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Nan Marie Jokerst

J. A. Jones Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Box 90291, Durham, NC 27708-0291
Fciemas 3589, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Mapping active strain using terahertz metamaterial laminates

Journal Article APL Photonics · November 1, 2021 The ability to image strain fields in composite materials is an indispensable necessity for structural health monitoring. Embedded electromagnetic metamaterials sensitive to applied stresses and operating in the terahertz regime have been proposed as a sol ... Full text Cite

Strain mapping with THz metamaterial composites

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2021 Terahertz metamaterials that exhibit broad spectral resonances are used to probe local strain fields. By choosing specific frequencies and polarizations for measurement, it is possible to obtain unique spatial maps for different strain states. ... Cite

Strain Mapping with THz Metamaterial Composites

Conference International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz · November 8, 2020 Terahertz metamaterials with strain-sensitive junctions are introduced to identify structurally compromised regions of composite materials. Spatially mapping the local polarimetric metamaterial response visualizes and records regions of stress extrema expe ... Full text Cite

Social science and infrastructure networks and the human–technology interface

Journal Article Journal of Nanoparticle Research · September 1, 2020 Social science research (under the guise of SEI [societal and ethical implications]) in association with nanotechnology infrastructure networks (in this case, the Research Triangle Nanotechnology Network) is challenging due to the unique function of an inf ... Full text Cite

Depth-sensitive tissue measurements using a multi-pixel photodetector probe

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2020 A densely-packed, custom multi-pixel photodetector probe permits spatially resolved diffuse reflectance (SRDR) measurements of phantoms of varying thicknesses, showing high signal contrast between thin phantoms and high depth sensitivity. ... Cite

On-chip fluorescence sensing for fluidics platforms using thin film silicon photodetectors

Journal Article Biomedical Optics Express · January 1, 2020 The integration of fluorescence sensing directly into the fluidic channel in lab-on-a chip systems using thin film Si detectors enables on-chip multi-target medical diagnostics and biochemical analyses. This paper reports on the experimental demonstration ... Full text Cite

Strain sensing with THz metamaterial composites

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2020 Terahertz metamaterials with strain-sensitive junctions are introduced to identify structurally compromised regions of composite materials. Spatially mapping the local polarimetric metamaterial response visualizes and records regions of stress extrema expe ... Cite

Tissue characterization using a multi-pixel sensor system and partial least squares regression

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2020 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy systems often exhibit low SNR, reducing tissue characterization accuracy. We present a new analysis showing lower SNR requirements when partial least squares regression is used for prediction instead of more traditional tec ... Cite

Methods of extraction of optical properties from diffuse reflectance measurements of ex-vivo human colon tissue using thin film silicon photodetector arrays.

Journal Article Biomed Opt Express · November 1, 2019 Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) is a promising technique for characterization of colon tissue. Herein, two methods for extracting the reduced scattering and absorption coefficients ( μ s ' ( λ ) and μ a ( λ ) ) from SRDRS dat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Strain Sensing with Metamaterial Composites

Journal Article Advanced Optical Materials · May 3, 2019 Mapping strain fields in visually opaque structural composites—for which failure is often sudden, irreparable, and even catastrophic—requires techniques to locate and record regions of stress, fatigue, and incipient failure. Many composite materials are tr ... Full text Cite

Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tumor and normal excised human colon with thin film Si sensors

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2019 Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of normal and cancerous ex-vivo human colon tissue using a thin film Si photodiode array sensor is presented as a step toward the realization of in-vivo endoscopic spectral tissue characterization. ... Full text Cite

Integrated Thin Film Silicon Detectors for Fluorescence Sensing

Conference Proceedings of IEEE Sensors · December 26, 2018 The design, fabrication and test of a thin film Si chip-scale fluorescence sensor designed for integration with microfluidic systems isG reported. The photodetector has low dark current (pA) and responsivity of 0.3 A/W at 532 nm. Droplets of 10 microliter ... Full text Cite

Propulsion and assembly of remotely powered p-type silicon microparticles

Journal Article APL Materials · December 1, 2018 In this letter, we discuss how to prepare millions of uniform p-type silicon (Si) microparticles using top-down fabrication processes and how to remotely control their dynamics when they are suspended in water and powered by external alternating current (A ... Full text Cite

Reconfigurable engineered motile semiconductor microparticles.

Journal Article Nature communications · May 2018 Locally energized particles form the basis for emerging classes of active matter. The design of active particles has led to their controlled locomotion and assembly. The next generation of particles should demonstrate robust control over their active assem ... Full text Cite

Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy endoscopic sensing with custom Si photodetectors.

Journal Article Biomed Opt Express · March 1, 2018 Early detection and surveillance of disease progression in epithelial tissue is key to improving long term patient outcomes for colon and esophageal cancers, which account for nearly a quarter of cancer related mortalities worldwide. Spatially resolved dif ... Full text Link to item Cite

A custom multi-pixel photodetector probe and partial least squares regression for the efficient identification of optical tissue properties

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2018 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy performed using a custom photodetector array combined with partial least squares regression increases the accuracy of optical tissue property extraction. Prediction accuracies of 4.15% (us), 9.02% (ua) are reported. ... Full text Cite

Custom Thin Film Si photodiode arrays for endoscopic spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements

Conference 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2017 - Proceedings · October 25, 2017 The design, fabrication, and initial experimental characterization of the first thin film Si photodiode spatially resolved DRS probe targeting endoscopic applications is reported. ... Full text Cite

Flexible silicon sensors for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tissue.

Journal Article Biomedical optics express · March 2017 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is being used in exploratory clinical applications such as cancer margin assessment on excised tissue. However, when interrogating nonplanar tissue anomalies can arise from non-uniform pressure. Herein is reported the ... Full text Cite

Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins.

Journal Article J Biomed Opt · February 1, 2017 We have developed a portable, breast margin assessment probe leveraging diffuse optical spectroscopy to quantify the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins during breast conserving surgery. The approach presented here leverages a custom-made 16-ch ... Full text Link to item Cite

Custom thin film Si photodiode arrays for endoscopic spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2017 The design, fabrication, and initial experimental characterization of the first thin film Si photodiode spatially resolved DRS probe targeting endoscopic applications is reported. ... Full text Cite

Mapping active strain using terahertz metamaterial laminates

Journal Article APL Photonics · November 1, 2021 The ability to image strain fields in composite materials is an indispensable necessity for structural health monitoring. Embedded electromagnetic metamaterials sensitive to applied stresses and operating in the terahertz regime have been proposed as a sol ... Full text Cite

Strain mapping with THz metamaterial composites

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2021 Terahertz metamaterials that exhibit broad spectral resonances are used to probe local strain fields. By choosing specific frequencies and polarizations for measurement, it is possible to obtain unique spatial maps for different strain states. ... Cite

Strain Mapping with THz Metamaterial Composites

Conference International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz · November 8, 2020 Terahertz metamaterials with strain-sensitive junctions are introduced to identify structurally compromised regions of composite materials. Spatially mapping the local polarimetric metamaterial response visualizes and records regions of stress extrema expe ... Full text Cite

Social science and infrastructure networks and the human–technology interface

Journal Article Journal of Nanoparticle Research · September 1, 2020 Social science research (under the guise of SEI [societal and ethical implications]) in association with nanotechnology infrastructure networks (in this case, the Research Triangle Nanotechnology Network) is challenging due to the unique function of an inf ... Full text Cite

Depth-sensitive tissue measurements using a multi-pixel photodetector probe

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2020 A densely-packed, custom multi-pixel photodetector probe permits spatially resolved diffuse reflectance (SRDR) measurements of phantoms of varying thicknesses, showing high signal contrast between thin phantoms and high depth sensitivity. ... Cite

On-chip fluorescence sensing for fluidics platforms using thin film silicon photodetectors

Journal Article Biomedical Optics Express · January 1, 2020 The integration of fluorescence sensing directly into the fluidic channel in lab-on-a chip systems using thin film Si detectors enables on-chip multi-target medical diagnostics and biochemical analyses. This paper reports on the experimental demonstration ... Full text Cite

Strain sensing with THz metamaterial composites

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2020 Terahertz metamaterials with strain-sensitive junctions are introduced to identify structurally compromised regions of composite materials. Spatially mapping the local polarimetric metamaterial response visualizes and records regions of stress extrema expe ... Cite

Tissue characterization using a multi-pixel sensor system and partial least squares regression

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2020 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy systems often exhibit low SNR, reducing tissue characterization accuracy. We present a new analysis showing lower SNR requirements when partial least squares regression is used for prediction instead of more traditional tec ... Cite

Methods of extraction of optical properties from diffuse reflectance measurements of ex-vivo human colon tissue using thin film silicon photodetector arrays.

Journal Article Biomed Opt Express · November 1, 2019 Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) is a promising technique for characterization of colon tissue. Herein, two methods for extracting the reduced scattering and absorption coefficients ( μ s ' ( λ ) and μ a ( λ ) ) from SRDRS dat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Strain Sensing with Metamaterial Composites

Journal Article Advanced Optical Materials · May 3, 2019 Mapping strain fields in visually opaque structural composites—for which failure is often sudden, irreparable, and even catastrophic—requires techniques to locate and record regions of stress, fatigue, and incipient failure. Many composite materials are tr ... Full text Cite

Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tumor and normal excised human colon with thin film Si sensors

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2019 Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of normal and cancerous ex-vivo human colon tissue using a thin film Si photodiode array sensor is presented as a step toward the realization of in-vivo endoscopic spectral tissue characterization. ... Full text Cite

Integrated Thin Film Silicon Detectors for Fluorescence Sensing

Conference Proceedings of IEEE Sensors · December 26, 2018 The design, fabrication and test of a thin film Si chip-scale fluorescence sensor designed for integration with microfluidic systems isG reported. The photodetector has low dark current (pA) and responsivity of 0.3 A/W at 532 nm. Droplets of 10 microliter ... Full text Cite

Propulsion and assembly of remotely powered p-type silicon microparticles

Journal Article APL Materials · December 1, 2018 In this letter, we discuss how to prepare millions of uniform p-type silicon (Si) microparticles using top-down fabrication processes and how to remotely control their dynamics when they are suspended in water and powered by external alternating current (A ... Full text Cite

Reconfigurable engineered motile semiconductor microparticles.

Journal Article Nature communications · May 2018 Locally energized particles form the basis for emerging classes of active matter. The design of active particles has led to their controlled locomotion and assembly. The next generation of particles should demonstrate robust control over their active assem ... Full text Cite

Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy endoscopic sensing with custom Si photodetectors.

Journal Article Biomed Opt Express · March 1, 2018 Early detection and surveillance of disease progression in epithelial tissue is key to improving long term patient outcomes for colon and esophageal cancers, which account for nearly a quarter of cancer related mortalities worldwide. Spatially resolved dif ... Full text Link to item Cite

A custom multi-pixel photodetector probe and partial least squares regression for the efficient identification of optical tissue properties

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2018 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy performed using a custom photodetector array combined with partial least squares regression increases the accuracy of optical tissue property extraction. Prediction accuracies of 4.15% (us), 9.02% (ua) are reported. ... Full text Cite

Custom Thin Film Si photodiode arrays for endoscopic spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements

Conference 2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2017 - Proceedings · October 25, 2017 The design, fabrication, and initial experimental characterization of the first thin film Si photodiode spatially resolved DRS probe targeting endoscopic applications is reported. ... Full text Cite

Flexible silicon sensors for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tissue.

Journal Article Biomedical optics express · March 2017 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is being used in exploratory clinical applications such as cancer margin assessment on excised tissue. However, when interrogating nonplanar tissue anomalies can arise from non-uniform pressure. Herein is reported the ... Full text Cite

Miniature spectral imaging device for wide-field quantitative functional imaging of the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins.

Journal Article J Biomed Opt · February 1, 2017 We have developed a portable, breast margin assessment probe leveraging diffuse optical spectroscopy to quantify the morphological landscape of breast tumor margins during breast conserving surgery. The approach presented here leverages a custom-made 16-ch ... Full text Link to item Cite

Custom thin film Si photodiode arrays for endoscopic spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2017 The design, fabrication, and initial experimental characterization of the first thin film Si photodiode spatially resolved DRS probe targeting endoscopic applications is reported. ... Full text Cite

Concentric silicon thin film photodiode arrays for endoscopic spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2017 Screening for precancerous gastrointestinal dysplasia can be performed noninvasively by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The first spatially resolved DRS system using Si photodetectors optimized for endoscopic applications is reported herein. ... Full text Cite

Concentric multipixel silicon photodiode array probes for spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

Journal Article IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · May 1, 2016 Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance (SRDR) measurements provide photon path information, and enable depth-resolved tissue analysis. This paper introduces an innovative concentric multi-pixel photodiode array (CMPA) probe for SRDR measurements. The CMPA ... Full text Cite

Role of surface electromagnetic waves in metamaterial absorbers.

