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Vance Garrison Fowler Jr.

Florence McAlister Distinguished Professor of Medicine
Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Duke Box 102359, Hanes House, Trent Drive, Durham, NC 27710
Room 183, Hanes House, 315 Trent Drive, Durham, NC 27710

Selected Publications


Use of Transcriptional Signatures to Differentiate Pathogen-Specific and Treatment-Specific Host Responses in Patients With Bacterial Bloodstream Infections.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · May 15, 2024 BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes in bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are influenced by bacterial species, host immunity, and antibiotic therapy. The mechanisms by which such factors influence outcomes are poorly understood. We aimed to identify bacteri ... Full text Link to item Cite

External Validation of the 2023 Duke-International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases Diagnostic Criteria for Infective Endocarditis.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · April 10, 2024 BACKGROUND: The 2023 Duke-International Society of Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCVID) criteria for infective endocarditis (IE) were introduced to improve classification of IE for research and clinical purposes. External validation studies are requ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Plasma Microbial Cell-Free DNA Sequencing in Immunocompromised Patients With Pneumonia: A Prospective Observational Study.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 20, 2024 BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality, yet a causative pathogen is identified in a minority of cases. Plasma microbial cell-free DNA sequencing may improve diagnostic yield in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

In vitro activity of sulbactam-durlobactam against colistin-resistant and/or cefiderocol-non-susceptible, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii collected in U.S. hospitals.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · March 6, 2024 The activity of a novel β-lactamase inhibitor combination, sulbactam-durlobactam (SUL-DUR), was tested against 87 colistin-resistant and/or cefiderocol-non-susceptible carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates collected from U.S. hospi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Feasibility of tracking invasive Escherichia coli disease among older adults in a community setting: A prospective observational study.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · March 2024 PURPOSE: Invasive Escherichia coli disease (IED) encompasses a diverse range of sterile site infections. This study evaluated the feasibility of capturing IED among community-dwelling older adults to inform the implementation of a phase 3 efficacy trial of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical Outcomes and Bacterial Characteristics of Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Among Patients From Different Global Regions.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 17, 2024 BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) is 1 of the most problematic antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. We sought to elucidate the international epidemiology and clinical impact of CRAb. METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort ... Full text Link to item Cite

Moving Beyond Mortality: Development and Application of a Desirability of Outcome Ranking (DOOR) Endpoint for Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 17, 2024 BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) are frequently caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. Patient-centered endpoints in clinical trials are needed to develop new antibiotics for HABP/VABP. Desirability ... Full text Link to item Cite

Female Sex and Mortality in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · February 5, 2024 IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of death due to bacterial bloodstream infection. Female sex has been identified as a risk factor for mortality in S aureus bacteremia (SAB) in some studies, but not in others. OBJECTIVE: To determine w ... Full text Link to item Cite

In-patient evolution of a high-persister Escherichia coli strain with reduced in vivo antibiotic susceptibility.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · January 16, 2024 Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections (GNB-BSI) are common and frequently lethal. Despite appropriate antibiotic treatment, relapse of GNB-BSI with the same bacterial strain is common and associated with poor clinical outcomes and high healthcare ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exebacase in Addition to Standard-of-Care Antibiotics for Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections and Right-Sided Infective Endocarditis: A Phase 3, Superiority-Design, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial (DISRUPT).

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · January 2024 BackgroundNovel treatments are needed for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, particularly for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Exebacase is a first-in-class antistaphylococcal lysin that is rapidly bactericidal and synergizes with antibiotic ... Full text Cite

Lead Extraction and Mortality Among Patients With Cardiac Implanted Electronic Device Infection.

Journal Article JAMA Cardiol · December 1, 2023 IMPORTANCE: Complete hardware removal is a class I recommendation for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection, but practice patterns and outcomes remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of Medicare patients with CIED infecti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply to author.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 17, 2023 Full text Link to item Cite

Risk Factors and Outcomes of Hematogenous Vertebral Osteomyelitis in Patients With Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 11, 2023 BACKGROUND: Hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis (HVOM) is an incompletely understood complication of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Eligible SAB patients with and without HVOM were prospectively enrolled from 1995 through 2019 at Duke Un ... Full text Link to item Cite

Daily fosfomycin versus levofloxacin for complicated urinary tract infections.

Journal Article mBio · October 31, 2023 Concerns over resistance and safety have been identified in the current treatment regimen for complicated urinary tract infections. Fosfomycin is a drug that is routinely used for the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis. This study shows that fosfomycin co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inflammasome-mediated glucose limitation induces antibiotic tolerance in Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article iScience · October 20, 2023 Staphylococcus aureus is a leading human pathogen that frequently causes relapsing infections. The failure of antibiotics to eradicate infection contributes to infection relapse. Host-pathogen interactions have a substantial impact on antibiotic susceptibi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Priorities and Progress in Gram-positive Bacterial Infection Research by the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: A Narrative Review.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 16, 2023 The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) has prioritized infections caused by gram-positive bacteria as one of its core areas of emphasis. The ARLG Gram-positive Committee has focused on studies responding to 3 main identified research prioriti ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Future Ain't What It Used to Be…Out With the Old…In With the Better: Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group Innovations.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 16, 2023 Clinical research networks conduct important studies that would not otherwise be performed by other entities. In the case of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG), such studies include diagnostic studies using master protocols, controlled ph ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: Scientific Advancements and Future Directions.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 16, 2023 In this overview, we describe important contributions from the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) to patient care, clinical trials design, and mentorship while outlining future priorities. The ARLG research agenda is focused on 3 key areas: g ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of Transcriptional Signatures to Differentiate Pathogen-Specific and Treatment-Specific Host Responses in Patients With Bacterial Bloodstream Infections.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · May 15, 2024 BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes in bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are influenced by bacterial species, host immunity, and antibiotic therapy. The mechanisms by which such factors influence outcomes are poorly understood. We aimed to identify bacteri ... Full text Link to item Cite

External Validation of the 2023 Duke-International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases Diagnostic Criteria for Infective Endocarditis.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · April 10, 2024 BACKGROUND: The 2023 Duke-International Society of Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCVID) criteria for infective endocarditis (IE) were introduced to improve classification of IE for research and clinical purposes. External validation studies are requ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Plasma Microbial Cell-Free DNA Sequencing in Immunocompromised Patients With Pneumonia: A Prospective Observational Study.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 20, 2024 BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality, yet a causative pathogen is identified in a minority of cases. Plasma microbial cell-free DNA sequencing may improve diagnostic yield in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

In vitro activity of sulbactam-durlobactam against colistin-resistant and/or cefiderocol-non-susceptible, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii collected in U.S. hospitals.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · March 6, 2024 The activity of a novel β-lactamase inhibitor combination, sulbactam-durlobactam (SUL-DUR), was tested against 87 colistin-resistant and/or cefiderocol-non-susceptible carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates collected from U.S. hospi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Feasibility of tracking invasive Escherichia coli disease among older adults in a community setting: A prospective observational study.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · March 2024 PURPOSE: Invasive Escherichia coli disease (IED) encompasses a diverse range of sterile site infections. This study evaluated the feasibility of capturing IED among community-dwelling older adults to inform the implementation of a phase 3 efficacy trial of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical Outcomes and Bacterial Characteristics of Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Among Patients From Different Global Regions.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 17, 2024 BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) is 1 of the most problematic antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. We sought to elucidate the international epidemiology and clinical impact of CRAb. METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort ... Full text Link to item Cite

Moving Beyond Mortality: Development and Application of a Desirability of Outcome Ranking (DOOR) Endpoint for Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 17, 2024 BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) are frequently caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. Patient-centered endpoints in clinical trials are needed to develop new antibiotics for HABP/VABP. Desirability ... Full text Link to item Cite

Female Sex and Mortality in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · February 5, 2024 IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of death due to bacterial bloodstream infection. Female sex has been identified as a risk factor for mortality in S aureus bacteremia (SAB) in some studies, but not in others. OBJECTIVE: To determine w ... Full text Link to item Cite

In-patient evolution of a high-persister Escherichia coli strain with reduced in vivo antibiotic susceptibility.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · January 16, 2024 Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections (GNB-BSI) are common and frequently lethal. Despite appropriate antibiotic treatment, relapse of GNB-BSI with the same bacterial strain is common and associated with poor clinical outcomes and high healthcare ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exebacase in Addition to Standard-of-Care Antibiotics for Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections and Right-Sided Infective Endocarditis: A Phase 3, Superiority-Design, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial (DISRUPT).

