versatile software hav ... Cite

At the interface: convergence of neural regeneration and neural prostheses for restoration of function.

Journal Article Journal of rehabilitation research and development · November 2001 The rapid pace of recent advances in development and application of electrical stimulation of the nervous system and in neural regeneration has created opportunities to combine these two approaches to restoration of function. This paper relates the discuss ... Cite

Emerging clinical applications of electrical stimulation: opportunities for restoration of function.

Journal Article Journal of rehabilitation research and development · November 2001 Emerging clinical application of electrical stimulation in three systems is reviewed. In the bladder, stimulation of sacral posterior roots reduces reflex incontinence and significantly improves bladder capacity. With the combination of anterior and poster ... Cite

Extracellular excitation of central neurons: Implications for the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation

Journal Article Thalamus and Related Systems · November 1, 2001 High-frequency electrical stimulation (deep brain stimulation (DBS)) of the thalamus and basal ganglia (subthalamic nucleus, internal segment of the globus pallidus) is used to treat motor disorders arising in Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and e ... Full text Cite

Neural network classification of nerve activity recorded in a mixed nerve.

Journal Article Neurological research · July 2001 Whole-nerve cuff electrodes can be used to record electrical nerve activity in peripheral nerves and are suitable for chronic implantation in animals or humans. If the whole nerve innervates multiple target organs or muscles then the recorded activity will ... Full text Cite

Optimal filtering of whole nerve signals.

Journal Article Journal of neuroscience methods · March 2001 Electroneurographic recordings suffer from low signal to noise (S/N) ratios. The S/N ratio can be improved by different signal processing methods including optimal filtering. A method to design two types of optimal filters (Wiener and Matched filters) was ... Full text Cite

Finite element analysis of the current-density and electric field generated by metal microelectrodes.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · March 2001 Electrical stimulation via implanted microelectrodes permits excitation of small, highly localized populations of neurons, and allows access to features of neuronal organization that are not accessible with larger electrodes implanted on the surface of the ... Full text Cite

Detection and inhibition of hyperreflexia-like bladder contractions in the cat by sacral nerve root recording and electrical stimulation.

Journal Article Neurourology and urodynamics · January 2001 Detection of bladder volume and hyperreflexive bladder contractions would be useful in individuals with overactive bladders. We sought to determine whether bladder filling and/or reflex bladder contractions could be detected by electrical recording from th ... Full text Cite

Current density and electric field analysis of microelectrodes using finite element modeling

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2000 Geometrically and electrically accurate finite element models of microelectrodes used in microstimulation of the central nervous system were created to examine the current density along the surface of the electrode as well as the electric field generated w ... Cite

What neural elements are excited by extracellular stimulation in the central nervous system?

Journal Article Annals of Biomedical Engineering · December 1, 2000 Computer-based models were used to study excitation of CNS neurons with an extracellular electrode. Results identify the neuronal elements that are activated by stimulation in the CNS, suggest effective methods fo stimulating targeted neuromal populations, ... Cite

Effect of source location and tissue properties on surface potentials in a cylindrical volume conductor model

Journal Article Annals of Biomedical Engineering · December 1, 2000 Surface potentials due to an internal source were determined using a volume conductor model of the spinal cord consisting of two concentric cylinders. Results indicate that information about the source location is projected to the surface, and that the geo ... Cite

Endpoint force patterns evoked by intraspinal stimulation - Ipsilateral and contralateral responses

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2000 We studied the mapping and structure of endpoint forces produced by microstimulation of the cat spinal cord. The forces evoked by microstimulation varied in magnitude and direction as a function of limb configuration. At some stimulation sites, the force p ... Cite

Modeling of mammalian myelinated nerve with stochastic sodium ionic channels

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2000 This paper presents the excitation properties of mammalian myelinated nerve fibers with the nodes of Ranvier represented with stochastic sodium channels. The hybrid multi-compartment cable model developed in this paper consisted of twenty one nodes: five c ... Cite

Modelling the effects of electric fields on nerve fibres: influence of the myelin sheath.

