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William M. Reichert

Professor Emeritus of Biomedical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Box 90281, Durham, NC 27708-0281
1425 Ciemas, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


The role of medical equipment in the spread of nosocomial infections: a cross-sectional study in four tertiary public health facilities in Uganda.

Journal Article BMC public health · October 2020 BackgroundWith many medical equipment in hospitals coming in direct contact with healthcare workers, patients, technicians, cleaners and sometimes care givers, it is important to pay close attention to their capacity in harboring potentially harmf ... Full text Cite

Collagen-Mimetic Proteins with Tunable Integrin Binding Sites for Vascular Graft Coatings.

Journal Article ACS biomaterials science & engineering · August 2018 Achieving graft endothelialization following implantation continues to be a challenge in the development of "off-the-shelf," small-caliber, arterial prostheses. Coating grafts with biomolecules to support the retention, migration, and differentiation of ad ... Full text Cite

Part II: U.S.-Sub-Saharan Africa Educational Partnerships for Medical Device Design.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2017 Full text Cite

Evaluation of late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cell and umbilical vein endothelial cell responses to thromboresistant collagen-mimetic hydrogels.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · June 2017 Bioactive coatings which support the adhesion of late-outgrowth peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells (EOCs) are actively being investigated as a means to promote rapid endothelialization of "off-the-shelf," small-caliber arterial graft prostheses ... Full text Cite

Human Vascular Microphysiological System for in vitro Drug Screening.

Journal Article Sci Rep · February 18, 2016 In vitro human tissue engineered human blood vessels (TEBV) that exhibit vasoactivity can be used to test human toxicity of pharmaceutical drug candidates prior to pre-clinical animal studies. TEBVs with 400-800 μM diameters were made by embedding human ne ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Biomaterials use in Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda: Access and affordability.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · January 2016 Students in Biomaterials BBE3102 at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda were assigned semester long group projects in the first semester of the 2014-15 academic year to determine the biomaterials type and usage in Mulago National Referral Hospital, whic ... Full text Cite

Porous, Dexamethasone-loaded polyurethane coatings extend performance window of implantable glucose sensors in vivo.

Journal Article Acta Biomater · January 2016 UNLABELLED: Continuous glucose sensors offer the promise of tight glycemic control for insulin dependent diabetics; however, utilization of such systems has been hindered by issues of tissue compatibility. Here we report on the in vivo performance of impla ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modeling the Physiological Factors Affecting Glucose Sensor Function in Vivo.

Journal Article Journal of diabetes science and technology · June 2015 For implantable sensors to become a more viable option for continuous glucose monitoring strategies, they must be able to persist in vivo for periods longer than the 3- to 7-day window that is the current industry standard. Recent studies have attributed s ... Full text Cite

Extended fatigue life of a catalyst free self-healing acrylic bone cement using microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials · February 2015 The tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was encapsulated in polyurethane microshells and incorporated into bone cement to form a catalyst free, self-healing bone cement comprised of all clinically approved components. The bending strength, modulus, ... Full text Cite

Macrophage embedded fibrin gels: an in vitro platform for assessing inflammation effects on implantable glucose sensors.

Journal Article Biomaterials · December 2014 The erroneous and unpredictable behavior of percutaneous glucose sensors just days following implantation has limited their clinical utility for diabetes management. Recent research has implicated the presence of adherent inflammatory cells as the key miti ... Full text Cite

Characterization of porous, dexamethasone-releasing polyurethane coatings for glucose sensors.

Journal Article Acta Biomater · November 2014 Commercially available implantable needle-type glucose sensors for diabetes management are robust analytically but can be unreliable clinically primarily due to tissue-sensor interactions. Here, we present the physical, drug release and bioactivity charact ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Bi-ligand surfaces with oriented and patterned protein for real-time tracking of cell migration.

Journal Article Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces · November 2014 A bioactive platform for the quantitative observation of cell migration is presented by (1) presenting migration factors in a well-defined manner on 2-D substrates, and (2) enabling continuous cell tracking. Well-defined substrate presentation is achieved ... Full text Cite

Biological and engineering design considerations for vascular tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBVs).

Journal Article Current opinion in chemical engineering · February 2014 Considerable advances have occurred in the development of tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) to repair or replace injured blood vessels, or as in vitro systems for drug toxicity testing. Here we summarize approaches to produce TEBVs and review ... Full text Cite

Late-outgrowth endothelial progenitors from patients with coronary artery disease: endothelialization of confluent stromal cell layers.

Journal Article Acta biomaterialia · February 2014 Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are the primary candidates to receive small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs). Peripheral blood derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from CAD patients (CAD EPCs) represent a minimally invasi ... Full text Cite

Mechanical and cytotoxicity testing of acrylic bone cement embedded with microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials · January 2014 The water-reactive tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was microencapsulated in polyurethane shells and incorporated into Palacos R bone cement. The tensile and compressive properties of the composite material were investigated in accordance with c ... Full text Cite

Coagulation-induced resistance to fluid flow in small-diameter vascular grafts and graft mimics measured by purging pressure.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials · November 2013 In this study, the coagulation-induced resistance to flow in small-diameter nonpermeable Tygon tubes and permeable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts was characterized by measuring the upstream pressure needed to purge the coagulum fr ... Full text Cite

Predicting glucose sensor behavior in blood using transport modeling: relative impacts of protein biofouling and cellular metabolic effects.

Journal Article Journal of diabetes science and technology · November 2013 BackgroundTissue response to indwelling glucose sensors remains a confounding barrier to clinical application. While the effects of fully formed capsular tissue on sensor response have been studied, little has been done to understand how tissue in ... Full text Cite

Diversity and the Duke BME PhD program: then, now and moving forward.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · October 2013 Full text Cite

Coagulation-induced resistance to fluid flow in small-diameter vascular grafts and graft mimics measured by purging pressure.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials · May 2013 In this study, the coagulation-induced resistance to flow in small-diameter nonpermeable Tygon tubes and permeable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts was characterized by measuring the upstream pressure needed to purge the coagulum fr ... Full text Cite

The role of medical equipment in the spread of nosocomial infections: a cross-sectional study in four tertiary public health facilities in Uganda.

Journal Article BMC public health · October 2020 BackgroundWith many medical equipment in hospitals coming in direct contact with healthcare workers, patients, technicians, cleaners and sometimes care givers, it is important to pay close attention to their capacity in harboring potentially harmf ... Full text Cite

Collagen-Mimetic Proteins with Tunable Integrin Binding Sites for Vascular Graft Coatings.

Journal Article ACS biomaterials science & engineering · August 2018 Achieving graft endothelialization following implantation continues to be a challenge in the development of "off-the-shelf," small-caliber, arterial prostheses. Coating grafts with biomolecules to support the retention, migration, and differentiation of ad ... Full text Cite

Part II: U.S.-Sub-Saharan Africa Educational Partnerships for Medical Device Design.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · November 2017 Full text Cite

Evaluation of late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cell and umbilical vein endothelial cell responses to thromboresistant collagen-mimetic hydrogels.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · June 2017 Bioactive coatings which support the adhesion of late-outgrowth peripheral blood endothelial progenitor cells (EOCs) are actively being investigated as a means to promote rapid endothelialization of "off-the-shelf," small-caliber arterial graft prostheses ... Full text Cite

Human Vascular Microphysiological System for in vitro Drug Screening.

Journal Article Sci Rep · February 18, 2016 In vitro human tissue engineered human blood vessels (TEBV) that exhibit vasoactivity can be used to test human toxicity of pharmaceutical drug candidates prior to pre-clinical animal studies. TEBVs with 400-800 μM diameters were made by embedding human ne ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Biomaterials use in Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda: Access and affordability.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · January 2016 Students in Biomaterials BBE3102 at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda were assigned semester long group projects in the first semester of the 2014-15 academic year to determine the biomaterials type and usage in Mulago National Referral Hospital, whic ... Full text Cite

Porous, Dexamethasone-loaded polyurethane coatings extend performance window of implantable glucose sensors in vivo.

Journal Article Acta Biomater · January 2016 UNLABELLED: Continuous glucose sensors offer the promise of tight glycemic control for insulin dependent diabetics; however, utilization of such systems has been hindered by issues of tissue compatibility. Here we report on the in vivo performance of impla ... Full text Link to item Cite

Modeling the Physiological Factors Affecting Glucose Sensor Function in Vivo.

