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Roger Edwin McLendon

Professor of Pathology
Pathology
Duke Box 3712, Durham, NC 27710
MSRB1, Room 181, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


Spatial transcriptomics reveals segregation of tumor cell states in glioblastoma and marked immunosuppression within the perinecrotic niche.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol Commun · April 22, 2024 Glioblastoma (GBM) remains an untreatable malignant tumor with poor patient outcomes, characterized by palisading necrosis and microvascular proliferation. While single-cell technology made it possible to characterize different lineage of glioma cells into ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Repurposing Clemastine to Target Glioblastoma Cell Stemness.

Journal Article Cancers (Basel) · September 18, 2023 Brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) and tumor cell plasticity promote glioblastoma (GBM) progression. Here, we demonstrate that clemastine, an over-the-counter drug for treating hay fever and allergy symptoms, effectively attenuated the stemness and suppr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cancer-associated SMARCAL1 loss-of-function mutations promote alternative lengthening of telomeres and tumorigenesis in telomerase-negative glioblastoma cells.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · September 5, 2023 BACKGROUND: Telomere maintenance mechanisms are required to enable the replicative immortality of malignant cells. While most cancers activate the enzyme telomerase, a subset of cancers uses telomerase-independent mechanisms termed alternative lengthening ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recombinant polio-rhinovirus immunotherapy for recurrent paediatric high-grade glioma: a phase 1b trial.

Journal Article Lancet Child Adolesc Health · July 2023 BACKGROUND: Outcomes of recurrent paediatric high-grade glioma are poor, with a median overall survival of less than 6 months. Viral immunotherapy, such as the polio-rhinovirus chimera lerapolturev, is a novel approach for treatment of recurrent paediatric ... Full text Link to item Cite

CD155 is a putative therapeutic target in medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Clin Transl Oncol · March 2023 BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric malignant brain tumor, consisting of four molecular subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group 3, Group 4) and 12 subtypes. Expression of the cell surface poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, is necessary for entry of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunotoxin-αCD40 therapy activates innate and adaptive immunity and generates a durable antitumor response in glioblastoma models.

Journal Article Sci Transl Med · February 8, 2023 D2C7-immunotoxin (IT), a dual-specific IT targeting wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mutant EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) proteins, demonstrates encouraging survival outcomes in a subset of patients with glioblastoma. We hypothesized tha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Molecular biomarker-defined brain tumors: Epidemiology, validity, and completeness in the United States.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · November 2, 2022 BACKGROUND: Selected molecular biomarkers were incorporated into the US cancer registry reporting for patients with brain tumors beginning in 2018. We investigated the completeness and validity of these variables and described the epidemiology of molecular ... Full text Link to item Cite

Failure of human rhombic lip differentiation underlies medulloblastoma formation.

Journal Article Nature · September 2022 Medulloblastoma (MB) comprises a group of heterogeneous paediatric embryonal neoplasms of the hindbrain with strong links to early development of the hindbrain1-4. Mutations that activate Sonic hedgehog signalling lead to Sonic hedgehog MB in the upper rho ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aligning the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) histology groupings with current definitions.

Journal Article Neurooncol Pract · August 2022 BACKGROUND: The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) uses a histology grouping model based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classifications to group records for clinically relevant statistical reporting. Newly identified genetic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Central Nervous System Tumor Classification: An Update on the Integration of Tumor Genetics.

Journal Article Hematol Oncol Clin North Am · February 2022 In 2016, the World Health Organization Classification of CNS Tumors introduced molecular abnormalities that refined tumor diagnoses. Around this time, the introduction of large scale genetic mutational analyses quickly advanced our knowledge of recurrent a ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Modified Nucleoside 6-Thio-2'-Deoxyguanosine Exhibits Antitumor Activity in Gliomas.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · December 15, 2021 PURPOSE: To investigate the therapeutic role of a novel telomere-directed inhibitor, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (THIO) in gliomas both in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A panel of human and mouse glioma cell lines was used to test therapeutic effica ... Full text Link to item Cite

CTIM-10. REPRODUCIBILITY OF CLINICAL TRIALS USING CMV-TARGETED DENDRITIC CELL VACCINES IN PATIENTS WITH GLIOBLASTOMA

Conference Neuro-Oncology · November 12, 2021 AbstractINTRODUCTIONVaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) fares poorly in primary and recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Moreover, GBM vac ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Subgroup and subtype-specific outcomes in adult medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol · November 2021 Medulloblastoma, a common pediatric malignant central nervous system tumour, represent a small proportion of brain tumours in adults. Previously it has been shown that in adults, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-activated tumours predominate, with Wingless-type (WNT) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ultra high-risk PFA ependymoma is characterized by loss of chromosome 6q.

Journal Article Neuro-oncology · August 2021 BackgroundWithin PF-EPN-A, 1q gain is a marker of poor prognosis, however, it is unclear if within PF-EPN-A additional cytogenetic events exist which can refine risk stratification.MethodsFive independent non-overlapping cohorts of PF-EPN ... Full text Cite

The transcriptional landscape of Shh medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Nat Commun · March 19, 2021 Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma encompasses a clinically and molecularly diverse group of cancers of the developing central nervous system. Here, we use unbiased sequencing of the transcriptome across a large cohort of 250 tumors to reveal differences among ... Full text Link to item Cite

Spatial transcriptomics reveals segregation of tumor cell states in glioblastoma and marked immunosuppression within the perinecrotic niche.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol Commun · April 22, 2024 Glioblastoma (GBM) remains an untreatable malignant tumor with poor patient outcomes, characterized by palisading necrosis and microvascular proliferation. While single-cell technology made it possible to characterize different lineage of glioma cells into ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Repurposing Clemastine to Target Glioblastoma Cell Stemness.

Journal Article Cancers (Basel) · September 18, 2023 Brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) and tumor cell plasticity promote glioblastoma (GBM) progression. Here, we demonstrate that clemastine, an over-the-counter drug for treating hay fever and allergy symptoms, effectively attenuated the stemness and suppr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cancer-associated SMARCAL1 loss-of-function mutations promote alternative lengthening of telomeres and tumorigenesis in telomerase-negative glioblastoma cells.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · September 5, 2023 BACKGROUND: Telomere maintenance mechanisms are required to enable the replicative immortality of malignant cells. While most cancers activate the enzyme telomerase, a subset of cancers uses telomerase-independent mechanisms termed alternative lengthening ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recombinant polio-rhinovirus immunotherapy for recurrent paediatric high-grade glioma: a phase 1b trial.

Journal Article Lancet Child Adolesc Health · July 2023 BACKGROUND: Outcomes of recurrent paediatric high-grade glioma are poor, with a median overall survival of less than 6 months. Viral immunotherapy, such as the polio-rhinovirus chimera lerapolturev, is a novel approach for treatment of recurrent paediatric ... Full text Link to item Cite

CD155 is a putative therapeutic target in medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Clin Transl Oncol · March 2023 BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric malignant brain tumor, consisting of four molecular subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group 3, Group 4) and 12 subtypes. Expression of the cell surface poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, is necessary for entry of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Immunotoxin-αCD40 therapy activates innate and adaptive immunity and generates a durable antitumor response in glioblastoma models.

Journal Article Sci Transl Med · February 8, 2023 D2C7-immunotoxin (IT), a dual-specific IT targeting wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mutant EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) proteins, demonstrates encouraging survival outcomes in a subset of patients with glioblastoma. We hypothesized tha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Molecular biomarker-defined brain tumors: Epidemiology, validity, and completeness in the United States.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · November 2, 2022 BACKGROUND: Selected molecular biomarkers were incorporated into the US cancer registry reporting for patients with brain tumors beginning in 2018. We investigated the completeness and validity of these variables and described the epidemiology of molecular ... Full text Link to item Cite

Failure of human rhombic lip differentiation underlies medulloblastoma formation.

Journal Article Nature · September 2022 Medulloblastoma (MB) comprises a group of heterogeneous paediatric embryonal neoplasms of the hindbrain with strong links to early development of the hindbrain1-4. Mutations that activate Sonic hedgehog signalling lead to Sonic hedgehog MB in the upper rho ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aligning the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) histology groupings with current definitions.

Journal Article Neurooncol Pract · August 2022 BACKGROUND: The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) uses a histology grouping model based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classifications to group records for clinically relevant statistical reporting. Newly identified genetic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Central Nervous System Tumor Classification: An Update on the Integration of Tumor Genetics.

Journal Article Hematol Oncol Clin North Am · February 2022 In 2016, the World Health Organization Classification of CNS Tumors introduced molecular abnormalities that refined tumor diagnoses. Around this time, the introduction of large scale genetic mutational analyses quickly advanced our knowledge of recurrent a ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Modified Nucleoside 6-Thio-2'-Deoxyguanosine Exhibits Antitumor Activity in Gliomas.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · December 15, 2021 PURPOSE: To investigate the therapeutic role of a novel telomere-directed inhibitor, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (THIO) in gliomas both in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A panel of human and mouse glioma cell lines was used to test therapeutic effica ... Full text Link to item Cite

CTIM-10. REPRODUCIBILITY OF CLINICAL TRIALS USING CMV-TARGETED DENDRITIC CELL VACCINES IN PATIENTS WITH GLIOBLASTOMA

Conference Neuro-Oncology · November 12, 2021 AbstractINTRODUCTIONVaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) fares poorly in primary and recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Moreover, GBM vac ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Subgroup and subtype-specific outcomes in adult medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol · November 2021 Medulloblastoma, a common pediatric malignant central nervous system tumour, represent a small proportion of brain tumours in adults. Previously it has been shown that in adults, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-activated tumours predominate, with Wingless-type (WNT) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ultra high-risk PFA ependymoma is characterized by loss of chromosome 6q.

Journal Article Neuro-oncology · August 2021 BackgroundWithin PF-EPN-A, 1q gain is a marker of poor prognosis, however, it is unclear if within PF-EPN-A additional cytogenetic events exist which can refine risk stratification.MethodsFive independent non-overlapping cohorts of PF-EPN ... Full text Cite

The transcriptional landscape of Shh medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Nat Commun · March 19, 2021 Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma encompasses a clinically and molecularly diverse group of cancers of the developing central nervous system. Here, we use unbiased sequencing of the transcriptome across a large cohort of 250 tumors to reveal differences among ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical Outcomes and Patient-Matched Molecular Composition of Relapsed Medulloblastoma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · March 1, 2021 PURPOSE: We sought to investigate clinical outcomes of relapsed medulloblastoma and to compare molecular features between patient-matched diagnostic and relapsed tumors. METHODS: Children and infants enrolled on either SJMB03 (NCT00085202) or SJYC07 (NCT00 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Very low mutation burden is a feature of inflamed recurrent glioblastomas responsive to cancer immunotherapy.

Journal Article Nat Commun · January 13, 2021 Several immunotherapy clinical trials in recurrent glioblastoma have reported long-term survival benefits in 10-20% of patients. Here we perform genomic analysis of tumor tissue from recurrent WHO grade IV glioblastoma patients acquired prior to immunother ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Pattern of Relapse and Treatment Response in WNT-Activated Medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Cell Rep Med · June 23, 2020 Over the past decade, wingless-activated (WNT) medulloblastoma has been identified as a candidate for therapy de-escalation based on excellent survival; however, a paucity of relapses has precluded additional analyses of markers of relapse. To address this ... Full text Link to item Cite

The integrated genomic and epigenomic landscape of brainstem glioma.

Journal Article Nat Commun · June 17, 2020 Brainstem gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors that encompass both benign tumors cured with surgical resection and highly lethal cancers with no efficacious therapies. We perform a comprehensive study incorporating epigenetic and genomic analyses on ... Full text Link to item Cite

Targeting PD-L1 Initiates Effective Antitumor Immunity in a Murine Model of Cushing Disease.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · March 1, 2020 PURPOSE: Although pituitary adenoma is classified as benign, Cushing disease is associated with significant morbidity due to the numerous sequelae of elevated cortisol levels. Successful therapy for Cushing disease remains elusive due to high rates of trea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Desmoplastic myxoid tumor, SMARCB1-mutant: clinical, histopathological and molecular characterization of a pineal region tumor encountered in adolescents and adults.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol · February 2020 Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly malignant brain tumor predominantly occurring in infants. Mutations of the SMARCB1 gene are the characteristic genetic lesion. SMARCB1-mutant tumors in adolescents and adults are rare and may show uncommo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Massive clonal expansion of medulloblastoma-specific T cells during adoptive cellular therapy.

Journal Article Sci Adv · November 2019 In both human and murine systems, we have developed an adoptive cellular therapy platform against medulloblastoma and glioblastoma that uses dendritic cells pulsed with a tumor RNA transcriptome to expand polyclonal tumor-reactive T cells against a plurali ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Glioneuronal Tumor With Features of Ganglioglioma and Neurocytoma Arising in the Fourth Ventricle: A Report of 2 Unusual Cases and a Review of Infratentorial Gangliogliomas.

Journal Article J Neuropathol Exp Neurol · September 1, 2019 Infratentorial glioneuronal neoplasms are overall quite rare and are more commonly low-grade with surgical excision usually being curative. Multiple distinct histologic entities have been described including rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor, papillary gl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sudden Unexpected Death in a Child From an Anaplastic Ependymoma.

Journal Article Am J Forensic Med Pathol · September 2019 Primary central nervous system tumors are an extremely rare cause of sudden, unexpected death in children as most patients develop symptoms because of increased intracranial pressure and seek medical attention. Rarely, a forensic pathologist may encounter ... Full text Link to item Cite

MTAP Loss Promotes Stemness in Glioblastoma and Confers Unique Susceptibility to Purine Starvation.

Journal Article Cancer Res · July 1, 2019 Homozygous deletion of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is one of the most frequent genetic alterations in glioblastoma (GBM), but its pathologic consequences remain unclear. In this study, we report that loss of MTAP results in profound epigenetic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sensitive and rapid detection of TERT promoter and IDH mutations in diffuse gliomas.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · March 18, 2019 BACKGROUND: Mutations in telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH) offer objective markers to assist in classifying diffuse gliomas into genetic subgroups. However, traditional mutation detection technique ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genomic analysis demonstrates that histologically-defined astroblastomas are molecularly heterogeneous and that tumors with MN1 rearrangement exhibit the most favorable prognosis.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol Commun · March 15, 2019 Astroblastoma (AB) is a rare CNS tumor demonstrating abundant astroblastomatous pseudorosettes. Its molecular features have not been comprehensively studied and its status as a tumor entity is controversial. We analyzed a cohort of 27 histologically-define ... Full text Link to item Cite

ACVR1 R206H cooperates with H3.1K27M in promoting diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma pathogenesis.

Journal Article Nat Commun · March 4, 2019 Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an incurable pediatric brain tumor, with approximately 25% of DIPGs harboring activating ACVR1 mutations that commonly co-associate with H3.1K27M mutations. Here we show that in vitro expression of ACVR1 R206H wit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Two Extraordinary Sellar Neuronal Tumors: Literature Review and Comparison of Clinicopathologic Features.

Journal Article Am J Clin Pathol · February 4, 2019 OBJECTIVES: The list of tumors involving the pituitary gland has been expanded to include a variety of neuronal and paraneuronal tumors in the 2017 World Health Organization tumor classification of endocrine organs. All the entities included in this catego ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intraventricular Pilocytic Astrocytoma With KIAA1549/BRAF Fusion Arising in a 44-Year Old.

Journal Article J Neuropathol Exp Neurol · February 1, 2019 Rare pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) have been described to arise in the ventricles of children. They are even less common in this location for the adult population. We present the case of a 44-year old man presenting with vision and mental status changes. Bra ... Full text Link to item Cite

MGMT: Immunohistochemical Detection in High-Grade Astrocytomas.

Journal Article J Neuropathol Exp Neurol · January 1, 2019 Glioma therapeutic resistance to alkylating chemotherapy is mediated via O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We hypothesized that a CD45/HAM56/MGMT double-stained cocktail would improve MGMT discrimination in tumor cells versus inflammatory and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recurrent Extradural Myxopapillary Ependymoma With Oligometastatic Spread.

Journal Article Front Oncol · 2019 Myxopapillary ependymomas are a slow-growing, grade I type glial tumor in the lumbosacral region. More rarely, they can present as extradural, subcutaneous sacrococcygeal, or perisacral masses, and it is under these circumstances that they are more likely ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tissue is the Issue: Biomarkers of Prognosis and Classification in Adult Gliomas.

Journal Article Semin Oncol Nurs · December 2018 OBJECTIVE: To explain several biomarkers used in primary adult brain tumor diagnosis and the methodologies for their application. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed literature. CONCLUSION: In the past few years, several biomarkers have been touted as providing re ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hyaluronic acid based low viscosity hydrogel as a novel carrier for Convection Enhanced Delivery of CAR T cells.

Journal Article J Clin Neurosci · October 2018 Convection Enhanced Delivery (CED) infuses therapeutic agents directly into the intracranial area continuously under pressure. The convection improves the distribution of therapeutics such as those aimed at brain tumors. Although CED successfully delivers ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel case of recurrent intraventricular atypical central neurocytoma with prominent gangliogliomatous differentiation in a 10-year-old boy with 10 years of follow up.

Journal Article Neuropathology · October 2018 Central neurocytoma is a rare neuronal tumor that typically occurs in young adults. Infrequently, these tumors exhibit advanced neuronal maturation and glial differentiation, giving rise to a histologically diverse tumor, in contrast to a typical central n ... Full text Link to item Cite

Molecular profiling of different glioma specimens from an Ollier disease patient suggests a multifocal disease process in the setting of IDH mosaicism.