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · January 2024 BackgroundNovel treatments are needed for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, particularly for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Exebacase is a first-in-class antistaphylococcal lysin that is rapidly bactericidal and synergizes with antibiotic ... Full text Cite

Lead Extraction and Mortality Among Patients With Cardiac Implanted Electronic Device Infection.

Journal Article JAMA Cardiol · December 1, 2023 IMPORTANCE: Complete hardware removal is a class I recommendation for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection, but practice patterns and outcomes remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of Medicare patients with CIED infecti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply to author.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 17, 2023 Full text Link to item Cite

Risk Factors and Outcomes of Hematogenous Vertebral Osteomyelitis in Patients With Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 11, 2023 BACKGROUND: Hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis (HVOM) is an incompletely understood complication of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Eligible SAB patients with and without HVOM were prospectively enrolled from 1995 through 2019 at Duke Un ... Full text Link to item Cite

Daily fosfomycin versus levofloxacin for complicated urinary tract infections.

Journal Article mBio · October 31, 2023 Concerns over resistance and safety have been identified in the current treatment regimen for complicated urinary tract infections. Fosfomycin is a drug that is routinely used for the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis. This study shows that fosfomycin co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inflammasome-mediated glucose limitation induces antibiotic tolerance in Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article iScience · October 20, 2023 Staphylococcus aureus is a leading human pathogen that frequently causes relapsing infections. The failure of antibiotics to eradicate infection contributes to infection relapse. Host-pathogen interactions have a substantial impact on antibiotic susceptibi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Priorities and Progress in Gram-positive Bacterial Infection Research by the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: A Narrative Review.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 16, 2023 The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) has prioritized infections caused by gram-positive bacteria as one of its core areas of emphasis. The ARLG Gram-positive Committee has focused on studies responding to 3 main identified research prioriti ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Future Ain't What It Used to Be…Out With the Old…In With the Better: Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group Innovations.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 16, 2023 Clinical research networks conduct important studies that would not otherwise be performed by other entities. In the case of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG), such studies include diagnostic studies using master protocols, controlled ph ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: Scientific Advancements and Future Directions.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 16, 2023 In this overview, we describe important contributions from the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) to patient care, clinical trials design, and mentorship while outlining future priorities. The ARLG research agenda is focused on 3 key areas: g ... Full text Link to item Cite

Priorities and Progress in Gram-negative Bacterial Infection Research by the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 16, 2023 Addressing the treatment and prevention of antibacterial-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections is a priority area of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). The ARLG has conducted a series of observational studies to define the clinica ... Full text Link to item Cite

Under the Hood: The Scientific Leadership, Clinical Operations, Statistical and Data Management, and Laboratory Centers of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 16, 2023 Developing and implementing the scientific agenda of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) by soliciting input and proposals, transforming concepts into clinical trials, conducting those trials, and translating trial data analyses into actio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Global Differences in the Management of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: No International Standard of Care.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 13, 2023 BACKGROUND: Despite being the leading cause of mortality from bloodstream infections worldwide, little is known about regional variation in treatment practices for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). The aim of this study was to identify global variati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ceftobiprole for Treatment of Complicated Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · October 12, 2023 BACKGROUND: Ceftobiprole is a cephalosporin that may be effective for treating complicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial, adults with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Candidemia in thoracic solid organ transplant recipients: Characteristics and outcomes relative to matched uninfected and bacteremic thoracic organ transplant recipients.

Journal Article Clin Transplant · September 2023 BACKGROUND: Little is understood about the risk factors and outcomes from candidemia in thoracic solid organ transplant recipients. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing heart or lung transplant between January ... Full text Link to item Cite

The association of female sex with management and mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · September 2023 OBJECTIVES: The association of biological female sex with outcome in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia remains unresolved. The aim of this study was to determine the independent association of female sex with management and mortality in patie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Preclinical safety and efficacy characterization of an LpxC inhibitor against Gram-negative pathogens.

Journal Article Sci Transl Med · August 9, 2023 The UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxyacyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase LpxC is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of lipid A, the outer membrane anchor of lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria. The development of LpxC-targeting a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Which trial do we need? Next-generation sequencing to individualize therapy in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

Journal Article Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases · August 2023 Full text Cite

Exploration of a Potential Desirability of Outcome Ranking Endpoint for Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections Using 9 Registrational Trials for Antibacterial Drugs.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · August 2023 BackgroundDesirability of outcome ranking (DOOR) is a novel approach to clinical trial design that incorporates safety and efficacy assessments into an ordinal ranking system to evaluate overall outcomes of clinical trial participants. Here, we de ... Full text Open Access Cite

International Epidemiology of Carbapenemase-Producing Escherichia coli.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · August 2023 BackgroundCarbapenemase-producing (CP) Escherichia coli (CP-Ec) are a global public health threat. We aimed to describe the clinical and molecular epidemiology and outcomes of patients from several countries with CP-Ec isolates obtained from a pro ... Full text Cite

The 2023 Duke-International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases Criteria for Infective Endocarditis: Updating the Modified Duke Criteria.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · August 2023 The microbiology, epidemiology, diagnostics, and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) have changed significantly since the Duke Criteria were published in 1994 and modified in 2000. The International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCV ... Full text Cite

Escherichia coli ST131 Associated with Increased Mortality in Bloodstream Infections from Urinary Tract Source.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · July 20, 2023 Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a globally dominant multidrug-resistant clone, although its clinical impact on patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) is incompletely understood. This study aims to further define the risk factors, clinical ... Full text Link to item Cite

Longer-term Mortality and Kidney Outcomes of Participants in the Combination Antibiotics for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAMERA2) Trial: A Post Hoc Analysis.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · July 2023 BACKGROUND: The Combination Antibiotic Therapy for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAMERA2) trial ceased recruitment in July 2018, noting that a higher proportion of patients in the intervention arm (combination therapy) developed acute kidney ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mapping disease regulatory circuits at cell-type resolution from single-cell multiomics data.

Journal Article Nat Comput Sci · July 2023 Resolving chromatin-remodeling-linked gene expression changes at cell-type resolution is important for understanding disease states. Here we describe MAGICAL (Multiome Accessibility Gene Integration Calling and Looping), a hierarchical Bayesian approach th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human Immune Cell Epigenomic Signatures in Response to Infectious Diseases and Chemical Exposures.