Journal Article Journal of diabetes science and technology · June 2015 For implantable sensors to become a more viable option for continuous glucose monitoring strategies, they must be able to persist in vivo for periods longer than the 3- to 7-day window that is the current industry standard. Recent studies have attributed s ... Full text Cite

Extended fatigue life of a catalyst free self-healing acrylic bone cement using microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials · February 2015 The tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was encapsulated in polyurethane microshells and incorporated into bone cement to form a catalyst free, self-healing bone cement comprised of all clinically approved components. The bending strength, modulus, ... Full text Cite

Macrophage embedded fibrin gels: an in vitro platform for assessing inflammation effects on implantable glucose sensors.

Journal Article Biomaterials · December 2014 The erroneous and unpredictable behavior of percutaneous glucose sensors just days following implantation has limited their clinical utility for diabetes management. Recent research has implicated the presence of adherent inflammatory cells as the key miti ... Full text Cite

Characterization of porous, dexamethasone-releasing polyurethane coatings for glucose sensors.

Journal Article Acta Biomater · November 2014 Commercially available implantable needle-type glucose sensors for diabetes management are robust analytically but can be unreliable clinically primarily due to tissue-sensor interactions. Here, we present the physical, drug release and bioactivity charact ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Bi-ligand surfaces with oriented and patterned protein for real-time tracking of cell migration.

Journal Article Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces · November 2014 A bioactive platform for the quantitative observation of cell migration is presented by (1) presenting migration factors in a well-defined manner on 2-D substrates, and (2) enabling continuous cell tracking. Well-defined substrate presentation is achieved ... Full text Cite

Biological and engineering design considerations for vascular tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBVs).

Journal Article Current opinion in chemical engineering · February 2014 Considerable advances have occurred in the development of tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) to repair or replace injured blood vessels, or as in vitro systems for drug toxicity testing. Here we summarize approaches to produce TEBVs and review ... Full text Cite

Late-outgrowth endothelial progenitors from patients with coronary artery disease: endothelialization of confluent stromal cell layers.

Journal Article Acta biomaterialia · February 2014 Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are the primary candidates to receive small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs). Peripheral blood derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from CAD patients (CAD EPCs) represent a minimally invasi ... Full text Cite

Mechanical and cytotoxicity testing of acrylic bone cement embedded with microencapsulated 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials · January 2014 The water-reactive tissue adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (OCA) was microencapsulated in polyurethane shells and incorporated into Palacos R bone cement. The tensile and compressive properties of the composite material were investigated in accordance with c ... Full text Cite

Coagulation-induced resistance to fluid flow in small-diameter vascular grafts and graft mimics measured by purging pressure.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials · November 2013 In this study, the coagulation-induced resistance to flow in small-diameter nonpermeable Tygon tubes and permeable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts was characterized by measuring the upstream pressure needed to purge the coagulum fr ... Full text Cite

Predicting glucose sensor behavior in blood using transport modeling: relative impacts of protein biofouling and cellular metabolic effects.

Journal Article Journal of diabetes science and technology · November 2013 BackgroundTissue response to indwelling glucose sensors remains a confounding barrier to clinical application. While the effects of fully formed capsular tissue on sensor response have been studied, little has been done to understand how tissue in ... Full text Cite

Diversity and the Duke BME PhD program: then, now and moving forward.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · October 2013 Full text Cite

Coagulation-induced resistance to fluid flow in small-diameter vascular grafts and graft mimics measured by purging pressure.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials · May 2013 In this study, the coagulation-induced resistance to flow in small-diameter nonpermeable Tygon tubes and permeable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts was characterized by measuring the upstream pressure needed to purge the coagulum fr ... Full text Cite

Design considerations for an integrated microphysiological muscle tissue for drug and tissue toxicity testing.

Journal Article Stem Cell Res Ther · 2013 Microphysiological systems provide a tool to simulate normal and pathological function of organs for prolonged periods. These systems must incorporate the key functions of the individual organs and enable interactions among the corresponding microphysiolog ... Full text Link to item Cite

Textured and Porous Materials

Chapter · January 1, 2013 Full text Cite

Microencapsulation of liquid cyanoacrylate via in situ polymerization for self-healing bone cement application

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · December 1, 2012 Structural polymers are susceptible to accumulated damage in the form of internal microcracks that propagate through the material, resulting in mechanical failure. Self- healing approaches offer a solution to repair these damages automatically. The first g ... Full text Cite

Silica-dispersed glucose oxidase for glucose sensing: in vitro testing in serum and blood and the effect of condensation pH.

Journal Article Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical · November 2012 The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using glucose oxidase (GOx) dispersed in a silica matrix for glucose monitoring in whole blood, and then to assess whether the flexibility of silica sol-gel chemistry could be exploited to enh ... Full text Cite

Microencapsulation of 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for self-healing acrylic bone cement.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials · October 2012 Here, we report the first phase of developing self-healing acrylic bone cement: the preparation and characterization of polyurethane (PUR) microcapsules containing a medical cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Capsules were prepared by interfacial polymerizatio ... Full text Cite

2011 panel on developing a biomaterials curriculum.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · March 2012 This article provides the transcript for the Panel on Developing a Biomaterials Curriculum held at the 2011 annual meeting of the Society for Biomaterials in Orlando, FL. The panelists were Thomas R. Harris of Vanderbilt University, Jack Lemons of the Univ ... Full text Cite

Patient-derived endothelial progenitor cells improve vascular graft patency in a rodent model.

Journal Article Acta Biomater · January 2012 Late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from the peripheral blood of patients with significant coronary artery disease were sodded into the lumens of small diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts. Grafts (1mm in ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

In vitro functional testing of endothelial progenitor cells that overexpress thrombomodulin.

Journal Article Tissue Eng Part A · August 2011 This study investigated the augmentation of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) thromboresistance by using gene therapy to overexpress thrombomodulin (TM), an endothelial cell membrane glycoprotein that has potent anti-coagulant properties. Late outgrowth EP ... Full text Link to item Cite

Self-healing biomaterials.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · February 2011 The goal of this review is to introduce the biomaterials community to the emerging field of self-healing materials, and also to suggest how one could utilize and modify self-healing approaches to develop new classes of biomaterials. A brief discussion of t ... Full text Cite

2010 Panel on the biomaterials grand challenges.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · February 2011 In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.e ... Full text Cite

Modeling the relative impact of capsular tissue effects on implanted glucose sensor time lag and signal attenuation.

Journal Article Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry · October 2010 Little is known mechanistically about why implanted glucose sensors lag behind blood glucose levels in both the time to peak sensor response and the magnitude of peak sensor response. A mathematical model of glucose transport from capillaries through surro ... Full text Cite

Bioluminescence imaging of glucose in tissue surrounding polyurethane and glucose sensor implants.

Journal Article J Diabetes Sci Technol · September 1, 2010 BACKGROUND: The bioluminescence technique was used to quantify the local glucose concentration in the tissue surrounding subcutaneously implanted polyurethane material and surrounding glucose sensors. In addition, some implants were coated with a single la ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Soluble factor effects on glial cell reactivity at the surface of gel-coated microwires.

Journal Article Journal of neuroscience methods · July 2010 A basal lamina gel preparation was incorporated into a modified neuroinflammation cell culture model to test the system as a characterization tool for surface-modified microwires. The extent of gliosis at the surface of gel-coated microwires was quantified ... Full text Cite

Intravital microscopy evaluation of angiogenesis and its effects on glucose sensor performance.

Journal Article J Biomed Mater Res A · June 15, 2010 An optical window model for the rodent dorsum was used to perform chronic and quantitative intravital microscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry of microvascular networks adjacent to functional and non-functional glucose sensors. The one-sided configuration af ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Peptide interfacial biomaterials improve endothelial cell adhesion and spreading on synthetic polyglycolic acid materials.

Journal Article Ann Biomed Eng · June 2010 Resorbable scaffolds such as polyglycolic acid (PGA) are employed in a number of clinical and tissue engineering applications owing to their desirable property of allowing remodeling to form native tissue over time. However, native PGA does not promote end ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Comparison of endothelial cell phenotypic markers of late-outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells isolated from patients with coronary artery disease and healthy volunteers.