Journal Article Medical & biological engineering & computing · July 2000 The excitation and conduction properties of computer-based cable models of mammalian motor nerve fibres, incorporating three different myelin representations, are compared. The three myelin representations are a perfectly insulating single cable (model A), ... Full text Cite

Electrical activation of spinal neural circuits: application to motor-system neural prostheses.

Journal Article Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society · April 2000 Present motor-system neural prostheses use electrical activation of last-order (motor) neurons to restore function. We are pursuing a new approach: restoration of function by electrical activation of higher-order interneurons. Our hypothesis is that electr ... Full text Cite

Selective microstimulation of central nervous system neurons.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · March 2000 The goal of this study was to identify stimulus parameters and electrode geometries that were effective in selectively stimulating targeted neuronal populations within the central nervous system (CNS). Cable models of neurons that included an axon, initial ... Full text Cite

Neuroprosthetic applications of electrical stimulation.

Journal Article Assistive technology : the official journal of RESNA · January 2000 Neural prostheses are a developing technology that use electrical activation of the nervous system to restore function to individuals with neurological impairment. Neural prostheses function by electrical initiation of action potentials in nerve fibers tha ... Full text Cite

Neural and connective tissue response to long-term implantation of multiple contact nerve cuff electrodes

Journal Article Journal of Biomedical Materials Research · 2000 The objective of this study was to characterize the tissue response to multiple contact spiral nerve cuff electrodes implanted on the sciatic nerve of seven cats for 28-34 weeks. The cuffs were surrounded by fibrous tissue encapsulation consisting of forei ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of the myelin sheath on excitation properties of nerve fibers

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · January 1, 2000 The excitation and conduction properties of computer-based cable models of mammalian motor nerve fibers incorporating three different myelin representations were compared. The three myelin representations were a perfectly insulating single cable (model A), ... Full text Cite

Model-based design of stimulus waveforms for selective microstimulation in the central nervous system

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1999 Cable models of neurons were used to design stimulus waveforms to activate selectively targeted neuronal populations in the CNS. Anodic first biphasic waveforms enabled selective stimulation of fibers, while cathodic first biphasic waveforms enabled select ... Cite

Endpoint forces evoked by microstimulation of the cat spinal cord

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1999 We studied the mapping and structure of endpoint forces produced by microstimulation of the cat spinal cord. The results demonstrate that stimulation in the dorsal and intermediate aspects of the spinal cord generated organized, convergent force patterns, ... Cite

Bladder and urethral pressures evoked by microstimulation of the sacral spinal cord in cats.

Journal Article Brain research · July 1999 Experiments were conducted to measure the bladder and urethral pressures evoked by intraspinal microstimulation of the sacral segments (S1-S2) in neurologically intact, chloralose anesthetized adult male cats. The bladder pressure was measured with a super ... Full text Cite

Extended survival time following pseudorabies virus injection labels the suprapontine neural network controlling the bladder and urethra in the rat.

Journal Article Neuroscience letters · July 1999 The central neurons that are involved in control of the urinary bladder and proximal urethra in adult male rats were identified by retrograde transport of the viral transneural tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV, Bartha strain). At 5 days post-injection, PRV-i ... Full text Cite

Tapping into spinal circuits to restore motor function.

Journal Article Brain research. Brain research reviews · July 1999 Motivated by the challenge of improving neuroprosthetic devices, the authors review current knowledge relating to harnessing the potential of spinal neural circuits, such as reflexes and pattern generators. If such spinal interneuronal circuits could be ac ... Full text Cite

Excitation of central nervous system neurons by nonuniform electric fields.

Journal Article Biophysical journal · February 1999 The goal of this study was to determine which neural elements are excited by microstimulation of the central nervous system. A cable model of a neuron including an axon, initial segment, axon hillock, soma, and simplified dendritic tree was used to study e ... Full text Cite

Functional anatomy of the male feline urethra: morphological and physiological correlations.