Journal Article Optics express · March 2016 Metamaterial absorbers have been demonstrated across much of the electromagnetic spectrum and exhibit both broad and narrow-band absorption for normally incident radiation. Absorption diminishes for increasing angles of incidence and transverse electric po ... Full text Cite

High pixel density concentric si spatially resolved diffuse reflectance probe: Wide absorption range phantom study

Conference Proceedings of IEEE Sensors · January 5, 2016 An innovative densely packed silicon photodiode array enables measurements of spatially- and spectrally resolved diffuse reflectance from liquid phantoms with a wide range of absorption concentrations. Experimentally measured reflectance spectra and the fo ... Full text Cite

Spatially resolved reflectance spectroscopy of two-layer turbid media by densely packed multi-pixel photodiode reflectance probe

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · January 1, 2016 Spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance (SRDR) measurements provide photon path information, and enable layered tissue analysis. This paper presents experimental SRDR measurements on two-layer PDMS skin tissue-mimicking phantoms of varying top layer thickne ... Full text Cite

Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance Si probes for tissue characterization over a wide scattering range

Conference 2015 IEEE Photonics Conference, IPC 2015 · November 9, 2015 An innovative, custom photodiode array with small, densely packed pixels enabled measurements of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance from liquid phantoms with a wide range of scatterer concentrations. ... Full text Cite

Concentric Si annular photodiode arrays for spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

Conference Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical Digest · August 10, 2015 This paper describes the design, fabrication, and test of a custom concentric PD array for spatially resolved diffuse reflectance (SRDR) measurements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported compact, densely packed semiconductor SRDR probe ... Cite

Bi-layer metamaterials as fully functional near-perfect infrared absorbers

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · July 13, 2015 In this letter, we discuss the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a bi-layer fully functional near-perfect metamaterial absorber (MMA) in the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR), which is broadband and generally insensitive to polarizati ... Full text Open Access Cite

Concentric Si annular photodiode arrays for spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

Conference CLEO: Applications and Technology, CLEO-AT 2015 · May 4, 2015 This paper describes the design, fabrication, and test of a custom concentric PD array for spatially resolved diffuse reflectance (SRDR) measurements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported compact, densely packed semiconductor SRDR probe ... Full text Cite

Concentric multi-pixel photodiode array probes for optical tissue characterization

Conference Optical Sensors, Sensors 2015 · January 1, 2015 This paper reports on new custom concentric Si PD array probes for spatially resolved diffuse reflectance (SRDR) measurements. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to analyze malignancies buried in benign tissue. © 2015 OSA. ... Full text Cite

Voltage switching of a VO2 memory metasurface using ionic gel

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · July 28, 2014 We demonstrate an electrolyte-based voltage tunable vanadium dioxide (VO2) memory metasurface. Large spatial scale, low voltage, non-volatile switching of terahertz (THz) metasurface resonances is achieved through voltage application using an ionic gel to ... Full text Cite

High responsivity, low dark current, heterogeneously integrated thin film Si photodetectors on rigid and flexible substrates.

Journal Article Optics express · March 2014 We report thin film single crystal silicon photodetectors (PDs), composed of 13- 25 μm thick silicon, heterogeneously bonded to transparent Pyrex® and flexible Kapton® substrates. The measured responsivity and dark current density of the PDs on pyrex is 0. ... Full text Cite

Metamaterial polarization multiplexed gratings

Journal Article CLEO: QELS_Fundamental Science, CLEO:QELS FS 2013 · November 21, 2013 We demonstrate a metamaterial grating that has two diffraction periods for two orthogonal linear polarization states of illuminations. The proposed method will be useful in free space optical communications and novel optical imaging systems. © OSA 2013. ... Cite

Arbitrary birefringent metamaterials for holographic optics at λ = 1.55 μm.

Journal Article Optics express · November 2013 This paper presents an optical element capable of multiplexing two diffraction patterns for two orthogonal linear polarizations, based on the use of non-resonant metamaterial cross elements. The metamaterial cross elements provide unique building blocks fo ... Full text Cite

Droplet-based sensing: Optical microresonator sensors embedded in digital electrowetting microfluidics systems

Journal Article IEEE Sensors Journal · October 21, 2013 Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) microfluidics is an emerging platform for practical applications such as water quality testing and medical diagnostics. Low power consumption, low sample and reagent volumes, small size, and rapid fluid transport are feat ... Full text Cite

UVB radiation generates sunburn pain and affects skin by activating epidermal TRPV4 ion channels and triggering endothelin-1 signaling.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · August 20, 2013 At our body surface, the epidermis absorbs UV radiation. UV overexposure leads to sunburn with tissue injury and pain. To understand how, we focus on TRPV4, a nonselective cation channel highly expressed in epithelial skin cells and known to function in se ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Two-dimensional reconfigurable gradient index memory metasurface

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · June 3, 2013 Creation and control of spatial gradients in electromagnetic properties is a central theme underlying optical device design. In this work, we demonstrate that through modification of the spatial and temporal distribution of current, we can obtain increased ... Full text Cite

Metamaterial polarization multiplexed gratings

Journal Article 2013 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2013 · January 1, 2013 We demonstrate a metamaterial grating that has two diffraction periods for two orthogonal linear polarization states of illuminations. The proposed method will be useful in free space optical communications and novel optical imaging systems. © 2013 The Opt ... Full text Cite

Wavelength optimization for quantitative spectral imaging of breast tumor margins.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 A wavelength selection method that combines an inverse Monte Carlo model of reflectance and a genetic algorithm for global optimization was developed for the application of spectral imaging of breast tumor margins. The selection of wavelengths impacts syst ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Integrated sample preparation and sensing: Polymer microresonator sensors embedded in digital electrowetting microfluidic systems

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Journal · December 10, 2012 Portable point-of-care (POC) medical diagnostic devices demand low power consumption, efficient use of low sample and reagent volumes, and small size. A Bdigital[ electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) microfluidics system with integrated optical sensors is a ... Full text Cite

Infrared metamaterial hologram

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · December 1, 2012 We designed, fabricated, and characterized an infrared metamaterial hologram. The hologram correctly reproduces the design image. This work demonstrates that metamate-rials can be used to fabricate devices with arbitrary 2D refractive index profiles. © 201 ... Cite

A diffuse reflectance spectral imaging system for tumor margin assessment using custom annular photodiode arrays.

Journal Article Biomed Opt Express · December 1, 2012 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a well-established method to quantitatively distinguish between benign and cancerous tissue for tumor margin assessment. Current multipixel DRS margin assessment tools are bulky fiber-based probes that have limited ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

High responsivity, low dark current, large area, heterogenously bonded annular thin-film silicon photodetectors

Journal Article 2012 IEEE Photonics Conference, IPC 2012 · December 1, 2012 Thin-film crystalline silicon photodiodes with the highest uncooled responsivity to dark current density ratio (0.30-0.54 cm2/nW for λ= 470 nm-600 nm) reported to date are described herein for integrated biomedical imaging and biochemical sensing. © 2012 I ... Full text Cite

Surface characterization of oxide growth on porous germanium films oxidized in air

Journal Article Thin Solid Films · November 1, 2012 A time iterative surface analytical study of as-deposited and chlorinated nanoporous germanium (PGe) films oxidized in Class 1000 cleanroom air at room temperature is reported. Deconvolution of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Ge 3d core level spectr ... Full text Cite

Plasmon ruler with angstrom length resolution.

Journal Article ACS nano · October 2012 We demonstrate a plasmon nanoruler using a coupled film nanoparticle (film-NP) format that is well-suited for investigating the sensitivity extremes of plasmonic coupling. Because it is relatively straightforward to functionalize bulk surface plasmon suppo ... Full text Cite

Electronically reconfigurable metal-on-silicon metamaterial

Journal Article Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics · August 8, 2012 Reconfigurable metamaterial-based apertures can play a unique role in both imaging and in beam-forming applications, where current technology relies mostly on the fabrication and integration of large detector or antenna arrays. Here, we report the experime ... Full text Open Access Cite

Diffuse reflectance spectral imaging for breast tumor margin assessment

Journal Article Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · June 12, 2012 Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been previously explored as a promising method for providing real-time visual maps of tissue composition to help surgeons determine breast lumpectomy margins and to ensure the complete removal of a tumor during surgery. ... Full text Cite

Chip scale optical microresonator sensors integrated with embedded thin film photodetectors on electrowetting digital microfluidics platforms

Journal Article IEEE Sensors Journal · May 8, 2012 Miniaturized, portable, sensitive, and low cost sensing systems are important for medical and environmental diagnostic and monitoring applications. Chip scale integrated photonic sensing systems that combine optical, electrical, and fluidic functions are e ... Full text Cite

Infrared metamaterial phase holograms.

Journal Article Nature materials · March 2012 As a result of advances in nanotechnology and the burgeoning capabilities for fabricating materials with controlled nanoscale geometries, the traditional notion of what constitutes an optical device continues to evolve. The fusion of maturing low-cost lith ... Full text Cite

Planar, flattened Luneburg lens at infrared wavelengths.

Journal Article Optics express · January 2012 Employing artificially structured metamaterials provides a means of circumventing the limits of conventional optical materials. Here, we use transformation optics (TO) combined with nanolithography to produce a planar Luneburg lens with a flat focal surfac ... Full text Cite

Integration of a thin film III-V edge emitting laser and a polymer microring resonator on an SiO2/Si substrate

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics · January 1, 2012 The planar integration of on-chip laser sources with optical sensing elements, waveguide optical interconnect, and detectors enables the implementation of portable, efficient chip-scale systems, with applications in areas that include medical, environmenta ... Full text Cite

Metamaterial blazed gratings

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · December 1, 2011 We design, fabricate, and test a graded index diffractive structure based on non-resonant I-beam metamaterials. The measured diffraction spectrum is in good agreement with simulation, and suggests a path toward metamaterial based diffractive optics. © OSA/ ... Cite

A custom wide-field spectral imager for breast cancer margin assessment

Journal Article IEEE Photonic Society 24th Annual Meeting, PHO 2011 · December 1, 2011 A custom imaging array optimized for wide-field diffuse reflectance spectroscopy imaging for breast cancer margin diagnosis has been designed and implemented, with improvements over a previously reported system. © 2011 IEEE. ... Full text Cite

Custom annular photodetector arrays for breast cancer margin assessment using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

Journal Article 2011 IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference, BioCAS 2011 · December 1, 2011 A custom imaging array has been optimized for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for breast cancer margin assessment. The imaging array has been designed, fabricated and tested with a 99% diffuse reflectance standard, a 2% diffuse reflectance standard, bovin ... Full text Cite

Integrated sample preparation and sensing: Microresonator optical sensors embedded in digital electrowetting microfluidics systems

Journal Article Proceedings of IEEE Sensors · December 1, 2011 The intimate integration of digital electrowetting microfluidics and optical microcavity sensors results in an excellent platform for low power consumption, high sensitivity integrated sample preparation and testing, which is particularly useful for medica ... Full text Cite

Design and fabrication of a metamaterial gradient index diffraction grating at infrared wavelengths.

Journal Article Optics express · November 2011 We demonstrate the design, fabrication and characterization of an artificially structured, gradient index metamaterial with a linear index variation of Δn ~ 3.0. The linear gradient profile is repeated periodically to form the equivalent of a blazed gratin ... Full text Cite

Metamaterial blazed gratings

Journal Article 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: Laser Science to Photonic Applications, CLEO 2011 · September 1, 2011 We design, fabricate, and test a graded index diffractive structure based on non-resonant I-beam metamaterials. The measured diffraction spectrum is in good agreement with simulation, and suggests a path toward metamaterial based diffractive optics. © 2011 ... Cite

Reconfigurable gradient index using VO2 memory metamaterials

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · July 25, 2011 We demonstrate tuning of a metamaterial device that incorporates a form of spatial gradient control. Electrical tuning of the metamaterial is achieved through a vanadium dioxide layer which interacts with an array of split ring resonators. We achieved a sp ... Full text Cite

Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters.

Journal Article Physical review letters · July 2011 In this Letter we demonstrate, for the first time, selective thermal emitters based on metamaterial perfect absorbers. We experimentally realize a narrow band midinfrared (MIR) thermal emitter. Multiple metamaterial sublattices further permit construction ... Full text Cite

Thermal Characteristics of III/V Thin Film Edge Emitting Lasers on Silicon

Journal Article International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology · November 1, 2010 We present thermal characteristics of a strain compensated InGaAs/GaAs SQW-SCH thin film laser, integrated onto silicon with a metalmetal interface, and contacts patterned on both sides of the epitaxial layer to improve current confinement. A threshold cur ... Cite

Thin-film lasers embedded in passively aligned SU-8 waveguides on SiO 2/Si

Journal Article Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference: 2010 Laser Science to Photonic Applications, CLEO/QELS 2010 · October 11, 2010 A thin film GaAs based edge emitting laser is bonded to silicon, with one facet embedded in a passively aligned polymer waveguide. Jth = 260 A/cm2 at λ= 1002.5 nm is achieved for this integrated system. © 2010 Optical Society of America. ... Cite

Facet-embedded thin-film III-V edge-emitting lasers integrated with SU-8 waveguides on silicon.