Journal Article Tissue Eng Part A · November 2009 The lack of easily isolated autologous endothelial cell (EC) sources is one of the major challenges with vascular tissue engineering interventions. This article examines the isolation and expansion of late-outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from ... Full text Link to item Cite

Instructional PowerPoint presentations for cutaneous wound healing and tissue response to sutures.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · September 2009 Wound healing is an intricate process involving the interaction of cells and molecules, resulting in a complex series of events that change the morphology and characteristics of the wounded area. Interactive animations are useful for illustrating challengi ... Full text Cite

Haptotactic gradients for directed cell migration: stimulation and inhibition using soluble factors.

Journal Article Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening · July 2009 A recently developed technique for the measurement of cell migration on surface bound gradients was used to assay the behavior of microvascular endothelial cells on a range of fibronectin gradient slopes in the presence of soluble promoters and inhibitors ... Full text Cite

Control protocol for robust in vitro glial scar formation around microwires: essential roles of bFGF and serum in gliosis.

Journal Article Journal of neuroscience methods · July 2009 Previously, we reported an in vitro cell culture model that recreates many of the hallmarks of glial scarring around electrodes used for recording in the brain; however, the model lacked the reproducibility necessary to establish a useful characterization ... Full text Cite

Dynamic seeding of perfusing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) onto dual-function cell adhesion ligands: Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-streptavidin and biotinylated fibronectin.

Journal Article Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids · May 2009 Surfaces decorated with high affinity ligands can be used to facilitate rapid attachment of endothelial cells; however, standard equilibrium cell detachment studies are poorly suited for assessing these initial adhesion events. Here, a dynamic seeding and ... Full text Cite

Biomimetic strategies based on viruses and bacteria for the development of immune evasive biomaterials.

Journal Article Biomaterials · April 2009 The field of biomaterials has begun to focus upon materials strategies for modulating the immune response. While certain approaches appear promising, they are currently limited to isolated facets of inflammation process. It is well documented that both bac ... Full text Cite

In vivo cytokine-associated responses to biomaterials.

Journal Article Biomaterials · January 2009 Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were analyzed periodically over eight weeks from the wound exudate fluid surrounding biomaterials implanted subcutaneously within stainless steel mesh cages. TNF-alpha, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, IL-2, IL-6, IL-1beta, VEGF ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cytokine profiling using monocytes/macrophages cultured on common biomaterials with a range of surface chemistries.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · January 2009 Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were assayed from the supernatants of monocytes and macrophages cultured on common biomaterials with a range of surface chemistries. TNF-alpha, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1beta, VEGF, IL-1ra, and IL-10 were ... Full text Cite

In vitro and in vivo characterization of porous poly-L-lactic acid coatings for subcutaneously implanted glucose sensors.

Journal Article J Biomed Mater Res A · December 1, 2008 The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) sensor coatings reduce fibrosis and promote blood microvessel formation in tissue adjacent to the sensor surface. Porous PLLA coatings were produced using ammonium b ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adipose stem cell attachment to glucose sensors

Conference 8th World Biomaterials Congress 2008 · December 1, 2008 Cite

Wound healing PowerPoint presentations for introductory biomaterials education.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · December 2008 Full text Cite

Cytokine response from monocytes/macrophages seeded onto common biomaterials

Journal Article 8th World Biomaterials Congress 2008 · December 1, 2008 Cite

Percutaneous window chamber method for chronic intravital microscopy of sensor-tissue interactions.

Journal Article J Diabetes Sci Technol · November 2008 BACKGROUND: A dorsal, two-sided skin-fold window chamber model was employed previously by Gough in glucose sensor research to characterize poorly understood physiological factors affecting sensor performance. We have extended this work by developing a perc ... Full text Link to item Cite

IFATS collection: Adipose-derived stromal cells improve the foreign body response.

Journal Article Stem Cells · October 2008 Many implanted devices fail due to the formation of an avascular capsule surrounding the device. Additionally, fat has long been known to promote healing and vascularization. The goals of this study were to identify potential mechanisms of the provascular ... Full text Link to item Cite

Streptavidin binding and endothelial cell adhesion to biotinylated fibronectin.

Journal Article Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids · December 2007 A dual ligand (DL) system that combines high affinity streptavidin-biotin binding with lower affinity fibronectin-integrin ligand binding was developed to augment endothelial cell adhesion to polymers. In this study, we examined the utility of biotinylated ... Full text Cite

Response of monocytes exposed to phagocytosable particles and discs of comparable surface roughness.

Journal Article Biomaterials · October 2007 This in vitro study characterized the temporal cytokine expression profile from human monocytes exposed to phagocytosable Ti particles (0.78+/-0.12 microm) and to Ti discs of comparable surface roughness. Human THP-1 monocytes were cultured in six well tis ... Full text Cite

In vitro, in vivo and post explantation testing of glucose-detecting biosensors: current methods and recommendations.

Journal Article Biomaterials · September 2007 To date, there have been a number of cases where glucose sensors have performed well over long periods of implantation; however, it remains difficult to predict whether a given sensor will perform reliably, will exhibit gradual degradation of performance, ... Full text Cite

The use of mild trypsinization conditions in the detachment of endothelial cells to promote subsequent endothelialization on synthetic surfaces.

Journal Article Biomaterials · September 2007 A necessary condition for endothelialization of small diameter grafts is rapid and firm adhesion of endothelial cells upon exposure to flow. To retain integrins on the cell surface, we assessed the effects of trypsin concentration, the duration of trypsin ... Full text Cite

Flow and high affinity binding affect the elastic modulus of the nucleus, cell body and the stress fibers of endothelial cells.

Journal Article Annals of biomedical engineering · July 2007 Cell mechanical properties are important in the adhesion of endothelial cells to synthetic vascular grafts exposed to shear flow. We hypothesized that the local apparent elastic modulus of the nucleus and the cell body would increase to a greater extent fo ... Full text Cite

Vascular endothelial growth factor and dexamethasone release from nonfouling sensor coatings affect the foreign body response.

Journal Article J Biomed Mater Res A · June 15, 2007 Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and dexamethasone (DX) release from hydrogel coatings were examined as a means to modify tissue inflammation and induce angiogenesis. Antibiofouling hydrogels for implantable glucose sensor coatings were prepared f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult adipose-derived stem cell attachment to biomaterials.

Journal Article Biomaterials · February 2007 Attachment of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to biomaterials prior to implantation is a possible strategy for mediating inflammation and wound healing. In this study, the ASC percent coverage was measured on common medical grade biosensor materials subj ... Full text Link to item Cite

Overview of wound healing in different tissue types

Chapter · January 1, 2007 The inevitable response to any implant is wound healing comprised of hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. For nondegradable smooth-surfaced implants, repair and remodeling leads to isolation of the implant through tissue encapsulation. The nat ... Cite

Indwelling neural implants: Strategies for contending with the In Vivo environment

Book · January 1, 2007 Despite enormous advances made in the development of external effector prosthetics over the last quarter century, significant questions remain, especially those concerning signal degradation that occurs with chronically implanted neuroelectrodes. Offering ... Cite

Preface

Book · January 1, 2007 Cite

Glucose recovery with bare and hydrogel-coated microdialysis probes: experiment and simulation of temporal effects.

Journal Article Analytical chemistry · January 2007 In vitro microdialysis glucose sampling was used to test the transient and steady-state suitability of antifouling hydrogel coatings, composed of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, vinylpyrrolidinone, and poly(ethylene glycol). The in vitro glucose diffusion coe ... Full text Cite

Directed cell migration on fibronectin gradients: effect of gradient slope.

Journal Article Experimental cell research · August 2006 The migration of human microvascular endothelial cells (hMEC) was measured on a range of fibronectin gradient slopes. hMEC drift speed increased with increasing gradient slope with no concurrent change in cellular persistence time or random cell speed. The ... Full text Cite

Mylar and Teflon-AF as cell culture substrates for studying endothelial cell adhesion.

Journal Article Biomaterials · December 2005 The textured and opaque nature of Dacron and ePTFE has prevented the use of these fabrics in conventional cell culture techniques normally employed to optimize cell attachment and retention. This lack of optimization has led, in part, to the poor performan ... Full text Cite

Response of brain tissue to chronically implanted neural electrodes.

Journal Article Journal of neuroscience methods · October 2005 Chronically implanted recording electrode arrays linked to prosthetics have the potential to make positive impacts on patients suffering from full or partial paralysis. Such arrays are implanted into the patient's cortical tissue and record extracellular p ... Full text Cite

In vitro characterization of vascular endothelial growth factor and dexamethasone releasing hydrogels for implantable probe coatings.