Journal Article Brain Tumor Pathol · October 2018 Ollier disease (OD) and Maffucci syndrome are rare conditions due to a post-zygotic somatic mutation that results in mosaicism. In addition to enchondromas and hemangiomas, some of these patients also develop other unrelated tumors, such as gliomas, that h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intracerebral Flexner-Wintersteiner Rosette-Rich Tumor With Somatic RB1 Mutation: A CNS Embryonal Tumor With Retinoblastic Differentiation.

Journal Article J Neuropathol Exp Neurol · September 1, 2018 Diagnosis and classification of poorly differentiated tumors with primitive features of the central nervous system heavily relies on molecular and genetic findings of the tumors. Although RB1 gene mutation underlies the development of retinoblastoma and ma ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Rationally Designed Fully Human EGFRvIII:CD3-Targeted Bispecific Antibody Redirects Human T Cells to Treat Patient-derived Intracerebral Malignant Glioma.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · August 1, 2018 Purpose: Conventional therapy for malignant glioma fails to specifically target tumor cells. In contrast, substantial evidence indicates that if appropriately redirected, T cells can precisely eradicate tumors. Here we report the rational development of a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Poliovirus Receptor (CD155) Expression in Pediatric Brain Tumors Mediates Oncolysis of Medulloblastoma and Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma.

Journal Article J Neuropathol Exp Neurol · August 1, 2018 Poliovirus oncolytic immunotherapy is a putatively novel approach to treat pediatric brain tumors. This work sought to determine expression of the poliovirus receptor (PVR), CD155, in low-grade and malignant pediatric brain tumors and its ability to infect ... Full text Link to item Cite

Heterogeneity within the PF-EPN-B ependymoma subgroup.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol · August 2018 Posterior fossa ependymoma comprise three distinct molecular variants, termed PF-EPN-A (PFA), PF-EPN-B (PFB), and PF-EPN-SE (subependymoma). Clinically, they are very disparate and PFB tumors are currently being considered for a trial of radiation avoidanc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recurrent Glioblastoma Treated with Recombinant Poliovirus.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · July 12, 2018 BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with recurrent World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV malignant glioma is dismal, and there is currently no effective therapy. We conducted a dose-finding and toxicity study in this population of patients, evaluating ... Full text Link to item Cite

The genomic landscape of TERT promoter wildtype-IDH wildtype glioblastoma.

Journal Article Nat Commun · May 25, 2018 The majority of glioblastomas can be classified into molecular subgroups based on mutations in the TERT promoter (TERTp) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH). These molecular subgroups utilize distinct genetic mechanisms of telomere maintenance, eithe ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Immune Landscape of Cancer.

Journal Article Immunity · April 17, 2018 We performed an extensive immunogenomic analysis of more than 10,000 tumors comprising 33 diverse cancer types by utilizing data compiled by TCGA. Across cancer types, we identified six immune subtypes-wound healing, IFN-γ dominant, inflammatory, lymphocyt ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparative Molecular Analysis of Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinomas.

Journal Article Cancer Cell · April 9, 2018 We analyzed 921 adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum to examine shared and distinguishing molecular characteristics of gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas (GIACs). Hypermutated tumors were distinct regardless of cancer type and c ... Full text Link to item Cite

lncRNA Epigenetic Landscape Analysis Identifies EPIC1 as an Oncogenic lncRNA that Interacts with MYC and Promotes Cell-Cycle Progression in Cancer.

Journal Article Cancer Cell · April 9, 2018 We characterized the epigenetic landscape of genes encoding long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) across 6,475 tumors and 455 cancer cell lines. In stark contrast to the CpG island hypermethylation phenotype in cancer, we observed a recurrent hypomethylation of 1, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genomic and Functional Approaches to Understanding Cancer Aneuploidy.

Journal Article Cancer Cell · April 9, 2018 Aneuploidy, whole chromosome or chromosome arm imbalance, is a near-universal characteristic of human cancers. In 10,522 cancer genomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas, aneuploidy was correlated with TP53 mutation, somatic mutation rate, and expression of pro ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Comprehensive Pan-Cancer Molecular Study of Gynecologic and Breast Cancers.

Journal Article Cancer Cell · April 9, 2018 We analyzed molecular data on 2,579 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of four gynecological types plus breast. Our aims were to identify shared and unique molecular features, clinically significant subtypes, and potential therapeutic targets. We f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perspective on Oncogenic Processes at the End of the Beginning of Cancer Genomics.

Journal Article Cell · April 5, 2018 The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has catalyzed systematic characterization of diverse genomic alterations underlying human cancers. At this historic junction marking the completion of genomic characterization of over 11,000 tumors from 33 cancer types, we pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cell-of-Origin Patterns Dominate the Molecular Classification of 10,000 Tumors from 33 Types of Cancer.

Journal Article Cell · April 5, 2018 We conducted comprehensive integrative molecular analyses of the complete set of tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), consisting of approximately 10,000 specimens and representing 33 types of cancer. We performed molecular clustering using data on chr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pathogenic Germline Variants in 10,389 Adult Cancers.

Journal Article Cell · April 5, 2018 We conducted the largest investigation of predisposition variants in cancer to date, discovering 853 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 8% of 10,389 cases from 33 cancer types. Twenty-one genes showed single or cross-cancer associations, including ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Pan-Cancer Analysis of Enhancer Expression in Nearly 9000 Patient Samples.

Journal Article Cell · April 5, 2018 The role of enhancers, a key class of non-coding regulatory DNA elements, in cancer development has increasingly been appreciated. Here, we present the detection and characterization of a large number of expressed enhancers in a genome-wide analysis of 892 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in The Cancer Genome Atlas.

Journal Article Cell · April 5, 2018 Genetic alterations in signaling pathways that control cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, and cell growth are common hallmarks of cancer, but the extent, mechanisms, and co-occurrence of alterations in these pathways differ between individual tumors and tu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Machine Learning Identifies Stemness Features Associated with Oncogenic Dedifferentiation.

Journal Article Cell · April 5, 2018 Cancer progression involves the gradual loss of a differentiated phenotype and acquisition of progenitor and stem-cell-like features. Here, we provide novel stemness indices for assessing the degree of oncogenic dedifferentiation. We used an innovative one ... Full text Link to item Cite

An Integrated TCGA Pan-Cancer Clinical Data Resource to Drive High-Quality Survival Outcome Analytics.

Journal Article Cell · April 5, 2018 For a decade, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program collected clinicopathologic annotation data along with multi-platform molecular profiles of more than 11,000 human tumors across 33 different cancer types. TCGA clinical data contain key features represe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comprehensive Characterization of Cancer Driver Genes and Mutations.

Journal Article Cell · April 5, 2018 Identifying molecular cancer drivers is critical for precision oncology. Multiple advanced algorithms to identify drivers now exist, but systematic attempts to combine and optimize them on large datasets are few. We report a PanCancer and PanSoftware analy ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Cancer Genome Atlas Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single disease, but several histologically defined cancers with different genetic drivers, clinical courses, and therapeutic responses. The current study evaluated 843 RCC from the three major histologic subtypes, includ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pan-Cancer Analysis of lncRNA Regulation Supports Their Targeting of Cancer Genes in Each Tumor Context.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are commonly dysregulated in tumors, but only a handful are known to play pathophysiological roles in cancer. We inferred lncRNAs that dysregulate cancer pathways, oncogenes, and tumor suppressors (cancer genes) by modeling th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Driver Fusions and Their Implications in the Development and Treatment of Human Cancers.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 Gene fusions represent an important class of somatic alterations in cancer. We systematically investigated fusions in 9,624 tumors across 33 cancer types using multiple fusion calling tools. We identified a total of 25,664 fusions, with a 63% validation ra ... Full text Link to item Cite

Spatial Organization and Molecular Correlation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Using Deep Learning on Pathology Images.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 Beyond sample curation and basic pathologic characterization, the digitized H&E-stained images of TCGA samples remain underutilized. To highlight this resource, we present mappings of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) based on H&E images from 13 TCGA t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Molecular Characterization and Clinical Relevance of Metabolic Expression Subtypes in Human Cancers.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 Metabolic reprogramming provides critical information for clinical oncology. Using molecular data of 9,125 patient samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified tumor subtypes in 33 cancer types based on mRNA expression patterns of seven major metabo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from five sites associated with smoking and/or human papillomavirus (HPV). SCCs harbor 3q, 5p, and other recu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Integrated Genomic Analysis of the Ubiquitin Pathway across Cancer Types.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic and reversible process of adding single ubiquitin molecules or various ubiquitin chains to target proteins. Here, using multidimensional omic data of 9,125 tumor samples across 33 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atla ... Full text Link to item Cite

Machine Learning Detects Pan-cancer Ras Pathway Activation in The Cancer Genome Atlas.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 Precision oncology uses genomic evidence to match patients with treatment but often fails to identify all patients who may respond. The transcriptome of these "hidden responders" may reveal responsive molecular states. We describe and evaluate a machine-le ... Full text Link to item Cite

Somatic Mutational Landscape of Splicing Factor Genes and Their Functional Consequences across 33 Cancer Types.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 Hotspot mutations in splicing factor genes have been recently reported at high frequency in hematological malignancies, suggesting the importance of RNA splicing in cancer. We analyzed whole-exome sequencing data across 33 tumor types in The Cancer Genome ... Full text Link to item Cite

Systematic Analysis of Splice-Site-Creating Mutations in Cancer.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 For the past decade, cancer genomic studies have focused on mutations leading to splice-site disruption, overlooking those having splice-creating potential. Here, we applied a bioinformatic tool, MiSplice, for the large-scale discovery of splice-site-creat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genomic and Molecular Landscape of DNA Damage Repair Deficiency across The Cancer Genome Atlas.

Journal Article Cell Rep · April 3, 2018 DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways modulate cancer risk, progression, and therapeutic response. We systematically analyzed somatic alterations to provide a comprehensive view of DDR deficiency across 33 cancer types. Mutations with accompanying loss of heter ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pan-cancer Alterations of the MYC Oncogene and Its Proximal Network across the Cancer Genome Atlas.

Journal Article Cell Syst · March 28, 2018 Although the MYC oncogene has been implicated in cancer, a systematic assessment of alterations of MYC, related transcription factors, and co-regulatory proteins, forming the proximal MYC network (PMN), across human cancers is lacking. Using computational ... Full text Link to item Cite

Scalable Open Science Approach for Mutation Calling of Tumor Exomes Using Multiple Genomic Pipelines.

Journal Article Cell Syst · March 28, 2018 The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cancer genomics dataset includes over 10,000 tumor-normal exome pairs across 33 different cancer types, in total >400 TB of raw data files requiring analysis. Here we describe the Multi-Center Mutation Calling in Multiple Can ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dendritic Cells Enhance Polyfunctionality of Adoptively Transferred T Cells That Target Cytomegalovirus in Glioblastoma.

Journal Article Cancer Res · January 1, 2018 Median survival for glioblastoma (GBM) remains <15 months. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens have been identified in GBM but not normal brain, providing an unparalleled opportunity to subvert CMV antigens as tumor-specific immunotherapy targets. A recen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adaptive Evolution of the GDH2 Allosteric Domain Promotes Gliomagenesis by Resolving IDH1R132H-Induced Metabolic Liabilities.

Journal Article Cancer Res · January 1, 2018 Hotspot mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene occur in a number of human cancers and confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes the conversion of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to the oncometabolite D-(2)-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG). In malign ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sulfonylurea receptor 1 expression is variable in adult and pediatric brain tumors.

Journal Article Clin Neuropathol · 2018 INTRODUCTION: Edema is a significant cause of neuromorbidity in children and adults with brain tumors. Agents used to control this effect, such as corticosteroids, have their own associated morbidities. Sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) is a transmembrane pro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Validation of an Immunohistochemistry Assay for Detection of CD155, the Poliovirus Receptor, in Malignant Gliomas.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · December 2017 CONTEXT: - The oncolytic polio-rhinovirus recombinant (PVSRIPO) has demonstrated promise in currently ongoing phase I/II clinical trials against recurrent glioblastoma and was granted breakthrough therapy designation by the Food and Drug Administration/Cen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cic Loss Promotes Gliomagenesis via Aberrant Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

Journal Article Cancer Res · November 15, 2017 Inactivating mutations in the transcriptional repression factor Capicua (CIC) occur in approximately 50% of human oligodendrogliomas, but mechanistic links to pathogenesis are unclear. To address this question, we generated Cic-deficient mice and human oli ... Full text Link to item Cite

Histone H3.3K27M Represses p16 to Accelerate Gliomagenesis in a Murine Model of DIPG.

Journal Article Mol Cancer Res · September 2017 Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive pediatric brainstem tumor genetically distinguished from adult GBM by the high prevalence of the K27M mutation in the histone H3 variant H3.3 (H3F3A). This mutation reprograms the H3K27me3 epig ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epilepsy in neurofibromatosis type 1.

Journal Article Epilepsy Behav · August 2017 OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of epilepsy in patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). METHODS: Analysis of a cohort of consecutive NF1 patients seen in our NF1 clinic during a three-year period. RESULTS: Of the 184 NF1 patients seen duri ... Full text Link to item Cite

The whole-genome landscape of medulloblastoma subtypes.

Journal Article Nature · July 19, 2017 Current therapies for medulloblastoma, a highly malignant childhood brain tumour, impose debilitating effects on the developing child, and highlight the need for molecularly targeted treatments with reduced toxicity. Previous studies have been unable to id ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mutant IDH1 Disrupts the Mouse Subventricular Zone and Alters Brain Tumor Progression.

Journal Article Mol Cancer Res · May 2017 IDH1 mutations occur in the majority of low-grade gliomas and lead to the production of the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). To understand the effects of tumor-associated mutant IDH1 (IDH1-R132H) on both the neural stem cell (NSC) population a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Long-term Survival in Glioblastoma with Cytomegalovirus pp65-Targeted Vaccination.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · April 15, 2017 Purpose: Patients with glioblastoma have less than 15-month median survival despite surgical resection, high-dose radiation, and chemotherapy with temozolomide. We previously demonstrated that targeting cytomegalovirus pp65 using dendritic cells (DC) can e ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Utility of Expert Diagnosis in Surgical Neuropathology: Analysis of Consultations Reviewed at 5 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Institutions.

Journal Article J Neuropathol Exp Neurol · March 1, 2017 The aim of this study was to characterize the type and degree of discrepancies between non-expert and expert diagnoses of CNS tumors to identify the value of consultations in surgical neuropathology. Neuropathology experts from 5 National Comprehensive Can ... Full text Link to item Cite

Morphological and molecular features of astroblastoma, including BRAFV600E mutations, suggest an ontological relationship to other cortical-based gliomas of children and young adults.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · January 2017 BACKGROUND: Astroblastomas (ABs) are rare glial tumors showing overlapping features with astrocytomas, ependymomas, and sometimes other glial neoplasms, and may be challenging to diagnose. METHODS: We examined clinical, histopathological, and molecular fea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Deubiquitinase USP13 maintains glioblastoma stem cells by antagonizing FBXL14-mediated Myc ubiquitination.

Journal Article J Exp Med · January 2017 Glioblastoma is the most lethal brain tumor and harbors glioma stem cells (GSCs) with potent tumorigenic capacity. The function of GSCs in tumor propagation is maintained by several core transcriptional regulators including c-Myc. c-Myc protein is tightly ... Full text Link to item Cite

Structured Annual Faculty Review Program Accelerates Professional Development and Promotion: Long-Term Experience of the Duke University Medical Center's Pathology Department.

Journal Article Acad Pathol · 2017 This retrospective observational study on faculty development analyzes the Duke University Pathology Department's 18-year experience with a structured mentoring program involving 51 junior faculty members. The majority had MD degrees only (55%). The percen ... Full text Link to item Cite

HIV-1 Envelope Mimicry of Host Enzyme Kynureninase Does Not Disrupt Tryptophan Metabolism.

Journal Article J Immunol · December 15, 2016 The HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) has evolved to subvert the host immune system, hindering viral control by the host. The tryptophan metabolic enzyme kynureninase (KYNU) is mimicked by a portion of the HIV Env gp41 membrane proximal region (MPER) and is cro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Therapeutic Impact of Cytoreductive Surgery and Irradiation of Posterior Fossa Ependymoma in the Molecular Era: A Retrospective Multicohort Analysis.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · July 20, 2016 PURPOSE: Posterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular variants termed EPN_PFA and EPN_PFB that have a distinct biology and natural history. The therapeutic value of cytoreductive surgery and radiation therapy for posterior fossa ependymoma a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Histologically benign, clinically aggressive: Progressive non-optic pathway pilocytic astrocytomas in adults with NF1.

Journal Article Am J Med Genet A · June 2016 Although optic pathway gliomas are the most common brain tumors associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), extra-optic gliomas occur and may behave more aggressively with outcomes that differ by age. A retrospective case-control study was designed to ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Three-Dimensional Organoid Culture System Derived from Human Glioblastomas Recapitulates the Hypoxic Gradients and Cancer Stem Cell Heterogeneity of Tumors Found In Vivo.

Journal Article Cancer Res · April 15, 2016 Many cancers feature cellular hierarchies that are driven by tumor-initiating cancer stem cells (CSC) and rely on complex interactions with the tumor microenvironment. Standard cell culture conditions fail to recapitulate the original tumor architecture or ... Full text Link to item Cite

Preclinical toxicity evaluation of a novel immunotoxin, D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL, administered via intracerebral convection-enhanced delivery in rats.