Journal Article bioRxiv · June 30, 2023 Variations in DNA methylation patterns in human tissues have been linked to various environmental exposures and infections. Here, we identified the DNA methylation signatures associated with multiple exposures in nine major immune cell types derived from p ... Full text Link to item Cite

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Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 8, 2023 Full text Link to item Cite

Black and White Patients With Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Have Similar Outcomes but Different Risk Factors.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · April 3, 2023 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) disproportionately affects Black patients. The reasons for this disparity are unclear. METHODS: We evaluated a prospectively ascertained cohort of patients with SAB from 1995 to 2020. Clinical characterist ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of adherence to individual quality-of-care indicators on the prognosis of bloodstream infection due to Staphylococcus aureus: a prospective observational multicentre cohort.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · April 2023 OBJECTIVES: To analyse the adherence and impact of quality-of-care indicators (QCIs) in the management of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection in a prospective and multicentre cohort. METHODS: Analysis of the prospective, multicentre international S ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiological Changes and Improvement in Outcomes of Infective Endocarditis in Europe in the Twenty-First Century: An International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) Prospective Cohort Study (2000–2012)

Journal Article Infectious Diseases and Therapy · April 1, 2023 Introduction: Infective endocarditis (IE) has undergone important changes in its epidemiology worldwide. Methods: The study aimed to compare IE epidemiological features and outcomes according to predefined European regions and between two different time pe ... Full text Cite

Correction to: Persistent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: Resetting the Clock for Optimal Management.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · April 2023 Full text Open Access Cite

Clinically Adjudicated Reference Standards for Evaluation of Infectious Diseases Diagnostics.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 4, 2023 Lack of a gold standard can present a challenge for evaluation of diagnostic test accuracy of some infectious diseases tests, particularly when the test's accuracy potentially exceeds that of its predecessors. This approach may measure agreement with an im ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Global epidemiology and clinical outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and associated carbapenemases (POP): a prospective cohort study.

Journal Article Lancet Microbe · March 2023 BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) is a global threat, but the distribution and clinical significance of carbapenemases are unclear. The aim of this study was to define characteristics and outcomes of CRPA infections and the glo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Persistent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: Host, Pathogen, and Treatment.

Journal Article Antibiotics (Basel) · February 24, 2023 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a devastating pathogen responsible for a variety of life-threatening infections. A distinctive characteristic of this pathogen is its ability to persist in the bloodstream for several days despite seemi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microbial Cell-Free DNA Identifies the Causative Pathogen in Infective Endocarditis and Remains Detectable Longer Than Conventional Blood Culture in Patients with Prior Antibiotic Therapy.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 8, 2023 BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) can be difficult, particularly if blood cultures fail to yield a pathogen. This study evaluates the potential utility of microbial cell-free DNA (mcfDNA) as a tool to identify the microbial etiology ... Full text Link to item Cite

Improving Traditional Registrational Trial End Points: Development and Application of a Desirability of Outcome Ranking End Point for Complicated Urinary Tract Infection Clinical Trials.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 8, 2023 BACKGROUND: Traditional end points used in registrational randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) often do not allow for complete interpretation of the full range of potential clinical outcomes. Desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR) is an approach to the des ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Clinical and Molecular Analyses of Recurrent Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · February 2023 BackgroundThe causes and clinical characteristics of recurrent gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections (GNB-BSI) are poorly understood.MethodsWe used a cohort of patients with GNB-BSI to identify clinical characteristics, microbiol ... Full text Cite

All Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia-inducing strains can cause infective endocarditis: Results of GWAS and experimental animal studies.

Journal Article J Infect · February 2023 OBJECTIVES: We aimed at determining whether specific S. aureus strains cause infective endocarditis (IE) in the course of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). METHODS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 924 S. aureus genomes from IE (274) ... Full text Link to item Cite

MRSA Isolates from Patients with Persistent Bacteremia Generate Nonstable Small Colony Variants In Vitro within Macrophages and Endothelial Cells during Prolonged Vancomycin Exposure.

Journal Article Infect Immun · January 24, 2023 Staphylococcus aureus (especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) is frequently associated with persistent bacteremia (PB) during vancomycin therapy despite consistent susceptibility in vitro. Strategic comparisons of PB strains versus those from v ... Full text Link to item Cite

Transmission of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in US Hospitals.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · January 13, 2023 BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) is the most prevalent carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales in the United States. We evaluated CRKp clustering in patients in US hospitals. METHODS: From April 2016 to August 2017, 350 patients ... Full text Link to item Cite

Redefining Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A structured approach guiding diagnostic and therapeutic management.

Journal Article J Infect · January 2023 The current duration of therapy in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is based on differentiating complicated from uncomplicated disease. While this approach allows clinicians and investigators to group SAB patients into broadly similar c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetics of Ceftazidime-Avibactam in Combination with Aztreonam (COMBINE) in a Phase 1, Open-Label Study of Healthy Adults.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · December 20, 2022 Scant pharmacokinetic (PK) data are available on ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) and aztreonam (ATM) in combination, and it is unknown if CZA-ATM exacerbates alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations relative to ATM alone. This ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety of Ceftazidime-Avibactam in Combination with Aztreonam (COMBINE) in a Phase I, Open-Label Study in Healthy Adult Volunteers.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · December 20, 2022 This phase I study evaluated the safety of the optimal ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) with aztreonam (ATM) regimens identified in hollow fiber infection models of MBL-producing Enterobacterales. Eligible healthy subjects aged 18 to 45 years were assigned to o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gram-negative bacteremia in solid organ transplant recipients: Clinical characteristics and outcomes as compared to immunocompetent non-transplant recipients.

Journal Article Transpl Infect Dis · December 2022 BACKGROUND: Outcomes from Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are poorly understood. METHODS: This is a single center prospective cohort study comparing the clinical characteristics and outcomes of SOT recipients with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Confronting antimicrobial resistance together.

Journal Article Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol · November 1, 2022 Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical Impact of Ceftriaxone Resistance in Escherichia coli Bloodstream Infections: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · November 2022 BACKGROUND: Ceftriaxone-resistant (CRO-R) Escherichia coli bloodstream infections (BSIs) are common. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort of patients with E coli BSI at 14 United States hospitals between November 2020 and April 2021. For each patient with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Persistent Methicilin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: Resetting the Clock for Optimal Management.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 29, 2022 A positive follow-up blood culture for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) while on seemingly appropriate therapy is a common and ominous development. However, the definition and management of persistent MRSA bacteremia is unstandardized. In ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Characteristics of community-acquired carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales.

Journal Article J Antimicrob Chemother · September 30, 2022 BACKGROUND: Community-acquired carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CA-CRE) are an important threat. METHODS: In CRACKLE-2, we defined patients with CA-CRE as admitted from home, without pre-existing conditions, and a positive culture within 48 h of admi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sign of the Times: Updating Infective Endocarditis Diagnostic Criteria to Recognize Enterococcus faecalis as a Typical Endocarditis Bacterium.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · September 29, 2022 The modified Duke criteria requires that Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia must be both community-acquired and without known focus in order to be considered a microbiological "Major" diagnostic criterion in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis. We believ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gastrointestinal Microbiome Disruption and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children Receiving Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · September 21, 2022 Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common side effect of antibiotics. We examined the gastrointestinal microbiota in children treated with β-lactams for community-acquired pneumonia. Data were from 66 children (n = 198 samples), aged 6-71 months, en ... Full text Link to item Cite

Heterogeneity in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia Clinical Trials Complicates Interpretation of Findings.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · September 4, 2022 We systematically evaluated randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). There was intertrial heterogeneity in cohort characteristics, including bacteremia source, complicated SAB, and comorbidities. Reporting of cohort c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of Follow-up Blood Cultures With Mortality in Patients With Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · September 1, 2022 IMPORTANCE: Obtaining follow-up blood cultures (FUBCs) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) is standard practice, although its utility in patients with gram-negative bacterial BSI (GN-BSI) is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine whe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Carbapenemase-Encoding Gene Copy Number Estimator (CCNE): a Tool for Carbapenemase Gene Copy Number Estimation.