Journal Article Optics letters · October 2010 A thin-film InGaAs/GaAs edge-emitting single-quantum-well laser has been integrated with a tapered multimode SU-8 waveguide onto an Si substrate. The SU-8 waveguide is passively aligned to the laser using mask-based photolithography, mimicking electrical i ... Full text Open Access Cite

Planar integrated optical detection of a hybrid long-range surface plasmon using an ingaas inverted-msm detector bonded to silicon

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · May 28, 2010 An InxGa1-x As thin-film inverted metalsemiconductormetal photodetector has been integrated with a gold hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide on silicon. This integrated structure enables planar integrated optical detection of a long-range surface pl ... Full text Cite

Heterogeneous integration of thin-film compound semiconductor lasers and SU8 waveguides on SiO2/Si

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · May 10, 2010 We present the heterogeneous integration of a 3.8 μm thick InGaAs/GaAs edge emitting laser that was metal-metal bonded to SiO2/Si and end-fire coupled into a 2.8 μm thick tapered SU8 polymer waveguide integrated on the same substrate. The system was driven ... Full text Cite

Thin film edge emitting lasers integrated onto silicon

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · May 3, 2010 The integration of thin film edge emitting lasers onto silicon enables the realization of planar photonic structures for interconnection and for miniaturized optical systems that can be integrated in their entirety at the chip scale. These thin film emitte ... Full text Cite

Integrated sensing and information processing theme-based redesign of the undergraduate electrical and computer engineering curriculum at Duke University

Journal Article Advances in Engineering Education · 2010 The field of electrical and computer engineering has evolved significantly in the past two decades. This evolution has broadened the field of ECE, and subfields have seen deep penetration into very specialized areas. Remarkable devices and systems arising ... Cite

Planar integration of a long range surface plasmon waveguide with an inverted metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector on silicon

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · December 1, 2009 A long range surface plasmon polariton (LR-SPP) insulator-metal-insulator waveguide was integrated with a thin film InxGa1-xAs-based photodetector (PD) on silicon for planar detection of LR-SPPs, and demonstrated coupling from the LR-SPP to the PD. © 2009 ... Cite

Thin Film P-ridge N-stripe III-V laser broad area metal-metal bonded to silicon

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · December 1, 2009 A p-ridge single quantum well thin film laser has been metal/metal bonded onto silicon for good thermal dissipation and low threshold current. The threshold current density is 244 A/cm2. © 2009 Optical Society of America. ... Cite

Integrating sensing and information processing in an electrical and computer engineering undergraduate curriculum

Conference Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE · December 1, 2009 The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Duke University has completed a full-scale redesign of its undergraduate program based on the theme of Integrated Sensing and Information Processing. This theme provides a coherent, overarching framewor ... Full text Cite

Thin film P-ridge N-stripe III-V laser broad area metal-metal bonded to silicon

Journal Article 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2009 Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, CLEO/QELS 2009 · November 16, 2009 A p-ridge single quantum well thin film laser has been metal/metal bonded onto silicon for good thermal dissipation and low threshold current. The threshold current density is 244 A/cm2. ©2009 Optical Society of America. ... Cite

Planar integration of a long range surface plasmon waveguide with an inverted metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector on silicon

Journal Article 2009 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2009 Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, CLEO/QELS 2009 · November 16, 2009 A long range surface plasmon polariton (LR-SPP) insulator-metal-insulator waveguide was integrated with a thin film InxGa1-xAs-based photodetector (PD) on silicon for planar detection of LR-SPPs, and demonstrated coupling from the LR-SPP to the PD. ©2009 O ... Cite

Low-threshold thin-film III-V lasers bonded to silicon with front and back side defined features.

Journal Article Optics letters · September 2009 A III-V thin-film single-quantum-well edge-emitting laser is patterned on both sides of the epitaxial layer and bonded to silicon. Injected threshold current densities of 420 A/cm(2) for gain-guided lasers with bottom p-stripes and top n-stripes and 244 A/ ... Full text Cite

Plasmonic multi-mode interference couplers.

Journal Article Optics express · September 2009 Plasmonic multi-mode interference (MMI) couplers have been investigated both numerically and experimentally at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 mum. In this study, the couplers are implemented using thin Au stripes that support long-range surface p ... Full text Cite

Memory metamaterials.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · September 2009 The resonant elements that grant metamaterials their distinct properties have the fundamental limitation of restricting their useable frequency bandwidth. The development of frequency-agile metamaterials has helped to alleviate these bandwidth restrictions ... Full text Cite

Progress in chip-scale photonic sensing.

Journal Article IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems · August 2009 Chip-scale integrated planar photonic sensing systems for portable diagnostics and monitoring are emerging, as photonic components are integrated into systems with silicon (Si), Si complementary metal-oxide semiconductor, and fluidics. This paper reviews p ... Full text Cite

Chip scale integrated microresonator sensing systems.

Journal Article Journal of biophotonics · April 2009 Medicine, environmental monitoring, and security are application areas for miniaturized, portable sensing systems. The emerging integration of sensors with other components (electronic, photonic, fluidic) is moving sensing toward higher levels of portabili ... Full text Cite

Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-insensitive absorber for terahertz imaging

Journal Article Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics · March 3, 2009 We present the theory, design, and realization of a polarization- insensitive metamaterial absorber for terahertz frequencies. Effective-medium theory is used to describe the absorptive properties of the metamaterial in terms of optical constants-a descrip ... Full text Cite

Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides

Journal Article New Journal of Physics · January 16, 2009 We have designed, fabricated and characterized integrated directional couplers capable of converting the mode of an optical dielectric waveguide into a long-range plasmon propagating along a thin metal stripe. We demonstrate that the coupling between the t ... Full text Cite

Chip scale integration of optical microresonator sensors with digital microfludics systems

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2008 Chip scale integration of optical microresonator sensors with digital microfluidics systems has been demonstrated. Glucose solution of different concentrations were dispensed, actuated, and sensed on this lab-on-chip platform. ©2008 IEEE. ... Full text Cite

Top-bottom stripe thin film inGaAs/GaAsP laser integrated on silicon

Journal Article Device Research Conference - Conference Digest, DRC · December 1, 2008 Full text Cite

Broad area metal/metal bonding of thin film edge emitting lasers to silicon

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2008 Thin film edge emitting lasers with top/bottom stripes are broad area metal/metal bonded to a Si substrate. The bonding and top/bottom stripes are steps forward toward better heat dissipation, current confinement, and mechanical bonding strength. ©2008 IEE ... Full text Cite

A dual-resonant terahertz metamaterial based on single-particle electric-field-coupled resonators

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · November 21, 2008 We report the design, fabrication, and measurement of a terahertz metamaterial composed of single geometry electric field coupled resonators that has two closely spaced electric resonances near 1.0 and 1.5 THz. Due to the mutual coupling between the differ ... Full text Cite

Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · September 15, 2008 We demonstrate fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves at room temperature using hybrid metamaterial devices. The devices are planar metamaterials fabricated on doped semiconductor epitaxial layers, which form hybrid metamaterial-S ... Full text Cite

Dual-band planar electric THz metamaterial with resonator yield analysis

Journal Article Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS) - Technical Digest Series · September 15, 2008 THz radiation transmission through a dual-band electric metamaterial is presented, where we analyze manufacturing defects in the metamaterial. Removing different resonator percentages allows us to quantify the effects of manufacturing defects on the materi ... Full text Cite

Dual-band planar electric THz metamaterial with resonator yield analysis

Journal Article 2008 Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO/QELS · September 15, 2008 THz radiation transmission through a dual-band electric metamaterial is presented, where we analyze manufacturing defects in the metamaterial. Removing different resonator percentages allows us to quantify the effects of manufacturing defects on the materi ... Full text Cite

Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · July 2008 We demonstrate a metamaterial device whose far-infrared resonance frequency can be dynamically tuned. Dynamic tuning should alleviate many bandwidth-related roadblocks to metamaterial application by granting a wide matrix of selectable electromagnetic prop ... Cite

Dual-band planar electric metamaterial in the terahertz regime.

Journal Article Optics express · June 2008 We present the design, fabrication, and measurement of a dual-band planar metamaterial with two distinct electric resonances at 1.0 and 1.2 THz, as a step towards the development of frequency agile or broadband THz materials and devices. A method of defini ... Full text Cite

Integrated optical sensor in a digital microfluidic platform

Journal Article IEEE Sensors Journal · May 1, 2008 The advent of digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technology offers a platform for developing diagnostic applications with the advantages of portability, increased automation, low-power consumption, compatibility with mass manufacturing, and high thro ... Full text Cite

Chip scale integrated planar photonics

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · April 23, 2008 The integration of planar optical components at the chip scale with electronic and microfluidic systems is enabling an increased penetration of optical functionality into systems, and in particular, into highly portable systems. Planar lightwave integrated ... Full text Cite

Chip scale integrated microresonators for sensing applications

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · April 2, 2008 Miniaturized, portable sensing systems for medical and environmental diagnostics and monitoring are an excellent application area for microresonator sensors. Polymer microresonators are attractive components for chip scale integrated sensing because they c ... Full text Cite

Experimental comparison between conventional and hybrid long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends

Journal Article Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics · February 25, 2008 We report on the characterization of long-range surface plasmon waveguide bends at telecom wavelengths (λ=1550 nm). The structures consist of a thin Au stripe embedded in a transparent polymer film. When the polymer thickness is larger than the lateral ex ... Full text Cite

Dual-band planar electric THz metamaterial with resonator yield analysis

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2008 THz radiation transmission through a dual-band electric metamaterial is presented, where we analyze manufacturing defects in the metamaterial. Removing different resonator percentages allows us to quantify the effects of manufacturing defects on the materi ... Cite

Dual-band planar electric THz metamaterial with resonator yield analysis

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2008 THz radiation transmission through a dual-band electric metamaterial is presented, where we analyze manufacturing defects in the metamaterial. Removing different resonator percentages allows us to quantify the effects of manufacturing defects on the materi ... Cite

Chip-scale sensor system integration for portable health monitoring.

Journal Article Anesthesia and analgesia · December 2007 The revolution in integrated circuits over the past 50 yr has produced inexpensive computing and communications systems that are powerful and portable. The technologies for these integrated chip-scale sensing systems, which will be miniature, lightweight, ... Full text Cite

Optical detection heterogeneously integrated with a coplanar digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platform

Journal Article Proceedings of IEEE Sensors · December 1, 2007 The intimate integration of optical components with microfluidics technology will enable next generation portable LoC systems that may completely contain optical generation, processing, and detection. Toward the chip scale integration of digital microfluid ... Full text Cite

Strain compensated InGaAs/GaAsP single quantum well thin film lasers integrated onto Si substrates

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2007 Thin film InGaAs/GaAsP lasers with strained single quantum well active regions have been bonded to Si and tested. The thin film laser structure was designed and grown with no net strain using strain compensation. ©2007 IEEE. ... Full text Cite

Optical microring resonator sensors with selective membrane surface customization

Journal Article Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2007, CLEO 2007 · December 1, 2007 Optical microresonator sensors with surface customization using chemically selective membranes have been demonstrated for the first time. The ethylene/propylene copolymer membrane enriches o-xylene representing an organic contaminant from water, which was ... Full text Cite

Surface customized optical microresonator sensors for integrated chip-scale portable sensing applications

Journal Article Proceedings of IEEE Sensors · December 1, 2007 Vertically coupled microring sensors with a chemically selective polymer membrane surface customization have been demonstrated and experimentally characterized for two different target analytes (toluene and xylene) for the first time. The E/Pco polymer mem ... Full text Cite

Vertically coupled polymer microdisk resonators fabricated by photolithography technique

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · October 22, 2007 In this paper, a vertically coupled polymer microdisk resonator has been demonstrated and characterized. This vertically coupled resonator is fabricated using polymers instead of semiconductors, as well as standard photolithography instead of electron beam ... Full text Cite

Tuned permeability in terahertz split-ring resonators for devices and sensors

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · August 17, 2007 A process is demonstrated for tuning the magnetic resonance frequency of a fixed split-ring resonator array, by way of adding material near the split-ring elements. Applying drops of a silicon-nanospheres/ethanol solution to the surface of the sample decre ... Full text Cite

Suppressing long tail in impulse response of MSM photodetectors using slow hole current subtraction

Journal Article Electronics Letters · August 1, 2007 Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors with three contacts are proposed for subtracting slow hole currents for a shorter impulse response. The long tail, due to these slow holes, was eliminated using an MSM photodetector with three contacts. The me ... Full text Cite

Integrated thin film photodetectors with vertically coupled microring resonators for chip scale spectral analysis

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · March 16, 2007 An integrated spectral analysis system using a thin film InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector integrated with a vertically coupled polymer microring resonator was demonstrated for chip scale implementation. The integrated spectral analysis system ... Full text Cite

Integrated thin film InGaAsP laser and 1 x 4 polymer multimode interference splitter on silicon.