Journal Article Invest New Drugs · April 2016 D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL (D2C7-IT) is a novel immunotoxin that reacts with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRwt) and mutant EGFRvIII proteins overexpressed in glioblastomas. This study assessed the toxicity of intracerebral administration of D2 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prognostic value of medulloblastoma extent of resection after accounting for molecular subgroup: a retrospective integrated clinical and molecular analysis.

Journal Article Lancet Oncol · April 2016 BACKGROUND: Patients with incomplete surgical resection of medulloblastoma are controversially regarded as having a marker of high-risk disease, which leads to patients undergoing aggressive surgical resections, so-called second-look surgeries, and intensi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The Duke glioma handbook: Pathology, diagnosis, and management

Book · March 31, 2016 The management of patients with a glioma is challenging and best achieved by a team approach encompassing a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and surgical excision in a specialist Cancer Center - the balance of treatment depending o ... Full text Cite

Neuropathology of gliomas

Chapter · March 31, 2016 Full text Cite

Differential Immune Microenvironments and Response to Immune Checkpoint Blockade among Molecular Subtypes of Murine Medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · February 1, 2016 PURPOSE: Despite significant strides in the identification and characterization of potential therapeutic targets for medulloblastoma, the role of the immune system and its interplay with the tumor microenvironment within these tumors are poorly understood. ... Full text Link to item Cite

MiR-215 Is Induced Post-transcriptionally via HIF-Drosha Complex and Mediates Glioma-Initiating Cell Adaptation to Hypoxia by Targeting KDM1B.

Journal Article Cancer Cell · January 11, 2016 The hypoxic tumor microenvironment serves as a niche for maintaining the glioma-initiating cells (GICs) that are critical for glioblastoma (GBM) occurrence and recurrence. Here, we report that hypoxia-induced miR-215 is vital for reprograming GICs to fit t ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Single-Agent Carboplatin for a Rare Case of Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma of the Spinal Cord in an Adult with Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

Journal Article Case Rep Oncol · 2016 INTRODUCTION: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a rare and more aggressive variant of pilocytic astrocytoma, which usually affects young children and is most often located in the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region. The association of PMA with underlying genetic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gorlin syndrome and desmoplastic medulloblastoma: Report of 3 cases with unfavorable clinical course and novel mutations.

Journal Article Pediatr Blood Cancer · October 2015 We present three cases of genetically confirmed Gorlin syndrome with desmoplastic medulloblastoma (DMB) in whom tumor recurred despite standard therapy. One patient was found to have a novel germline missense PTCH1 mutation. Molecular analysis of recurrent ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comprehensive, Integrative Genomic Analysis of Diffuse Lower-Grade Gliomas.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · June 25, 2015 BACKGROUND: Diffuse low-grade and intermediate-grade gliomas (which together make up the lower-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) have highly variable clinical behavior that is not adequately predicted on the basis of histologic cl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Proteomic profiling of patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts identifies a subset with activated EGFR: implications for drug development.

Journal Article J Neurochem · June 2015 The development of drugs to inhibit glioblastoma (GBM) growth requires reliable pre-clinical models. To date, proteomic level validation of widely used patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts (PDGX) has not been performed. In the present study, we characte ... Full text Link to item Cite

Consultative issues in surgical neuropathology: a retrospective review of the rationale for submitting cases for expert review.

Journal Article Am J Clin Pathol · June 2015 OBJECTIVES: Second opinions on neuropathology cases are sought for a variety of reasons. We investigated the rationales for seeking expert neuropathologic review. METHODS: A retrospective review was done of the correspondence accompanying neuropathology ca ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prognostic marker analysis in pediatric intracranial ependymomas.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · April 2015 Histologic grading methods dependent upon H&E staining review have not been shown to reliably predict survival in children with intracranial ependymomas due to the subjectivity of the analytical methods. We hypothesized that the immunohistochemical detecti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increased proportion of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with tumor recurrence and reduced survival in patients with glioblastoma.

Journal Article Cancer Immunol Immunother · April 2015 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive malignancy associated with profound host immunosuppression mediated in part by FoxP3 expressing regulatory CD4+ T lymphocytes (Tregs) that down-regulate anti-tumor immunity. In order to assess whether FoxP3 wa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tetanus toxoid and CCL3 improve dendritic cell vaccines in mice and glioblastoma patients.

Journal Article Nature · March 19, 2015 After stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) mature and migrate to draining lymph nodes to induce immune responses. As such, autologous DCs generated ex vivo have been pulsed with tumour antigens and injected back into patients as immunotherapy. While DC vacci ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Periostin secreted by glioblastoma stem cells recruits M2 tumour-associated macrophages and promotes malignant growth.

Journal Article Nat Cell Biol · February 2015 Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are enriched in glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) that contain glioma stem cells (GSCs) at the apex of their cellular hierarchy. The correlation between TAM density and glioma grade suggests a supportive role for TAMs in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Supratentorial tanycytic ependymoma in an adult male: case report and review of literature.

Journal Article Case Rep Oncol · 2015 Ependymomas, tumors of the ependymal cells, are very rare and usually present in the pediatric population. Furthermore, there are even rarer variants of ependymomas that can include cellular, papillary, clear cell, and tanycytic subtypes. We present a case ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

miR-33a promotes glioma-initiating cell self-renewal via PKA and NOTCH pathways.

Journal Article J Clin Invest · October 2014 Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor in adults. Glioma-initiating cells (GICs) are stem-like cells that have been implicated in glioblastoma progression and recurrence; however, the distinct properties of GICs and non-GICs within GB ... Full text Link to item Cite

Abstract 63: Driving brain tumorigenesis: Generation of a mutant IDH1 mouse model of progressive glioma

Conference Cancer Research · October 1, 2014 AbstractDespite decades worth of research, glioblastoma remains one of the most lethal cancers. The identification of IDH1 as a major cancer gene in glioblastoma provides a great opportunity for improving ou ... Full text Cite

EGFR phosphorylation of DCBLD2 recruits TRAF6 and stimulates AKT-promoted tumorigenesis.

Journal Article J Clin Invest · September 2014 Aberrant activation of EGFR in human cancers promotes tumorigenesis through stimulation of AKT signaling. Here, we determined that the discoidina neuropilin-like membrane protein DCBLD2 is upregulated in clinical specimens of glioblastomas and head and nec ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Malignant brainstem gliomas in adults: clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · August 2014 Adult malignant brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are poorly characterized due to their relative rarity. We have examined histopathologically confirmed cases of adult malignant BSGs to better characterize the patient and tumor features and outcomes, including the n ... Full text Link to item Cite

The zinc finger transcription factor ZFX is required for maintaining the tumorigenic potential of glioblastoma stem cells.

Journal Article Stem Cells · August 2014 Glioblastomas are highly lethal brain tumors containing tumor-propagating glioma stem cells (GSCs). The molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of the GSC phenotype are not fully defined. Here we demonstrate that the zinc finger and X-linked transc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exome sequencing identifies somatic gain-of-function PPM1D mutations in brainstem gliomas.

Journal Article Nat Genet · July 2014 Gliomas arising in the brainstem and thalamus are devastating tumors that are difficult to surgically resect. To determine the genetic and epigenetic landscape of these tumors, we performed exomic sequencing of 14 brainstem gliomas (BSGs) and 12 thalamic g ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tert promoter mutations occur frequently in gliomas and a subset of tumors derived from cells with low rates of self-renewal.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · July 2014 Malignant cells must maintain their telomeres, but genetic mechanisms responsible for telomere maintenance in tumors have only recently been discovered. In particular, mutations of the telomere binding proteins alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prognostic marker analysis in pediatric posterior fossa ependymomas.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · July 2014 NELL2 expression has been shown to identify patients with posterior fossa ependymomas (PFEp) that exhibit prolonged survivals. We analyzed expression NELL2; KI-67; Tenascin C; CD34; VEGF; and CA IX as well as vascular density against post-operative surviva ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mutations in IDH1, IDH2, and in the TERT promoter define clinically distinct subgroups of adult malignant gliomas.

Journal Article Oncotarget · March 30, 2014 Frequent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) and the promoter of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) represent two significant discoveries in glioma genomics. Understanding the degree to which these two mutations co-occur or o ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The genetic landscape of anaplastic astrocytoma.

Journal Article Oncotarget · March 30, 2014 Anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III (A3) is a lethal brain tumor that often occurs in middle aged patients. Clinically, it is challenging to distinguish A3 from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) WHO grade IV. To reveal the genetic landscape of this tumor type ... Full text Link to item Cite

High-throughput flow cytometry screening reveals a role for junctional adhesion molecule a as a cancer stem cell maintenance factor.

Journal Article Cell Rep · January 16, 2014 Stem cells reside in niches that regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation. The identity of a stem cell is linked with the ability to interact with its niche through adhesion mechanisms. To identify targets that disrupt cancer stem cell ... Full text Link to item Cite

EGFRvIII-specific chimeric antigen receptor T cells migrate to and kill tumor deposits infiltrating the brain parenchyma in an invasive xenograft model of glioblastoma.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is uniformly lethal. T-cell-based immunotherapy offers a promising platform for treatment given its potential to specifically target tumor tissue while sparing the normal bra ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Exome sequencing identifies somatic gain-of-function PPM1D mutations in brainstem gliomas

Journal Article Nature Genetics · January 1, 2014 Gliomas arising in the brainstem and thalamus are devastating tumors that are difficult to surgically resect. To determine the genetic and epigenetic landscape of these tumors, we performed exomic sequencing of 14 brainstem gliomas (BSGs) and 12 thalamic g ... Full text Cite

Efficacy of bevacizumab plus irinotecan in children with recurrent low-grade gliomas--a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · January 2014 BACKGROUND: A phase II study of bevacizumab (BVZ) plus irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted in children with recurrent low-grade glioma to measure sustained response and/or stable disease lasting ≥6 months and progression-free survival. METHODS: Thirty-five e ... Full text Link to item Cite

TERT promoter mutations are highly recurrent in SHH subgroup medulloblastoma

Journal Article Acta Neuropathologica · December 1, 2013 Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations were recently shown to drive telomerase activity in various cancer types, including medulloblastoma. However, the clinical and biological implications of TERT mutations in medulloblastoma have not ... Full text Cite

Bevacizumab (BVZ)-associated toxicities in children with recurrent central nervous system tumors treated with BVZ and irinotecan (CPT-11): a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study (PBTC-022).

Conference Cancer · December 1, 2013 BACKGROUND: The incidence and spectrum of acute toxicities related to the use of bevacizumab (BVZ)-containing regimens in children are largely unknown. This report describes the adverse events in a recently completed large phase 2 trial of BVZ plus irinote ... Full text Link to item Cite

TERT promoter mutations are highly recurrent in SHH subgroup medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol · December 2013 Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations were recently shown to drive telomerase activity in various cancer types, including medulloblastoma. However, the clinical and biological implications of TERT mutations in medulloblastoma have not ... Full text Link to item Cite

KMT2D maintains neoplastic cell proliferation and global histone H3 lysine 4 monomethylation.

Journal Article Oncotarget · November 2013 KMT2D (lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2D), formerly named MLL2 (myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia 2, also known as ALR/MLL4), is a histone methyltransferase that plays an important role in regulating gene transcription. In particular, it ta ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recurrence patterns across medulloblastoma subgroups: an integrated clinical and molecular analysis.

Journal Article Lancet Oncol · November 2013 BACKGROUND: Recurrent medulloblastoma is a therapeutic challenge because it is almost always fatal. Studies have confirmed that medulloblastoma consists of at least four distinct subgroups. We sought to delineate subgroup-specific differences in medullobla ... Full text Link to item Cite

The somatic genomic landscape of glioblastoma.

Journal Article Cell · October 10, 2013 We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multidimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature recept ... Full text Link to item Cite

Complete response to steroids in dural inflammatory pseudotumor associated with Still's disease.

Journal Article J Clin Neurosci · October 2013 We report a unique case of a dural-based inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) arising in the left cavernous sinus of a patient with a history of juvenile Still's disease. The patient presented with hemi-facial paresthesias, dull, constant headaches, and transien ... Full text Link to item Cite

The integrated landscape of driver genomic alterations in glioblastoma.

Journal Article Nat Genet · October 2013 Glioblastoma is one of the most challenging forms of cancer to treat. Here we describe a computational platform that integrates the analysis of copy number variations and somatic mutations and unravels the landscape of in-frame gene fusions in glioblastoma ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in glioblastoma are associated with specific genomic alterations and related to transcriptional class.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · September 15, 2013 PURPOSE: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) have prognostic significance in many cancers, yet their roles in glioblastoma have not been fully defined. We hypothesized that TILs in glioblastoma are associated with molecular alterations, histologies, and s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Construction of an immunotoxin, D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL, targeting EGFRwt and EGFRvIII for brain tumor therapy.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · September 1, 2013 PURPOSE: The EGF receptor gene (EGFR) is most frequently amplified and overexpressed, along with its deletion mutant, EGFRvIII, in glioblastoma. We tested the preclinical efficacy of the recombinant immunotoxin, D2C7-(scdsFv)-PE38KDEL, which is reactive wi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinicopathological characteristics and treatment of rhabdoid glioblastoma.

Journal Article J Neurosurg · August 2013 OBJECT: Rhabdoid glioblastoma (GB) is an exceedingly rare tumor in which some of the tumor cells possess rhabdoid features such as eccentric nuclei, abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and pseudopapillary formations. These tumors are exceptionally aggressive, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intraaxial dermoid cyst of the medulla.

Journal Article J Neurosurg · August 2013 Intracranial dermoid cysts are rare congenital lesions that typically occur in the cisternal spaces. However, exceptionally rare cases of intraaxial involvement have been reported, with only 8 cases having been described in the literature. The authors repo ... Full text Link to item Cite

O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) immunohistochemistry as a predictor of resistance to temozolomide in primary CNS lymphoma.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · August 2013 Temozolomide, an alkylating agent, has shown promise in treating primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). The enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs alkylating damage, such as that induced by temozolomide. We hypothesized th ... Full text Link to item Cite

TERT promoter mutations occur frequently in gliomas and a subset of tumors derived from cells with low rates of self-renewal.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · April 9, 2013 Malignant cells, like all actively growing cells, must maintain their telomeres, but genetic mechanisms responsible for telomere maintenance in tumors have only recently been discovered. In particular, mutations of the telomere binding proteins alpha thala ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exomic sequencing of four rare central nervous system tumor types.

Journal Article Oncotarget · April 2013 A heterogeneous population of uncommon neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) cause significant morbidity and mortality. To explore their genetic origins, we sequenced the exomes of 12 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA), 17 non-brainstem pediatric ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glioblastoma stem cells generate vascular pericytes to support vessel function and tumor growth.

Journal Article Cell · March 28, 2013 Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly vascular and lethal brain tumors that display cellular hierarchies containing self-renewing tumorigenic glioma stem cells (GSCs). Because GSCs often reside in perivascular niches and may undergo mesenchymal differentiation, ... Full text Link to item Cite

A comprehensive analysis of 41 patients with rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle.

Journal Article J Clin Neurosci · March 2013 The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle is a recently described, rare, and distinct tumor of the glioneuronal family. The presentation, natural history, and treatment response of these tumors has been unclear as there are no s ... Full text Link to item Cite

A phase I/II trial of pazopanib in combination with lapatinib in adult patients with relapsed malignant glioma.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · February 15, 2013 PURPOSE: Increased mitogenic signaling and angiogenesis, frequently facilitated by somatic activation of EGF receptor (EGFR; ErbB1) and/or loss of PTEN, and VEGF overexpression, respectively, drive malignant glioma growth. We hypothesized that patients wit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Disruption of wild-type IDH1 suppresses D-2-hydroxyglutarate production in IDH1-mutated gliomas.

Journal Article Cancer Res · January 15, 2013 Featured Publication Point mutations at Arg132 of the cytoplasmic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) occur frequently in gliomas and result in a gain of function to produce the "oncometabolite" D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). The mutated IDH1 allele is usually a ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The integrated landscape of driver genomic alterations in glioblastoma

Journal Article Nature Genetics · 2013 Glioblastoma is one of the most challenging forms of cancer to treat. Here we describe a computational platform that integrates the analysis of copy number variations and somatic mutations and unravels the landscape of in-frame gene fusions in glioblastoma ... Full text Cite

A PK2/Bv8/PROK2 antagonist suppresses tumorigenic processes by inhibiting angiogenesis in glioma and blocking myeloid cell infiltration in pancreatic cancer.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 Infiltration of myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment is often associated with enhanced angiogenesis and tumor progression, resulting in poor prognosis in many types of cancer. The polypeptide chemokine PK2 (Bv8, PROK2) has been shown to regulate mye ... Full text Link to item Cite

Laminin alpha 2 enables glioblastoma stem cell growth.

Journal Article Ann Neurol · November 2012 Featured Publication OBJECTIVE: Glioblastomas (GBMs) are lethal cancers that display cellular hierarchies parallel to normal brain. At the apex are GBM stem cells (GSCs), which are relatively resistant to conventional therapy. Interactions with the adjacent perivascular niche ... Full text Link to item Cite

Global identification of MLL2-targeted loci reveals MLL2's role in diverse signaling pathways.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · October 23, 2012 Featured Publication Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-family genes encode histone lysine methyltransferases that play important roles in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. MLL genes are frequently mutated in human cancers. Unlike MLL1, MLL2 (also know ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II study of Gleevec plus hydroxyurea in adults with progressive or recurrent low-grade glioma.