Journal Article Microbiol Spectr · August 31, 2022 Carbapenemase production is one of the leading mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. An increase in carbapenemase gene (blaCarb) copies is an important mechanism of carbapenem resistance. No currently available bioinformatics tools ... Full text Link to item Cite

Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Exebacase in an Infant With Disseminated Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 25, 2022 Exebacase, an antistaphylococcal lysin produced from a bacteriophage-encoded gene, is a promising adjunctive therapy for severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. We describe the first infant to receive exebacase, dosing, and pharmacok ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Impact of neutropenia on clinical manifestations and outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: a propensity score-based overlap weight analysis in two large, prospectively evaluated cohorts.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · August 2022 OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether neutropenia influenced mortality and long-term outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream (SAB) infection. METHODS: Data from two prospective, multicentre cohort studies (INSTINCT and ISAC) conducted a ... Full text Link to item Cite

PROPHETIC EU: Prospective Identification of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients in the Intensive Care Unit in European and United States Cohorts.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · July 2022 BACKGROUND: The prospective identification of patients at high risk for hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia may improve clinical trial feasibility and foster antibacterial development. In a prior study conducted in the United States ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Microbial Cell-Free DNA Identifies Etiology of Bloodstream Infections, Persists Longer Than Conventional Blood Cultures, and Its Duration of Detection Is Associated With Metastatic Infection in Patients With Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-Negative Bacteremia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 10, 2022 BACKGROUND: Microbial cell-free DNA (mcfDNA) sequencing of plasma can identify the presence of a pathogen in a host. In this study, we evaluated the duration of pathogen detection by mcfDNA sequencing vs conventional blood culture in patients with bacterem ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A Desirability of Outcome Ranking Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Seven Versus Fourteen Days of Antibiotics for Uncomplicated Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infection.

Journal Article Open forum infectious diseases · June 2022 BackgroundAlthough a short course (7 days) of antibiotics has been demonstrated to be noninferior to a conventional course (14 days) in terms of mortality and infectious complications for patients with a Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infecti ... Full text Open Access Cite

Dalbavancin as an option for treatment of S. aureus bacteremia (DOTS): study protocol for a phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, open-label clinical trial.

Journal Article Trials · May 16, 2022 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a life-threatening infection and leading cause of infective endocarditis, with mortality rates of 15-50%. Treatment typically requires prolonged administration of parenteral therapy, itself associated with hi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Comparison of the Respiratory Resistomes and Microbiota in Children Receiving Short versus Standard Course Treatment for Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Journal Article mBio · April 26, 2022 Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often treated with 10 days of antibiotics. Shorter treatment strategies may be effective and lead to less resistance. The impact of duration of treatment on the respiratory microbiome is unknown. Data are fro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Accessory Genomes Drive Independent Spread of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Clonal Groups 258 and 307 in Houston, TX.

Journal Article mBio · April 26, 2022 Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) is an urgent public health threat. Worldwide dissemination of CRKp has been largely attributed to clonal group (CG) 258. However, recent evidence indicates the global emergence of a CRKp CG307 lineage. Hous ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prospective Validation of a Rapid Host Gene Expression Test to Discriminate Bacterial From Viral Respiratory Infection.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · April 1, 2022 IMPORTANCE: Bacterial and viral causes of acute respiratory illness (ARI) are difficult to clinically distinguish, resulting in the inappropriate use of antibacterial therapy. The use of a host gene expression-based test that is able to discriminate bacter ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Urgent, Comprehensive Federal Action Needed To Stem Mortality and Medicare Costs Associated With Antimicrobial Resistance.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 23, 2022 This paper is a call to action for the policies necessary to reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance, including federal investments in antibiotic stewardship, antibiotic innovation, surveillance, research, diagnostics, infection prevention, the infec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Among Patients Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis: Trends in Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes.

Journal Article Am J Kidney Dis · March 2022 RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus (Saureus) bacteremia (SAB) is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD). We evaluated changes in clinical and bacterial characteristics, and their associations w ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Clinical outcomes and bacterial characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae complex among patients from different global regions (CRACKLE-2): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study.

Journal Article Lancet Infect Dis · March 2022 BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is a global threat. We therefore analysed the bacterial characteristics of CRKP infections and the clinical outcomes of patients with CRKP infections across different countries. METHODS: In this ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Short- vs Standard-Course Outpatient Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: The SCOUT-CAP Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA Pediatr · March 1, 2022 IMPORTANCE: Childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is usually treated with 10 days of antibiotics. Shorter courses may be effective with fewer adverse effects and decreased potential for antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVE: To compare a short (5-day) vs ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Associations Between Vancomycin Exposure and Acute Kidney Injury Within the Recommended Area Under the Curve Therapeutic Exposure Range Among Patients With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · February 2022 Among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury increased as a function of the day 2 area under the curve (AUC), even for daily AUCs within the recommended therapeutic range (400-600). F ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patients' Experiences With Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-Negative Bacterial Bloodstream Infections: Results From Cognitive Interviews to Inform Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · February 2022 BACKGROUND: We previously conducted a concept elicitation study on the impact of Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections (SAB/GNB) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) from the patient's perspective and found significa ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Chiral evasion and stereospecific antifolate resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article PLoS Comput Biol · February 2022 Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant health care crisis. The mutation F98Y in Staphylococcus aureus dihydrofolate reductase (SaDHFR) confers resistance to the clinically important antifolate trimethoprim (TMP). Propargyl-linked antifolates (PLAs ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Versus Levofloxacin for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infections: A Retrospective Comparative Effectiveness Study of Electronic Health Records from 154 US Hospitals.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · February 2022 BACKGROUND: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is considered first-line therapy for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections based on observational data from small studies. Levofloxacin has emerged as a popular alternative due to tolerability concerns ... Full text Link to item Cite

Distribution of serotypes and antibiotic resistance of invasive Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a multi-country collection.

Journal Article BMC Microbiol · January 6, 2022 BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a wide range of acute and chronic infections and is frequently associated with healthcare-associated infections. Because of its ability to rapidly acquire resistance to antibiotics ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rickettsiosis subcommittee report to the tick-borne disease working group.

Journal Article Ticks Tick Borne Dis · January 2022 Tick-borne rickettsial infections are serious, common, and difficult to diagnose. Among the most important factors leading to failure to diagnose and treat tick-borne rickettsioses effectively is a lack of consideration of the potential diagnosis by primar ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Bacterial genotype and clinical outcomes in solid organ transplant recipients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Transpl Infect Dis · December 2021 INTRODUCTION: Outcomes from Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are poorly understood. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study comparing the bacterial genotype and clinical outcomes of SAB among SOT and non ... Full text Link to item Cite

Maternal and Fetal Outcomes Associated With Infective Endocarditis in Pregnancy.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 2, 2021 BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare but serious infection that complicates pregnancy. Little is known about IE management and outcomes in this population. METHODS: The National Readmissions Database was used to obtain data between October 201 ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Antibiotic resistance in the patient with cancer: Escalating challenges and paths forward.

Journal Article CA Cancer J Clin · November 2021 Infection is the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer. Loss of efficacy in antibiotics due to antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an urgent threat against the continuing success of cancer therapy. In this review, the authors focus on rece ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of Immunosuppressive Agents on Clinical Manifestations and Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis in 2 Large, Prospectively Evaluated Cohorts.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 5, 2021 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) is a common, life-threatening infection. The impact of immunosuppressive agents on the outcome of patients with SAB is incompletely understood. METHODS: Data from 2 large prospective, internatio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Discriminating Bacterial and Viral Infection Using a Rapid Host Gene Expression Test.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · October 1, 2021 OBJECTIVES: Host gene expression signatures discriminate bacterial and viral infection but have not been translated to a clinical test platform. This study enrolled an independent cohort of patients to describe and validate a first-in-class host response b ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Infective endocarditis and solid organ transplantation: Only worse outcomes during initial transplantation hospitalization.