Journal Article Optics letters · March 2007 We report on a thin film InGaAsP laser integrated with a 1 x 4 polymer multimode interference (MMI) splitter on a silicon substrate for planar optical signal distribution. The thin film laser had a threshold current of 40 mA and was endfire coupled to the ... Full text Cite

Optical microring resonator sensors with selective membrane surface customization

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2007 Optical microresonator sensors with surface customization using chemically selective membranes have been demonstrated for the first time. The ethylene/propylene copolymer membrane enriches o-xylene representing an organic contaminant from water, which was ... Cite

Quantitative investigation of a terahertz artificial magnetic resonance using oblique angle spectroscopy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · 2007 The authors present a spectroscopic analysis of a planar split-ring-resonator (SRR) medium at terahertz frequencies, quantitatively characterizing the associated magnetic resonance. Experimental quantification at terahertz and infrared frequencies of metam ... Full text Link to item Cite

Polymer microrings integrated with thin film ingaas MSM photodetectors for Sensor-on-a-Chip applications

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials · December 1, 2006 A polymer microring has been integrated with an InGaAs photodetector on a Si substrate for chip scale sensing applications. The photocurrent as a function of wavelength agrees well with the spectral response of the microring. This integration of a microrin ... Cite

A polymer microdisk photonic sensor integrated onto silicon

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · October 15, 2006 Abstract-Optical sensors are attractive for integrated chip-scale sensor systems. In this letter, integrated microdisk sensors have been fabricated and characterized for five different D-glucose concentrations in deionized water. The microdisk sensor repor ... Full text Cite

Multimode interferometric sensors on silicon optimized for fully integrated complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor chemical-biological sensor systems

Journal Article Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics · January 1, 2006 We demonstrate an integrated evanescent-field multimode Mach-Zehnder interferometric chemical-biological sensor, fabricated on silicon, with sensitivity of parts per 109 achieved by modal pattern tracking and analysis. This sensor is fully compatible with ... Full text Cite

Optoelectronic integration for planar lightwave systems in chip scale sensing, optical interconnect, and signal processing

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · January 1, 2006 Full text Cite

Ultra thin-film MSM photodetector with low parasitic capacitance

Journal Article Proceedings of IEEE Sensors · January 1, 2006 Parasitic capacitance analysis of an ultra thin-film Metal-Semiconductor- Metal(MSM) photodetector(PD) having the lowest capacitance per unit surface area is reported in this paper. Through cladding layers removing process using etching, 50-60% decrease in ... Full text Cite

Toward artificial magnetism using terahertz split ring resonator metamaterials

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · January 1, 2006 Split Ring Resonator arrays have been fabricated to demonstrate magnetic resonance in the terahertz regime. Spectroscopic transmission measurements as a function of oblique angle enable quantitative values of the permeability to be calculated © 2006 IEEE. ... Full text Cite

Integrated mixed-signal optoelectronic system-on-a-chip sensor

Journal Article Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems · December 1, 2005 A mixed-signal optoelectronic system-on-a-chip sensor was integrated with embedded photodetector arrays and interferometric optical waveguides on a silicon (Si) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit chip. Photodetector (PD) arrays were fab ... Full text Cite

Physical design of optoelectronic system-on-a-package: A CAD tool and algorithms

Conference Proceedings - International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design, ISQED · December 1, 2005 We propose a new approach to the physical design of optoelectronic system-on-a-package (SOP) using optical waveguide interconnect technology. The objective is to improve the performance of SOP by replacing long distance electrical interconnects with optica ... Full text Cite

A thin-film laser, polymer waveguide, and thin-film photodetector cointegrated onto a silicon substrate

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · October 1, 2005 Planar lightwave circuits, which include optical passive and active components, can be integrated with electronics to form planar lightwave integrated circuits (PLICs). Integration of PLICs onto standard electronic substrates (FR-4, Si) is an important ste ... Full text Cite

Rapid, predictive measurement-based modeling for high frequency interconnect on FR4 substrate

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · September 19, 2005 In this paper, a predictive (scalable) measurement-based model for high frequency interconnects on low cost FR4 substrates is proposed and demonstrated. In our research, the interconnects are modeled with equivalent circuits of scalable building blocks usi ... Cite

Comparative high speed optical interconnections using thin film photodetectors embedded in polymer waveguides

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · September 19, 2005 As data rates increase, optical interconnections at the boards and substrate levels become interesting alternatives for high performance interconnections [1, 2]. Optical interconnection using embedded thin film photodetectors (PDs) in polymer waveguides is ... Cite

Planar lightwave integrated circuits integrated with thin film active optoelectronic devices

Journal Article Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · July 21, 2005 The integration of active optoelectronic devices, passive optical devices, and electronics into planar lightwave integrated circuits (PLICs) at the chip level, and planar lightwave integrated systems (PLIS) at the substrate or package level, have applicati ... Full text Cite

Pulse response tuning of high speed InGaAs thin film MSM photodetector using external RCL loads

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · July 21, 2005 Practical, packaged photodetectors (PDs) must be interfaced to bias and transmission lines, which introduce parasitics. These parasitics (resistance, capacitance and inductance) can be used to shape the temporal and frequency response of packaged photodete ... Full text Cite

High speed optical signal distribution using fully embedded thin film MSM photodetectors in multimode interference couplers

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · July 21, 2005 High speed optical interconnections offer an attractive alternative to electrical interconnections, particularly when they can be integrated into electrical systems. In particular, waveguide signal distribution and optical to electrical (O/E) conversion ar ... Full text Cite

Integrated planar lightwave bio/chem OEIC sensors on Si CMOS circuits

Journal Article Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · July 21, 2005 Optical sensing, and the integration of sensors and electronics into Sensor on a Chip and Sensor on a Package systems are an approach to the creation of miniaturized, portable, customizable, low cost sensor systems for rapid health diagnostics, medical res ... Full text Cite

Heterogeneous integration of optical interconnects

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2005 Optical interconnections at the board and chip levels are being integrated into traditional electrical interconnection systems using heterogeneous integration of thin film active optoelectronic devices (photodetectors, lasers) and passive waveguiding struc ... Cite

Organic planar lightwave integrated circuits for sensing and interconnections

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2005 Polymer waveguides and optical structures such as microcavity sensors can be utilized in planar lightwave integrated circuits, which combine passive and active optical and/or electronic components in a planar format. © 2005 OSA. ... Cite

Organic planar lightwave integrated circuits for sensing and interconnections

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2005 Polymer waveguides and optical structures such as microcavity sensors can be utilized in planar lightwave integrated circuits, which combine passive and active optical and/or electronic components in a planar format. © 2005 OSA. ... Full text Cite

Heterogeneous integration of optical interconnects

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2005 Optical interconnections at the board and chip levels are being integrated into traditional electrical interconnection systems using heterogeneous integration of thin film active optoelectronic devices (photodetectors, lasers) and passive waveguiding struc ... Full text Cite

Integrated planar lightwave bio/chem OEIC sensors on Si CMOS circuits

Journal Article Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (USA) · 2005 Optical sensing, and the integration of sensors and electronics into Sensor on a Chip and Sensor on a Package systems are an approach to the creation of miniaturized, portable, customizable, low cost sensor systems for rapid health diagnostics, medical res ... Cite

FR4 printed circuit board design for Giga-bits embedded optical interconnect applications

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · December 27, 2004 As the demand of high data rate increases, electrical interconnects on the board becomes a bottleneck for the overall system performance because of crosstalk, transmission line effects, clock skew, and timing jitter. Thus, considerable effort has been made ... Cite

Heterogeneous integration of InP/InGaAsP MQW thin film edge emitting lasers and polymer waveguides

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · December 27, 2004 This paper describes the fabrication and integration of a thin film edge emitting laser (EEL) whose optical output is coupled into a polymer waveguide integrated on the same electrical interconnection substrate. This embedded laser/waveguide structure is a ... Cite

Physical design of optoelectronic system-on-a-package using optical waveguide interconnects

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · December 27, 2004 In this paper, we develop a computer-aided design (CAD) tool for physical design of optoelectronic system-on-a-package (SOP) using optical waveguide interconnects. The tool assigns the optimal location to modules and replaces long electrical interconnects ... Cite

Embedded optical interconnections on printed wiring boards

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · December 27, 2004 Optical interconnections using fully embedded optoelectronic components offer high performance interconnection options that can be integrated into current printed wiring board electrical interconnection systems. In this paper, we demonstrate fully embedded ... Cite

Data acquisition sensitivity determination of a sensor-on-a-chip integrated microsystem

Journal Article Proceedings of IEEE Sensors · December 1, 2004 A sensor-on-a-chip integrated microsystem was implemented through a standard silicon (Si) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication and an optical waveguide integration processes. The fabricated Si CMOS chip has embedded lateral pnp bipola ... Cite

Etch enhanced low capacitance, large area thin film InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2004 The enhancement of the impulse response and capacitance performance of thin film InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) was carried out through etching. The capacitances of the MSM were measured using scattering parameter measurements using a lightwave com ... Cite

A 10 Gbit/s Si CMOS transimpedance amplifier with an integrated MSM photodetector for optical interconnections

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2004 A wideband preamplifier was designed and fabricated using a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The amplifier was heterogeneously integrated with a thin film InGaAs inverted photodetector. A successful demonstration at a bit rate of 10 Gbps was reported. All the stag ... Cite

Wideband multiple resonance small-signal laser diode model for the co-design of laser drive circuits

Journal Article Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems · December 1, 2004 A wideband multiple resonance small-signal laser equivalent circuit model is presented to improve optoelectronic circuit design accuracy. Two important laser diode characteristics, such as input reflections and electrical-to-optical transmissions are expre ... Cite

Modal pattern analysis and experimental investigation of multimode interferometric sensing: A path to fully integrated silicon-CMOS-based chem/bio sensors

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2004 A multimode, Mach-Zehnder, chem/bio sensor with sensitivity developed through modal pattern analysis is demonstrated on silicon. Simulated and experimental data show that waveguide structures less than 5000-μm-long enable fully-integrated sensors with inde ... Cite

Optical interconnection using embedded thin film edge emitting lasers, photodetectors, and polymer waveguides

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · September 29, 2004 The embedded optical interconnections using separately grown and fabricated heterogeneously integrated thin film lasers were discussed. Each device used was seprately grown and fabricated on the growth substrate. The measured data showed the first embedded ... Cite

Optical signal distribution on silicon using a thin film photodetector array embedded in a multimode interference (MMI) coupler

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · September 29, 2004 The design, fabrication, and characterization of optical signal distribution in a planar lightwave format using 1 by 4 multimode interference (MMI) were discussed. The MMI coupler used in the method was fabricated using a photosensitive polymer using spin ... Cite

Embedded photodetectors in polymer waveguides for optical interconnect integrated with a Si-Ge transimpedance amplifier circuit operating at 2.5 Gbit/s

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · September 29, 2004 The embedded photodetectors in polymer waveguides for optical interconnect, integrated with a Silicon Germanium transimpedance amplifier circuit, operating at 2.5 Gbit per seconds is discussed. A 3 micrometre thick benzocyclobutane polymer waveguide is spu ... Cite

Board-level optical interconnection and signal distribution using embedded thin-film optoelectronic devices

Journal Article Journal of Lightwave Technology · September 1, 2004 Optical interconnection and signal distribution at the backplane, board, and substrate level can be implemented using thin-film active optoelectronic devices embedded in polymer waveguide structures. These active embedded devices eliminate the need for opt ... Full text Cite

Improved measurement-based modeling of inverted-MSM photodetectors using on-wafer calibration structures

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · August 16, 2004 Photodetectors (PDs) are an important active device in optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs), and, for shorter haul interconnections where circuit (e.g. transimpedance amplifier (TIA)) noise may be the dominant noise in receivers, metal-semiconductor- ... Full text Cite

High speed optical interconnections using thin film PDs embedded in polymer waveguides on electrical boards

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · August 16, 2004 As an alternative approach to current electrical interconnection technology, optical interconnections at high speeds offer several potential advantages including small footprint, simple system design (in comparison to transmission lines), and immunity to e ... Full text Cite

Integration of Si-CMOS embedded photo detector array and mixed signal processing system with embedded optical waveguide input

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · August 16, 2004 Arrays of embedded bipolar junction transistor (BJT) photo detectors (PD) and a parallel mixed-signal processing system were fabricated as a silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (Si-CMOS) circuit for the integration optical sensors on the surfac ... Full text Cite

High-speed large-area inverted InGaAs thin-film metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · July 1, 2004 Inverted metal-semiconductor-metal (I-MSM) photodetectors, which are thin-film MSMs with the growth substrate removed and fingers on the bottom of the device (to eliminate finger shadowing to enhance responsivity), are reported herein for high-speed high-e ... Full text Cite

Planar lightwave integrated circuits with embedded actives for board and substrate level optical signal distribution

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging · May 1, 2004 As the data rate of integrated circuits dramatically increases, interconnection speed at the backplane and board levels are beginning to limit system performance, which drives investigations into alternative interconnection technologies. Critical factors t ... Full text Cite

Planar Lightwave Integrated Circuits Using Thin Film Optoelectronic Devices

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2004 The integration of thin film optoelectronic devices with polymer waveguides creates optical signal propagation, distribution, and processing in a planar waveguide format. These planar lightwave integrated circuits are appropriate for applications such as o ... Cite

Modal pattern analysis of multimode interferometric sensors applied to fully integrated silicon-based chem/bio sensors

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2004 A multimode, Mach-Zehnder, interferometric chem/bio sensor with sensitivity developed through modal pattern tracking and analysis is demonstrated on silicon. Simulated and experimental data, show that integrated structures of length <5000 µm together with ... Cite

InGaAs MSM Photodetectors Modeling Using DOE Analysis

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · 2004 Linear statistical models have been generated to predict the performance of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs for multi-gigabit optical interconnections. The models estimate the bandwidth and responsivity of the MSM PDs based on the input factors: absorb ... Full text Link to item Cite