Journal Article Cancer · October 1, 2012 BACKGROUND: We evaluated the efficacy of imatinib plus hydroxyurea in patients with progressive/recurrent low-grade glioma. METHODS: A total of 64 patients with recurrent/progressive low-grade glioma were enrolled in this single-center study that stratifie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pilot study of systemic and intrathecal mafosfamide followed by conformal radiation for infants with intracranial central nervous system tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study (PBTC-001).

Journal Article J Neurooncol · September 2012 A pilot study to investigate the feasibility of the addition of intrathecal (IT) mafosfamide to a regimen of concomitant multi-agent systemic chemotherapy followed by conformal radiation therapy (RT) for children <3 years with newly diagnosed embryonal CNS ... Full text Link to item Cite

Descriptive epidemiology of malignant and nonmalignant primary spinal cord, spinal meninges, and cauda equina tumors, United States, 2004-2007.

Journal Article Cancer · September 1, 2012 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: Primary tumors of the spinal cord, spinal meninges, and cauda equina are relatively rare, and a paucity of population-based data exist on tumors in these sites. This study intends to augment the current literature by examining incidence of thes ... Full text Link to item Cite

Subgroup-specific structural variation across 1,000 medulloblastoma genomes.

Journal Article Nature · August 2, 2012 Featured Publication Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour, is currently treated with nonspecific cytotoxic therapies including surgery, whole-brain radiation, and aggressive chemotherapy. As medulloblastoma exhibits marked intertumoural heterogene ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bevacizumab therapy for adults with recurrent/progressive meningioma: a retrospective series.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · August 2012 Intracranial meningiomas are often indolent tumors which typically grow over years to decades. Nonetheless, meningiomas that progress after maximum safe resection and radiation therapy pose a significant therapeutic challenge and effective therapies have y ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase 1 trial of dasatinib plus erlotinib in adults with recurrent malignant glioma.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · July 2012 To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of dasatinib, an inhibitor of the Src family kinase proteins, with erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, among recurrent malignant glioma pat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Frequent ATRX, CIC, FUBP1 and IDH1 mutations refine the classification of malignant gliomas.

Journal Article Oncotarget · July 2012 Featured Publication Mutations in the critical chromatin modifier ATRX and mutations in CIC and FUBP1, which are potent regulators of cell growth, have been discovered in specific subtypes of gliomas, the most common type of primary malignant brain tumors. However, the frequen ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Phase II study of carboplatin, irinotecan, and bevacizumab for bevacizumab naïve, recurrent glioblastoma.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · March 2012 We evaluated the efficacy of carboplatin, irinotecan, and bevacizumab among bevacizumab-naïve, recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) patients in a phase 2, open-label, single arm trial. Forty eligible patients received carboplatin (area under the plasma curve [AUC] ... Full text Link to item Cite

Central nervous system

Journal Article · March 1, 2012 Several different types of tumors, benign and malignant, have been identified in the central nervous system (CNS). The prognoses for these tumors are related to several factors, such as the age of the patient and the location and histology of the tumor. In ... Full text Cite

An animal model of MYC-driven medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Cancer Cell · February 14, 2012 Featured Publication Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Patients whose tumors exhibit overexpression or amplification of the MYC oncogene (c-MYC) usually have an extremely poor prognosis, but there are no animal models of this subtype of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical data simplified.

Journal Article J Neurosurg · February 2012 Full text Link to item Cite

A phase II study of O6-benzylguanine and temozolomide in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive high-grade gliomas and brainstem gliomas: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · February 2012 To estimate the sustained (≥8 weeks) objective response rate in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive high-grade gliomas (HGG, Stratum A) or brainstem gliomas (BSG, Stratum B) treated with the combination of O6-benzylguanine (O6BG) and temozolom ... Full text Link to item Cite

Deletion or epigenetic silencing of AJAP1 on 1p36 in glioblastoma.

Journal Article Mol Cancer Res · February 2012 Featured Publication Glioblastoma is universally fatal because of its propensity for rapid recurrence due to highly migratory tumor cells. Unraveling the genomic complexity that underlies this migratory characteristic could provide therapeutic targets that would greatly comple ... Full text Link to item Cite

Biomarker discovery in central nervous system neoplasms: Past, present and future

Chapter · January 1, 2012 Brain tumor biomarkers have long been used as diagnostic tools; they are now finally being brought to bear as therapeutic elements in the fight against brain cancer. Because of the heterogeneity of glial brain tumors, it is clear that no one marker will ev ... Full text Cite

A pilot study of IL-2Rα blockade during lymphopenia depletes regulatory T-cells and correlates with enhanced immunity in patients with glioblastoma.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2012 BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies in mice have demonstrated that the prophylactic depletion of immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (T(Regs)) through targeting the high affinity interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (IL-2Rα/CD25) can enhance anti-tumor immunotherapy ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of n.c.a. iodoquine: a novel radiotracer with high uptake in cells with high ALDH1 expression.

Journal Article Curr Radiopharm · January 2012 PURPOSE: Chloroquine has demonstrated high affinity for aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1), an enzyme expressed in the highly tumorigenic CD133+ brain tumor initiating subpopulation. The purpose of this study is to report the novel synthesis of a chloroqui ... Full text Link to item Cite

Radioimmunotargeting of malignant glioma by monoclonal antibody D2C7 reactive against both wild-type and variant III mutant epidermal growth factor receptors.

Journal Article Nucl Med Biol · January 2012 Featured Publication INTRODUCTION: Malignant glioma remains a significant therapeutic challenge, and immunotherapeutics might be a beneficial approach for these patients. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for multiple molecular targets could expand the treatable patient pop ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II study of Gleevec® plus hydroxyurea (HU) in adults with progressive or recurrent meningioma.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · January 2012 We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of imatinib plus hydroxyurea in patients with progressive/recurrent meningioma. A total of 21 patients with progressive/recurrent meningioma were enrolled in this dual center, single-arm, phase II trial. A ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase 2 study of carboplatin, irinotecan, and bevacizumab for recurrent glioblastoma after progression on bevacizumab therapy.

Journal Article Cancer · December 1, 2011 BACKGROUND: The efficacy of carboplatin, irinotecan, and bevacizumab among recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) patients after prior progression on bevacizumab therapy in a phase 2, open-label, single-arm trial was evaluated. METHODS: Eligible patients received ca ... Full text Link to item Cite

Monoclonal antibody blockade of IL-2 receptor α during lymphopenia selectively depletes regulatory T cells in mice and humans.

Journal Article Blood · September 15, 2011 Featured Publication Lymphodepletion augments adoptive cell transfer during antitumor immunotherapy, producing dramatic clinical responses in patients with malignant melanoma. We report that the lymphopenia induced by the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) enhances vacc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mutations in CIC and FUBP1 contribute to human oligodendroglioma.

Journal Article Science · September 9, 2011 Featured Publication Oligodendrogliomas are the second most common malignant brain tumor in adults and exhibit characteristic losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q. To identify the molecular genetic basis for this alteration, we performed exomic sequencing of seven tumors. Among ot ... Full text Link to item Cite

Distribution of CD133 reveals glioma stem cells self-renew through symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions.

Journal Article Cell Death Dis · September 1, 2011 Featured Publication Malignant gliomas contain a population of self-renewing tumorigenic stem-like cells; however, it remains unclear how these glioma stem cells (GSCs) self-renew or generate cellular diversity at the single-cell level. Asymmetric cell division is a proposed m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Embryonal central nervous system neoplasms arising in infants and young children: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · August 2011 Featured Publication CONTEXT: Medulloblastomas (MBs) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) arising in infants and children can be difficult to distinguish; however, histologic characterization is prognostically important. OBJECTIVE: To determine histologic and phenoty ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply to M.S. Lesniak

Journal Article Journal of Clinical Oncology · August 1, 2011 Full text Cite

Altered telomeres in tumors with ATRX and DAXX mutations.

Journal Article Science · July 22, 2011 Featured Publication The proteins encoded by ATRX and DAXX participate in chromatin remodeling at telomeres and other genomic sites. Because inactivating mutations of these genes are common in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs), we examined the telomere status of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glioma stem cell proliferation and tumor growth are promoted by nitric oxide synthase-2.

Journal Article Cell · July 8, 2011 Featured Publication Malignant gliomas are aggressive brain tumors with limited therapeutic options, and improvements in treatment require a deeper molecular understanding of this disease. As in other cancers, recent studies have identified highly tumorigenic subpopulations wi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II study of metronomic chemotherapy with bevacizumab for recurrent glioblastoma after progression on bevacizumab therapy.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · June 2011 We evaluated the efficacy of metronomic etoposide or temozolomide administered with bevacizumab among recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) patients who progressed on prior bevacizumab therapy in a phase 2, open-label, two-arm trial. Twenty-three patients received ... Full text Link to item Cite

Acidic stress promotes a glioma stem cell phenotype.

Journal Article Cell Death Differ · May 2011 Featured Publication Malignant gliomas are lethal cancers that display cellular hierarchies with cancer stem cells at the apex. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are not uniformly distributed, but rather located in specialized niches, suggesting that the cancer stem cell phenotype is r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase BMX maintains self-renewal and tumorigenic potential of glioblastoma stem cells by activating STAT3.

Journal Article Cancer Cell · April 12, 2011 Featured Publication Glioblastomas display cellular hierarchies containing tumor-propagating glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). STAT3 is a critical signaling node in GSC maintenance but molecular mechanisms underlying STAT3 activation in GSCs are poorly defined. Here we demonstra ... Full text Link to item Cite

A review of VEGF/VEGFR-targeted therapeutics for recurrent glioblastoma.

Journal Article J Natl Compr Canc Netw · April 2011 Glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor among adults, is a highly angiogenic and deadly tumor. Angiogenesis in glioblastoma, driven by hypoxia-dependent and independent mechanisms, is primarily mediated by vascular endothelial growth fa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Greater chemotherapy-induced lymphopenia enhances tumor-specific immune responses that eliminate EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells in patients with glioblastoma.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · March 2011 Featured Publication Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a tumor-specific mutation widely expressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other neoplasms, but absent from normal tissues. Immunotherapeutic targeting of EGFRvIII could eliminate neoplastic c ... Full text Link to item Cite

The genetic landscape of the childhood cancer medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Science · January 28, 2011 Featured Publication Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of children. To identify the genetic alterations in this tumor type, we searched for copy number alterations using high-density microarrays and sequenced all known protein-coding genes and micro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glioblastoma Stem Cells: A Neuropathologist's View.

Journal Article J Oncol · 2011 Featured Publication Glioblastoma (WHO Grade IV) is both the most common primary brain tumor and the most malignant. Advances in the understanding of the biology of the tumor are needed in order to obtain a clearer picture of the mechanisms driving these tumors. To neuropathol ... Full text Link to item Cite

Treatment recommendations for primary extradural meningiomas.

Journal Article Cancer · January 1, 2011 Primary extradural meningiomas (PEMs) represent about 2% of all meningiomas and are often encountered by non-neurosurgeons. These lesions typically present as enlarging, painless, benign masses that can be surgically cured. Imaging is critical for defining ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of CYP3A-inducing anti-epileptics on sorafenib exposure: results of a phase II study of sorafenib plus daily temozolomide in adults with recurrent glioblastoma.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · January 2011 Sorafenib, an oral VEGFR-2, Raf, PDGFR, c-KIT and Flt-3 inhibitor, is active against renal cell and hepatocellular carcinomas, and has recently demonstrated promising activity for lung and breast cancers. In addition, various protracted temozolomide dosing ... Full text Link to item Cite

Direct in vivo evidence for tumor propagation by glioblastoma cancer stem cells.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2011 Featured Publication High-grade gliomas (World Health Organization grade III anaplastic astrocytoma and grade IV glioblastoma multiforme), the most prevalent primary malignant brain tumors, display a cellular hierarchy with self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II trial of bevacizumab and erlotinib in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · December 2010 Featured Publication Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling are established contributors to malignant glioma (MG) biology. We, therefore, evaluated bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, in combination w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multiple phenotypic changes in mice after knockout of the B3gnt5 gene, encoding Lc3 synthase--a key enzyme in lacto-neolacto ganglioside synthesis.

Journal Article BMC Dev Biol · November 18, 2010 BACKGROUND: Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs through a multi-enzymatic pathway which at the lactosylceramide step is branched into several biosynthetic series. Lc3 synthase utilizes a variety of galactose-terminated glycolipids as acceptors by establishing ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Immunologic escape after prolonged progression-free survival with epidermal growth factor receptor variant III peptide vaccination in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · November 1, 2010 Featured Publication PURPOSE: Immunologic targeting of tumor-specific gene mutations may allow precise eradication of neoplastic cells without toxicity. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a constitutively activated and immunogenic mutation not expressed ... Full text Link to item Cite

MRP3: a molecular target for human glioblastoma multiforme immunotherapy.

Journal Article BMC Cancer · September 1, 2010 Featured Publication BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is refractory to conventional therapies. To overcome the problem of heterogeneity, more brain tumor markers are required for prognosis and targeted therapy. We have identified and validated a promising molecular th ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

MGMT immunoexpression in silent subtype 3 pituitary adenomas: possible therapeutic implications.

Journal Article Endocr Pathol · September 2010 The objective of the study was to assess O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) immunoreactivity in pituitary adenomas of silent subtype 3 as a potential indicator of temozolomide susceptibility. The Mayo Clinic Anatomic Pathology Database was sea ... Full text Link to item Cite

HDMX regulates p53 activity and confers chemoresistance to 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · September 2010 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest tumors afflicting humans, and the mechanisms of its onset and progression remain largely undefined. Our attempts to elucidate its molecular pathogenesis through DNA copy-number analysis by genome-wide d ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recombinant single-chain variable fragment antibodies against extracellular epitopes of human multidrug resistance protein MRP3 for targeting malignant gliomas.

Journal Article Int J Cancer · August 1, 2010 Multidrug resistance protein 3 (MRP3), a multidrug resistance protein identified by serial analysis of gene expression as a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-associated molecule, is highly expressed in GBM, but not in normal brain cells. Thus, MRP3 is a candid ... Full text Link to item Cite

Integrated genomic analyses identify ERRFI1 and TACC3 as glioblastoma-targeted genes.

Journal Article Oncotarget · August 2010 The glioblastoma genome displays remarkable chromosomal aberrations, which harbor critical glioblastoma-specific genes contributing to several oncogenetic pathways. To identify glioblastoma-targeted genes, we completed a multifaceted genome-wide analysis t ... Full text Link to item Cite

IDH1(R132) mutation identified in one human melanoma metastasis, but not correlated with metastases to the brain.

Journal Article Biochem Biophys Res Commun · July 30, 2010 Featured Publication Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) are enzymes which convert isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+to NADPH). IDH1/2 were recently identified as mutated in a ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Bevacizumab fails to treat temporal paraganglioma: discussion and case illustration.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · July 2010 Temporal paragangliomas are highly vascular tumors treated primarily by surgical resection. However, surgery to remove these tumors is associated with significant morbidity, including cranial nerve dysfunction. Interestingly, these tumors have been shown t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Integrin alpha 6 regulates glioblastoma stem cells.

Journal Article Cell Stem Cell · May 7, 2010 Featured Publication Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells suggested to be critical for tumor maintenance, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Prospective identification and targeting of CSCs are therefore priorities for the development of novel thera ... Full text Link to item Cite

Treatment of Recurrent Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma with SRC-Related Tyrosine Kinase Targeted Therapy: A Case Report.

Journal Article Case Rep Oncol · April 8, 2010 Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare sarcomatous tumor arising from pericytes, a support cell found in blood vessels. These tumors can occur throughout the body, particularly in the lower extremities and retroperitoneum. In rare circumstances, HPCs can arise ... Full text Link to item Cite

Single-stage bilateral choroid plexectomy for choroid plexus papilloma in a patient presenting with high cerebrospinal fluid output.

Journal Article J Neurosurg Pediatr · April 2010 Cerebrospinal fluid overproduction resulting in communicating hydrocephalus is observed in patients who have choroid plexus papilloma or choroid plexus carcinoma. Less often, patients with these conditions have diffuse villous hyperplasia. Prior studies re ... Full text Link to item Cite

Targeting A20 decreases glioma stem cell survival and tumor growth.

Journal Article PLoS Biol · February 23, 2010 Featured Publication Glioblastomas are deadly cancers that display a functional cellular hierarchy maintained by self-renewing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). GSCs are regulated by molecular pathways distinct from the bulk tumor that may be useful therapeutic targets. We deter ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

GMab-1, a high-affinity anti-3'-isoLM1/3',6'-isoLD1 IgG monoclonal antibody, raised in lacto-series ganglioside-defective knockout mice.

Journal Article Biochem Biophys Res Commun · January 1, 2010 The lacto-series gangliosides 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1 have been identified as tumor-associated antigens whose formation is initiated by the Lc3-synthase. Until now, high-affinity IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1, which ... Full text Link to item Cite

Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling Through STAT3 Is Required For Glioma Stem Cell Maintenance.

Journal Article Genes Cancer · January 1, 2010 Featured Publication Recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) is a growth factor used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia, but recent studies suggest that EPO may accelerate cancer growth. Although several cancers express EPO receptors (EPORs), the mechanism by which EPOR ... Full text Link to item Cite

OTX2 is critical for the maintenance and progression of Shh-independent medulloblastomas.