Journal Article Am Heart J · October 2021 BACKGROUND: The epidemiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is unknown. METHODS: We used data from the 2013-2018 Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). IE- and SOT-associated hospitalizations were ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Macrophage-Produced Peroxynitrite Induces Antibiotic Tolerance and Supersedes Intrinsic Mechanisms of Persister Formation.

Journal Article Infect Immun · September 16, 2021 Staphylococcus aureus is a leading human pathogen that frequently causes chronic and relapsing infections. Antibiotic-tolerant persister cells contribute to frequent antibiotic failure in patients. Macrophages represent an important niche during S. aureus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group 2.0: Back to Business.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 16, 2021 In December 2019, the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) was awarded funding for another 7-year cycle to support a clinical research network on antibacterial resistance. ARLG 2.0 has 3 overarching research priorities: infections caused by ant ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Environmental Correlates of Lyme Disease Emergence in Southwest Virginia, 2005-2014.

Journal Article J Med Entomol · July 16, 2021 Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America. Though human infection is mostly transmitted in a limited geography, the range has expanded in recent years. One notable area of recent expansion is in the mountainous region of southwest ... Full text Link to item Cite

Patients' Experiences With Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Bacterial Bloodstream Infections: A Qualitative Descriptive Study and Concept Elicitation Phase To Inform Measurement of Patient-reported Quality of Life.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · July 15, 2021 BACKGROUND: Although Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections (SAB/GNB) cause substantial morbidity, little is known regarding patient perceptions' of their impact on quality of life (QOL). Guidance for assessing QOL and dis ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

COVID-19-Lessons Learned and Questions Remaining.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 15, 2021 In this article, the editors of Clinical Infectious Diseases review some of the most important lessons they have learned about the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify essential questions ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Risk Factors for Recurrent Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 1, 2021 BACKGROUND: To understand the clinical, bacterial, and host characteristics associated with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (R-SAB), patients with R-SAB were compared to contemporaneous patients with a single episode of SAB (S-SAB). METHODS: All ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Bacteremia in solid organ transplant recipients as compared to immunocompetent patients: Acute phase cytokines and outcomes in a prospective, matched cohort study.

Journal Article Am J Transplant · June 2021 We undertook a prospective, matched cohort study of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) and gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) to compare the characteristics, outcomes, and chemokine and cytokine response in transplant recipients to immunocomp ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Infective Endocarditis in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis.

Journal Article J Am Coll Cardiol · April 6, 2021 BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a common and serious complication in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether there are significant differences in complications, cardiac surgery, relapses ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Test for the Rapid Detection of the Cefazolin Inoculum Effect in Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · March 19, 2021 The cefazolin inoculum effect (CzIE) has been associated with therapeutic failures and mortality in invasive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections. A diagnostic test to detect the CzIE is not currently available. We developed a ra ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human DNA methylation signatures differentiate persistent from resolving MRSA bacteremia.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · March 9, 2021 Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is life threatening and occurs in up to 30% of MRSA bacteremia cases despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Isolates of MRSA that cause antibiotic-persistent methicillin-resistant ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiling of Minocycline for Injection following a Single Infusion in Critically Ill Adults in a Phase IV Open-Label Multicenter Study (ACUMIN).

Journal Article Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy · February 2021 Intravenous (i.v.) minocycline is increasingly used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii Despite its being approved nearly 50 years ago, published information on its pharmacokinetic (PK) profile is limited. ... Full text Cite

Simultaneous Evaluation of Diagnostic Assays for Pharyngeal and Rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis Using a Master Protocol.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · December 3, 2020 BACKGROUND: Pharyngeal and rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis play important roles in infection and antibacterial resistance transmission, but no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared assays for detection at these sites existed ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

PROPHETIC: Prospective Identification of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients in the ICU.

Journal Article Chest · December 2020 BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the leading infection-related cause of death. The use of simple clinical criteria and contemporary epidemiology to identify patients at high risk of nosocomial pneumonia should enhance prevention efforts and facilitate development ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Defining persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study.

Journal Article Lancet Infect Dis · December 2020 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus persistent bacteraemia is only vaguely defined and the effect of different durations of bacteraemia on mortality is not well established. Our primary aim was to analyse mortality according to duration of bacteraemia and to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Complement levels in patients with bloodstream infection due to Staphylococcus aureus or Gram-negative bacteria.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · November 2020 The complement system is a vital component of the innate immune system, though its role in bacteremia is poorly understood. We present complement levels in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) and Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) and describe observed asso ... Full text Link to item Cite

Low-Avidity Autoantibodies against Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein Occur in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteremia.

Journal Article Infect Immun · September 18, 2020 Antibody autoreactivity against bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is strongly associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis (BE), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We examin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determining the optimal dosing of a novel combination regimen of ceftazidime/avibactam with aztreonam against NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae using a hollow-fibre infection model.

Journal Article J Antimicrob Chemother · September 1, 2020 BACKGROUND: MBL-producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae are a major public health concern. We sought to define optimal combination regimens of ceftazidime/avibactam with aztreonam in a hollow-fibre infection model (HFIM) of MBL-producing strains of Escheri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Newly Named Klebsiella aerogenes (formerly Enterobacter aerogenes) Is Associated with Poor Clinical Outcomes Relative to Other Enterobacter Species in Patients with Bloodstream Infection.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · August 24, 2020 Enterobacter aerogenes was recently renamed Klebsiella aerogenes This study aimed to identify differences in clinical characteristics, outcomes, and bacterial genetics among patients with K. aerogenes versus Enterobacter species bloodstream infections (BSI ... Full text Link to item Cite

Temporal encoding of bacterial identity and traits in growth dynamics.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · August 18, 2020 In biology, it is often critical to determine the identity of an organism and phenotypic traits of interest. Whole-genome sequencing can be useful for this but has limited power for trait prediction. However, we can take advantage of the inherent informati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Positive follow-up blood cultures identify high mortality risk among patients with Gram-negative bacteraemia.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · July 2020 OBJECTIVES: The role of follow-up blood cultures (FUBCs) in the management of Gram-negative bacteraemia (GNB) is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the utility of FUBCs in identifying patients with increased mortality risk. METHODS: An observational ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Exebacase for patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection and endocarditis.

Journal Article J Clin Invest · July 1, 2020 BACKGROUNDNovel therapeutic approaches are critically needed for Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (BSIs), particularly for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Exebacase, a first-in-class antistaphylococcal lysin, is a direct lytic agent tha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Molecular and clinical epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales in the USA (CRACKLE-2): a prospective cohort study.

Journal Article Lancet Infect Dis · June 2020 BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) are a global threat. We aimed to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined CRE in the USA. METHODS: CRACKLE-2 is a prospective, mu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Analytical Evaluation of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG Assay for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Rectal and Pharyngeal Swabs.

Journal Article J Mol Diagn · June 2020 Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in the rectum and pharynx are important extragenital reservoirs of infection. Few assays approved by the US Food and Drug Administration are commercially available to diagnose pharyngeal or rectal ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Lead Extraction for Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infection in Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

Journal Article JACC Clin Electrophysiol · June 2020 OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the utility of transvenous lead extraction for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). BACKGROUND: The use of transvenous lead ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Narrative Review of Early Oral Stepdown Therapy for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: Yay or Nay?