High speed InGaAs thin film MSM photodetector characterization using a fiber-based electro-optic sampling system

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · 2004 As optoelectronic devices increase in speed, the measurement system used to characterize these devices must have sufficient bandwidth and minimum parasitic loading during test to accurately determine the intrinsic performance of the device under test. Conv ... Full text Link to item Cite

Parasitic modeling and analysis for a 1-Gb/s CMOS laser driver

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs · 2004 A differential laser driver (LD) operating at 1 Gb/s been designed and tested using NSC 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The effect of simultaneous switching noise caused by packaging parasitic was addressed and the parasitic model was developed to predict the ... Full text Link to item Cite

An interferometric sensor for integration with Si CMOS signal processing circuitry: "Sensor on a Chip"

Journal Article OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series · January 1, 2004 A scheme for integrating interferometric sensors with Si CMOS circuitry is presented. An integrated biological\chemical sensor provides a low cost, noninvasive alternative to traditional sensor technologies. ... Cite

Design and optimization of board-level optical clock distribution network for high-performance optoelectronic system-on-a-packages

Journal Article Proceedings of the ACM Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI · January 1, 2004 A new approach to optical clock distribution utilizing optical waveguide interconnect technology is introduced. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm for design and optimization of board-level optical clock distribution network for high-performance opt ... Full text Cite

Optical chip-to-chip interconnects for memory systems

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 9, 2003 Optical interconnections offer a simple way to design and implement alternatives to point to point electrical interconnections. In fact, the design complexity of these optical interconnections is similar to lower speed multi-drop electrical interconnection ... Cite

InP/InGaAsP MQW thin film edge emitting lasers for embedded waveguide chip to chip optical interconnections

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 9, 2003 An overview is given of the first demonstration of a thin film (microns thick) heterogeneously integrated edge emitting laser bonded to a Si host substrate. Preliminary processing for embedding these film lasers into BCB polymer waveguides is also discusse ... Cite

Planar lightwave circuit balanced optical fanout using a thin film photodetector array embedded in a polymer MMI coupler

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 9, 2003 The first multi-mode interface (MMI) coupler fabricated using a photoimageable polymer is demonstrated, as well as the first MMI coupler with thin film embedded photodetectors embedded in the output waveguide channels. The experimental results agree with t ... Cite

Substrate-Embedded and Flip-Chip-Bonded Photodetector Polymer-Based Optical Interconnects: Analysis, Design, and Performance

Journal Article Journal of Lightwave Technology · October 1, 2003 The performance of three optoelectronic structures incorporating substrate-embedded InP-based inverted metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and/or volume holographic gratings are analyzed and compared at the primary optical communication wavelengths. T ... Full text Cite

High speed optical interconnection using embedded PDs on electrical boards

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · July 17, 2003 An integration process for creating optical interconnections which can be integrated in a post-processing format onto standard boards and modules, and eventually, even integrated circuits is presented. The process is consistent with integration onto electr ... Cite

Comparison of electrical and optical interconnect

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · July 17, 2003 Electrical and optical interconnects were compared to evaluate superiority of data rate, channel power dissipation and power consumption in driver as a function of line length. Transmission lines were simulated by HSPICE transient simulator and measured fo ... Cite

Test-structure free modeling method for de-embedding the effects of pads on device modeling

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · July 17, 2003 On-wafer measurements of devices always include the parasitic effects of probe pads, interconnections, and substrate resistance. In order to extract actual Device Under Test (DUT) parameters from the measurements, several on-wafer test structures such as o ... Cite

Embedded optical interconnections on printed wiring boards

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · July 17, 2003 An optical interconnection with an embedded photodetector on a printed wiring board (PWB) was demonstrated. An optical signal was launched, propagated through the waveguide, and detected by the embedded photodetector, which output an electrical signal. ... Cite

3-D stacked thin-film photodetectors for multispectral detection applications

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · April 1, 2003 To demonstrate simultaneous multispectral detection, short and long wavelength thin-film detectors, which are grown and optimized separately, are collocated and heterogeneously integrated in a three-dimensional (3-D) stack onto pads on an Si substrate. Sim ... Full text Cite

A 3-D bidirectional optical link using a stacked thin-film emitter and detector

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · March 1, 2003 The fabrication of a colocated three-dimensional stacked thin-film device, which can be used for single-fiber bidirectional communication, has been demonstrated. A thin-film light-emitting diode (LED) with a diameter of 50 μm has been stacked on top of a t ... Full text Cite

Optical interconnections on electrical boards using embedded active optoelectronic components

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · March 1, 2003 Significant opportunities are emerging for optical interconnections at the board, module, and chip level if compact, low loss, high data rate optical interconnections can be integrated into these electrical interconnection systems. This paper describes an ... Full text Cite

The heterogeneous integration of optical interconnections into integrated microsystems

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · March 1, 2003 Emerging techniques for integrating optoelectronic (OE) devices, analog interface circuitry, RF circuitry, and digital logic into ultra-mixed signal systems offers approaches toward and demonstrations of integrated optical interconnections in electrical mi ... Full text Cite

Large Area, High Speed InGaAs Thin Film MSMs for Heterogeneously Integrated Optoelectronics

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2003 Thin film InGaAs photodetectors for heterogeneously integrated optoelectronics are demonstrated with low dark current (0.16nA at 5V), and high speed (3ps rise time, 6.3ps FWHM), large area (40 µm), and good responsivity (0.19A/W at 5V). ... Cite

Optoelectronic Microsystems Integration

Journal Article Optics and Photonics News · January 1, 2003 The methods used in integration and processing of optical functions into an electronic system are discussed. Planar lightwave circuit interconnections at the board, module and chip level are being used for optical connections at very short distances. The i ... Full text Cite

Large area, high speed InGaAs thin film MSMs for heterogeneously integrated optoelectronics

Journal Article OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series · January 1, 2003 Thin film InGaAs photodetectors for heterogeneously integrated optoelectronics are demonstrated with low dark current (0.16nA at 5V), and high speed (3ps rise time, 6.3ps FWHM), large area (40 μm), and good responsivity (0.19A/W at 5V). ... Cite

Embedded optical interconnections using thin film InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

Journal Article Electronics Letters · December 5, 2002 The integration of InGaAs photodetectors embedded in a polymer interconnection waveguide on Si and ceramic electrical interconnection substrates has been demonstrated. The photodetector and substrate are independently fabricated and bonded, with subsequent ... Full text Cite

Integrated detectors for embedded optical interconnections on electrical boards, modules, and integrated circuits

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · November 1, 2002 Significant opportunities exist for optical interconnections at the board, module, and chip level if compact, low-loss, high-data-rate optical interconnections can be integrated into these electrical interconnection systems. To create such an integrated op ... Full text Cite

The heterogeneous integration of GaN thin-film metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors onto silicon

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · February 1, 2002 The heterogeneous integration of GaN thin-film metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors onto a host substrate of SiO2-Si is reported herein. Thin-film GaN photodetectors were separated from the lithium gallate (LiGaO2) growth substrate using selectiv ... Full text Cite

Polymer Waveguide Optical Interconnections on Si CMOS Circuits

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2002 Cite

A Bi-directional Optical Link Using a Stacked Thin Film Emitter and Detector

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2002 Cite

Polymer Waveguide Optical Interconnections for Electrical Interconnection Substrates

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2002 Cite

Stacked thin film InGaAs and GaAs photodetectors for fully registered wavelength discrimination

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · January 1, 2002 The fabrication and characterization of co-located, 3D stacked thin film PDs was carried out. Independent electrical access to each of the two spatially co-located photodetectors was demonstrated, with two different wavelengths successfully resolved. ... Cite

Comparison of evanescent and directly coupled optical interconnections embedded into electronic interconnection substrates

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · January 1, 2002 An overview is given of the fabrication process technology and measurement results for two different embedded structures: thin film InGaAs photodetectors embedded in a polymer waveguide and below a polymer waveguide, with both exhibiting efficient coupling ... Cite

Polymer waveguide optical interconnections on Si CMOS circuits

Journal Article Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO - Technical Digest · January 1, 2002 Optical interconnections, on foundry silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) circuits using polymer optical waveguides, was demonstrated. The polymer optical waveguides were directly fabricated on two Si CMOS circuits. The channel in the fa ... Cite

Thin film GaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors integrated onto silicon

Journal Article Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO - Technical Digest · January 1, 2002 The metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector dark current and responsivity results for the growth of gallium nitride on lithium gallate substrates were reported. The heterogeneous integration of thin film gallium nitride MSM detectors onto host substr ... Cite

A Bi-directional optical link using a stacked thin film emitter and detector

Journal Article Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO - Technical Digest · January 1, 2002 The fabrication of bi-directional optical link using stacked thin film emitter and detector was presented. Both devices were separated from their growth substrate using thin film integration and a transfer diaphragm, and were bonded to the host Si substrat ... Cite

Polymer waveguide optical interconnections for electrical interconnection substrates

Journal Article Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO - Technical Digest · January 1, 2002 Integration process and measured result of a fully embedded thin film metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector (PD) fabricated from InGaAs were presented. The channel in the fabricated waveguide was defined by reactive ion etching. The optical signal ... Cite

High density packaging in 2010 and beyond

Conference Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Electronic Materials and Packaging, EMAP 2002 · January 1, 2002 As microsystems continue to move towards higher speed and microminiaturization, the demands for interconnection density both on the IC and the package increases tremendously. With the shift towards nano ICs by 2003 with 100 nm features, pitch of area array ... Full text Cite

Heterogeneous materials integration: Compliant substrates to active device and materials packaging

Journal Article Materials Science and Engineering: B · December 19, 2001 The drive for the heterogeneous integration of materials has led to significant advances in materials and device processing, and in the understanding of defect production and control during epitaxy. Heterogeneous integration is driven by microelectronic an ... Full text Cite

GaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors grown on lithium gallate substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · August 27, 2001 The growth, fabrication, and characterization of ultraviolet metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) GaN photodetectors grown on LiGaO2 by molecular-beam epitaxy are reported herein. GaN/LiGaO2 material with dislocation densities of approximately 108 cm-2 and x-ra ... Full text Cite

Recent advances in III-nitride devices grown on lithium gallate

Journal Article Phys. Status Solidi A (Germany) · 2001 We discuss recent advances in the growth of III-nitride materials and devices, which include: (i) The reduction of the near-surface threading dislocation density in GaN on lithium gallate (LGO) to ≈2×107 cm-2. (ii) The demonstration of GaN, 50&tim ... Full text Link to item Cite

Heterogeneous integration: From substrate technology to active packaging

Journal Article Technical Digest-International Electron Devices Meeting · January 1, 2001 Heterogeneous integration of dissimilar materials and devices is necessary for the continued advancement of electronic and optoelectronic systems. A range of processes has been developed in recent years that will enable system integration and advanced pack ... Full text Cite

Highly alignment tolerant InGaAs inverted MSM photodetector heterogeneously integrated on a differential Si CMOS receiver operating at 1 Gbps

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · January 1, 2001 The increasing demand for high bandwidth, low latency I/O in gigascale systems is challenging current packaging technology. Optoelectronic I/O offers needed performance, but presents new challenges in mixed signal (digital, analog, optical, RF) design and ... Full text Cite

Recent advances in III-nitride devices grown on lithium gallate

Conference PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLIED RESEARCH · 2001 Cite

Smart photonics: Optoelectronics integrated with Si CMOS VLSI circuits

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 2000 Smart photonics, the integration of optoelectronic devices with electronic circuits and systems, has growing applications in many fields, one of which is computing. An exploration of the opportunities, integration technologies, and some recent results usin ... Cite

Alignment tolerant InP/Si CMOS hybrid integrated photoreceivers operating at 0.9 Gbps

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2000 An overview is given on the hybrid integration of a thin film large area, low capacitance InGaAsP/InP inverted metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector onto a Si CMOS differential receiver circuit. The integrated receiver has a measured bit-error-rate (BER) ... Cite

Analysis of alignment tolerant hybrid optoelectronic receivers for high density interconnection substrates

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · December 1, 2000 High frequency signal distribution in HDI/HDW substrates can be achieved using optical interconnections. To realize effective milli- and micro-haul interconnections on these substrates, the hybrid integration of independently optimized interface circuits a ... Cite

Modulator design for smart pixel multispectral imaging arrays

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2000 Multispectral imagers have been heavily studied for their application to target recognition, industrial gas pollutant monitoring, and biomedical imaging. This article describes the design and simulation of a 0.25 micron CMOS modulator and small enough to a ... Cite

Packaging consideration for 1 Gbps Si CMOS optical driver

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2000 A high speed laser driver circuit was designed and fabricated with an on-chip decoupling capacitor to prevent output distortion from packaging parasitics. The suitability of a decoupling capacitor with a minimum capacitance of 7 nF was verified. ... Cite

GaN thin film material bonded to host substrates using selective chemical etching

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2000 GaN-based materials and devices are drawing significant interest for ultraviolet and blue optical device applications, and high power electronic device applications. An alternative approach toward GaN thin film separation and integration on dissimilar mate ... Cite

Bidirectional single fiber low-cost optoelectronic interconnect for automotive applications