Journal Article Cancer Res · January 1, 2010 Featured Publication OTX2 is a developmentally regulated transcription factor involved in early morphogenesis of the central nervous system. This gene is amplified and overexpressed in medulloblastoma cell lines, but the nature and extent of its genetic alterations in primary ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase 2 trial of erlotinib plus sirolimus in adults with recurrent glioblastoma.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · January 2010 We evaluated the anti-tumor activity and safety of erlotinib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor, plus sirolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, among patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Central nervous system.

Journal Article Cancer Biomark · 2010 Several different types of tumors, benign and malignant, have been identified in the central nervous system (CNS). The prognoses for these tumors are related to several factors, such as the age of the patient and the location and histology of the tumor. In ... Full text Link to item Cite

A monoclonal antibody IMab-1 specifically recognizes IDH1R132H, the most common glioma-derived mutation.

Journal Article Biochem Biophys Res Commun · December 18, 2009 IDH1 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1) mutations have been identified as early and frequent genetic alterations in astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas as well as secondary glioblastomas. In contrast, primary glioblastomas very rarely contain ... Full text Link to item Cite

Metronomic chemotherapy with daily, oral etoposide plus bevacizumab for recurrent malignant glioma: a phase II study.

Journal Article Br J Cancer · December 15, 2009 BACKGROUND: We evaluated bevacizumab with metronomic etoposide among recurrent malignant glioma patients in a phase 2, open-label trial. METHODS: A total of 59 patients, including 27 with glioblastoma (GBM) and 32 with grade 3 malignant glioma, received 10 ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Detection of amino-terminal extracellular domain of somatostatin receptor 2 by specific monoclonal antibodies and quantification of receptor density in medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Hybridoma (Larchmt) · December 2009 Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) is expressed by most medulloblastomas (MEDs). We isolated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the 12-mer (33)QTEPYYDLTSNA(44), which resides in the extracellular domain of the SSTR2 amino terminus, screened the peptide-bound MAb ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Phase II trial of temozolomide (TMZ) plus irinotecan (CPT-11) in adults with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme before radiotherapy.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · December 2009 This phase II trial evaluated efficacy and safety of temozolomide (TMZ) in combination with irinotecan (CPT-11) before radiotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Prior to radiotherapy, patients were treated with a maximum ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glioblastoma proto-oncogene SEC61gamma is required for tumor cell survival and response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Journal Article Cancer Res · December 1, 2009 Featured Publication Glioblastoma multiforme is the most prevalent type of adult brain tumor and one of the deadliest tumors known to mankind. The genetic understanding of glioblastoma multiforme is, however, limited, and the molecular mechanisms that facilitate glioblastoma m ... Full text Link to item Cite

The hypoxic microenvironment maintains glioblastoma stem cells and promotes reprogramming towards a cancer stem cell phenotype.

Journal Article Cell Cycle · October 15, 2009 Featured Publication Glioblastomas are highly lethal cancers that contain cellular hierarchies with self-renewing cancer stem cells that can propagate tumors in secondary transplant assays. The potential significance of cancer stem cells in cancer biology has been demonstrated ... Full text Link to item Cite

Targeting interleukin 6 signaling suppresses glioma stem cell survival and tumor growth.

Journal Article Stem Cells · October 2009 Glioblastomas are the most common and most lethal primary brain tumor. Recent studies implicate an important role for a restricted population of neoplastic cells (glioma stem cells (GSCs)) in glioma maintenance and recurrence. We now demonstrate that GSCs ... Full text Link to item Cite

EGFRvIII-targeted vaccination therapy of malignant glioma.

Journal Article Brain Pathol · October 2009 Given the highly infiltrative growth pattern of malignant glioma and the lack of specificity associated with currently available treatment regimens, alternative strategies designed to eradicate cancer cells while limiting collateral toxicity in normal tiss ... Full text Link to item Cite

Robust detection of EGFR copy number changes and EGFR variant III: technical aspects and relevance for glioma diagnostics.

Journal Article Brain Pathol · October 2009 Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is commonly affected in cancer, generally in the form of an increase in DNA copy number and/or as mutation variants [e.g., EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII), an in-frame deletion of exons 2-7]. While detection of EGFR aber ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase I trial of temozolomide plus O6-benzylguanine 5-day regimen with recurrent malignant glioma.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · October 2009 This phase I clinical trial conducted with patients who had recurrent or progressive malignant glioma (MG) was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and toxicity of three different 5-day dosing regimens of temozolomide (TMZ) in combination ... Full text Link to item Cite

Treatment of HER2-positive breast carcinomatous meningitis with intrathecal administration of alpha-particle-emitting (211)At-labeled trastuzumab.

Journal Article Nucl Med Biol · August 2009 Featured Publication INTRODUCTION: Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) is a devastating disease characterized by the dissemination of malignant tumor cells into the subarachnoid space along the brain and spine. Systemic treatment with monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab can be eff ... Full text Link to item Cite

Chordoid glioma: a case report and molecular characterization of five cases.

Journal Article Brain Pathol · July 2009 Featured Publication Chordoid gliomas are rare, slow-growing neoplasms of the anterior third ventricle. We reported a case of chordoid glioma in a 41-year-old man with obstructive hydrocephalus. Histologically, the tumor consisted of polygonal epithelioid cells admixed with el ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase 1 trial of temozolomide plus irinotecan plus O6-benzylguanine in adults with recurrent malignant glioma.

Journal Article Cancer · July 1, 2009 BACKGROUND: The current study was a phase 1 clinical trial conducted with patients who had recurrent or progressive malignant glioma (MG). The trial was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and toxicity of irinotecan (CPT-11) when adminis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypoxia-inducible factors regulate tumorigenic capacity of glioma stem cells.

Journal Article Cancer Cell · June 2, 2009 Glioblastomas are lethal cancers characterized by florid angiogenesis promoted in part by glioma stem cells (GSCs). Because hypoxia regulates angiogenesis, we examined hypoxic responses in GSCs. We now demonstrate that hypoxia-inducible factor HIF2alpha an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II trial of temozolomide plus o6-benzylguanine in adults with recurrent, temozolomide-resistant malignant glioma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · March 10, 2009 PURPOSE: This phase II trial was designed to define the role of O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BG) in restoring temozolomide sensitivity in patients with recurrent or progressive, temozolomide-resistant malignant glioma and to evaluate the safety of administerin ... Full text Link to item Cite

IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · February 19, 2009 BACKGROUND: A recent genomewide mutational analysis of glioblastomas (World Health Organization [WHO] grade IV glioma) revealed somatic mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) in a fraction of such tumors, most frequently in tumors that wer ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of CD15 as a marker for tumor-propagating cells in a mouse model of medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Cancer Cell · February 3, 2009 The growth of many cancers depends on self-renewing cells called cancer stem cells or tumor-propagating cells (TPCs). In human brain tumors, cells expressing the stem cell marker CD133 have been implicated as TPCs. Here we show that tumors from a model of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II trial of Gliadel plus O6-benzylguanine in adults with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · February 1, 2009 PURPOSE: This phase II trial was designed to define the efficacy of Gliadel wafers in combination with an infusion of O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG) that suppresses tumor O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) levels in patients with recurrent glioblastoma m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Few isolated neurons in hypothalamic hamartomas may cause gelastic seizures.

Journal Article Pediatr Neurosurg · 2009 Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are congenital, benign masses in the hypothalamus and tuber cinereum that may cause central precocious puberty and gelastic seizures. Nodules of small neurons are thought to be a universal feature of the microarchitecture of H ... Full text Link to item Cite

Brain cancer stem cells display preferential sensitivity to Akt inhibition.

Journal Article Stem Cells · December 2008 Malignant brain tumors are among the most lethal cancers, and conventional therapies are largely limited to palliation. Novel therapies targeted against specific molecular pathways may offer superior efficacy and less toxicity than conventional therapies, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comprehensive genomic characterization defines human glioblastoma genes and core pathways.

Journal Article Nature · October 23, 2008 Human cancer cells typically harbour multiple chromosomal aberrations, nucleotide substitutions and epigenetic modifications that drive malignant transformation. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pilot project aims to assess the value of large-scale multi-dim ... Full text Link to item Cite

A recurrent cerebellar lesion in a young boy.

Journal Article Brain Pathol · October 2008 Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy or standard salvage therapy in patients with recurrent medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · October 2008 The efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) or standard salvage therapy was evaluated in patients with recurrent medulloblastoma (MBL) using retrospective chart review of all patients with recurrent MBL treated at Duke University Medical Center between 19 ... Full text Link to item Cite

An integrated genomic analysis of human glioblastoma multiforme.

Journal Article Science · September 26, 2008 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal type of brain cancer. To identify the genetic alterations in GBMs, we sequenced 20,661 protein coding genes, determined the presence of amplifications and deletions using high-density oligonucleot ... Full text Link to item Cite

Targeting cancer stem cells through L1CAM suppresses glioma growth.

Journal Article Cancer Res · August 1, 2008 Malignant gliomas are lethal cancers that display striking cellular heterogeneity. A highly tumorigenic glioma tumor subpopulation, termed cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells, promotes therapeutic resistance and tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, targe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mismatch repair deficiency does not mediate clinical resistance to temozolomide in malignant glioma.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · August 1, 2008 PURPOSE: A major mechanism of resistance to methylating agents, including temozolomide, is the DNA repair protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). Preclinical data indicates that defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) results in tolerance to temo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Re: Axonal injury in head injuries with very short survival.

Journal Article Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol · June 2008 Full text Link to item Cite

Surgical neuropathology update: a review of changes introduced by the WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system, 4th edition.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · June 2008 Featured Publication CONTEXT: The World Health Organization (WHO) recently published its 4th edition of the classification of tumors of the central nervous system, incorporating a substantial number of important changes to the previous version (WHO 2000). The new WHO classific ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intracerebral infusion of an EGFR-targeted toxin in recurrent malignant brain tumors.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · June 2008 The purpose of this study is to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and intracerebral distribution of a recombinant toxin (TP-38) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in patients with recurrent malignant brai ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety and pharmacokinetics of dose-intensive imatinib mesylate plus temozolomide: phase 1 trial in adults with malignant glioma.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · June 2008 We determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of imatinib mesylate, an inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), the proto-oncogene product c-kit, and the fusion protein Bc ... Full text Link to item Cite

A pilot study: 131I-antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81c6 to deliver a 44-Gy resection cavity boost.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · April 2008 The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and assess the efficacy and toxicity, among newly diagnosed malignant glioma patients, of administering (131)I-labeled murine antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 ((131)I-81C6) into a surgically c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Issues of diagnostic review in brain tumor studies: from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium.

Journal Article Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev · March 2008 Epidemiologists routinely conduct centralized single pathology reviews to minimize interobserver diagnostic variability, but this practice does not facilitate the combination of studies across geographic regions and institutions where diagnostic practices ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sensitive detection of human cytomegalovirus in tumors and peripheral blood of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · February 2008 Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been described to be associated with several human malignancies, though the frequency of detection remains controversial. It is unclear whether HCMV plays an active role in malignant tumor progression or becomes reactivated ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation.

Journal Article J Neurosurg · February 2008 OBJECT: Diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors. As a group, they demonstrate an inherent tendency toward malignant progression. Histological grading using the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) remains t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tumor angiogenic and hypoxic profiles predict radiographic response and survival in malignant astrocytoma patients treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · January 10, 2008 PURPOSE: The combination of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -neutralizing antibody, bevacizumab, and irinotecan is associated with high radiographic response rates and improved survival outcomes in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. The ... Full text Link to item Cite

Splenda alters gut microflora and increases intestinal p-glycoprotein and cytochrome p-450 in male rats.

Journal Article J Toxicol Environ Health A · 2008 Splenda is comprised of the high-potency artificial sweetener sucralose (1.1%) and the fillers maltodextrin and glucose. Splenda was administered by oral gavage at 100, 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 12-wk, during which fecal sampl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical experience with alpha-particle emitting 211At: treatment of recurrent brain tumor patients with 211At-labeled chimeric antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6.

Journal Article J Nucl Med · January 2008 Featured Publication UNLABELLED: alpha-Particle-emitting radionuclides, such as (211)At, with a 7.2-h half-life, may be optimally suited for the molecularly targeted radiotherapy of strategically sensitive tumor sites, such as those in the central nervous system. Because of th ... Full text Link to item Cite

c-Myc is required for maintenance of glioma cancer stem cells.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2008 BACKGROUND: Malignant gliomas rank among the most lethal cancers. Gliomas display a striking cellular heterogeneity with a hierarchy of differentiation states. Recent studies support the existence of cancer stem cells in gliomas that are functionally defin ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Choroid plexus papilloma with neuropil-like islands.

Journal Article Am J Surg Pathol · January 2008 Choroid plexus papilloma may display unusual histologic features, but the presence of neuronal differentiation at the light microscopic level has not yet been described. We thus report a choroid plexus papilloma with neuropil-like islands located within th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Second messenger systems in human gliomas.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · October 2007 Featured Publication CONTEXT: Patients with glioblastoma (astrocytoma, World Health Organization grade IV) exhibit 2-year survival rates of less than 20% despite significant advances in therapeutic options available to patients. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) hyperexp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Targeting methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in the treatment of neuroblastoma.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · September 15, 2007 PURPOSE: The combination of temozolomide and irinotecan has preclinical schedule-dependent synergy against neuroblastoma but is not curative for relapsed high-risk patients. We hypothesized that the DNA repair protein methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (M ... Full text Link to item Cite

Tumor resection cavity administered iodine-131-labeled antitenascin 81C6 radioimmunotherapy in patients with malignant glioma: neuropathology aspects.

Journal Article Nucl Med Biol · May 2007 INTRODUCTION: The neurohistological findings in patients treated with targeted beta emitters such as (131)I are poorly described. We report a histopathologic analysis from patients treated with combined external beam therapy and a brachytherapy consisting ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II study of imatinib mesylate and hydroxyurea for recurrent grade III malignant gliomas.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · May 2007 PURPOSE: Recent reports demonstrate the activity of imatinib mesylate, an ATP-mimetic, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, plus hydroxyurea, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. We performed the current phase 2 s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recurrent glioblastoma diagnosed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for EGFR.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol · February 2007 Featured Publication Full text Link to item Cite

Cerebellopontine angle craniopharyngioma: case report and literature review.

Journal Article Pediatr Neurosurg · 2007 The authors report an unusual case of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma occurring in isolation in the cerebellopontine angle of a 12-year-old female. The patient presented with a 1-year history of nausea, vomiting, and headache. MRI revealed a left cerebe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glioma stem cells promote radioresistance by preferential activation of the DNA damage response.

Journal Article Nature · December 7, 2006 Featured Publication Ionizing radiation represents the most effective therapy for glioblastoma (World Health Organization grade IV glioma), one of the most lethal human malignancies, but radiotherapy remains only palliative because of radioresistance. The mechanisms underlying ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II study of oxaliplatin in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study.

Journal Article Cancer · November 1, 2006 BACKGROUND: An open-label Phase II study of oxaliplatin was conducted to evaluate its safety and efficacy in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma (MB), supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (SPNET), and atypical teratoid rhabdoid ... Full text Link to item Cite

A phase II trial of O6-benzylguanine and carmustine in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma.

Journal Article Cancer Chemother Pharmacol · November 2006 PURPOSE: Tumor resistance to alkylating agents such as carmustine (BCNU) has been found to be associated with intracellular expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Administration of O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG), a substrate that inactivate ... Full text Link to item Cite

Treatment of neoplastic meningitis with intrathecal 9-nitro-camptothecin.

Journal Article Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) · October 2006 The topoisomerase I inhibitor, 9-nitro-camptothecin (9NC), is highly tumoricidal against glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in vitro. However, systemic administration of 9NC has not shown the expected efficacy in clinical trials. This failure may be due to the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quantitative analysis of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in malignant glioma.

Journal Article Mol Cancer Ther · October 2006 Featured Publication Promoter hypermethylation of the DNA repair protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) has been associated with an enhanced response to chloroethylating and methylating agents in patients with malignant glioma. The purpose of this study was to co ... Full text Link to item Cite

AAL881, a novel small molecule inhibitor of RAF and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor activities, blocks the growth of malignant glioma.

Journal Article Cancer Res · September 1, 2006 Malignant gliomas are highly proliferative and angiogenic cancers resistant to conventional therapies. Although RAS and RAF mutations are uncommon in gliomas, RAS activity is increased in gliomas. Additionally, vascular endothelial growth factor and its co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Stem cell-like glioma cells promote tumor angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor.

Journal Article Cancer Res · August 15, 2006 Malignant gliomas are highly lethal cancers dependent on angiogenesis. Critical tumor subpopulations within gliomas share characteristics with neural stem cells. We examined the potential of stem cell-like glioma cells (SCLGC) to support tumor angiogenesis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel human IgG2b/murine chimeric antitenascin monoclonal antibody construct radiolabeled with 131I and administered into the surgically created resection cavity of patients with malignant glioma: phase I trial results.