Journal Article Open forum infectious diseases · June 2020 Historically, intravenous (IV) antibiotics have been the cornerstone of treatment for uncomplicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). However, IV antibiotics are expensive, increase the rates of hospital readmission, and can be associated with ... Full text Cite

Whole-genome sequencing of Staphylococcus epidermidis bloodstream isolates from a prospective clinical trial reveals that complicated bacteraemia is caused by a limited number of closely related sequence types.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · May 2020 OBJECTIVES: The significance of isolating Staphylococus epidermidis from a blood culture is highly heterogeneous, ranging from contamination to an indication of a serious infection. Herein we sought to determine whether there is a relationship between S. e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Case Report: Successful Rescue Therapy of Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Osteomyelitis With Cefiderocol.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · May 2020 Cefiderocol is a novel catechol siderophore cephalosporin antibiotic developed to treat resistant gram-negative infections. We describe its successful use as rescue therapy, combined with surgical debridement, to treat a patient with osteomyelitis due to e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Consensus on Language for Advance Informed Consent in Health Care-Associated Pneumonia Clinical Trials Using a Delphi Process.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · May 1, 2020 IMPORTANCE: Information to be included in advance informed consent forms for health care-associated pneumonia treatment trials remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To identify and determine how to describe information to be included in an advance informed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Scope and Predictive Genetic/Phenotypic Signatures of Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Responsiveness and β-Lactam Sensitization in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · April 21, 2020 Addition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing medium reveals certain methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains to be highly susceptible to β-lactams. We investigated the prevalence of this phenoty ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Pitt Bacteremia Score Predicts Mortality in Nonbacteremic Infections.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · April 15, 2020 BACKGROUND: Predicting mortality risk in patients is important in research settings. The Pitt bacteremia score (PBS) is commonly used as a predictor of early mortality risk in patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs). We determined whether the PBS predi ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Emperor's New Clothes: PRospective Observational Evaluation of the Association Between Initial VancomycIn Exposure and Failure Rates Among ADult HospitalizEd Patients With Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections (PROVIDE).

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · April 10, 2020 BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is the most commonly administered antibiotic in hospitalized patients, but optimal exposure targets remain controversial. To clarify the therapeutic exposure range, this study evaluated the association between vancomycin exposure and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship between Vancomycin MIC and Virulence Gene Expression in Clonal Complexes of Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Left-Sided Endocarditis.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · February 21, 2020 Higher vancomycin MICs have been associated with more complicated courses and higher mortality rates in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the strains belonging t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of Vancomycin or Daptomycin With vs Without an Antistaphylococcal β-Lactam on Mortality, Bacteremia, Relapse, or Treatment Failure in Patients With MRSA Bacteremia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA · February 11, 2020 IMPORTANCE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with mortality of more than 20%. Combining standard therapy with a β-lactam antibiotic has been associated with reduced mortality, although adequately powered randomize ... Full text Link to item Cite

International Society of Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases Guidelines for the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera Infection Following Cardiac Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Journal Article J Hosp Infect · February 2020 Mycobacterial infection-related morbidity and mortality in patients following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery is high and there is a growing need for a consensus-based expert opinion to provide international guidance for diagnosing, preventing and treating ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of a vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus invasive infections: Evidence based on human immunity, genetics and bacterial evasion mechanisms.

Journal Article FEMS Microbiol Rev · January 1, 2020 Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both hospital and community settings, especially with the widespread emergence of virulent and multi-drug resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. There i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ceftobiprole versus daptomycin in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a novel protocol for a double-blind, Phase III trial.

Journal Article Future Microbiol · January 2020 Although Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacteremia, treatment options are limited. The need for new therapies is particularly urgent for methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia (SAB). Ceftobiprole is an advanced-generation, broad-spectrum ce ... Full text Link to item Cite

Environmental and genetic determinants of plasmid mobility in pathogenic Escherichia coli.

Journal Article Sci Adv · January 2020 Plasmids are key vehicles of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), mobilizing antibiotic resistance, virulence, and other traits among bacterial populations. The environmental and genetic forces that drive plasmid transfer are poorly understood, however, due to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk stratification biomarkers for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

Journal Article Clin Transl Immunology · 2020 OBJECTIVES: To identify risk stratification biomarkers to enrich for the subset of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia patients who develop deep-seated tissue infections with high morbidity and mortality to guide clinical trial enrolment and clinical managem ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Diversity of Lipopolysaccharide (O) and Capsular Polysaccharide (K) Antigens of Invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Multi-Country Collection.

Journal Article Front Microbiol · 2020 Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of sepsis and is particularly associated with healthcare-associated infections. New strategies are needed to prevent or treat infections due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant K. pneumoniae. The goal of this st ... Full text Link to item Cite

Changing Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: Results From a 21-Year, Prospective, Longitudinal Study.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 13, 2019 BACKGROUND: We conducted a longitudinal study to evaluate changes in the clinical presentation and epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in an academic, US medical center. METHODS: Consecutive patients with monomicrobial SAB were enrolled ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiologic Trends in Clostridioides difficile Infections in a Regional Community Hospital Network.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · October 2, 2019 IMPORTANCE: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) remains a leading cause of health care facility-associated infection. A greater understanding of the regional epidemiologic profile of CDI could inform targeted prevention strategies. OBJECTIVES: To asse ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Genetic variation of DNA methyltransferase-3A contributes to protection against persistent MRSA bacteremia in patients.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · October 1, 2019 The role of the host in development of persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is not well understood. A cohort of prospectively enrolled patients with persistent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia (PB) and resolvin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Validation of a host response test to distinguish bacterial and viral respiratory infection.

Journal Article EBioMedicine · October 2019 BACKGROUND: Distinguishing bacterial and viral respiratory infections is challenging. Novel diagnostics based on differential host gene expression patterns are promising but have not been translated to a clinical platform nor extensively tested. Here, we v ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Fibrinogen binding is affected by amino acid substitutions in C-terminal repeat region of fibronectin binding protein A.

Journal Article Sci Rep · August 12, 2019 Fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA), a protein displayed on the outer surface of Staphylococcus aureus, has a structured A-domain that binds fibrinogen (Fg) and a disordered repeat-region that binds fibronectin (Fn). Amino acid substitutions in Fn-bindin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Feasibility of Core Antimicrobial Stewardship Interventions in Community Hospitals.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · August 2, 2019 IMPORTANCE: The feasibility of core Infectious Diseases Society of America-recommended antimicrobial stewardship interventions in community hospitals is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and results of implementing 2 core stewardship interve ... Full text Link to item Cite

The association between vegetation size and surgical treatment on 6-month mortality in left-sided infective endocarditis.

Conference Eur Heart J · July 14, 2019 AIMS: In left-sided infective endocarditis (IE), a large vegetation >10 mm is associated with higher mortality, yet it is unknown whether surgery during the acute phase opposed to medical therapy is associated with improved survival. We assessed the associ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identifying determinants of persistent MRSA bacteremia using mathematical modeling.

Journal Article PLoS Comput Biol · July 2019 Persistent bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (SA), especially methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA), is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite susceptibility phenotypes in vitro, persistent MRSA strains fail to clear with appropriate an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rapid Molecular Diagnostics to Inform Empiric Use of Ceftazidime/Avibactam and Ceftolozane/Tazobactam Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: PRIMERS IV.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · May 17, 2019 BACKGROUND: Overcoming β-lactam resistance in pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major clinical challenge. Rapid molecular diagnostics (RMDs) have the potential to inform selection of empiric therapy in patients infected by P. aeruginosa. METHOD ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sequential, Multiple-Assignment, Randomized Trials for COMparing Personalized Antibiotic StrategieS (SMART-COMPASS).