Journal Article Biomaterials · June 2005 Anti-fouling hydrogel coatings, copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone, and polyethylene glycol, were investigated for the purpose of improving biosensor biocompatibility. These coatings were modified to incorporate poly(lactide ... Full text Cite

Protein array method for assessing in vitro biomaterial-induced cytokine expression.

Journal Article Biomaterials · April 2005 This study demonstrates the feasibility of a cytokine-based in vitro test for biomaterials. The combination of monocyte culture and protein array technology tested in this study permitted the detection of subtle changes in cytokine expression following an ... Full text Cite

In vivo performance of dual ligand augmented endothelialized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular grafts.

Journal Article J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater · January 15, 2005 In this study, we examined combinations of three approaches to improve the adhesion of endothelial cells (EC) onto expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts placed at the femoral artery of rats: (1) high-affinity receptor-ligand binding of R ... Full text Link to item Cite

Synergistic effect of shear stress and streptavidin-biotin on the expression of endothelial vasodilator and cytoskeleton genes.

Journal Article Biotechnology and bioengineering · December 2004 Dual ligand treatment of streptavidin(SA)-biotin and fibronectin (Fn) enhances the adhesion of endothelial cells (EC) onto synthetic surfaces and promotes the quiescent phenotype of adherent EC. The current study investigates the effect of the dual ligand ... Full text Cite

Migration assay to measure cellular response to signalling gradients

Journal Article Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress · December 1, 2004 The use of a modified Teflon fence assay to track the movement of endothelical cells in response to a diffusion generated signalling gradient of fibronectin was discussed. The substrates were generated from self-assembled monolayers of alkanethoils on opti ... Cite

Dual release of VEGF and dexamethasone from microspheres incorporated in anti-fouling hydrogels

Journal Article Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress · December 1, 2004 The modification of anti-fouling hydrogels to incorporate microspheres for the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and dexamethasone was studied. It was observed that the hydrogen release curves exhibited a burst release of the encapsulat ... Cite

Cytokine detection protein arrays for in vitro evaluation of biomaterials

Journal Article Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress · December 1, 2004 The preparation of cytokine detection protein arrays for in vitro biomaterials evaluation was investigated. The mouse monocytes, RAW 264.7 were plated in 6-well plates at 105 cell/well in 2mL of DMEM medium. Corresponding culture media were collected, and ... Cite

In vitro characterization of microdialysis sampling of macromolecules.

Journal Article Analytical chemistry · October 2004 Experiments were performed to characterize the in vitro collection of macromolecules using microdialysis. Fluorescently labeled proteins and dextrans ranging from 3000 to 150 000 were sampled using a 10-mm, 100 000 molecular weight cutoff, polyethersulfone ... Full text Cite

Measurement of cell migration on surface-bound fibronectin gradients.

Journal Article Langmuir · September 14, 2004 A novel technique for the quantitative observation of cell migration along linear gradient substrates functionalized with adhesive proteins is presented. Gradients of the cell adhesion molecule fibronectin are generated by the cross diffusion of functional ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of streptavidin-biotin on endothelial vasoregulation and leukocyte adhesion.

Journal Article Biomaterials · August 2004 The current study examines whether the adhesion promoting arginine-glycine-aspartate-streptavidin mutant (RGD-SA) also affects two important endothelial cell (EC) functions in vitro: vasoregulation and leukocyte adhesion. EC adherent to surfaces via fibron ... Full text Cite

Effect of streptavidin RGD mutant on the adhesion of endothelial cells.

Journal Article Biotechnology progress · March 2004 Adhesion of endothelial cells (EC) to surfaces can be enhanced by supplementing the integrin-mediated adhesion with high-affinity streptavidin (SA) that links a biotinylated EC to a biotinylated surface. Biotin pullout from the EC membrane limits the effec ... Full text Cite

Parallel comparison of sandwich and direct label assay protocols on cytokine detection protein arrays

Journal Article Analytical Chemistry · October 1, 2003 This study describes a systematic comparison of the preparation, sensitivity, and response of direct label and sandwich fluoroimmunoassay protein arrays for parallel detection of cytokines and growth factors. Five model analytes were examined, IL-1β, TNF-α ... Full text Cite

High-affinity augmentation of endothelial cell attachment: long-term effects on focal contact and actin filament formation.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · September 2003 Coadsorption of high-affinity avidin with lower affinity cell adhesion protein fibronectin has been shown to significantly augment short-term (1 h) adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells; however, the longer term persistence of avidin binding and its ... Full text Cite

Prediction of feature spread for microarray printing using protein and DNA solutions

Journal Article Langmuir · April 1, 2003 Printing experiments were conducted with a variety of DNA and protein samples for the optimization of microarray density and the correlation of feature size with the predictive model. The model performed well for all DNA solutions printed in 3xSSC buffer. ... Full text Cite

Adapting cDNA microarray format to cytokine detection protein arrays

Journal Article Langmuir · March 4, 2003 A cytokine detection protein array was developed that combines the advantages of the cDNA microarray technology and sandwich fluoroimmunoassay. The protein array was printed by robotically spotting five human cytokine and growth factor capture antibodies o ... Full text Cite

Effect of streptavidin affinity mutants on the integrin-independent adhesion of biotinylated endothelial cells.

Journal Article Biomaterials · February 2003 We have previously shown that the high-affinity streptavidin (SA)-biotin interaction enhanced the initial integrin-mediated adhesion of biotinylated endothelial cells to SA-coated surface by serving as an extrinsic bond to stabilize and enhance the intrins ... Full text Cite

Synergistic effect of high-affinity binding and flow preconditioning on endothelial cell adhesion.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A · January 2003 The current study examined whether the combined introduction of high-affinity avidin-biotin bonds and fibronectin-integrin bonds (i.e., dual ligand treatment) would further augment the adhesion of flow-preconditioned endothelial cells to model substrates v ... Full text Cite

The effects of streptavidin-biotin exogenous ligands on the endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthase activity

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2002 In this study, the effects of the streptavidin(SA)-biotin ligands on the amount of endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were quantified. The higher-affinity SA-biotin ligands were previously introduced to help promote the initial endothelial ce ... Cite

Incorporating dexamethasone release in hydrogel coated microdialysis probes

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2002 Microdialysis probes were used to study the influence of membrane modifications on glucose recovery. The microdialysis membranes were modified by adding a hydrogel coating. The coated probes were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for glucose permeability. It ... Cite

The optimization of quill-pin printed protein and DNA microarrays

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 2002 Microarray density has been optimized as a function of substrate wettability and composition of the printing buffer. Features were printed across contact angle gradients to determine the effect of surface wettability on feature spreading. Feature size incr ... Cite

Suppression of interdiffusion in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well structure capped with dielectric films by deposition of gallium oxide

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · October 1, 2002 In this work, different dielectric caps were deposited on the GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well (QW) structures followed by rapid thermal annealing to generate different degrees of interdiffusion. Deposition of a layer of Ga xO y on top of these dielectric caps res ... Full text Cite

Magnetic resonance imaging of a tissue/implanted device biointerface using in vivo microdialysis sampling.

Journal Article Anal Chem · September 15, 2002 Real-time in vivo images of magnetic resonance contrast agent diffusion from implanted microdialysis probes were obtained by magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy. A gadolinium-containing contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) was infused through microdialysis probes impla ... Full text Link to item Cite

Spreading diagrams for the optimization of quill pin printed microarray density

Journal Article Langmuir · August 6, 2002 The printed feature size from a quill pin microarraying system was characterized to predict optimal microarray density from common experimental variables of pin size, solution viscosity, and surface wettability. Features containing fluorescent dye were pri ... Full text Cite

Analyte flux through chronically implanted subcutaneous polyamide membranes differs in humans and rats.

Journal Article Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab · June 2002 The rat is commonly used to evaluate physiological responses of subcutaneous tissue to implanted devices. In vivo longevity of various devices and the biocompatibility of biomaterials depend on how adjacent tissue interacts. How closely the rat model predi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Time-tested survival skills for a publish or perish environment

Journal Article Journal of Engineering Education · January 1, 2002 There are several time-tested survival skills to consider when plotting a course to tenure in a "publish or perish" environment. These are: choosing an institution that matches your expectations, abilities, and goals; knowing what to expect (and avoid) onc ... Full text Cite

Decreased analyte transport through implanted membranes: differentiation of biofouling from tissue effects.