Journal Article The Journal of urology · February 1999 Anatomical and histological methods were combined with measurements of the urethral pressure profile (UPP) to investigate the functional aspects of the urethra in male cats. A silicone rubber catheter with two microdiaphragm pressure transducers was used t ... Full text Cite

Modeling the effects of electric fields on nerve fibers: Influence of tissue electrical properties

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering · 1999 The effects of anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the electrical conductivity of extracellular tissue on excitation of nerve fibers by an extracellular point source electrode were determined by computer simulation. Analytical solutions to Poisson's equation w ... Full text Cite

Stability of the input-output properties of chronically implanted multiple contact nerve cuff stimulating electrodes.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · December 1998 The objective of this investigation was to measure the input-output (I-O) properties of chronically implanted nerve cuff electrodes. Silicone rubber spiral nerve cuff electrodes, containing 12 individual platinum electrode contacts, were implanted on the s ... Full text Cite

Sensitivity analysis of a model of mammalian neural membrane.

Journal Article Biological cybernetics · July 1998 The sensitivity of the strength-duration (S-D) relationship to changes in the parameters describing the sodium channel of mammalian neuronal membrane was determined by computer simulation. A space-clamped patch of neuronal membrane was modeled by a paralle ... Full text Cite

Identification of the spinal neural network involved in coordination of micturition in the male cat.

Journal Article Brain research · June 1998 In these studies, we used the expression of Fos protein to identify cells within the spinal cord that regulate micturition in male cats. The immediate early gene c-fos that encodes the Fos protein can be induced rapidly and transiently in neurons by increa ... Full text Cite

Microstimulation of spinal motoneurons: a model study

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1997 A computer model of a cat spinal motoneuron was developed and used to study neuronal excitation by extracellular electric fields. The model included a myelinated axon, initial segment, axon hillock, a three compartment model of the soma, and a tapering den ... Cite

Detection of object contact during grasp using nail-mounted strain sensors

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1997 A strain gage glued to the thumbnail was evaluated as a sensor of contact between the thumb and a grasped object. Subjects grasped, lifted, and released a set of standard objects, and the output of the strain gage was amplified in a bridge configuration. T ... Cite

Mapping knee torques evoked by intraspinal microstimulation

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1997 The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of motor system neural prostheses based on intraspinal microstimulation. The isometric torque generated about the knee joint by microstimulation of the lumbar spinal cord were mapped systematically i ... Cite

Inversion of the current-distance relationship by transient depolarization.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · January 1997 The objective of this research was to develop a technique to excite selectively nerve fibers distant from an electrode without exciting nerve fibers close to the electrode. The shape of the stimulus current waveform was designed based on the nonlinear cond ... Full text Cite

Effects of tissue electrical properties on neural excitation

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1996 The influence of anisotropy and inhomogeneity of tissue electrical conductivity on the relationship between the threshold current and the electrode-to-fiber distance was determined by computer simulation. Anisotropy affected both the slope and offset of th ... Cite

Quantification of recruitment properties of multiple contact cuff electrodes.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society · June 1996 Nerve-based stimulating electrodes provide the technology for advancing the function of motor system neural prostheses. The goal of this work was to measure and quantify the recruitment properties of a 12 contact spiral nerve cuff electrode. The cuff was i ... Full text Cite

Non-invasive measurement of the input-output properties of peripheral nerve stimulating electrodes.