Journal Article J Nucl Med · June 2006 UNLABELLED: Results from animal experiments have shown that human IgG2/mouse chimeric antitenascin 81C6 (ch81C6) monoclonal antibody exhibited higher tumor accumulation and enhanced stability compared with its murine parent. Our objective was to determine ... Link to item Cite

Errors in surgical neuropathology and the influence of cognitive biases: the psychology of intelligence analysis.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · May 2006 CONTEXT: A significant difficulty that pathologists encounter in arriving at a correct diagnosis is related to the way information from various sources is processed and assimilated in context. OBJECTIVE: These issues are addressed by the science of cogniti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prognostic significance of OTX2 in medulloblastoma

Conference CANCER RESEARCH · April 1, 2006 Link to item Cite

A phase II window trial of procarbazine and topotecan in children with high-grade glioma: a report from the children's oncology group.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · April 2006 The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of high-grade gliomas in children is unclear. Early reports were suggestive of improved outcome in children with high-grade glioma with the addition of chemotherapy after surgery and radiation therapy. Subsequent s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase 1 trial of gefitinib plus sirolimus in adults with recurrent malignant glioma.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · February 1, 2006 PURPOSE: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of gefitinib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor, plus sirolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, among pat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Russell and rubinstein's pathology of tumors of the nervous system

Book · January 1, 2006 This is the leading international professional reference text that also serves as a bench book, describing all aspects of the pathology of brain tumours - genetics, molecular biology, epidemiology, morphology, immunohistochemistry, diagnostic criteria and ... Cite

Astrocytoma of the spinal cord

Chapter · January 1, 2006 Cite

Diffuse astrocytoma

Chapter · January 1, 2006 Cite

Anaplastic astrocytoma

Chapter · January 1, 2006 Cite

Astrocytoma of the brainstem

Chapter · January 1, 2006 Cite

Ectopias and hamartomas

Chapter · January 1, 2006 Cite

Oligodendroglioma

Chapter · January 1, 2006 Cite

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

Chapter · January 1, 2006 Cite

Glioblastoma

Chapter · January 1, 2006 Cite

Salvage radioimmunotherapy with murine iodine-131-labeled antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 for patients with recurrent primary and metastatic malignant brain tumors: phase II study results.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · January 1, 2006 PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of intraresection cavity iodine-131-labeled murine antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 (131I-m81C6) among recurrent malignant brain tumor patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase II trial, 100 mCi of 131I ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II study of imatinib mesylate plus hydroxyurea in adults with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · December 20, 2005 PURPOSE: We performed a phase II study to evaluate the combination of imatinib mesylate, an adenosine triphosphate mimetic, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, plus hydroxyurea, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiform ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ependymoma

Journal Article · December 1, 2005 Full text Cite

ZD6474, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibits tumor growth of multiple nervous system tumors.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · November 15, 2005 PURPOSE: Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors represent a diverse group of tumor types with heterogeneous molecular mechanisms that underlie their formation and maintenance. CNS tumors depend on angiogenesis and often display increased activity of E ... Full text Link to item Cite

Survival analysis of presumptive prognostic markers among oligodendrogliomas.

Journal Article Cancer · October 15, 2005 BACKGROUND: Allelic losses of 1p and 19q arms correlate with the oligodendroglial phenotype as well as with sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Furthermore, the DNA repair gene, methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT), is diminished in 80% of olig ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase I trial of irinotecan plus temozolomide in adults with recurrent malignant glioma.

Journal Article Cancer · October 1, 2005 BACKGROUND: The authors determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of irinotecan (CPT-11), a topoisomerase I inhibitor, when administered with temozolomide among patients with recurrent malignant glioma (MG). METHODS: Pati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase I trial of temozolomide plus O6-benzylguanine for patients with recurrent or progressive malignant glioma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · October 1, 2005 PURPOSE: We conducted a two-phase clinical trial in patients with progressive malignant glioma (MG). The first phase of this trial was designed to determine the dose of O6-BG effective in producing complete depletion of tumor AGT activity for 48 hours. The ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dosimetry and radiographic analysis of 131I-labeled anti-tenascin 81C6 murine monoclonal antibody in newly diagnosed patients with malignant gliomas: a phase II study.

Journal Article J Nucl Med · June 2005 UNLABELLED: The objective was to perform dosimetry and evaluate dose-response relationships in newly diagnosed patients with malignant brain tumors treated with direct injections of (131)I-labeled anti-tenascin murine 81C6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) into su ... Link to item Cite

Gene expression profiling and genetic markers in glioblastoma survival.

Journal Article Cancer Res · May 15, 2005 Despite the strikingly grave prognosis for older patients with glioblastomas, significant variability in patient outcome is experienced. To explore the potential for developing improved prognostic capabilities based on the elucidation of potential biologic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Accreditation council for graduate medical education (ACGME) competencies in neuropathology training.

Journal Article J Neuropathol Exp Neurol · April 2005 The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has defined 6 core competencies for all physicians: patient care; medical knowledge; practice-based learning and improvement; interpersonal and communication skills; professionalism; and syst ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of OTX2 as a medulloblastoma oncogene whose product can be targeted by all-trans retinoic acid.

Journal Article Cancer Res · February 1, 2005 Through digital karyotyping of permanent medulloblastoma cell lines, we found that the homeobox gene OTX2 was amplified more than 10-fold in three cell lines. Gene expression analyses showed that OTX2 transcripts were present at high levels in 14 of 15 (93 ... Link to item Cite

Sustained radiographic and clinical response in patient with bifrontal recurrent glioblastoma multiforme with intracerebral infusion of the recombinant targeted toxin TP-38: case study.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · January 2005 Glioblastoma multiforme remains refractory to conventional therapy, and novel therapeutic modalities are desperately needed. TP-38 is a recombinant chimeric protein containing a genetically engineered form of the cytotoxic Pseudomonas exotoxin fused to tra ... Full text Link to item Cite

Combination therapy of inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (AEE788) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (RAD001) offers improved glioblastoma tumor growth inhibition.

Journal Article Mol Cancer Ther · January 2005 Malignant gliomas are highly lethal tumors that display striking genetic heterogeneity. Novel therapies that inhibit a single molecular target may slow tumor progression, but tumors are likely not dependent on a signal transduction pathway. Rather, maligna ... Link to item Cite

Mutations of PIK3CA in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, high-grade astrocytomas, and medulloblastomas.

Journal Article Cancer Res · August 1, 2004 The phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase pathway is activated in multiple advanced cancers, including glioblastomas, through inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. Recently, mutations in PIK3CA, a member of the family of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of astrocytomas: prognostic and diagnostic implications.

Journal Article J Mol Diagn · August 2004 Astrocytoma is comprised of a group of common intracranial neoplasms that are classified into four grades based on the World Health Organization histological criteria and patient survival. To date, histological grade, patient age, and clinical performance, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fish markers in diffuse astrocytomas.

Conference JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY · May 1, 2004 Link to item Cite

Meningioma with eosinophilic granular inclusions.

Journal Article Clin Neuropathol · 2004 Rare meningiomas have been described that contain eosinophilic inclusions that have a granular or granulofilamentous ultrastructure. We describe a 66-year-old woman who developed a planum sphenoidale meningioma. Histologically, the tumor was composed of me ... Link to item Cite

Phase II trial of gefitinib in recurrent glioblastoma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · January 1, 2004 PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of gefitinib (ZD1839, Iressa; AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE), a novel epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was an op ... Full text Link to item Cite

The pathology of extracranial scalp and skull masses in young children.

Journal Article Clin Neuropathol · 2004 OBJECTIVE: Extracranial subcutaneous masses involving the scalp and/or skull in young children are uncommon lesions that get excised by the neurosurgeon. Although the most common reported lesion is the dermoid cyst, our experience suggests that the spectru ... Link to item Cite

The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates viral-induced encephalitis.

Journal Article Virology · December 20, 2003 The double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays an important role in control of viral infections and cell growth. We have studied the role of PKR in viral infection in mice that are defective in the PKR signaling pathway. Transgenic mice ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy of intracerebral microinfusion of trastuzumab in an athymic rat model of intracerebral metastatic breast cancer.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · November 15, 2003 PURPOSE: The monoclonal antibody (MAb) trastuzumab (Herceptin) effectively treats HER2-overexpressing extracerebral breast neoplasms. Delivery of such macromolecule therapeutic agents to intracerebral metastases, however, is limited by the tight junctions ... Link to item Cite

Is the long-term survival of patients with intracranial glioblastoma multiforme overstated?

Journal Article Cancer · October 15, 2003 BACKGROUND: The 5-year survival rate for intracranial glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has remained at 4-5% for the last 30 years, in spite of multiple randomized prospective trials. The authors hypothesized, based on the literature, that even this remarkably ... Full text Link to item Cite

Progress report of a Phase I study of the intracerebral microinfusion of a recombinant chimeric protein composed of transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha and a mutated form of the Pseudomonas exotoxin termed PE-38 (TP-38) for the treatment of malignant brain tumors.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · October 2003 TP-38 is a recombinant chimeric targeted toxin composed of the EGFR binding ligand TGF-alpha and a genetically engineered form of the Pseudomonas exotoxin, PE-38. After in vitro and in vivo animal studies that showed specific activity and defined the maxim ... Full text Link to item Cite

High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in children and adults with newly diagnosed pineoblastomas.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · June 1, 2003 PURPOSE: We evaluated the usefulness of a treatment regimen that included high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem-cell rescue (ASCR) in patients with newly diagnosed pineoblastoma (PBL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with PBL were initial ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sub-classification of glioblastoma defined by comparative genomic hybridization alterations.

Conference JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY · May 1, 2003 Link to item Cite

Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the central nervous system: prognostic effect of ALK-1 expression.

Journal Article Am J Surg Pathol · April 2003 Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) rarely occurs in the central nervous system. Although defined by its composition of large, pleomorphic, CD30-positive lymphocytes, ALCL is heterogeneous. Most are T cell but some are null cell. Most but not all have a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II trial of temozolomide in patients with progressive low-grade glioma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · February 15, 2003 PURPOSE: Temozolomide (Temodar; Schering-Plough Corp, Kenilworth, NJ) is an imidazole tetrazinone that undergoes chemical conversion to the active methylating agent 5-(3-methyltriazen-1yl)imidazole-4-carboximide under physiologic conditions. Previous studi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vascular targeted endoradiotherapy of tumors using alpha-particle-emitting compounds: theoretical analysis.

Journal Article Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · November 15, 2002 PURPOSE: To establish the theoretical framework and study the feasibility of (211)At-labeled anti-tenascin chimeric 81C6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) as anti-vascular endoradiotherapy for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. METHODS AND MATE ... Full text Link to item Cite

Brain tumors in mice are susceptible to blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the oral, specific, EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZD1839 (iressa).

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · November 2002 Iressa (ZD1839) is a p.o.-active, selective, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that blocks signal transduction pathways implicated in cancer cell proliferation, survival, and host-dependent processes promoting cancer gro ... Link to item Cite

Targeted delivery in primary and metastatic brain tumors: summary report of the seventh annual meeting of the Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Consortium.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · June 2002 The November 2000 NIH report of the Brain Tumor Progress Review Group identified delivering and targeting therapeutic agents as a priority in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. For this reason, the seventh annual Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Consor ... Link to item Cite

Molecular markers of prognosis in astrocytic tumors.

Journal Article Cancer · May 15, 2002 BACKGROUND: Astrocytoma is a primary brain tumor that affects 20,000 Americans each year. To date, only age and histologic grade stand out as independent predictors of survival. There is now increased interest in the use of molecular markers as objective s ... Full text Link to item Cite

MYCC and MYCN oncogene amplification in medulloblastoma. A fluorescence in situ hybridization study on paraffin sections from the Children's Oncology Group.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · May 2002 CONTEXT: Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in childhood, and medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in this age group. Cytogenetic abnormalities that have been described in childhood medulloblastoma include loss of 17p, amplifi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II trial of carmustine plus O(6)-benzylguanine for patients with nitrosourea-resistant recurrent or progressive malignant glioma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · May 1, 2002 PURPOSE: We conducted a phase II trial of carmustine (BCNU) plus the O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase inhibitor O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BG) to define the activity and toxicity of this regimen in the treatment of adults with progressive or recurrent ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparative genomic hybridization of a biphasic malignant meningioma.

Journal Article JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY · May 1, 2002 Link to item Cite

Phase II study of irinotecan (CPT-11) in children with high-risk malignant brain tumors: the Duke experience.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · April 2002 A phase II study of irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, to evaluate the activity of this agent in children with high-risk malignant brain tumors. A total of 22 children were enrolled in this study, including 13 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comprehensive molecular cytogenetic investigation of chromosomal abnormalities in human medulloblastoma cell lines and xenograft.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · April 2002 Cell lines and xenografts derived from medulloblastomas are useful tools to investigate the chromosomal changes in these tumors. Here we used G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), spectral karyotyping (SKY), and comparative genomic hybridiz ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II trial of murine (131)I-labeled antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 administered into surgically created resection cavities of patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · March 1, 2002 PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of intraresection cavity (131)I-labeled murine antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 and determine its true response rate among patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dendritic cells pulsed with a tumor-specific peptide induce long-lasting immunity and are effective against murine intracerebral melanoma.

Journal Article Neurosurgery · January 2002 OBJECTIVE: Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized cells of the immune system that are capable of generating potent immune responses that are active even within the "immunologically privileged" central nervous system. However, immune responses generated by D ... Full text Link to item Cite

Biphasic malignant meningioma: a comparative genomic hybridization study.

Journal Article Clin Neuropathol · 2002 To ascertain if a carcinoma-like component within a fibroblastic meningioma represented a metastatic carcinoma to a meningioma or malignant progression, we employed traditional immunohistochemical methods as well as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) ... Link to item Cite

Glioneuronal tumors of the central nervous system.

Journal Article Brain Tumor Pathol · 2002 Advances in the immunohistochemical detection of neuron-specific and neuronal-associated antigens have resulted in the discovery of neuronal elements in certain primary human brain tumors. The results have been not only to expand what neuropathologists com ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endodermal cyst of the oculomotor nerve.

Journal Article Neuroradiology · December 2001 Endodermal cysts are rare congenital intracranial lesions. Although histologically benign, they can become symptomatic as a result of mass effect and cause neurological deficits. We report a 30-year-old woman who presented with paresis of her right oculomo ... Full text Link to item Cite

CD34 and dural fibroblasts: the relationship to solitary fibrous tumor and meningioma.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol · October 2001 Intracranial solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are typically dural-based, CD34-positive neoplasms of uncertain histogenesis. We examined ten cases of meninges obtained at autopsy from patients with no history of neurological illness, head trauma, or neurosurg ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase I study of Gliadel wafers plus temozolomide in adults with recurrent supratentorial high-grade gliomas.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · October 2001 Both Gliadel wafers [1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] and temozolomide (TEMO) have been shown in independent studies to prolong survival of patients with recurrent malignant glioma following surgery and radiotherapy. On the basis of preclinical eviden ... Full text Link to item Cite

March 2000: A 16 year old female with a cerebellar mass.

Journal Article Brain Pathol · July 2001 The March COM: A 16 year old female presented with headaches and cerebellar dysfunction. MR images showed a mass lesion of the right cerebellar hemisphere with mass effect on the medulla. The mass exhibited a striated pattern of alternating isointense and ... Link to item Cite

A genetically tractable model of human glioma formation.

Journal Article Cancer Res · May 1, 2001 Gliomas remain one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Improved therapeutics will require a better understanding of the molecular nature of these tumors. We, therefore, mimicked the most common genetic changes found in grade III-IV gliomas, disruption of the ... Link to item Cite

Ham56-immunoreactive macrophages in untreated infiltrating gliomas.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · May 2001 CONTEXT: Classic diagnostic neuropathologic teachings have cautioned against making the diagnosis of neoplasia in the presence of a macrophage population. The knowledge of macrophage distribution should prove useful when confronted with an infiltrating gli ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pathology of the normal versus the tethered filum terminale.

Conference JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY · May 1, 2001 Link to item Cite

Molecular profiling of astrocytomas.

Journal Article JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY · May 1, 2001 Link to item Cite

Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

Journal Article JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY · May 1, 2001 Link to item Cite

An anatomical investigation of the human cervical facet capsule, quantifying muscle insertion area.

Journal Article J Anat · April 2001 Facet capsule injury has been hypothesised as a mechanism for neck pain. While qualitative studies have demonstrated the proximity of neck muscles to the cervical facet capsule, the magnitude of their forces remains unknown owing to a lack of quantitative ... Full text Link to item Cite

An anatomical investigation of the human cervical facet capsule, quantifying muscle insertion area

Journal Article Journal of Anatomy · 2001 Facet capsule injury has been hypothesised as a mechanism for neck pain. While qualitative studies have demonstrated the proximity of neck muscles to the cervical facet capsule, the magnitude of their forces remains unknown owing to a lack of quantitative ... Full text Cite

Phase I trial results of iodine-131-labeled antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 treatment of patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · November 15, 2000 PURPOSE: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of iodine-131 ((131)I)-labeled 81C6 antitenascin monoclonal antibody (mAb) administered clinically into surgically created resection cavities (SCRCs) in malignant glioma patients and to identify any ob ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase I trial of carmustine plus O6-benzylguanine for patients with recurrent or progressive malignant glioma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · October 15, 2000 PURPOSE: The major mechanism of resistance to alkylnitrosourea therapy involves the DNA repair protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), which removes chloroethylation or methylation damage from the O(6) position of guanine. O(6)-benzylguanine ... Full text Link to item Cite

Temozolomide delivered by intracerebral microinfusion is safe and efficacious against malignant gliomas in rats.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · October 2000 Intracerebral microinfusion (ICM) is an innovative technique of delivering therapeutic agents throughout large portions of the brain that circumvents the blood-brain barrier, minimizes systemic toxicity, and provides a homogeneous distribution of the infus ... Link to item Cite

Glioma-associated antigen expression in oligodendroglial neoplasms. Tenascin and epidermal growth factor receptor.