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology · January 1, 2000 Current trends in vehicular technology reflect an increase in the number of electronic modules, leading to more complicated and expensive wiring. The use of optic fibers offers a low-cost alternative to traditional copper-wire harnesses. This paper present ... Full text Cite

Hybrid optically interconnected microprocessor: An InP I-MSM integrated onto a mixed signal CMOS analog optical receiver with a digital CMOS microprocessor

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 2000 This paper presents the results of simultaneously working fully-differential optoelectronic (OE) receiver fabricated in Si CMOS with digital SIMD microprocessor on the same die next to analog, optical interface circuitry, the receiver have been hybrid inte ... Cite

Microsystem Optoelectronic Integration for Mixed Multisignal Systems

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · January 1, 2000 The integration and packaging of optoelectronic devices with electronic circuits and systems has growing application in many fields, ranging from long to micro haul links. An exploration of the opportunities, integration technologies, and some recent resul ... Full text Cite

Building collaborative teams for multi-disciplinary educational projects in optoelectronics

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 2000 Multidisciplinary team-oriented research is an effective method for investigating systems spanning multiple knowledge areas. Building on cross-functional team strategies developed for highly competitive industries, experts from a variety of technical domai ... Full text Cite

Epilayer transfer for integration of III-V photodetectors onto a silicon platform using Au-Sn and Pd-Ge bonding

Journal Article Conference Proceedings-International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials · January 1, 2000 A novel process to bond InP-based, substrate-removed, vertical Schottky photodetectors to a commercially available silicon read-out integrated circuit is demonstrated as a new technique for optoelectronic hybridization. High-quality In(Al)GaAs epilayers we ... Full text Cite

Design of a smart pixel multispectral imaging array using 3D stacked thin film detectors on Si CMOS circuits

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · January 1, 2000 A 'smart' multispectral imaging system that can be fabricated with independently optimized detector arrays and Si CMOS circuits is described. This imager utilizes the heterogeneous integration of thin film GaN (UV), MCT (MWIR), and Si CMOS circuitry to cre ... Full text Cite

Alignment tolerant hybrid photoreceivers using inverted MSMs

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · January 1, 2000 A thin film large area, low capacitance, high responsivity InGaAs/InP inverted metal-semiconductor-metal (I-MSM) was hybrid integrated onto a Si CMOS differential receiver circuit. The integrated receiver demonstrated a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10-11 at 414 ... Cite

Compact current input oversampling modulator design for a scalable high frame rate focal plane arrays

Journal Article Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems · January 1, 2000 This paper demonstrates a compact current input oversampling modulator for a scalable high frame rate focal plane arrays. This smart pixel architecture with the proposed compact current input oversampling modulator is intended for scientific imagers with f ... Full text Cite

Mixed material integration for power amplifier MMICs

Journal Article IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest · December 1, 1999 In this paper we present the first large signal analysis of thin film HBTs by experimental load pull measurements. InP HBTs are fully characterized before and after substrate removal and integration onto electrically insulating substrates, and show preserv ... Cite

Smart photonics: Optoelectronics integrated onto Si CMOS circuits

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 1999 Smart photonics, or the integration of optoelectronic (OE) devices and links with circuitry such as Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits, can yield both advanced optical links and possibly integrated ... Cite

RTD/CMOS Nanoelectronic Circuits: Thin-Film InP-Based Resonant Tunneling Diodes Integrated with CMOS Circuits

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · March 1, 1999 The combination of resonant tunneling diodes (RTD's) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon circuitry can offer substantial improvement in speed, power dissipation, and circuit complexity over CMOS-only circuits. We demonstrate the firs ... Full text Cite

Three-layer 3-D silicon system using through-Si vertical optical interconnections and Si CMOS hybrid building blocks

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · March 1, 1999 We present for the first time a three-dimensional (3-D) Si CMOS interconnection system consisting of three layers of optically interconnected hybrid integrated Si CMOS transceivers. The transceivers were fabricated using 0.8-μm digital Si CMOS foundry circ ... Full text Cite

Smart CMOS focal plane arrays: A Si CMOS detector array and sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter imaging system

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · March 1, 1999 This paper evaluates the potential for the real-time utilization of high frame rate image sequences using a fully parallel readout system. Multiple readout architectures for high frame rate imaging are compared. The application domain for a fully parallel ... Full text Cite

A TWA optical receiver with hybrid integrated InP detector

Journal Article J. Electr. Eng. Inf. Sci. (Taiwan) · 1999 To investigate the usefulness and feasibility of the TWA structure for low cost wide band system applications we designed a TWA optical receiver using low cost commercial process, the measured results show it is possible to achieve an 18 GHz bandwidth with ... Cite

Passive device modeling methodology using nonlinear optimization

Journal Article Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems · January 1, 1999 In this paper we describe a method of accurately modeling new passive devices by deembedding the many building blocks from which they are built from just a few test structures. We use a nonlinear optimizer to find the optimal models for the building blocks ... Cite

Adaptive digital bias control for an optical receiver and transmitter

Journal Article Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems · January 1, 1999 This paper presents test results for an adaptive bias control for an optical receiver and transmitter. The need for accurate adaptive bias sources has been an important issue for the design of compact, high-resolution, high-precision optoelectronic circuit ... Cite

Fully differential current-input CMOS amplifier front-end suppressing mixed signal substrate noise for optoelectronic applications

Journal Article Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems · January 1, 1999 This work focuses on reducing substrate noise and substrate coupling using a fully differential circuit topology. Described is a current-mode optical receiver and comparator designed to reduce the digital substrate noise injection. ... Cite

Introduction to the Issue on Smart Photonic Components, Interconnects, and Processing

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · January 1, 1999 Full text Cite

IRIS: An integrated, scalable focal plane architecture

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 1998 Wearable video processing systems integrate low cost silicon detectors and analog interface circuitry with massively parallel digital processing on a single chip. While this `imaging system on a chip' can enable many significant new systems, many architect ... Cite

Comparison of CMOS chip to chip interconnections: Vertical optical through-Si links versus high density electrical interconnect

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 1998 High density interconnect (HDI) electrical interconnections and vertical optoelectronic (OE) through-Si links for 3D computational systems have been modeled, and compared and contrasted in the areas of latency, size, and power dissipation. Based upon the S ... Cite

Compliant substrate strain modulated epitaxy for WDM laser arrays

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 1998 A new method for making a multiple-wavelength laser array by using strain modulated epitaxy is described. This growth process, which enables growth on a smooth substrate surface while enabling three dimensional band structure engineering, uses a bottom-pat ... Cite

Accurate, rapid, high frequency empirically based predictive modeling of arbitrary geometry planar resistive passive devices

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology Part B · May 1, 1998 A novel technique is presented for the high speed, accurate, predictive modeling of arbitrary geometry integrated resistor structures manufactured in a variety of technologies, including those of both multichip modules (MCM's) and integrated circuits (IC's ... Full text Cite

Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40-Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · April 1, 1998 Optical interconnection through stacked silicon foundry complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry has been demonstrated at a data rate of over 40 Mb/s with an open eye diagram. The system consists of a 0.8-μm transmitter and receiver realize ... Cite

Stacked silicon CMOS circuits with a 40-Mb/s through-silicon optical interconnect

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · March 1, 1998 Optical interconnection through stacked silicon foundry complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry has been demonstrated at a data rate of over 40 Mb/s with an open eye diagram. The system consists of a 0.8-μm transmitter and receiver realize ... Cite

Selective wet etchinq of lithium gallate

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1998 Lithium gallate (LGO) is an attractive, near lattice matched substrate for the growth of GaN. In addition, LGO substrates provide a convenient route to forming thin films of GaN as used in substrate removal or lift-off processes. We report the wet etching ... Full text Cite

Growth of GaN on lithium gallate substrates for development of a GaN thin compliant substrate

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · January 1, 1998 Since we have found that an entire substrate can be chemically removed in less than 5 min and since GaN is impervious to chemical etching, the GaN on lithium gallate (LGO) system is an excellent template (due to near infinite etch selectivity) for developi ... Full text Cite

Review of RF packaging research at Georgia Tech's PRC

Journal Article Proceedings - 4th International Symposium on Advanced Packaging Materials: Processes, Properties and Interfaces · January 1, 1998 Consistent with the Packaging Research Center's vision of low cost single level integrated modules (SLIM), the Wireless Thrust is focused on developing integrated solutions for wireless interfaces. The core focus is to develop: (1) Development and analysis ... Full text Cite

High speed, smart focal plane processing using integrated photodetectors and Si CMOS VLSI sigma delta analog to digital converters

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · January 1, 1998 A high frame rate smart pixel imaging system using an analog to digital converter per pixel in an 8×8 integrated detector array is discussed. The smart pixel architecture enables frame rates of up to 100 kfps operating in a continuous imaging mode. This in ... Cite

Integrated 1.55 μm receivers using GaAs MMICs and thin film InP detectors

Journal Article IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest · January 1, 1998 A GaAs-based amplifier has been designed and integrated with a large area, high efficiency, thin film InP-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector. Thin film integration is a hybrid integration scheme that minimizes the parasitics between the InP dete ... Cite

3D stacked Si CMOS VLSI smart pixels using through-Si optoelectronic interconnections

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · January 1, 1998 Three layers of standard foundry Si complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very large scale integrated (VLSI) integrated circuits, each integrated with long wavelength thin film emitter and detectors, have been stacked to realize a 3D system with o ... Cite

Integrated 1.55 μm receivers using GaAs MMICs and thin film InP detectors

Journal Article IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, RFIC, Digest of Technical Papers · January 1, 1998 A GaAs-based amplifier has been designed and integrated with a large area, high efficiency, thin film InP-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector. Thin film integration is a hybrid integration scheme that minimizes the parasitics between the InP dete ... Cite

Thin-Film integration for nanoscale and high frequency electronics on si

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 1997 The continued emergence of wireless applications as perhaps the most financially significant market in recent years, wireless technology has become a global core competency. The demand for increasingly higher rates of data transmission, low-power operation ... Full text Cite

A new mechanism for spontaneous nanostructure formation on bottom-patterned compliant substrates

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · November 10, 1997 Bottom-patterned compliant substrates can be used to laterally modulate the properties of a mismatched epilayer. At temperatures where strain-dependent growth kinetics are significant, the GaAs bottom pattern compliant substrates affected the growth of str ... Full text Cite

Metastability modeling of compliant substrate critical thickness using experimental strain relief data

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · September 8, 1997 A metastability model for GaAs compliant substrates is developed using the compliant substrate partitioning formula and experimental strain relief data. The developed model agrees with compliant substrate strain relief data deduced from double crystal x-ra ... Full text Cite

Improvement in bit-error rate for optoelectronic multicomputer interconnection networks using cyclic redundancy code error detection

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · June 1, 1997 This letter presents testing results of an integrated optoelectronic (OE) channel employing hop-by-hop error control circuitry based on cyclic redundancy codes (CRC) to improve the effective bit-error rate (BER). The use of OE interconnect in place of wire ... Full text Cite

Direct current and high frequency performance of thin film InP-based tunneling hot electron transfer amplifiers

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · May 5, 1997 We report the dc and high frequency performance of thin-film InP-based tunneling hot electron transfer amplifiers bonded to a variety of host substrates. The high-frequency device performance is slightly degraded since the InP substrate removal and bonding ... Full text Cite

Analysis of In0.07Ga0.93As layers on GaAs compliant substrates by double crystal x-ray diffraction

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · March 31, 1997 Double crystal x-ray diffraction data is presented from the most extensive compliant substrate experiment to date. Five consecutive InGaAs-GaAs growths were performed simultaneously on GaAs-based thin film compliant substrates and thick reference substrate ... Full text Cite

A 100 Mbps, LED through-wafer optoelectronic link for multicomputer interconnection networks

Journal Article Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing · February 25, 1997 Through-wafer optoelectronic interconnect offers some architectural alternatives that are not available with wire-based interconnects. In order to compete with wire-based technologies, optoelectronic interconnects must provide reasonable performance in ter ... Full text Cite

Analysis of GaAs substrate removal etching with citric acid:H2O2 and NH4OH:H2O2 for application to compliant substrates

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1997 New properties associated with selective substrate removal have been observed in the application of this technique to GaAs thin film compliant substrates. Citric acid- and NH4OH-based etches are used to selectively etch the GaAs substrate and stop on an Al ... Full text Cite

Growth dynamics of InGaAs/GaAs by MBE

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · January 1, 1997 The growth dynamics of the InGaAs/GaAs system have been investigated by desorption mass spectrometry (DMS). Indium desorption spectra indicate the presence of one or two desorption mechanisms depending on the V/III beam equivalent pressure ratio. The activ ... Full text Cite

Scaleable CMOS Current-Mode Preamplifier Design for an Optical Receiver

Journal Article Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing · January 1, 1997 We have designed a process-insensitive preamplifier for an optical receiver, fabricated it in several different minimum feature sizes of standard digital CMOS, and demonstrated design scaleability of this analog integrated circuit design. The same amplifie ... Full text Cite

Hybrid integrated optoelectronics: thin film devices bonded to host substrates

Journal Article Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. (Singapore) · 1997 During the past decade, optoelectronics researchers and users have come to the growing realization that the integration of optoelectronic devices with silicon circuits and other materials optimal for specific applications is necessary to increase the utili ... Full text Link to item Cite