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · May 17, 2019 Patient management is not based on a single decision. Rather, it is dynamic: based on a sequence of decisions, with therapeutic adjustments made over time. Adjustments are personalized: tailored to individual patients as new information becomes available. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Good Studies Evaluate the Disease While Great Studies Evaluate the Patient: Development and Application of a Desirability of Outcome Ranking Endpoint for Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · May 2, 2019 BACKGROUND: Desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR) is an innovative approach in clinical trials to evaluate the global benefits and risks of an intervention. We developed and validated a DOOR endpoint for Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) t ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Prognostic Model of Persistent Bacteremia and Mortality in Complicated Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · April 24, 2019 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteremia, yet there remains a significant knowledge gap in the identification of relevant biomarkers that predict clinical outcomes. Heterogeneity in the host response to invasive S. aureus infectio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an overview of basic and clinical research.

Journal Article Nat Rev Microbiol · April 2019 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most successful modern pathogens. The same organism that lives as a commensal and is transmitted in both health-care and community settings is also a leading cause of bacteraemia, endocarditi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in hemodialysis-A nationwide study.

Journal Article Hemodial Int · April 2019 INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a high-risk infection and feared complication related to hemodialysis. This study aimed to investigate incidence and risk factors for SAB depending on hemodialysis access type. METHODS: The Danish Nat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prognostic Power of Pathogen Cell-Free DNA in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · April 2019 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading global cause of bacteremia that can cause invasive tissue infections with high morbidity and mortality despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. Clinicians lack sufficient tools to rapidly identify patients with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Erratum

Journal Article Clinical Infectious Diseases · March 19, 2019 Full text Cite

Considerations for Clinical Trials of Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection in Adults.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 15, 2019 Clinical trials for Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SAB) are broadly grouped into 2 categories: registrational trials intended to support regulatory approval of antibiotics for the treatment of SAB and strategy trials intended to inform clini ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Role of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole in the Treatment of Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · January 2019 In the Consortium on Resistance Against Carbapenems in Klebsiella and other Enterobacteriaceae (CRACKLE), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) had a limited role in the treatment of less severe carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections, e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations of pathogen-specific and host-specific characteristics with disease outcome in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremic pneumonia.

Journal Article Clin Transl Immunology · 2019 OBJECTIVE: To understand the relationships of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacteremic pneumonia (SABP) outcome with patient-specific and SA-specific variables. METHODS: We analysed SA bloodstream isolates and matching sera in SABP patients by sequencing SA i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessment of the Perceived Acceptability of an Early Enrollment Strategy Using Advance Consent in Health Care-Associated Pneumonia.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · December 7, 2018 IMPORTANCE: Better treatment options are needed in life-threatening infections, including health care-associated pneumonia. Enrolling patients in antibacterial clinical trials before diagnosis may circumvent existing time-to-enrollment constraints. However ... Full text Link to item Cite

Protective immunity in recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infection reflects localized immune signatures and macrophage-conferred memory.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · November 20, 2018 Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and skin structure infection (SSSI), a primary portal of entry for invasive infection. Our prior studies discovered a role for protective innate memory against recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MR ... Full text Link to item Cite

Colonization With Levofloxacin-resistant Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Risk of Bacteremia in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 13, 2018 BACKGROUND: Bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is associated with inadequate empirical therapy and substantial mortality in neutropenic patients. Strategies are needed to identify neutropenic pat ... Full text Link to item Cite

China-United States Research Collaborations in Antimicrobial Resistance.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 13, 2018 A strong synergy can result from China-US antimicrobial resistance (AMR) collaborations given similarities and differences between their respective healthcare systems and research infrastructures. The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group has employed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of a chimeric emm gene and novel emm pattern in currently circulating strains of emm4 Group A Streptococcus.

Journal Article Microb Genom · November 2018 Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is classified on the basis of the sequence of the gene encoding the M protein (emm) and the patterns into which emm types are grouped. We discovered a novel emm pattern in emm4 GAS, historically considered pattern E, arising fro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human genetic variation in GLS2 is associated with development of complicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · October 2018 The role of host genetic variation in the development of complicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is poorly understood. We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to examine the cumulative effect of coding variants in each gene on risk of complicated S ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of Algorithm-Based Therapy vs Usual Care on Clinical Success and Serious Adverse Events in Patients with Staphylococcal Bacteremia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA · September 25, 2018 IMPORTANCE: The appropriate duration of antibiotics for staphylococcal bacteremia is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To test whether an algorithm that defines treatment duration for staphylococcal bacteremia vs standard of care provides noninferior efficacy without in ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

BBK* (Branch and Bound Over K*): A Provable and Efficient Ensemble-Based Protein Design Algorithm to Optimize Stability and Binding Affinity Over Large Sequence Spaces.

Journal Article J Comput Biol · July 2018 Computational protein design (CPD) algorithms that compute binding affinity, Ka, search for sequences with an energetically favorable free energy of binding. Recent work shows that three principles improve the biological accuracy of CPD: ensemble-based des ... Full text Link to item Cite

On-demand release of Candida albicans biofilms from urinary catheters by mechanical surface deformation.

Journal Article Biofouling · July 2018 Candida albicans is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and elimination of these biofilm-based infections without antifungal agents would constitute a significant medical advance. A novel urinary catheter prototype that utilizes ... Full text Link to item Cite

Salmonella Activation of STAT3 Signaling by SarA Effector Promotes Intracellular Replication and Production of IL-10.

Journal Article Cell Rep · June 19, 2018 Salmonella enterica is an important foodborne pathogen that uses secreted effector proteins to manipulate host pathways to facilitate survival and dissemination. Different S. enterica serovars cause disease syndromes ranging from gastroenteritis to typhoid ... Full text Link to item Cite

Adaptive Designs for Clinical Trials: Application to Healthcare Epidemiology Research.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 19, 2018 Clinical trials with adaptive designs use data that accumulate during the course of the study to modify study elements in a prespecified manner. The goal is to provide flexibility such that a trial can serve as a definitive test of its primary hypothesis, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of Reported Penicillin Allergy on Mortality in MSSA Bacteremia.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · March 2018 BACKGROUND: Penicillin allergy frequently impacts antibiotic choice. As beta-lactams are superior to vancomycin in treating methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia, we examined the effect of reported penicillin allergy on clinical o ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Potential Confounding of Diagnosis of Rabies in Patients with Recent Receipt of Intravenous Immune Globulin.

Journal Article MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep · February 9, 2018 Rabies is an acute encephalitis that is nearly always fatal. It is caused by infection with viruses of the genus Lyssavirus, the most common of which is Rabies lyssavirus. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) defines a confirmed huma ... Full text Link to item Cite

New Molecular Diagnostic Approaches to Bacterial Infections and Antibacterial Resistance.

Journal Article Annu Rev Med · January 29, 2018 Recent advances in the field of infectious disease diagnostics have given rise to a number of host- and pathogen-centered diagnostic approaches. Most diagnostic approaches in contemporary infectious disease focus on pathogen detection and characterization. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Colistin Versus Ceftazidime-Avibactam in the Treatment of Infections Due to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

Journal Article Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America · January 2018 BackgroundThe efficacy of ceftazidime-avibactam-a cephalosporin-β-lactamase inhibitor combination with in vitro activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)-compared with colistin rem ... Full text Cite

Risk prediction for Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection following cardiothoracic surgery; A secondary analysis of the V710-P003 trial.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 BACKGROUND: Identifying patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery at high risk of Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection (SSI) is a prerequisite for implementing effective preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to develop a risk ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluating the discriminating capacity of cell death (apoptotic) biomarkers in sepsis.

Journal Article J Intensive Care · 2018 BACKGROUND: Sepsis biomarker panels that provide diagnostic and prognostic discrimination in sepsis patients would be transformative to patient care. We assessed the mortality prediction and diagnostic discriminatory accuracy of two biomarkers reflective o ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Hypervirulent group A Streptococcus emergence in an acaspular background is associated with marked remodeling of the bacterial cell surface.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 Inactivating mutations in the control of virulence two-component regulatory system (covRS) often account for the hypervirulent phenotype in severe, invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections. As CovR represses production of the anti-phagocytic hyaluro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk of Infective Endocarditis in Patients with End Stage Renal Disease.