Journal Article J Biomed Mater Res · December 15, 2001 Membrane biofouling and tissue changes in the foreign body response are known to cause detrimental reductions of analyte transport into implanted biosensors. The relative contribution of each phenomenon is unknown. Hollow fiber microdialysis probes were em ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endothelial, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle exhibit different viscous and elastic properties as determined by atomic force microscopy.

Journal Article J Biomech · December 2001 This study evaluated the hypothesis that, due to functional and structural differences, the apparent elastic modulus and viscous behavior of cardiac and skeletal muscle and vascular endothelium would differ. To accurately determine the elastic modulus, the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Water-soluble treatments to enhance glucose permeability of protein-resistant polymer overlayers.

Journal Article Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition · January 2001 This study employed two water-soluble and nontoxic molecules, sucrose and glycerol, to enhance the permeability of PEG-PHEMA polymer gels coated onto 100 kDa molecular weight cutoff polyethersulfone (PES) microdialysis probes. Sucrose precoating of the pro ... Full text Cite

Metabolites at a biomaterial-tissue interface sampled by microdialysis - a comparison of the subcutaneous foreign body response in humans and rats over 8 days

Other Annals of Biomedical Engineering · December 1, 2000 The purpose of this work was to study how closely the rat models the human subcutaneous (SQ) foreign body response. Polyamide microdialysis probes (CMA/Microdialysis; Solna, Sweden) were implanted subcutaneously in healthy human volunteers and in Sprague D ... Cite

Protein adsorption and cell adhesion on self-assembled monolayers and gradient surfaces

Journal Article Annals of Biomedical Engineering · December 1, 2000 Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) present a controlled substrate properties and uniform surface for protein and cells to interact. This article discusses the planned demonstration of selective adsorption of fibronection and cell adhesion to this gradient su ... Cite

Atomic force and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for the study of force transmission in endothelial cells

Journal Article Annals of Biomedical Engineering · December 1, 2000 Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) were configured to examine the transmission of force applied from the apical cell membrane to the basal cell membrane of HUVECs. The precise localized mechanical pe ... Cite

Reducing endothelial cell detachment via cohesive failure by stiffening cell membrane with cholesterol

Journal Article Annals of Biomedical Engineering · December 1, 2000 Cells initially resist detachment primarily by forming bonds between adhesion molecules and their integrin receptors. As an integrated bond density increases, membrane rupture (cohesive failure) becomes the predominant detachment mechanism. A novel approac ... Cite

Atomic force and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for the study of force transmission in endothelial cells.

Journal Article Biophysical journal · April 2000 This paper describes the combined use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to examine the transmission of force from the apical cell membrane to the basal cell membrane. A Bioscope AFM was mounted o ... Full text Cite

Characterization of implantable biosensor membrane biofouling.

Journal Article Fresenius' journal of analytical chemistry · March 2000 The material-tissue interaction that results from sensor implantation is one of the major obstacles in developing viable, long-term implantable biosensors. Strategies useful for the characterization and modification of sensor biocompatibility are widely sc ... Full text Cite

Methods for reducing biosensor membrane biofouling

Journal Article Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces · January 1, 2000 The deleterious effect that biofouling has on sensor stability is a serious impediment to the development of long term implanted biosensors. This paper reviews the surface modification strategies currently employed to minimize membrane biofouling of in viv ... Full text Cite

Total internal reflection microscopy and atomic force microscopy (TIRFM-AFM) to study stress transduction mechanisms in endothelial cells.

Journal Article Critical reviews in biomedical engineering · January 2000 The cytoskeleton plays a key role in providing strength and structure to the cell. A force balance exists between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix/substratum via the focal contact regions. The purpose of this study is to integrate atomic force ... Full text Cite

Lateral OMVPE growth of GaAs on patterned substrates

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · January 1, 2000 GaAs was grown on patterned 〈1 0 0〉 on- and off-axis GaAs substrates by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy (OMVPE). Patterned mesas were observed to change shape because lateral growth rates varied by more than an order of magnitude in different crystallog ... Full text Cite

Effects of substrate orientation and surface reconstruction on patterned substrate OMVPE of GaAs

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 2000 Organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth of GaAs on 320 nm high mesas was used to study the dependence of lateral growth upon the substrate misorientation from (100) and the mesa wall orientation on the substrate. GaAs (100) substrates were misoriented ... Full text Cite

Biomaterials community examines biosensor biocompatibility.

Journal Article Diabetes technology & therapeutics · January 2000 Full text Cite

Role of endothelial cell-substrate contact area and fibronectin-receptor affinity in cell adhesion to HEMA/EMA copolymers.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research · December 1999 The objective of this study was to examine the effect of substrate hydrophobicity on cell-substrate contact area and the affinity between adsorbed fibronectin (Fn) and its receptor. Homo- and copolymer films of hydrophobic ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and hydr ... Full text Cite

An equilibrium model of endothelial cell adhesion via integrin-dependent and integrin-independent ligands.

Journal Article Biomaterials · December 1999 Endothelial cell adhesion can be enhanced by supplementing integrin-mediated adhesion via fibronectin with the high-affinity avidin-biotin system in which biotin is covalently linked to membrane proteins and avidin binds to biotinylated surfaces (Bhat et a ... Full text Cite

Characterization of analyte transport over time through implantable biosensor membranes using microdialysis

Other Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1999 A microdialysis method for monitoring permeability changes of implanted biosensor membranes was demonstrated in vivo. Glucose diffusion through three different hollow fiber membranes (polyethersulfone (PES), polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polycarbonate (PC)) was ... Cite

Integration of total internal reflection and atomic force microscopy (TIRFM-AFM) to study stress transduction mechanisms in endothelial cells

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology - Proceedings · December 1, 1999 The purpose of this study was to integrate atomic force microscopy (AFM) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) data to determine the effect of localized force application over the cell surface on the cell's focal contacts size and p ... Cite

Multiple-analyte fluoroimmunoassay using an integrated optical waveguide sensor.

Journal Article Analytical chemistry · October 1999 A silicon oxynitride integrated optical waveguide was used to evanescently excite fluorescence from a multianalyte sensor surface in a rapid, sandwich immunoassay format. Multiple analyte immunoassay (MAIA) results for two sets of three different analytes, ... Full text Cite

Waveguide multi-channel immunoassay using photo-deprotection immobilization

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1999 A planar optical waveguide was used to simultaneously excite fluorescence due to antigen binding in three separate areas of immobilized antibody. Biotin labeled, polyclonal antibodies to goat, human, and rabbit IgG were immobilized through surface bound, p ... Full text Cite

Short-term cell/substrate contact dynamics of subconfluent endothelial cells following exposure to laminar flow.

Journal Article Biotechnology progress · January 1999 The manner in which fluid stresses are transmitted from the apical to the basal surface of the endothelium will influence the dynamics of cell/substrate contacts. Such dynamics could be important in the design of synthetic vascular grafts to promote endoth ... Full text Cite

Integration of total internal reflection microscopy and atomic force microscopy (TIRFM-AFM) to study mechanotransduction in endothelial cells

Journal Article Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering · December 1, 1998 Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) were used simultaneously to determine the effect of localized force application on cell-substrate contact size and position. Fluorescently labeled Human Umbilical V ... Cite

Fibronectin and avidin-biotin as a heterogeneous ligand system for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research · September 1998 A preadsorbed layer of "heterogeneous" integrin-dependent and -independent protein was used to enhance initial integrin-mediated endothelial cell attachment and spreading. Glass substrates were treated with fibronectin (Fn) and avidin coupled through adsor ... Full text Cite

Step-and-repeat photopatterning of protein features using caged-biotin-BSA: Characterization and resolution

Journal Article Langmuir · July 21, 1998 This paper characterizes the caged-biotin - BSA system developed for selectively patterning biotinylated proteins into patterns on glass slides. Methyl α-nitropiperonyloxycarbonyl biotin, caged biotin, is coupled to a bovine serum albumin (BSA) carrier mol ... Full text Cite

Engineering the tissue which encapsulates subcutaneous implants. II. Plasma-tissue exchange properties.