Integrated optoelectronics using thin film epitaxial liftoff materials and devices

Journal Article Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics and Materials · January 1, 1997 The separation of single crystal thin film epitaxial compound semiconductor layers from a lattice matched growth substrate through selective etching, with subsequent bonding of the epitaxial thin film devices onto host substrates, is an emerging tool for m ... Full text Cite

Application of massively parallel processors to real time processing of high speed images

Journal Article International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI), Proceedings · January 1, 1997 This paper demonstrates that the real-time utilization of image sequences, at flame rates far above what is currently possible, can now be achieved with an optically interconnected massively parallel processor. A focal plane processing chip with an on-chip ... Cite

Coupling efficiency of an alignment-tolerant, single fiber, bi-directional link

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · January 1, 1997 In this paper, we present a novel Fourier technique to calculate the emitter-to-fiber coupling efficiency between an incoherent source of arbitrary directivity and a multimode fiber. The technique expresses the 4-D integral that describes the coupling as a ... Cite

Systolic processing architectures using optoelectronic interconnects

Journal Article International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI), Proceedings · January 1, 1997 Systolic arrays have traditionally provided efficient, high performance execution for computation intensive applications. Despite the extensive research in systolic arrays, system designers must continually incorporate new technological advances to improve ... Cite

Growth dynamics of InGaAs/GaAs by MBE

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · 1997 The growth dynamics of the InGaAs/GaAs system have been investigated by desorption mass spectrometry (DMS). Indium desorption spectra indicate the presence of one or two desorption mechanisms depending on the V/III beam equivalent pressure ratio. The activ ... Cite

Analysis of GaAs substrate removal etching with citric acid:H 2O 2 and NH 4OH:H 2O 2 for application to compliant substrates

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · 1997 New properties associated with selective substrate removal have been observed in the application of this technique to GaAs thin film compliant substrates. Citric acid- and NH 4OH-based etches are used to selectively etch the GaAs substrate and stop on an A ... Cite

Compliant substrates for reduction of strain relief in mismatched overlayers

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 1997 Thin film compliant substrates can be used to extend the critical thickness in mismatched overlayers. A metastability model has been coupled with recent experimental strain relief data to determine the critical thickness of InGaAs epilayers grown on GaAs c ... Cite

Growth of GaN on lithium gallate substrates for development of a GaN thin compliant substrate

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 1997 The GaN on LGO system is the near perfect template (due to extremely high etch selectivity) for developing a viable thin film/compliant GaN substrate. Herein, we report on our efforts to grow GaN on LGO, including improvement of the microscopic surface mor ... Full text Cite

InP HBT on Si substrates with integral passive components: A wafer scale package

Journal Article IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest · January 1, 1997 An InP-based HBT is integrated to a Si substrate insulated with BCB by removing the InP substrate and bonding the active device layers. The DC and RF characteristics show minimal degradation after bonding to the Si. Transmission line structures are fabrica ... Cite

SIMPil: An OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications

Journal Article International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI), Proceedings · December 1, 1996 Focal plane processing applications present a growing computing need for portable telecomputing and videoputing systems. This paper demonstrates the integration of digital processing, analog interface circuitry, and thin film OE devices into a compact comp ... Cite

8×8 array of resonant cavity enhanced light emitting diodes integrated onto silicon grayscale (32 level) driver circuitry

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 1996 A fully operational 8×8 array of GaAs resonant cavity-enhanced light emitting diodes (RCELED) was directly integrated on top of a silicon grayscale driver circuit. The integrated optoelectronic circuit allowed 32-level grayscale emission from each individu ... Cite

Integrated 155 Mbps digital transmitter using a 1.3 μm wavelength thin film LED

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 1996 A digital transmitter was developed by bonding Indium phosphide based thin film surface emitters directly to digital silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits operating at 155 Mbps with digital I/O for application in a three dimension ... Cite

A single-fiber bidirectional optical link using colocated emitters and detectors

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · October 1, 1996 This letter reports the bonding of a small, thin-film GaAs-based emitter onto a larger silicon detector to realize spatial colocation of the emitter and detector. These colocated devices enable single fiber bidirectional communication between the two analo ... Full text Cite

Thin film pseudomorphic AlAs/In0.53Ga0.47As/InAs resonant tunneling diodes integrated onto Si substrates

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · September 1, 1996 We report high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVR) resonant tunneling diodes (RTD's) bonded to silicon. Pseudomorphic AlAs/In0.53 Ga0.47As/InAs resonant tunneling diode structures grown on semi-insulating InP with peak-to-valley current ratios as high as 30 ... Full text Cite

Strain-modulated epitaxy: A flexible approach to 3-D band structure engineering without surface patterning

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · July 8, 1996 Thin compliant growth substrates have been used to reduce the strain in lattice-mismatched overlayers during epitaxial growth. This letter reports a new thin compliant substrate technology which allows these thin substrates to be patterned on the bottom, b ... Full text Cite

Introduction to the issue on smart pixels

Journal Article IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS · April 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

High efficiency thin-film GaAs-based MSM photodetectors

Journal Article Electronics Letters · February 15, 1996 To increase the sensitivity of high speed GaAs based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors, thin film inverted MSMs (fingers on the bottom) have been fabricated and compared to bulk MSMs. The inverted MSMs exhibit a record 95% external quantum eff ... Full text Cite

Thin-film multimaterial optoelectronic integrated circuits

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology Part B · February 1, 1996 The multimaterial integration of thin-film optoelectronic devices with host substrates ranging from silicon circuits to glass waveguides to polymer micromachines offers to the system designer the freedom to choose the optimal materials for each component t ... Full text Cite

Thin-film inverted MSM photodetectors

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · February 1, 1996 To improve the external quantum efficiency and maintain the high speed of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors, a thin film inverted MSM (I-MSM), which is separated from the growth substrate, has fingers on the bottom of the device, and is bonded ... Full text Cite

Strain-modulated epitaxy: Modification of growth kinetics via patterned, compliant substrates

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · January 1, 1996 Bonded, thin film compliant substrates can be used to reduce the strain in a lattice-mismatched overlayer during epitaxial growth. We have presented an initial demonstration of the use of thin film GaAs compliant substrates fabricated by epitaxial liftoff ... Full text Cite

Strain accommodation in mismatched layers by molecular beam epitaxy: Introduction of a new compliant substrate technology

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 1996 Compliant substrates allow a new approach to the growth of strained epitaxial layers, in which part of the strain is accommodated in the substrate. In this article compliant substrates are discussed and a new compliant substrate technology based on bonded ... Full text Cite

Copper migration in CdTe heterojunction solar cells

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 1996 CdTe solar cells were fabricated by depositing a Au/Cu contact with Cu thickness in the range of 50 to 150Å on polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO2/glass structures. The increase in Cu thickness improves ohmic contact and reduces series resistance (Rs), but the e ... Full text Cite

Approach toward high efficiency CdTe/CdS heterojunction solar cells

Journal Article Materials Chemistry and Physics · January 1, 1996 CdTe solar cells were fabricated by depositing MOCVD grown CdTe films on CdS/SnO2/glass substrates with varying Te:Cd mole ratios in the growth ambient. Cells grown in Te-rich ambient showed increased atomic interdiffusion at the CdS/CdTe interface and pro ... Full text Cite

Integrated 200 Mbit/s receiver: silicon CMOS transimpedance amplifier with a thin-film InGaAs photodetector

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · January 1, 1996 Digital CMOS can be used for analog receiver designs if the packaging parasitics can be sufficiently reduced. Using direct bonding of a thin-film detector to a CMOS circuit, high-performance receivers can be realized in low-cost, standard foundry CMOS. Thi ... Cite

Smart pixel bi-directional optical link using co-located emitters and detectors

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · January 1, 1996 A single fiber bi-directional smart pixel link is proposed which uses the colocation of an emitter and detector at each end of the fiber. To realize a fully functional communications link, CMOS analog optoelectronic receiver and transmitter circuits which ... Cite

CMOS optical receiver with integrated InGaAs thin-film inverted MSM detector operating up to 250 Mbps

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · January 1, 1996 A quasi-monolithic digital CMOS amplifier has been integrated with 1.3 μm wavelength, InGaAs I-MSM. The power dissipation is less than 20 mW. The sensitivity for 10-10 BER measured at 27-1, 155 Mbps PRBS is about 8 μA. This integration shows the possibilit ... Cite

155 Mbps digital transmitter using GaAs thin film LEDs bonded to silicon driver circuits

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · January 1, 1996 A low cost, low power digital silicon transmitter integrated with a GaAs-based RCELED has been fabricated and characterized. Operation at 155 Mbps has been demonstrated with a digital input, resulting in a transmitter which is integrable with digital Si ci ... Cite

High efficiency, high speed GaAs thin film inversed MSM photodetectors

Journal Article Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical Digest · January 1, 1996 MSM photodetectors are attractive for integration with receiver circuits since they have lower capacitance p-i-n detectors with the same surface area. Low external quantum efficiency however, is a disadvantage of MSMs. Several research teams had investigat ... Full text Cite

CMOS optical receiver with integrated InGaAs thin-film inverted MSM detector operating up to 250 Mbps

Conference IEEE/LEOS 1996 SUMMER TOPICAL MEETINGS - ADVANCED APPLICATIONS OF LASERS IN MATERIALS AND PROCESSING, DIGEST · January 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

A 155 Mbps digital transmitter using GaAs thin film LEDs bonded to silicon driver circuits

Conference IEEE/LEOS 1996 SUMMER TOPICAL MEETINGS - ADVANCED APPLICATIONS OF LASERS IN MATERIALS AND PROCESSING, DIGEST · January 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

A smart pixel bi-directional optical link using co-located emitters and detectors

Conference IEEE/LEOS 1996 SUMMER TOPICAL MEETINGS - ADVANCED APPLICATIONS OF LASERS IN MATERIALS AND PROCESSING, DIGEST · January 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

Resonant-cavity-enhanced thin-film AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs LED's with metal mirrors.

Journal Article Applied optics · December 1995 Resonant-cavity-enhanced light-emitting diodes (RCE LED's) are of increasing interest as a low-cost alternative to lasers for short-distance applications. We report on the characteristics of thin-film AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs double-heterostructure RCE LED's wit ... Full text Cite

Smart detectors: devices, integration, circuits, and systems

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 1995 The fabrication and performance of thin film p-i-n and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors and the integration of these detectors onto silicon circuitry is presented. The thin film photodetectors are separated from the growth substrate using epi ... Cite

CMOS optical receiver with integrated compound semiconductor thin-film inverted MSM detector operating at 155 Mbps

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 1995 Low cost silicon digital CMOS foundry circuitry is a prime candidate for low cost, high performance optoelectronic receivers. However, silicon detectors are not as efficient as compound semiconductor detectors. Hybrid packaging of compound semiconductor de ... Cite

Design issues for through-wafer optoelectronic multicomputer interconnects

Journal Article International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI), Proceedings · December 1, 1995 This paper presents several design issues associated with the implementation of a three dimensional optically interconnected parallel processing system. A technique for improving bit error rate in low power multistage networks is presented. Error detection ... Cite

Strain-modulated epitaxy: A flexible approach to 3-D band structure engineering without surface patterning

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1995 Thin compliant growth substrates have been used to reduce the strain in lattice-mismatched overlayers during epitaxial growth. This letter reports a new thin compliant substrate technology which allows these thin substrates to be patterned on the bottom, b ... Cite

High responsivity, high speed InP-based inverted MSM photodetectors

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 1995 The low capacitance per unit area of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors detecting at 1.3 and 1.55 μm make them attractive for integration in OEIC receiver circuits. However, low responsivity is also an undesirable characteristic of MSMs. This a ... Cite

Manufacturable multi-material integration: Compound semiconductor devices bonded to silicon circuitry

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · September 15, 1995 The integration of thin film optoelectronic devices with host substrates such as circuits, waveguides, and micromachines offers to the systems engineer the freedom to choose the optimal materials to achieve performance and cost objectives. In essence, the ... Full text Cite

Three Dimensional Integration of an 8x8 Array of Thin Film GaAs/AlGaAs Photodetectors with Vertical Electrical Interconnects to Underlying Silicon Circuitry

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 1995 This paper reports the three dimensional integration of an 8x8 array of individually addressable thin film GaAs based photodetectors with vertical electrical interconnects to underlying silicon circuitry. This array demonstrated a yield of 100%. ... Cite

The influence of aluminum concentration on photoelectrochemical etching of first order gratings in GaAs/AlGaAs

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 1, 1995 We present a set of experiments which systematically clarifies the enhancement of photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching due to the mole fraction of aluminum in AlxGa1-xAs. The spatial resolution of gratings etched in Al0.3Ga0.7As is as much as three times gre ... Full text Cite

Concentration-dependent near and above band edge absorption in doped InP and its effect on solar cell modeling

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 1995 Absorption coefficients for n- and p-type InP are reported for the first time in the energy range of 1.3-3.0 eV in this paper. In order to obtain absorption coefficients in the higher energy range of 1.8-3.0 eV, extremely thin (∼0.2 μm) InP samples were fa ... Full text Cite

A Three-Dimensional High-Throughput Architecture Using Through-Wafer Optical Interconnect