Journal Article Journal of neuroscience methods · March 1996 A non-invasive method was developed to determine the input-output (I/O) properties of peripheral nerve stimulating electrodes. An apparatus was fabricated to measure the 3-dimensional (3-D) isometric torque generated at the cat ankle joint by electrical ac ... Full text Cite

The effect of stimulus pulse duration on selectivity of neural stimulation.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · February 1996 Choice of stimulus parameters is an important consideration in the design of neural prosthetic systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rectangular stimulus pulsewidth (PW) on the selectivity of peripheral nerve stimulation. Comp ... Full text Cite

Comparison between monopolar and tripolar configurations in chronically implanted nerve cuff electrodes

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1995 Nerve cuff electrodes have been shown safe and able to activate selectively specific fascicles in a nerve trunk. Selectivity has been shown using a cuff with four radially placed tripoles thus requiring twelve contacts and twelve lead wires. This study eva ... Cite

Temporal stability of nerve cuff electrode recruitment properties

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1995 The recruitment properties of multiple contact nerve cuff electrodes chronically implanted on the cat sciatic nerve were measured, and the week to week variability was documented. The variability in recruitment properties was greatest between 1 week and 8 ... Cite

Stimulus Waveforms for Selective Neural Stimulation

Journal Article IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine · January 1, 1995 Full text Cite

Effect of stimulus pulsewidth on spatial selectivity of neural stimulation

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1994 The objective of this study was to determine the effect of stimulus pulsewidth (PW) on selective activation of peripheral nerve fibers. Computer simulations using a cable model of a mammalian myelinated nerve fiber indicated that shorter PWs increased the ... Cite

Electrical properties of implant encapsulation tissue.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · January 1994 The purpose of this study was to determine the electrical properties of the encapsulation tissue that surrounds electrodes chronically implanted in the body. Two four-electrode arrays, fabricated from either epoxy or silicone rubber, were implanted in each ... Full text Cite

Functional control of joint torque with a cuff electrode

Journal Article Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology · December 1, 1993 Three acute experiments were conducted on adult cats to test the performance of a contact nerve cuff electrode in the control of joint torque. A cuff implanted on the sciatic nerve allowed selective and progressive control of the magnitude and direction of ... Cite

Selective activation of distant nerve fibers

Journal Article Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology · December 1, 1993 A method has been developed to activate selectively nerve fibers lying at some distance from an electrode without activating fibers lying close to the electrode. A subthreshold depolarizing pre-pulse was used to inactive transiently the fibers lying close ... Cite

Selective control of muscle activation with a multipolar nerve cuff electrode.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · July 1993 Acute experiments were performed on adult cats to study selective activation of medial gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis anterior, and extensor digitorum longus with a cuff electrode. A spiral nerve cuff containing twelve "dot" electrodes was implanted aroun ... Full text Cite

Modeling the effects of electric fields on nerve fibers: determination of excitation thresholds.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering · December 1992 We have developed a method to predict excitation of axons based on the response of passive models. An expression describing the transmembrane potential induced in passive models to an applied electric field is presented. Two terms were found to drive the p ... Full text Cite

A new method to predict neural excitation thresholds for applied electric fields

Conference Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS · January 1, 1992 We have developed a method to predict excitation thresholds of axons based on the response of passive cable models. An expression describing the transmembrane potential induced in passive cables by an applied electric field is presented. Two terms were fou ... Full text Cite

Electrical impedance of electrode encapsulation tissue

Conference Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS · January 1, 1992 The complex resistivity of the encapsulation tissue that surrounds chronically implanted electrodes was measured in vitro as a function of frequency. The value of resistivity and its frequency dependence were functions of the morphology of the tissue. The ... Full text Cite

Selective activation of peripheral nerve fascicles: Use of field steering currents

Journal Article Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology · December 1, 1991 Testing of a twelve electrode spiral nerve cuff for selective activation of peripheral nerve fascicles was performed on the sciatic nerve in six cats. The effects of electrode position and magnitude of transverse field steering current on selective activat ... Cite

A new formulation of the activating function for estimation of neural excitation thresholds

Journal Article Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology · December 1, 1991 An expanded form of the activating function for neural excitation has been developed. This new form can be used to predict accurately axon excitation and thus avoid complex, time consuming calculations. The new function represents the NET (neural excitatio ... Cite