Journal Article J Biomed Mater Res · June 15, 1998 This study assesses the plasma-tissue exchange characteristics of the capsular tissue that forms around implants and how they are affected by implant porosity. The number of vessels and their permeability to rhodamine were measured by intravascular injecti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Engineering the tissue which encapsulates subcutaneous implants. III. Effective tissue response times.

Journal Article J Biomed Mater Res · June 15, 1998 The results of two previous studies have shown that implant porosity can be used to increase both the measured diffusion coefficients and the vascularity within the tissue encapsulating long-term subcutaneous implants. This study investigates the hypothesi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Using avidin-mediated binding to enhance initial endothelial cell attachment and spreading.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research · April 1998 Binding between the protein avidin and the vitamin biotin was used as an extrinsic, high affinity receptor-ligand system to augment the intrinsic integrin-dependent cellular adhesion mechanism. Glass substrates were coupled with avidin receptors through an ... Full text Cite

Protein patterning.

Journal Article Biomaterials · April 1998 The current technology available for patterning proteins is reviewed. Examples of two-dimensional protein patterning using conventional photolithographic methods, photochemistry, and self-assembled monolayers are given. Consideration is also given to some ... Full text Cite

Genetic engineering of a single-chain antibody fragment for surface immobilization in an optical biosensor.

Journal Article Biosens Bioelectron · March 1, 1998 The development of a biosensor based on a genetically engineered biomolecule offers many potential advantages to sensors that rely on natural proteins only. Here we present how protein engineering techniques can be used to introduce a functional unit for s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Application of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to study cell adhesion to biomaterials.

Journal Article Biomaterials · March 1998 Cell adhesion and function depend upon the formation of adhesive contacts between the cell and substrate. Determination of the cell substrate contact area is necessary in order to understand how biomaterial properties influence cell adhesion. In this revie ... Full text Cite

Planar integrated optical methods for examining thin films and their surface adlayers.

Journal Article Biomaterials · March 1998 Thin film integrated optical waveguides (IOWs) have gained acceptance as a method for characterizing ultrathin dielectrical films and adlayers bound to the film surface. Here, we present the expressions that govern IOW methods as well as describe the commo ... Full text Cite

Improving endothelial cell adhesion to vascular graft surfaces: clinical need and strategies.

Journal Article J Biomater Sci Polym Ed · 1998 Synthetic vascular grafts do not spontaneously endothelialize in humans and require some form of anticoagulation to maintain patency. Preseeding synthetic graft materials such as expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Membrane biofouling measured by microdialysis

Other Proceedings of the Controlled Release Society · January 1, 1998 Cite

Graduate engineering education of underrepresented populations

Journal Article Journal of Engineering Education · January 1, 1998 Of all segments of science and engineering graduate education, the disparity between minority groups is the greatest, and the participation of nonresident aliens is the highest, in engineering. This paper examines the graduate degrees awarded in engineerin ... Full text Cite

Engineering the tissue which encapsulates subcutaneous implants. I. Diffusion properties.

Journal Article J Biomed Mater Res · December 5, 1997 This report uses normal rat subcutis as a reference point to provide a quantitative analysis of small analyte transport through the tissue which encapsulates implants. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with 60- and 350-micron mean pore size (PVA-60, PVA-350), nonpor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Grating couplers for dual-channel thin-film waveguide sensors produced by transmission photolithography

Journal Article Journal of Biomedical Optics · January 1, 1997 Grating-coupled, thin-film integrated optical waveguide (IOW) structures were fabricated using standard transmission photolithography and employed in a fluoro-affinity assay for the trace detection of analyte. Using a ruled chrome-on-quartz mask with a 0.7 ... Full text Cite

Diffusion properties of tissue which encapsulates subcutaneous implants

Other Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering, Proceedings of the ACS Division of Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering · January 1, 1997 Results are presented of experiments on the diffusion properties of tissue with encapsulates subcutaneous implants. The first experiment was conducted to measure the effective coefficients through capsules which formed around various substrates implanted i ... Cite

Taking another look at educating African American engineers: The importance of undergraduate retention

Journal Article Journal of Engineering Education · January 1, 1997 In this paper we identify the engineering schools that either graduate large classes of African Americans or that retain relatively high percentages of African American students in engineering; point out that modest improvements in student retention would ... Full text Cite

Diffusion properties of capsular tissue

Other Transactions of the Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials in conjunction with the International Biomaterials Symposium · December 1, 1996 The effect of capsule formation around a subcutaneous implant is discussed. Polyvinyl alcohol sponge and stainless steel wire mesh materials were implanted. The results show that the diffusion coefficients of fluorescein through capsular tissue are approxi ... Cite

Femtomolar sensitivity using a channel-etched thin film waveguide fluoroimmunosensor.

Journal Article Biosensors & bioelectronics · January 1996 A dual channel, evanescent fluoroimmunoassay format is used to detect femtomolar analyte concentrations (i.e. less than 1 part per trillion [w/w]) on an etched channel siliconoxynitride thin film integrated optical waveguide. Two assays are used to demonst ... Full text Cite

Patterning antibodies for a multiple analyte sensor via photodeprotection chemistry

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1996 In order to maximize the applications of advanced optical techniques for immunoassay it is critical that one can analyze multiple analytes simultaneously. One method of creating a multiple analyte sensor is to pattern antibodies against ligands of interest ... Cite

Effect of fibronectin amount and conformation on the strength of endothelial cell adhesion to HEMA/EMA copolymers.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research · January 1996 The effect of substrate surface hydrophobicity on fibronectin (Fn) adsorption and endothelial cell adhesion strength was studied. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were plated for 2 h with and without preadsorbed Fn on slides coated with homopolymers ... Full text Cite

Incorporation of Zn in GaAs during organometallic vapor phase epitaxy growth compared to equilibrium

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1995 The zinc concentration measured after organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) growth on (100)-oriented GaAs at 700°C has been compared to the zinc concentration measured after in-diffusion under near-equilibrium conditions. During diffusion, the concent ... Full text Cite

Dynamic response of endothelial cells to flow as measured by total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Bioengineering Division (Publication) BED · January 1, 1995 To study the effect of luminal fluid stress on the abluminal cell surface and its adhesion sites, called focal contacts, total internal fluorescence reflectance microscopy is developed for measuring the dynamic response of endothelial cell focal contacts t ... Cite

Surface sensitivity of SiON integrated optical waveguides (IOWs) examined by IOW-attenuated total reflection spectrometry and IOW-Raman spectroscopy

Journal Article Thin Solid Films · May 1, 1994 A series of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films doped with increasing amounts of lipophilic cyanine dye were deposited at the surface of SiON waveguides. Propagation losses of incoupled laser light were measured photometrically, and then modeled using an attenuat ... Full text Cite

Analysis of protein binding to receptor-doped lipid monolayers by Monte Carlo simulation.

Journal Article Biophysical journal · February 1994 This paper presents a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method for estimating the parameters that characterize ligand-receptor binding directly from experimentally derived binding isotherms. Binding parameters are estimated by incorporating an MCS algorithm for ... Full text Cite

Quantitative analysis of variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (VA-TIRFM) of cell/substrate contacts.

Journal Article Journal of microscopy · January 1994 Variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (VA-TIRFM) allows controlled variation of the illumination depth with the potential of measuring both membrane/substrate separation distances and sizes of focal contacts. VA-TIRFM images are ... Full text Cite

Imaging of cell/substrate contacts on polymers by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy.

Journal Article Biotechnology progress · January 1994 A simplified model of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) emission of fluorescently labeled cell membranes [Reichert, W. M.; Truskey, G. A. J. Cell Sci. 1990, 96, 219-230] was used to determine the topography of the cell membrane in apposition to ... Full text Cite

Diffusion-limited etching of p-GaAs in NaOHNa2EDTA solutions

Journal Article Materials Letters · January 1, 1994 Mass-transport-limited etching of p-type GaAs using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (Na2EDTA) has been studied. Isotropic etching of (100)-oriented p-type GaAs was obtained for pH values between 8 and 13, and uniform etch ... Full text Cite

Fiber optic fluorescence immunoassay: use of a biotin-avidin bridge as a generic antibody immobilization technique

Journal Article Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology · December 1, 1993 In this study a fluorescence immunoassay is performed using a biotin-avidin bridge was used to immobilize biotinylated antibodies to the surface of a silanized fiber optic. The surface chemistry is verified using TIRF (Total Internal Reflectance Fluorescen ... Cite

Polyimides as biomaterials: preliminary biocompatibility testing.