Journal Article Journal of Lightwave Technology · January 1, 1995 This paper presents a three-dimensional, highly parallel, optically interconnected system to process high-throughput stream data such as images. The vertical optical interconnections are realized using integrated optoelectronic devices operating at wavelen ... Full text Cite

Three-dimensional, massively parallel, optically interconnected silicon computational hardware and architectures for high-speed IR scene generation

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1995 High frame rate infrared scene generation depends on high performance digital processors that are tightly coupled to infrared emitter arrays. Massively parallel image generation hardware can realize the type of high throughput, high frame rate processing t ... Cite

8 x 8 Array of Thin-Film Photodetectors Vertically Electrically Interconnected to Silicon Circuitry

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · January 1, 1995 This paper reports the integration of an 8 x 8 array of thin-film GaAs-AlGaAs photodetectors onto a silicon-oscillator array circuit for massively parallel-image processing applications. Each detector was electrically connected to the oscillator below it u ... Full text Cite

A Pixellated Grating Array Using Photoelectrochemical Etching on a GaAs Waveguide

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · January 1, 1995 We have demonstrated and evaluated a grating array outcoupler fabricated by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching, a manufacturable and practical approach for fabrication of grating-based III- V semiconductor waveguide devices. An array of submicron period gr ... Full text Cite

Communication through Stacked Silicon Circuitry Using Integrated thin Film InP-Based Emitters and Detectors

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · January 1, 1995 To demonstrate optical communication through stacked silicon circuitry, thin film InGaAsP-based emitters and photodetectors have been bonded directly onto silicon circuitry. These optoelectronic devices operate at a wavelength to which silicon is transpare ... Full text Cite

Silicon CMOS optical receiver circuits with integrated thin-film compound semiconductor detectors

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1995 While many circuit designers have tackled the problem of CMOS digital communications receiver design, few have considered the problem of circuitry suitable for an all CMOS digital IC fabrication process. Faced with a high speed receiver design the circuit ... Cite

Optical MCM interconnect using hybrid integration of GaAs optoelectronics with a glass signal routing layer

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · January 1, 1995 In this paper, we present a MCM chip to chip optical interconnect layer in which optoelectronic devices are integrated onto a glass light-guiding substrate. Rather than solder bump bonding, we used the epitaxial lift-off technique for optoelectronic integr ... Cite

Silicon VLSI processing architectures incorporating integrated optoelectronic devices

Conference Proceedings - 16th Conference on Advanced Research in VLSI, ARVLSI 1995 · January 1, 1995 Integrated optoelectronic interconnects offer a potentially lower cost, higher density alternative to wire-based technologies for I/O and inter-chip communication. This paper outlines two systems being designed at Georgia Tech which incorporate integrated ... Full text Cite

High density focal plane signal processing using 3-D vertical interconnects

Journal Article Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems · December 1, 1994 A four by four array of GaAs P-i-N photodetectors was integrated onto a metalized silicon substrate and directly on top of an array of silicon circuits. The resultant focal plane processor at each location in the array converts the incident light intensity ... Cite

Three dimensional smart pixel integration of a GaAs-based detector array directly on top of silicon circuits

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · December 1, 1994 A smart pixel imaging array of GaAs-based thin film photodetectors has been integrated in three dimensions directly on top of silicon neuromorphic oscillator circuits. Photomicrographs of the integrated assembly and test results are presented. ... Cite

Silicon CMOS optical receiver circuit with integrated compound semiconductor thin-film P-i-N detector

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · December 1, 1994 Low cost, high complexity silicon CMOS circuitry is an ideal candidate for low cost, high performance integrated optoelectronics. The paper presents a study on the integration of GaAs and InP based thin film P-i-N detectors with a five stage silicon CMOS t ... Cite

Demonstration of an optical interconnection plane for signal distribution and routing

Journal Article IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting - Proceedings · December 1, 1994 Optical signal distribution via planer waveguides and substrate mode propagation, using epitaxial liftoff of emitters and detectors, and lightwaves for signal distribution and fanout was investigated. The optical signal routing system is configured to enab ... Cite

Thin film multi-material OEICs

Journal Article IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting - Proceedings · December 1, 1994 A promising method for integrating semiconductor devices, both electronic and optoelectronic, with arbitrary host substrates such as integrated circuits, polymers, and glass, is thin film device integration. Single crystal, thin film semiconductor devices ... Cite

A fine-grain, high-throughput architecture using through-wafer optical interconnect

Conference Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections, MPPOI 1994 · January 1, 1994 This paper presents a highly parallel, three dimensionally interconnected system to process high-throughput stream data such as images. Optical interconnect at wavelengths to which silicon is transparent is used to create the 3D system. Thin film InP/InGaA ... Full text Cite

Optoelectronic Integration of Thin Film Devicesfor Photonic Interconnect

Conference Leos 1993 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Optical Microwave Interactions/Visible Semiconductor Lasers/Impact of Fiber Nonlinearities on Lightwave Systems/Hybrid Optoelectronic Integration and Packaging/Gigabit Networks, LEOSST 1993 · January 1, 1994 Full text Cite

Thin Film Resonant Cavity Enhanced Photodetectors

Conference Leos 1993 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Optical Microwave Interactions/Visible Semiconductor Lasers/Impact of Fiber Nonlinearities on Lightwave Systems/Hybrid Optoelectronic Integration and Packaging/Gigabit Networks, LEOSST 1993 · January 1, 1994 Full text Cite

Parallel processing. Into the next dimension

Journal Article Optics and Photonics News · 1994 Cite

Integration of Thin Film Optoelectronic Devices onto Micromachined Movable Platforms

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · January 1, 1994 The integration of a thin film optoelectronic device onto a micromachined movable platform is reported in this letter. This micro-opto-mechanical system, consisting of a thin film AlGaAs/GaAs double heterostructure p-i-n detector integrated onto a polyimid ... Full text Cite

Submicron diffraction gratings etched on an InP/InGaAsP waveguide edge for wavelength division multiplexing

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1994 2D monolithic grating spectrometers for dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) show considerable promise to extend the usable bandwidth of optical fibers. Their performance is fundamentally dictated by the grating which is used. First order gratings ... Full text Cite

Direct measurement of near-band-gap electrorefraction in Al 0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As thin-film structures

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1993 We report the first direct measurement of near-band-gap Franz-Keldysh electrorefraction in Al0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs/Al 0.3Ga0.7As p-i-n single-crystal thin-film Fabry-Perot structures with semitransparent metallic mirror contacts. These measurements are performed ... Full text Cite

Determination of Franz-Keldysh electrorefraction near the GaAs absorption edge using epitaxial liftoff thin film semiconductor etalons

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting · December 1, 1993 We report the first direct measurement of near-band edge (within several meV) Franz-Keldysh electrorefraction in GaAs using thin film, P-i-N double heterostructures and MSM structures fabricated using epitaxial liftoff processing. Thin metallic films are a ... Cite

Integration of thin film photonic devices onto micromachined movable platforms

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting · December 1, 1993 Movable micromachined platforms have been demonstrated previously by this group. These devices are constructed of polyimide, a flexible material with excellent micromachining properties. The structure employs a deposited sacrificial layer that is etched aw ... Cite

Epitaxial liftoff of GaAs detectors onto silicon integrated circuits

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting · December 1, 1993 The integration of thin film compound semiconductor devices directly on top of silicon processing circuitry enables the three dimensional vertical electrical interconnection of a layer of detectors, for example, to a layer of electronic processing devices ... Cite

Vertical Optical Communication Through Stacked Silicon Wafers Using Hybrid Monolithic Thin Film InGaAsP Emitters and Detectors

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · January 1, 1993 Optical communication through stacked silicon wafers has been demonstrated for the first time using hybrid monolithic thin film InP/InGaAsP light emitting diodes and double heterostructure p-i-n photodetectors operating at λ = 13 μm,. A modified epitaxial ... Full text Cite

Epitaxial Lift-Off GaAs/AlGaAs Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors with Back Passivation

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · January 1, 1993 High-performance thin-film epitaxial lift-off (ELO) photodetectors have potential for integration with independently optimized integrated circuits and waveguides. In this paper, the dark current, responsivity, and frequency response of GaAs/AlGaAs metal-se ... Full text Cite

Time resolved photoluminescence studies on transferred thin film InP epilayers

Journal Article 1993 IEEE 5th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials · January 1, 1993 Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) data are reported for the first time on InP thin films transferred on glass substrates. The films were kept below 1.1 μm in thickness to reduce the photon recycling effect. The data were taken by means of the time-cor ... Cite

Increased modulation depth of submicron gratings produced by photoelectrochemical etching of GaAs

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1992 Submicron optical diffraction gratings with improved modulation depth were photoelectrochemically etched on n-GaAs. This etching technique uses an elevated etchant temperature to exceed the spatial resolution limits imposed by etching at room temperature, ... Full text Cite

Epitaxial lift-off thin film GaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with back passivation

Conference Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · January 1, 1992 Full text Cite

Vertical Electrical Interconnection of Compound Semiconductor Thin-Film Devices to Underlying Silicon Circuitry

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · January 1, 1992 A three-dimensional integration technology that electrically connects an independently optimized thin-film device layer to a Si circuitry layer is reported in this paper. An epitaxial liftoff GaAs thin-film optical detector is integrated directly on top of ... Full text Cite

Alignable Deposition of Thin Film Semiconductor Materials for Integrated Micro-Opto-Electronic Systems

Journal Article MRS Proceedings · 1992 ABSTRACTThe selective and alienable deposition of patterned thin film epitaxial GaAs/GaAlAs and InP/InGaAsP devices onto host substrates such as silicon for low cost hybrid integrated micro-opto-electronic systems is report ... Full text Cite

Base Doping Optimization for Radiation-Hard Si, GaAs. and InP Solar Cells

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1992 This paper shows that the nature of radiation-induced point defects and dopant interactions can cause a shift in the optimum base doping concentration for terrestrial and space solar cells. The base doping concentration has been optimized for high-efficien ... Full text Cite

Single-crystal thin film InP: Fabrication and absorption measurements

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 1, 1992 A new process for separating high quality single-crystal InP thin films from the growth substrate is reported. These thin films were used for transmission measurements to determine InP absorption coefficients above the band edge. Photoluminescence measurem ... Full text Cite

Absorption measurements of doped thin film InP for solar cell modeling

Conference LEOS 1992 Summer Topical Meeting Digest on Broadband Analog and Digital Optoelectronics, Optical Multiple Access Networks, Integrated Optoelectronics, and Smart Pixels - 4th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM 1992 · January 1, 1992 The first direct transmission measurement of above bandedge absorption coefficients in InP are reported in this paper. A new technique for fabricating high quality single crystal InP thin films is used to fabricate the thin films for transmission measureme ... Full text Cite

Optimization of base doping for radiation hard InP solar cells

Journal Article · December 1, 1991 Model calculations were performed (1) to determine the optimum base doping for InP solar cells to achieve high efficiency under terrestrial conditions and (2) to quantify the difference, if any, in the optimum base doping for terrestrial and space applicat ... Cite

Alignable Epitaxial Liftoff of GaAs Materials with Selective Deposition Using Polyimide Diaphragms

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · January 1, 1991 In this letter we report the selective and alignable deposition of patterned thin-film epitaxial GaAs/GaAlAs devices onto a host substrate such as silicon for low cost, manufacturable hybrid integrated optoelectronic circuits. We use a thin polyimide diaph ... Full text Cite

Nonlinear absorption in semiconductor single heterostructure Schottky barrier structures

Journal Article · December 1, 1989 Lengthening carrier lifetimes is possible in semiconductors by separating holes and electrons. However, large nonlinear optical effects require large charge densities, which can be achieved through confinement of carriers. These ideas have been combined in ... Cite

Optical nonlinearities due to carrier transport in semiconductors

Journal Article Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics · January 1, 1989 A nonlocal nonlinearity results when optically excited carriers move within the internal electric fields of depletion regions, causing field-dependent changes in absorption and/or refractive index. We review some recent experimental results and use these c ... Full text Cite

Nonlinear optical absorption in semiconductor epitaxial depletion regions.

Journal Article · December 1, 1988 The optical nonlinearities in unbiased epitaxial Schottky barrier depletion regions have been studied. It has been shown that the high electric fields in the depletion region can be modulated by photogenerated carriers trapped in the region. The decrease i ... Cite

Nonlinear optical absorption in semiconductor epitaxial depletion regions.

Journal Article · 1988 The optical nonlinearities in unbiased epitaxial Schottky barrier depletion regions have been studied. It has been shown that the high electric fields in the depletion region can be modulated by photogenerated carriers trapped in the region. The decrease i ... Cite

Nonlinear optical absorption in semiconductor epitaxial depletion regions

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 1, 1988 We have observed an optically induced decrease in absorption near the band-gap energy in a single-heterostructure Schottky barrier depletion region. Photogenerated carriers created and trapped in the unbiased depletion region cause a dynamic decrease in th ... Full text Cite

Self-detecting light-emitting diode optical sensor

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1984 A light-emitting diode can be used simultaneously for illumination of a moving object and also for detection of its own reflected light. The result is a novel optical object proximity sensor of very small size and high resolution. Good performance depends ... Full text Cite