Journal Article J Histochem Cytochem · August 2000 Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), its variant, EGFRvIII, and tenascin are glioma-associated antigens that are hyperexpressed by neoplastic glial cells relative to normal brain, making them attractive antigenic targets for immunotherapy. Preliminary ... Full text Link to item Cite

Castleman's disease confined to the leptomeninges.

Journal Article Ann Clin Lab Sci · July 2000 We report a rare case of the plasma cell variant of Castleman's disease confined to the leptomeninges in a 42-year-old female. Flow cytometry demonstrated a minor monoclonal kappa light chain population, and conventional Southern blotting confirmed clonal ... Link to item Cite

Pineal epidermoid cysts [9] (multiple letters)

Journal Article Journal of Neurosurgery · May 17, 2000 Cite

Pineal epidermoid cysts.

Journal Article J Neurosurg · May 2000 Full text Link to item Cite

Gliomas of the optic nerve: histological, immunohistochemical (MIB-1 and p53), and MRI analysis.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol · May 2000 Gliomas of the optic nerve, although typically of pilocytic (WHO grade I) histology, can present within the spectrum of astrocytic neoplasia including glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). In certain cases, histologic features alone make the distinction between pil ... Full text Link to item Cite

HAM56 immunoreactivity in infiltrating glial neoplasms.

Journal Article JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY · May 1, 2000 Link to item Cite

Characterization of chromosome 17 abnormalities in medulloblastomas.

Journal Article Acta Neuropathol · April 2000 Loss of portions of chromosome 17p, usually through the formation of i(17qp) is a well-known finding in medulloblastomas. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies, however, occasionally demonstrate loss of the more distal portions of 17p, a pattern which is mo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of patient age with MR imaging features of gangliogliomas.

Journal Article AJR Am J Roentgenol · March 2000 OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare MR imaging features of gangliogliomas in children less than 10 years old with those seen in patients at least 10 years old. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study population consisted of 15 female patients and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Parasitic lesion of the insula suggesting cerebral sparganosis: case report.

Journal Article Neuroradiology · March 2000 Cerebral sparganosis, a parasitic disease, rarely produces a chronic active inflammatory response in the brain. Clinically and radiographically the process may mimic a neoplasm. We report a 30-year-old man who underwent surgical exploration for a mass in t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dosimetry and dose-response relationships in newly diagnosed patients with malignant gliomas treated with iodine-131-labeled anti-tenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 therapy.

Journal Article Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · March 1, 2000 PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to perform the dosimetry and evaluate the dose-response relationships in newly diagnosed patients with malignant brain tumors treated by direct injections of (131)I-labeled 81C6 monoclonal antibody (MAb) into surgic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with tumor homogenate induce immunity against syngeneic intracerebral glioma.

Journal Article J Neuroimmunol · February 1, 2000 To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of dendritic cell (DC) based therapy for intracerebral gliomas, we utilized a cell line derived from an astrocytoma that arose spontaneously in a VM/Dk mouse. This astrocytoma mirrors human gliomas phenotypically, morp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Primary central nervous system lymphomas: a 30-year experience at a single institution.

Journal Article Mod Pathol · December 1999 Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare disease that has been increasing in frequency. Clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical data from 64 cases of PCNSL seen at Duke University Medical Center since 1968 were reviewed and tumors we ... Link to item Cite

A public database for gene expression in human cancers.

Journal Article Cancer Res · November 1, 1999 A public database, SAGEmap, was created as a component of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project to provide a central location for depositing, retrieving, and analyzing human gene expression data. This database uses serial analysis of gene expression to quantif ... Link to item Cite

Electron microscopic diagnosis of human flavivirus encephalitis: use of confocal microscopy as an aid.

Journal Article Am J Surg Pathol · October 1999 The distinction between intracranial viral infections and inflammatory conditions requiring immunosuppression is important. Although specific laboratory reagents are readily available for some viruses, diagnosis of arbovirus infection is more difficult. Tr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Radiotoxicity of systemically administered 211At-labeled human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody: a long-term survival study with histologic analysis.

Journal Article Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · September 1, 1999 PURPOSE: The antitenascin human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody labeled with the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide 211At is of interest as an endoradiotherapeutic agent for the treatment of brain tumors. To facilitate the investigation of 211At-label ... Full text Link to item Cite

Regional treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor vIII-expressing neoplastic meningitis with a single-chain immunotoxin, MR-1.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · September 1999 The incidence of neoplastic meningitis is on the rise. Neoplastic meningitis can result from a direct seeding of the neuraxis by primary brain tumors or by hematogeneous spread of systemic solid tumors. A frequent genetic alteration in primary brain tumors ... Link to item Cite

Molecular genetic aspects of oligodendrogliomas including analysis by comparative genomic hybridization.

Journal Article Am J Pathol · August 1999 Oligodendroglial neoplasms are a subgroup of gliomas with distinctive morphological characteristics. In the present study we have evaluated a series of these tumors to define their molecular profiles and to determine whether there is a relationship between ... Full text Link to item Cite

Treatment of neoplastic meningitis with intrathecal temozolomide.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · May 1999 Neoplastic meningitis (NM) results from leptomeningeal dissemination of cancers arising within the central nervous system or metastasizing to the leptomeninges from systemic neoplasms. The inability to produce therapeutic drug levels intrathecally (i.t.) w ... Link to item Cite

Fine-needle aspiration cytology of "ancient" schwannoma.

Journal Article Diagn Cytopathol · May 1999 The term "ancient" schwannoma was proposed for a group of neural tumors showing degenerative changes and marked nuclear atypia. Prior to the realization that the observed atypia was a regressive phenomenon, many of these lesions were erroneously diagnosed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Irinotecan therapy in adults with recurrent or progressive malignant glioma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · May 1999 PURPOSE: To determine the activity, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of irinotecan (CPT-11, Camptosar; Pharmacia & Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI) in the treatment of adults with progressive, persistent, or recurrent malignant glioma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients w ... Full text Link to item Cite

LONG TERM RECURRENT JUVENILE PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMAS OF THE CEREBELLUM

Journal Article Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology · May 1999 Full text Cite

Malignant supratentorial ganglioglioma (ganglion cell-giant cell glioblastoma): a case report and review of the literature.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · April 1999 BACKGROUND: From both epidemiologic and pathologic viewpoints, gangliogliomas exhibiting components of giant cell glioblastomas are extraordinary neoplasms. We report herein the case of a 6-year-old girl who presented initially with a World Health Organiza ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gangliogliomas: characterization by registered positron emission tomography-MR images.

Journal Article AJR Am J Roentgenol · April 1999 OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to correlate 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and MR imaging features of cerebral gangliogliomas before and after PET-MR image registration. CONCLUSION: After registration of PET and MR imag ... Full text Link to item Cite

Topotecan treatment of adults with primary malignant glioma. The Brain Tumor Center at Duke.

Journal Article Cancer · March 1, 1999 BACKGROUND: Topotecan activity was evaluated for the treatment of malignant glioma. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with newly diagnosed (n = 25) or recurrent (n = 38) malignant glioma were treated with topotecan [AU: Please verify all dosages here and throu ... Link to item Cite

Diagnostic markers in paediatric medulloblastoma: a Paediatric Oncology Group Study.

Journal Article Histopathology · February 1999 AIMS: We have reviewed immunohistochemically 17 paediatric medulloblastomas in order to determine if correlations exist that might be useful in subclassifying these tumours. METHODS AND RESULTS: The patient group included 11 children who had died (mean sur ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meningioma of the fourth ventricle.

Journal Article Clin Neuropathol · 1999 Meningiomas are primary meningeal based tumors of the central nervous system that rarely are located strictly within the fourth ventricle. We report a 72-year-old man operated upon for such a tumor. The pre-operative magnetic resonance images revealed a we ... Link to item Cite

Morphologic and molecular genetic aspects of oligodendroglial neoplasms.

Journal Article Neuro Oncol · January 1999 Morphologic criteria for diagnosing oligodendrogliomas and for classifying them as well-differentiated (World Health Organization grade II) and anaplastic (World Health Organization grade III) are well recognized. Nevertheless, applying these guidelines to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gliomatosis cerebri: cytologic and autopsy findings in a case involving the entire neuraxis.

Journal Article Clin Neuropathol · 1999 We describe the case of a 7-year-old girl who was clinically diagnosed as having a pontine glioma based on magnetic resonance imaging studies. Neoplastic cells were identified upon cytologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid. Autopsy studies revealed an a ... Link to item Cite

Intrathecal busulfan treatment of human neoplastic meningitis in athymic nude rats.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · 1999 The current study was designed to evaluate the toxicity and activity of Spartaject Busulfan, a microcrystalline preparation of busulfan, following its intrathecal administration into a nude rat model of human neoplastic meningitis. Animals were treated thr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gliomas of the optic nerve in children and adults.

Journal Article LABORATORY INVESTIGATION · January 1, 1999 Link to item Cite

DNA mismatch repair and O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase analysis and response to Temodal in newly diagnosed malignant glioma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · December 1998 PURPOSE: We evaluated the response to Temodal (Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, NJ) of patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma, as well as the predictive value of quantifying tumor DNA mismatch repair activity and O6-alkylguanine-DNA ... Full text Link to item Cite

Locally increased uptake of fluorine-18fluorodeoxyglucose after intracavitary administration of iodine-131-labeled antibody for primary brain tumors

Journal Article Journal of Nuclear Medicine · December 1, 1998 After the intracavitary administration of 131l-labeled monoclonal antibody for treatment of primary brain tumors after surgical resection, a persistent rim of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation surrounding the cavity can be observed on PET. This rim ... Cite

Intradural spinal teratoma: evidence for a dysembryogenic origin. Report of four cases.

Journal Article J Neurosurg · November 1998 Intradural spinal teratoma is a rare tumor that can be associated with dysraphic defects. Although the origin of these tumors is traditionally thought to be secondary to primordial germ cells misplaced early in embryogenesis, the pathogenesis of intraspina ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase I trial of O6-benzylguanine for patients undergoing surgery for malignant glioma.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · November 1998 PURPOSE: The major mechanism of resistance to alkylnitrosourea therapy is the DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), which removes chlorethylation or methylation damage from the O6-position of guanine. O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG) is an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Papillary glioneuronal tumor: a new variant of mixed neuronal-glial neoplasm.

Journal Article Am J Surg Pathol · October 1998 We describe the clinicopathologic features of nine cases of a unique papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT) exhibiting astrocytic as well as extensive and varied neuronal differentiation. The four male and five female patients studied ranged in age from 11 to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ependymomas: MIB-1 proliferation index and survival.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · October 1998 The biologic behavior of ependymomas is highly variable, and its correlation with histologic features is at best imprecise. This retrospective study attempted to correlate the malignant histologic characteristics of ependymomas with MIB-1 proliferation ind ... Full text Link to item Cite

Locally increased uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose after intracavitary administration of iodine-131-labeled antibody for primary brain tumors.

Journal Article J Nucl Med · August 1998 UNLABELLED: After the intracavitary administration of 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody for treatment of primary brain tumors after surgical resection, a persistent rim of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation surrounding the cavity can be observed on P ... Link to item Cite

Iodine-131-labeled antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 treatment of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas: phase I trial results.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · June 1998 PURPOSE: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of iodine 131 (131I)-labeled 81C6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in brain tumor patients with surgically created resection cavities (SCRCs) and to identify any objective responses to this treatment. METHODS ... Full text Link to item Cite

Analysis of DNA mismatch repair proteins in human medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · June 1998 During replication, the primary function of the eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is to recognize and correct mismatched base pairs within the DNA helix. Deficiencies in MMR have been reported previously in cases of hereditary nonpolyposis colore ... Link to item Cite

Molecular and immunohistologic (IHC) studies on oligodendroglial (O) tumors

Journal Article JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY · May 1, 1998 Link to item Cite

ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS OF ARBOVIRAL MENINOOENCEPHALITIS

Journal Article Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology · May 1998 Full text Cite

Phase II study of carboplatin (CBDCA) in progressive low-grade gliomas.

Journal Article Neurosurg Focus · April 15, 1998 In this study, the authors sought to investigate the response rate and toxicity of carboplatin in patients with progressive low-grade glioma (LGG). Thirty-two patients with progressive LGG were treated with carboplatin at a dosage of 560 mg/m(2). Treatment ... Full text Link to item Cite

Activity of high-dose cyclophosphamide in the treatment of childhood malignant gliomas.

Journal Article Med Pediatr Oncol · February 1998 Seventeen patients less than or equal to 20 years of age with newly diagnosed (n = 10) or recurrent (n = 7) malignant gliomas (anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme) were treated with cyclophosphamide in association with hematopoietic cytokine ... Full text Link to item Cite

Solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges occurring after irradiation of a mixed germ cell tumor of the pineal gland.

Journal Article Clin Neuropathol · 1998 Twenty-nine months after surgery, irradiation, and systemic chemotherapy for a pineal mixed germ cell tumor, an 11-year-old Caucasian male developed a 3 cm dural based nodule in the occipital lobe that proved to be a solitary fibrous tumor by immunohistoch ... Link to item Cite

PTEN gene mutations are seen in high-grade but not in low-grade gliomas.

Journal Article Cancer Res · October 1, 1997 The PTEN gene, located on 10q23, has recently been implicated as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in brain, breast and prostate tumors. In the present study, 123 brain tumors, including various grades and histological types of gliomas occurring in childre ... Link to item Cite

Cell surface localization and density of the tumor-associated variant of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII.

Journal Article Cancer Res · September 15, 1997 The potential of therapeutic targeting of tumor cell surface epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) by modified ligands or specific antibodies has been limited by the normal tissue distribution of the receptor. The identification and characterization of ... Link to item Cite

Chromosomal characteristics of childhood brain tumors.

Journal Article Cancer Genet Cytogenet · September 1997 In the present cytogenetic analysis of 116 pediatric brain tumors, chromosomal abnormalities were demonstrated in 44 cases, 48 cases revealed only 46,XX or 46,XY cells, and 24 cases were nonproductive. In contrast to studies of adult brain tumors in which ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pseudopapillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT)

Journal Article BRAIN PATHOLOGY · September 1, 1997 Link to item Cite

Malignant supratentorial glial-neuronal neoplasms: report of two cases and review of the literature.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · May 1997 OBJECTIVE: Malignant neoplasms exhibiting mixed populations of neuronal and glial cells occurring in the cerebral hemispheres of young adults and children are well recognized, but rare. A confusing array of diagnostic terms has arisen. We describe two pati ... Link to item Cite

Implantation metastasis of primary malignant rhabdoid tumor of the brain in an adult (one case report).

Journal Article Med Pediatr Oncol · March 1997 Primary malignant rhabdoid tumor (PMRT) of the brain is a rare and recently described neoplasm of youth. We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and pathology of one case of PMRT in an adult which seeded along the needle track ... Full text Link to item Cite

False positive images in the follow-up of patients with brain tumors.

Journal Article Med Pediatr Oncol · February 1997 In recent years, major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with brain tumors have been seen. Today, evaluation of the central nervous system almost always includes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The appearance of a new lesion on the MRI ... Full text Link to item Cite

Craniocerebral plasmacytoma: MR features.

Journal Article AJNR Am J Neuroradiol · February 1997 We report the MR imaging findings in two patients with solitary craniocerebral plasmacytoma, a benign plasma cell tumor that can arise from the skull, the dura, or, rarely, the brain. In both patients, the lesion was extraaxial and nearly isointense with g ... Link to item Cite

Intraarterial O6-benzylguanine enables the specific therapy of nitrosourea-resistant intracranial human glioma xenografts in athymic rats with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea.

Journal Article Cancer Chemother Pharmacol · 1997 The prognosis for patients with malignant gliomas continues to be dismal. The high degree of resistance of gliomas to nitrosourea-based chemotherapy is one major factor in poor treatment outcome. The identification of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase ( ... Full text Link to item Cite

2013 The impact of hypoxia and oxygenation modification on the radiation response of an intracranial rat glioma

Journal Article International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics · January 1997 Full text Cite

Gliomatosis cerebri presenting with optic nerve involvement: MRI.

Journal Article Neuroradiology · November 1996 Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare form of astrocytoma characterized by extreme infiltration of the brain structure in conjunction with a relative paucity of clinical findings. We describe the MRI findings in a patient with gliomatosis cerebri widely infiltrati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Successful treatment of childhood pilocytic astrocytomas metastatic to the leptomeninges with high-dose cyclophosphamide.

Journal Article Med Pediatr Oncol · July 1996 Leptomeningeal dissemination of childhood pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a rare event with little information available regarding therapy. We report here four children with disseminated PA whom we treated with high doses of cyclophosphamide with clinical be ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intrathecal 131I-labeled antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 treatment of patients with leptomeningeal neoplasms or primary brain tumor resection cavities with subarachnoid communication: phase I trial results.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · June 1996 We aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 131I-labeled 81C6 in patients with leptomeningeal neoplasms or brain tumor resection cavities with subarachnoid communication and to identify any objective responses. 81C6 is a murine IgG monoclonal ... Link to item Cite

Treatment of patients with pineoblastoma with high dose cyclophosphamide.

Journal Article Med Pediatr Oncol · June 1996 The outcome for patients with pineoblastoma has historically been very poor, with most patients dying of disseminated disease despite irradiation. Furthermore, the low incidence of this tumor has hindered progress toward defining better treatment strategie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Production and characterization of two ependymoma xenografts.