Journal Article Biomaterials · July 1993 A number of commercially available polyimide materials were evaluated in vitro using a selected battery of levels I and II testing protocols prescribed by the National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Blood-Material Interactions. These procedures consis ... Full text Cite

Protein adsorption to HEMA/EMA copolymers studied by integrated optical techniques

Journal Article Journal of Colloid And Interface Science · January 1, 1993 Adsorption of chromophore-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) to homopolymers and copolymers of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and ethyl methacrylate (EMA) was measured using integrated optical waveguide attenuated total reflection (IOW-ATR) spectrometry. ... Full text Cite

Low loss HEMA/EMA copolymer waveguides with a range of wetting and optical properties

Journal Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science · January 1, 1993 Homopolymers and copolymers of optical grade hydroxyethyl methacryiate (HEMA) and ethyl methacrylate (EMA) were synthesized with bulk copolymer compositions of 0, 10, 43, 75, 86, 89, and 100 mol % HEMA. Attenuated total reflection IR (ATR‐IR) and X‐ray pho ... Full text Cite

Cooperativity in the Binding of Avidin to Biotin-Lipid-Doped Langmuir-Blodgett Films

Journal Article Langmuir · January 1, 1993 Monolayers of arachidic acid (AA) doped with either biotinylated DPPE (B-DPPE) or a chain extended biotinylated DPPE (B-x-DPPE) were deposited onto alkylsilane treated surfaces of quartz evanescent fiber optic sensors (EFO) by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) te ... Full text Cite

Integrated optical waveguide attenuated total reflection spectrometry and resonance Raman spectroscopy of adsorbed cytochrome c

Journal Article Journal of Physical Chemistry · January 1, 1993 The heme group of cytochrome c (Cyt C) has resonance absorptions at 520 and 550 nm that arise from x-y degenerate in-plane electronic transitions of the heme moiety. In the present paper, horse heart Cyt C was adsorbed to the surface of a micron-thick sili ... Full text Cite

Influence of Biotin Lipid Surface Density and Accessibility on Avidin Binding to the Tip of an Optical Fiber Sensor

Journal Article Langmuir · November 1, 1992 LB films doped with biotin lipids were deposited at the tip of an evanescent fiber optic (EFO) sensor, and the fluorescence intensity of FITC-labeled avidin bound to the sensor tip was monitored. The influence of receptor density and receptor surface acces ... Full text Cite

Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). II. Topographical mapping of relative cell/substratum separation distances.

Journal Article Journal of cell science · October 1992 A simplified model of TIRF optics was used to quantitate the relative membrane/substratum separation distances from the spatial pattern of TIRF image brightness. Phase-contrast and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) images were colle ... Full text Cite

Postadsorption changes in the emission maximum of acrylodan-labeled bovine serum albumin using total internal reflection fluorescence

Journal Article Journal of Colloid And Interface Science · January 1, 1992 Acrylodan (Ac), the thiol reactive analog of the polarity-sensitive fluorescent dye Prodan, was investigated as a site-specific probe for postadsorption conformational changes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorbed to bare and alkyl silane-treated glass co ... Full text Cite

Variable angle total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy of fluorescently labelled lipid films and cells at the glass-liquid interface

Journal Article Annals of Biomedical Engineering · December 1, 1991 Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy has become the technique of choice for imaging the regions of cells in closest apposition to the substrate surface. For a given wavelength of incident light totally reflected at the glass/solution in ... Cite

In Situ Quantitation of Protein Adsorption Density by Integrated Optical Waveguide Attenuated Total Reflection Spectrometry

Journal Article Langmuir · May 22, 1991 The adsorption of hemoglobin to a polystyrene (PS) thin film has been examined by integrated optical waveguide attenuated total reflection (IOW-ATR) spectrometry. Protein adsorption densities were determined by measuring the evanescent attenuation of propa ... Full text Cite

Modeling of fluorescence emission from cyanine-dye-impregnated Langmuir-Blodgett films deposited on the surface of an optical fiber

Journal Article Thin Solid Films · May 15, 1991 Fluorescence emission was collected from cyanine-dye-impregnated Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of cadmium arachidate deposited on the surface of a quartz multimode optical fiber. A Y-type fiber optic coupler system was used to allow remote, distal-end spect ... Full text Cite

Modelling of fluorescence from surface-bound proteins and L-B films at optical fiber surfaces

Journal Article American Chemical Society, Polymer Preprints, Division of Polymer Chemistry · April 1, 1991 In this brief report, fluorescence from adsorbed films of dye-labelled proteins and from dye-impregnated L-B films are modelled using Langmuir adsorption theory and planar thin film optical theory, respectively. Results clearly show a planar approximation ... Cite

Multiple mode and multiple source coupling into polymer thin film waveguides

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1991 A broadly focused laser beam was used to investigate simultaneous excitation of multiple modes in prism and grating coupled polymer thin film optical waveguides. Concurrent coupling of two lines from different lasers through a fiber bundle was also examine ... Cite

Integrated optical attenuated total reflection spectrometry of aqueous superstrates using prism-coupled polymer waveguides.

Journal Article Analytical chemistry · October 1990 Attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectrometry of aqueous solutions in contact with polystyrene integrated optical waveguides has been investigated. The mode-dependent absorption of evanescent energy by fluorescein solutions adjacent to the waveguide surfa ... Full text Cite

Apparent inequivalence between the in- and outcoupling angles of prism coupled IO waveguides

Journal Article Optics Communications · August 15, 1990 The incoupling and outcoupling angles of a thin film waveguide were determined using the conventional prism coupling configuration. The consistent intermodal spacing observed between incoupling and outcoupling angles indicated that these angles contained e ... Full text Cite

Separation of clean and dirty: design considerations.

Journal Article Journal of healthcare materiel management · July 1990 Cite

Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. I. Modelling cell contact region fluorescence.

Journal Article Journal of cell science · June 1990 Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) is a powerful technique for visualizing focal and close contacts between the cell and the surface. Practical application of TIRF has been hampered by the lack of straightforward methods to calculate separation ... Full text Cite

Protein adsorption using an evanescent chemical sensor with a fused optical fiber coupler

Journal Article Journal of Colloid And Interface Science · January 1, 1990 The utility of an evanescent fiber optic chemical sensor featuring a fused Y-type optical fiber coupler was investigated. The coupler was fabricated by fusing the tip of a 200-μm fiber to a 600-μm main sensing fiber equipped with an evanescent sensor tip. ... Full text Cite

Prism coupling into polymer integrated optical waveguides with liquid superstrates

Journal Article Applied Spectroscopy · January 1, 1990 We have investigated the light coupling behavior of prism-coupled waveguides adjacent to liquid superstrates. A flow cell was used for delivering the liquid superstrates to the waveguide surface. The incoupled angles and outcoupled mode patterns were colle ... Full text Cite

Flow cell for mode-specific, integrated optical waveguide spectroscopy in aqueous superstrates

Journal Article Applied Spectroscopy · January 1, 1990 In this communication, we describe the design, construction, and operation of a flow cell that allows for proper waveguide coupling in liquid media. Preliminary results showing mode-dependent attenuation of evanescent energy by surface-bound molecules are ... Full text Cite

Determination of Fluorescence Density Profiles of Langmuir-Blodgett-Deposited Films by Analysis of Variable-Angle Fluorescence Data Curves

Journal Article Langmuir · September 1, 1988 By use of the method of Langmuir-Blodgett deposition thin films with three different spatial distributions of fluorophores were constructed. The films were deposited on the flat surface of a sapphire hemicylindrical prism. Each film had a thickness of 55.4 ... Full text Cite

Development of fiber optic fluoroimmunoassay: Proximal vs. distal end collection geometries of a fiber sensor

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · April 8, 1988 Evanescent fiber optic sensors are being developed for remote in situ immunoassay. The evanescently excited fluorescence can be collected from either the proximal or distal end of the sensing fiber. The tradeoffs between the two directions of collection ar ... Full text Cite

Polymer thin film waveguide sensors: Characterization of scattered light intensity at the waveguide surface

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 19, 1988 The evanescent and scattered light from poly(styrene) thin film waveguides are being investigated to evaluate the potential use of integrated optic waveguides as sensors. A fiber optic system is described for measuring the light intensity of different wave ... Full text Cite

Polymer thin film integrated optics: Fabrication and characterization of polystyrene waveguides

Journal Article Journal of Applied Polymer Science · January 1, 1988 The fabrication and characterization of 1–3 μm polystyrene thin film integrated optical (IO) waveguides is presented. The polymer films were spun‐cast onto quartz and glass microscope slides, yielding waveguides of varying quality. The majority of defects ... Full text Cite

FIBER OPTIC SENSING OF FLUORESCENT EMISSION FROM COMPRESSED CYANINE-DYE-IMPREGNATED FATTY ACID MONOLAYERS AT THE AIR/WATER INTERFACE.