Journal Article J Neuropathol Exp Neurol · May 1996 Childhood ependymomas exhibit epidemiologic, anatomic, histologic, and biologic features and distinguish them from other gliomas. Because of their propensity to grow in functionally sensitive regions of the brain, adequate tumor sampling for basic and ther ... Full text Link to item Cite

Castleman's disease (plasma cell variant) confined to the leptomeninges.

Journal Article JOURNAL OF NEUROPATHOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY · May 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

Spinal angiolipomas: MR features.

Journal Article AJNR Am J Neuroradiol · April 1996 PURPOSE: To determine the MR features of spinal angiolipomas and to compare these findings with their histologic appearance. METHODS: The MR examinations of three patients with surgically proved angiolipomas were reviewed for tumor location and extent, sig ... Link to item Cite

Ganglion cell-containing tumors of the pituitary gland.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · April 1996 The ganglion cell-containing tumors of the pituitary are rare lesions of undetermined histogenesis and nosology. A review of the literature revealed 42 such tumors, including the 3 cases described below. On the basis of this review, the tumors were divided ... Link to item Cite

Radiotoxicity of systematically administered [211At]astatide in B6C3F1 and BALB/c (nu/nu) mice: a long-term survival study with histologic analysis.

Journal Article Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · April 1, 1996 PURPOSE: The present study undertook to establish the dose (LD) of systematically administered (via tail vein) sodium [211At]astatide that would kill 10% (LD10) of exposed animals in two mouse models and to evaluate the resulting histologic lesions. METHOD ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microsatellite analysis of childhood brain tumors.

Journal Article Genes Chromosomes Cancer · January 1996 Loss of heterozygosity at specific chromosomal locations has been taken as evidence of a tumor suppressor gene located in that area. We performed a genomic allelotyping study on 46 childhood brain tumors of different histopathological types in order to ide ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy of compartmental administration of immunotoxin LMB-1 (B3-LysPE38) in a rat model of carcinomatous meningitis.

Journal Article Clin Cancer Res · December 1995 LMB-1 (B3-LysPE38) is an immunotoxin composed of the tumor-reactive monoclonal antibody B3 and a genetically engineered form of Pseudomonas exotoxin. Monoclonal antibody B3 reacts with a carbohydrate epitope that is found on a number of solid tumors (e.g., ... Link to item Cite

Tumor antigens in astrocytic gliomas.

Journal Article Glia · November 1995 Gliomas affect 15,000 to 17,000 Americans every year and carry a dismal prognosis. The potential of immunologically mediated diagnosis and therapy, although greatly enhanced since the advent of monoclonal antibodies, has not been fully realized due to sign ... Full text Link to item Cite

MRI of papillary meningiomas in children.

Journal Article Pediatr Radiol · November 1995 We report two cases of papillary meningioma in children. The MRI appearance of this special type of meningioma is described for the first time. Both lesions were dura based and associated with cystic components. We review the literature pertaining to this ... Link to item Cite

Intraarterial administration of melphalan for treatment of intracranial human glioma xenografts in athymic rats.

Journal Article Cancer Res · September 1, 1995 Malignant gliomas will affect 15,000-17,000 Americans each year and carry a dismal prognosis. Adjuvant chemotherapy is hampered by inadequate drug delivery, systemic toxicity, and a markedly variable biological sensitivity. Intraarterial (i.a.) therapy may ... Link to item Cite

Frontoethmoidal giant cell reparative granuloma.

Journal Article AJNR Am J Neuroradiol · August 1995 We present a case of a giant cell reparative granuloma of the frontoethmoidal region that had a large intracranial extraaxial component and was studied with MR. Although rare, giant cell reparative granuloma can be suggested in the correct clinical setting ... Link to item Cite

Monoclonal antibodies against EGFRvIII are tumor specific and react with breast and lung carcinomas and malignant gliomas.

Journal Article Cancer Res · July 15, 1995 Despite molecular biological advances in understanding human cancers, translation into therapy has been less forthcoming; targeting neoplastic cells still requires that tumor-specific markers, preferably those on the cell surface, be identified. The epider ... Link to item Cite

Chromosome 10 deletion mapping in human gliomas: a common deletion region in 10q25.

Other Oncogene · June 1, 1995 The high incidence of loss of chromosome 10 alleles in glioblastoma multiforme suggests the presence on this chromosome of a tumor suppressor gene that is important in glioma tumorigenesis and progression. Our initial deletion mapping studies using restric ... Link to item Cite

Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis complicated with brain abscess: a case report.

Journal Article Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) · June 1995 Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is used to describe the rare clinical syndrome of cerebral infection caused by dematiaceous (i.e. pigmented olivaceous-brown) fungi. It usually presents as brain abscess. In view of the rarity of this fungal infection and its cli ... Link to item Cite

A pial window model for the intracranial study of human glioma microvascular function.

Journal Article Neurosurgery · May 1995 A new model for human brain tumor uses the intracranial placement of tumor xenografts under transparent glass cranial windows in nude rats, which require no immunosuppression for tumor engraftment. Adult male nude rats underwent implantation of human anapl ... Full text Link to item Cite

SYNCHRONOUS EPENDYMO-GLIOMAS

Conference Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology · May 1995 Full text Cite

MIB-1 (Ki-67 ANTIGEN) LABELING INDICES IN NON-NEOPLASTIC GLIAL CELL PROLIFERATIONS

Journal Article Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology · May 1995 Full text Cite

Shadow cells in an intracranial dermoid cyst.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · April 1995 A case of an intracranial dermoid cyst containing shadow cells is presented. This case expands the group of lesions in which shadow cells, indicative of hair matrical differentiation, have been described. ... Link to item Cite

Intrathecal administration of single-chain immunotoxin, LMB-7 [B3(Fv)-PE38], produces cures of carcinomatous meningitis in a rat model.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · March 28, 1995 LMB-7 [B3(Fv)-PE38] is a single-chain immunotoxin constructed from the murine monoclonal antibody B3 and a truncated from of Pseudomonas exotoxin PE38. Antibody B3 recognizes a carbohydrate epitope found on solid tumors that frequently invade the intrathec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inhibition of epidural scar formation after lumbar laminectomy in the rat.

Journal Article Spine (Phila Pa 1976) · March 1, 1995 STUDY DESIGN: An animal model of laminectomy in rats was used to study scar tissue formation around the spinal cord. Dexamethasone, in controlled-release form, was tested in this system for its ability to decrease fibrous tissue formation. OBJECTIVES: The ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prognostic implications of chromosome 17p deletions in human medulloblastomas.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · 1995 DNA derived from medulloblastoma biopsies was analyzed to determine if deletions of the 17p region, mutations of the TP53 gene, or amplification of the c-myc, N-myc, EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), or MDM2 (murine double-minute-2) genes was indica ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase I studies of treatment of malignant gliomas and neoplastic meningitis with 131I-radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies anti-tenascin 81C6 and anti-chondroitin proteoglycan sulfate Me1-14 F (ab')2--a preliminary report.

Journal Article J Neurooncol · 1995 The advent of monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology has made Ehrlich's postulate of the 'magic bullet' an attainable goal. Although specific localization of polyvalent antibodies to human gliomas was demonstrated in the 1960s, the lack of specific, high aff ... Full text Link to item Cite

Post-traumatic epidermoid cyst: CT appearance.

Other J Comput Assist Tomogr · 1995 We report development of an intracranial epidermoid cyst 2 years after a depressed skull fracture. The epidermoid cyst is presumed to be the result of introduction of epidermal elements at the time of trauma. Post-traumatic intracranial epidermoid cysts ar ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intrathecal melphalan therapy of human neoplastic meningitis in athymic nude rats.

Journal Article Cancer Res · September 1, 1994 We report the activity and toxicity of intrathecal melphalan in the treatment of human neoplastic meningitis in the subarachnoid space of athymic nude rats. Animals received injections via chronic indwelling subarachnoid catheters with 5 x 10(5) or 5 x 10( ... Link to item Cite

Radioimmunotherapy of neoplastic meningitis in rats using an alpha-particle-emitting immunoconjugate.

Journal Article Cancer Res · September 1, 1994 Because of their short range and high linear energy transfer, alpha-particles may be particularly effective in the treatment of neoplastic meningitis. Monoclonal antibody 81C6 was labeled with alpha-particle-emitting 211At using N-succinimidyl3-[211At]asta ... Link to item Cite

Immunohistochemistry of the glial fibrillary acidic protein: basic and applied considerations.

Journal Article Brain Pathol · July 1994 The immunohistochemical localization of glial fibrillary acidic protein has proven its utility in the histologic identification of benign astrocytes and neoplastic cells of glial lineage in the central nervous system. Its application in the developing nerv ... Full text Link to item Cite

Alterations of the TP53 gene in human gliomas.

Journal Article Cancer Res · March 1, 1994 Glial tumors of all grades and histological types from 72 adults and 48 children were analyzed for mutations of the TP53 gene, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for 17p, and accumulation of TP53 protein to determine whether the incidence and type of TP53 altera ... Link to item Cite

Altered expression of ganglioside phenotypes of human gliomas in vivo and in vitro.

Journal Article Mol Chem Neuropathol · 1994 A library of epitope-defined antiganglioside monoclonal antibodies has been used to analyze the ganglioside phenotype of human glioma cell lines, rodent xenografts derived from them, and a separate panel of human glioma biopsies by multiple quantitative an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Well differentiated astrocytoma occurring nine years after radiation therapy for medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Clin Neuropathol · 1994 Conventional treatment for medulloblastoma includes surgical resection followed by craniospinal irradiation, with the potential risk of subsequent radiotherapy-induced secondary neoplasms. We report a 23-year-old woman previously irradiated nine years earl ... Link to item Cite

Arteriovenous malformation mimicking recurrent medulloblastoma.

Journal Article Med Pediatr Oncol · 1994 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the method of choice for evaluation of central nervous system tumors. However, the sensitivity of this modality raises concern that new lesions in patients previously diagnosed with a brain tumor may not necessa ... Full text Link to item Cite

COMPOSITE NEUROBLASTOMA MALIGNANT GLIOMA

Journal Article LABORATORY INVESTIGATION · January 1, 1994 Link to item Cite

Intraarterial therapy of human glioma xenografts in athymic rats using 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide.

Journal Article Cancer Res · May 15, 1993 The addition of chemotherapy, notably using nitrosoureas, in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma multiforme has resulted in only modest improvements in long-term patient survival over the use of surgical intervention and irradiation alone. Intraart ... Link to item Cite

NEUROPATHOLOGY OF MULTIPLE VERSUS SINGLE DOSE INTRATHECAL MELPHALAN IN RATS

Conference Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology · May 1993 Full text Cite

EXPRESSION OF C-MYC IN MEDULLOBLASTOMA XENOGRAFTS

Journal Article Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology · May 1993 Full text Cite

Lactotetraose series ganglioside 3',6'-isoLD1 in tumors of central nervous and other systems in vitro and in vivo.

Journal Article Cancer Res · January 1, 1993 Two monoclonal antibodies, DMAb-21 and DMAb-22, directed against the lactotetraose series ganglioside-associated epitope IV3NeuAc,III6-NeuAcLcOse4Cer (3',6'-isoLD1), were found to define the minimum binding epitope NeuAc(or NeuGc)alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-3(NeuA ... Link to item Cite

MRI of gangliocytoma of cerebellum and spinal cord.

Other J Comput Assist Tomogr · 1993 Gangliocytomas are rare CNS tumors that occur in children and young adults. We present a case of a cerebellar gangliocytoma with invasion of the cervical spinal cord demonstrated on MR. Radiographic differentiation of gangliocytomas from other ganglion cel ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intraarterial Therapy of Human Glioma Xenografts in Athymic Rats Using 4-Hydroperoxycyclophosphamide

Journal Article Cancer Research · January 1, 1993 The addition of chemotherapy, notably using nitrosoureas, in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma multiforme has resulted in only modest improvements in long-term patient survival over the use of surgical intervention and irradiation alone. Intraart ... Cite

The application of monoclonal antibodies in the cytologic evaluation of tumors.

Journal Article Clin Lab Med · March 1990 The focus of this review has been the application of MAbs as adjuncts in the interpretation of cytology specimens. It is evident that most if not all of the MAbs studied thus far are neither completely tumor-specific nor -sensitive; however, when used to a ... Link to item Cite

Adipose tissue in the filum terminale: a computed tomographic finding that may indicate tethering of the spinal cord.

Journal Article Neurosurgery · May 1988 Adipose tissue in the filum terminale is frequently associated with tethering of the spinal cord in patients with spina bifida occulta. We recently saw a patient with low back pain and no spina bifida occulta, in whom adipose tissue was noted in the area o ... Link to item Cite

Intracerebral malignant melanoma: high-field-strength MR imaging.

Journal Article Radiology · October 1987 Thirteen patients with intracerebral malignant melanoma underwent high-field-strength (1.5-T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The images were correlated with computed tomography (CT) scans (n = 7) and surgical specimens (n = 7). Most commonly, these lesio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparative localization of glioma-reactive monoclonal antibodies in vivo in an athymic mouse human glioma xenograft model.

Journal Article J Neuroimmunol · May 1987 Radioiodinated murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) 81C6, Me 1-14, C12, D12, and E9, made against or reactive with human gliomas but not normal brain, and Mab UJ13A, a pan-neuroectodermal Mab reactive with normal human glial and neural cells, were evaluated ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinicopathologic correlations in the oligodendroglioma.

Journal Article Cancer · April 1, 1987 To determine the prognostic significance of histologic variables in oligodendroglial neoplasms, the presence and degree of 15 such variables were correlated with postoperative survival rates in 71 patients. By univariate analysis, prognostically significan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Perineural tumor extension to the cavernous sinus from superficial facial carcinoma: CT manifestations.

Journal Article Radiology · November 1986 The mechanism of cavernous sinus involvement by metastatic carcinoma from a facial primary tumor is poorly understood. The lack of lymphatic and obvious direct extension implicate either a vascular or perineural method of spread. The authors describe four ... Full text Link to item Cite

Production and characterization of two human glioma xenograft-localizing monoclonal antibodies.

Journal Article Cancer Res · November 1986 Multiple fusions following immunization of athymic mice with the extensively characterized human glioma cell line D-54 MG resulted in the selection of several antibodies (Mabs) highly reactive with tumors of neuroectodermal origin and unreactive with norma ... Link to item Cite

The immunohistochemical application of three anti-GFAP monoclonal antibodies to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, normal and neoplastic brain tissues.

Journal Article J Neuropathol Exp Neurol · November 1986 The intermediate filament, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) has proven to be an important glial marker in diagnostic neuropathology. We report the histochemical application of three monoclonal antibodies (Mab) produced in this laboratory, 1B4, 2E1, a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adult respiratory distress syndrome after limited thoracic radiotherapy.

Journal Article Cancer · May 15, 1986 The authors report three patients who developed fatal respiratory failure after limited or unilateral thoracic radiation therapy for neoplasms. The respiratory failure was characteristic of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with refractory hyp ... Full text Link to item Cite

ELECTRON-PROBE MICROANALYSIS OF HALLERVORDEN-SPATZ DISEASE

Journal Article AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY · March 1, 1986 Link to item Cite

MULTIPLE INFARCTS AND ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE MIMICKING HUNTINGTONS-DISEASE

Journal Article LABORATORY INVESTIGATION · January 1, 1986 Link to item Cite

Carcinoma of the lung with osseous stromal metaplasia.

Journal Article Arch Pathol Lab Med · November 1985 Calcification has long been a determinant in the radiologic distinction of a benign pulmonary mass. However, rare examples of calcification without ossification in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and ossification in the bronchial carcinoid have led some investiga ... Link to item Cite

The glioblastoma multiforme in Georgia, 1977-1981.

Journal Article Cancer · August 15, 1985 To characterize the incidence and mortality of the glioblastoma multiforme as it is seen at the primary care level, a retrospective study was done through the Georgia Tumor Registry on 299 patients with histologically confirmed supratentorial glioblastoma ... Full text Link to item Cite

PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 3 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES (MAs) TO GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN (GFAP)

Journal Article Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology · May 1985 Full text Cite

Cerebral polygyria in the Chiari Type II (Arnold-Chiari) malformation.

Journal Article Clin Neuropathol · 1985 Abnormalities of the cerebral cortical pattern have been observed in association with the Chiari Type II malformation and described as polymicrogyria, microgyria, stenogyria or polygyria. In order to characterize and quantify these abnormalities, the sulca ... Link to item Cite

POLYMICROGYRIA IN THE CHIARI TYPE-II (ARNOLD-CHIARI) MALFORMATION

Journal Article LABORATORY INVESTIGATION · January 1, 1985 Link to item Cite

Metabolic variation among rat lumbosacral alpha-motoneurons.

Journal Article Histochemistry · 1983 Despite the wealth of literature concerned with muscle fiber biochemical, ultrastructural and physiological characteristics, little information is available regarding the metabolic enzyme activities of alpha-motoneurons. The present study examines the meta ... Full text Link to item Cite

Alternative method for quantitative enzyme histochemistry of muscle fibers. Application of photographic densitometry combined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Journal Article Histochemistry · 1982 The present study examines the use of photographic densitometry combined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the quantitation of enzyme activities (SDH and ATPase) in fresh frozen sections of rat tibialis anterior muscles. The technique eliminates ... Full text Link to item Cite