Journal Article Applied Spectroscopy · January 1, 1988 Fluorescence was collected from cyanine-dye-impregnated arachidic acid monolayers at the air/water interface with the use of a fiber optics configuration and a Langmuir film balance. Fatty-acid-to-dye molar ratios in the monolayers ranged from 99:1 to 1:1. ... Full text Cite

DEMONSTRATION OF RECIPROCITY IN THE ANGULAR PATTERN OF FLUORESCENCE EMISSION COLLECTED FROM LANGMUIR-BLODGETT DEPOSITED THIN FILMS.

Journal Article Applied Spectroscopy · January 1, 1988 Application of a principle of reciprocity results in an explicit prediction for the angular pattern of fluorescence emission which is detected in the far field from a fluorophore located in a thin film between two dielectric interfaces. With the use of the ... Full text Cite

PROTEIN ADSORPTION ON THE SURFACE OF A THIN-FILM POLYMER INTEGRATED OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE.

Journal Article Applied Spectroscopy · January 1, 1988 Protein adsorption (fluorescein labeled gamma globulin, FITC-IgG) on the surface of poly(styrene) thin-film optical waveguides was fluorescently detected. The time course of adsorption, the FITC-IgG fluorescence spectra, and the surface concentration estim ... Full text Cite

Langmuir-Blodgett films and black lipid membranes in biospecific surface-selective sensors

Journal Article Thin Solid Films · September 14, 1987 Artificial membrane structures containing biospecific binding sites have become important in the development of surface-selective sensor devices. The use of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films and black lipid membranes in these devices is discussed. This report a ... Full text Cite

EVANESCENT DETECTION OF ADSORBED PROTEIN CONCENTRATION-DISTANCE PROFILES: FIT OF SIMPLE MODELS TO VARIABLE-ANGLE TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION FLUORESCENCE DATA.

Journal Article Applied Spectroscopy · March 1, 1987 Total internal reflection fluorescence spectroscopy (TIRF) is an established technique for following the course of interfacial reactions. Theoretically, by gathering TIRF data as a function of observation angle, one can obtain the density of fluorophores w ... Cite

EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY UTILIZING AN AIR-COOLED ARGON LASER AND AN OPTRODE-BASED UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER: A SCALED-DOWN LASER SPECTROSCOPY CONFIGURATION FOR SOLUTION-PHASE FIBER OPTIC SENSING.

Journal Article Applied Spectroscopy · January 1, 1987 The sensitivity of a scaled-down emission spectroscopy configuration was tested with the use of (1) the fluorescence from Rhodamine 6G in ethanol and (2) the Raman emission from acetone, toluene, methanol, and water. The fluorescence results showed a linea ... Full text Cite

EXCITATION OF FLUORESCENT EMISSION FROM SOLUTIONS AT THE SURFACE OF POLYMER THIN-FILM WAVEGUIDES: AN INTEGRATED OPTICS TECHNIQUE FOR THE SENSING OF FLUORESCENCE AT THE POLYMER/SOLUTION INTERFACE.

Journal Article Applied Spectroscopy · January 1, 1987 The authors report a technique for the excitation and collection of fluorescence in a flow cell coupled to the surface of an integrated optical waveguide. The waveguides were 1-2- mu m-thick poly(styrene) films spun-cast onto acid-cleaned Pyrex microscope ... Full text Cite

Remote sensing of protein adsorption using a single optical fiber

Journal Article Journal of Colloid And Interface Science · January 1, 1986 Fluorescence from dye-labeled protein adsorbed at a solid-liquid interface was monitored with a remote interfacial chemical sensor utilizing a single optical fiber. Evanescently excited and collected fluorescence obtained using the sensor showed that adsor ... Full text Cite

FIBER OPTIC IMMUNODETECTORS: SENSORS OR DOSIMETERS? .

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · 1986 Biosensors based on specific interaction of the analyte of interest (ligand) with a biochemical agent (receptor) which specifically and tightly binds the analyte are being developed by many groups, agencies, and institutions using a variety of detection te ... Cite

IMMUNOSENSORS BASED ON EVANESCENT-EXCITED FLUORESCENCE.

Journal Article Electrochemical Society Extended Abstracts · December 1, 1985 Several groups have shown that the evanescent wave generated at a solid-liquid interface by total internal reflection optics can be used to sense antigen (Ag)-antibody (Ab) reactions at the interface. We have applied this method to fundamental studies of p ... Cite

WAVEGUIDE EVANESCENT STREAK EXCITATION OF ADSORBED PROTEIN FLUORESCENCE.

Journal Article Transactions of the Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials in conjunction with the Interna · December 1, 1985 A great deal of scientific effort is currently focused on the thrombogenic response to a material when it comes in contact with blood. Present theory suggests the most important event in blood/materials interactions is the initial deposition of blood plasm ... Cite

Structural Analysis of Biomer by Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry and Thermogravimetry

Journal Article Macromolecules · January 1, 1985 Curie-point pyrolysis mass spectrometry (Py-MS) was used to identify the polymeric components of the poly(ether urethane urea) Biomer, which is widely used in the construction of artificial heart chambers. A comparative study between Biomer and model polym ... Full text Cite

Effect of low-dose irradiation on the surface properties of poly[(trifluoroethoxy)(telomer fluoro alkoxy)phosphazene]

Journal Article Journal of Colloid And Interface Science · January 1, 1984 The effect of low-dose ultraviolet and 3, irradiation on the surface and bulk properties of poly[(trifluoroethoxy)(telomer fluoro alkoxy)phosphazene], was found to initially result in an increased side chain mobility followed by a decreased mobility. The i ... Full text Cite

Remote spectroscopic sensing of chemical adsorption using a single multimode optical fiber

Journal Article Applied Optics · January 1, 1984 A remote chemical sensor using a single optical fiber has been developed for collecting evanescently excited spectral signals from liquid samples. The sensor is particularly useful for the study of species adsorbed from solution onto the sensor surface. Fl ... Full text Cite

CURIE-POINT PYROLYSIS MASS SPECTROMETRY OF POLYURETHANE ARTIFICIAL HEART IMPLANTS.

Journal Article Annual Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics · December 1, 1983 Cite

Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) as a quantitative probe of protein adsorption

Journal Article Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry · July 25, 1983 Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) is a powerful new method for probing protein adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces. A quantitation method for determining the amount of adsorbed protein on hydrophilic glass and quartz surfaces has been develop ... Full text Cite

Thrombogenesis: effect of molecular motions, surface order, and hydrophobicity of the polymer interface.

Journal Article Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences · January 1983 The effect and interrelationship between primary and secondary molecular motions, morphological order/disorder, and associated water on thrombogenesis are elucidated using an amorphous hydrophobic polymer of poly[trifluoroethoxy) ( fluoroalkoxy ) phosphaze ... Full text Cite

HEMOCOMPATIBILITY: MACROMOLECULAR MOTIONS AND THROMBOGENESIS II.

Journal Article Transactions of the Annual Meeting of the Society for Biomaterials in conjunction with the Interna · December 1, 1982 Cite

Polyphosphazenes: effect of molecular motions on thrombogenesis.

Journal Article Journal of biomedical materials research · May 1982 The effect and interrelationship between primary (segmental backbone) and secondary (side chain) molecular motions on thrombogenesis, independent of morphological order/disorder, crystallinity, and/or associated water is elucidated using an amorphous hydro ... Full text Cite

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION FLUORESCENCE (TIRF) AS A QUANTITATIVE PROBE OF PROTEIN ADSORPTION.

Journal Article Journal of electroanalytical chemistry and interfacial electrochemistry · January 1, 1982 Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) is a powerful new method for probing protein adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces. A quantitation method for determining the amount of adsorbed protein on hydrophilic glass and quartz surfaces has been develop ... Cite