Journal Article Clin J Am Soc Nephrol · November 7, 2017 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Endocarditis is a serious complication in patients treated with RRT. The study aimed to examine incidence and risk factors of endocarditis in patients with ESRD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The Danish National ... Full text Link to item Cite

Whole-genome sequencing of bloodstream Staphylococcus aureus isolates does not distinguish bacteraemia from endocarditis.

Journal Article Microb Genom · November 2017 Most Staphylococcus aureus isolates can cause invasive disease given the right circumstances, but it is unknown if some isolates are more likely to cause severe infections than others. S. aureus bloodstream isolates from 120 patients with definite infectiv ... Full text Link to item Cite

African Tick Bite Fever Treated Successfully With Rifampin in a Patient With Doxycycline Intolerance.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 16, 2017 African tick bite fever is the most commonly encountered travel-associated rickettsiosis, occurring in as many as 5% of travelers returning from rural subequatorial Africa. This case report illustrates that rifampin represents an effective alternative to d ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Antimicrobial Scrub Contamination and Transmission (ASCOT) Trial: A Three-Arm, Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial With Crossover Design to Determine the Efficacy of Antimicrobial-Impregnated Scrubs in Preventing Healthcare Provider Contamination.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · October 2017 OBJECTIVE To determine whether antimicrobial-impregnated textiles decrease the acquisition of pathogens by healthcare provider (HCP) clothing. DESIGN We completed a 3-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of 2 types of antimicrobial-impregna ... Full text Link to item Cite

Proposed primary endpoints for use in clinical trials that compare treatment options for bloodstream infection in adults: a consensus definition.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · August 2017 OBJECTIVES: To define standardized endpoints to aid the design of trials that compare antibiotic therapies for bloodstream infections (BSI). METHODS: Prospective studies, randomized trials or registered protocols comparing antibiotic therapies for BSI, pub ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration on the outcome of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus left-sided infective endocarditis treated with antistaphylococcal β-lactam antibiotics: a prospective cohort study by the International Collaboration on Endocarditis.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · August 2017 OBJECTIVES: Left-sided methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) endocarditis treated with cloxacillin has a poorer prognosis when the vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is ≥1.5 mg/L. We aimed to validate this using the Internatio ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Results from a 13-Year Prospective Cohort Study Show Increased Mortality Associated with Bloodstream Infections Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Compared to Other Bacteria.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · June 2017 The impact of bacterial species on outcome in bloodstream infections (BSI) is incompletely understood. We evaluated the impact of bacterial species on BSI mortality, with adjustment for patient, bacterial, and treatment factors. From 2002 to 2015, all adul ... Full text Link to item Cite

Can Ceftazidime-Avibactam and Aztreonam Overcome β-Lactam Resistance Conferred by Metallo-β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae?

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · April 2017 Based upon knowledge of the hydrolytic profile of major β-lactamases found in Gram-negative bacteria, we tested the efficacy of the combination of ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) with aztreonam (ATM) against carbapenem-resistant enteric bacteria possessing ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Colistin Resistance in Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: Laboratory Detection and Impact on Mortality.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 15, 2017 BACKGROUND: Polymyxins including colistin are an important "last-line" treatment for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp). Increasing use of colistin has led to resistance to this cationic antimicrobial peptide. METHODS: A ... Full text Link to item Cite

Transforming Concepts Into Clinical Trials and Creating a Multisite Network: The Leadership and Operations Center of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 15, 2017 The Leadership and Operations Center (LOC) is responsible for facilitating, coordinating, and implementing the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) scientific agenda by engaging thought leaders; soliciting research proposals; and developing the ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: Progress Report and Work in Progress.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 15, 2017 The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG), with funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health, was created in June 2013. Its mission is to develop, prioritize, and implement a clinica ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increased Costs Associated with Bloodstream Infections Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Are Due Primarily to Patients with Hospital-Acquired Infections.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · March 2017 The clinical and economic impacts of bloodstream infections (BSI) due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria are incompletely understood. From 2009 to 2015, all adult inpatients with Gram-negative BSI at our institution were prospectively enro ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Evaluating genetic susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in African Americans using admixture mapping.

Journal Article Genes Immun · March 2017 The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is significantly higher in African American (AA) than in European-descended populations. We used admixture mapping (AM) to test the hypothesis that genomic variations with different frequencies in Eur ... Full text Link to item Cite

MASTERMIND: Bringing Microbial Diagnostics to the Clinic.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 1, 2017 New diagnostics are urgently needed to address emerging antimicrobial resistance. The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group proposes a strategy called MASTERMIND (Master Protocol for Evaluating Multiple Infection Diagnostics) for advancement of infecti ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Infective Endocarditis Associated with Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article Curr Top Microbiol Immunol · 2017 Bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE) are important causes of morbidity and mortality associated with Staphylococcus aureus infections. Increasing exposure to healthcare, invasive procedures, and prosthetic implants has been associated with a rising i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Informing Antibiotic Treatment Decisions: Evaluating Rapid Molecular Diagnostics To Identify Susceptibility and Resistance to Carbapenems against Acinetobacter spp. in PRIMERS III.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · January 2017 The widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. has created significant therapeutic challenges. At present, rapid molecular diagnostics (RMDs) that can identify this phenotype are not commercially available. Two RMD platforms, PCR c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Geographic Expansion of Lyme Disease in Michigan, 2000-2014.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · 2017 BACKGROUND: Most Lyme disease cases in the Midwestern United States are reported in Minnesota and Wisconsin. In recent years, however, a widening geographic extent of Lyme disease has been noted with evidence of expansion eastwards into Michigan and neighb ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

BBK* (Branch and bound over K*): A provable and efficient ensemble-based algorithm to optimize stability and binding affinity over large sequence spaces

Conference Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) · January 1, 2017 Protein design algorithms that compute binding affinity search for sequences with an energetically favorable free energy of binding. Recent work shows that the following design principles improve the biological accuracy of protein design: ensemble-based de ... Full text Cite

Candidate genes on murine chromosome 8 are associated with susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice and are involved with Staphylococcus aureus septicemia in humans.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2017 We previously showed that chromosome 8 of A/J mice was associated with susceptibility to S. aureus infection. However, the specific genes responsible for this susceptibility are unknown. Chromosome substitution strain 8 (CSS8) mice, which have chromosome 8 ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

The Risk of Cardiac Device-Related Infection in Bacteremic Patients Is Species Specific: Results of a 12-Year Prospective Cohort.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · 2017 BACKGROUND: The species-specific risk of cardiac device-related infection (CDRI) among bacteremic patients is incompletely understood. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients from October 2002 to December 2014 with a cardi ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A Prospective Observational Study of the Epidemiology, Management, and Outcomes of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Due to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · 2017 BACKGROUND: This study was performed to characterize the epidemiology, management, and outcomes of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and colonization due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). METHODS: Patients from the Consortium on Resista ... Full text Link to item Cite

Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections in Patients on Renal Replacement Therapy.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · 2017 BACKGROUND: Patients on chronic intermittent renal replacement therapy (RRT) are at risk for infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). However, the impact of RRT on outcomes after CRE infections remains to be defined. Here we perform a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim (Cotrimoxazole) for Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Including Impetigo, Cellulitis, and Abscess.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · 2017 Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) affect millions of people globally, which represents a significant burden on ambulatory care and hospital settings. The role of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) in SSTI treatment, particularly when group A Streptoc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diagnosis of Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis by Whole-Genome Next-Generation Sequencing.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · September 2016 We report the case of a 60-year-old man with septic shock due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus that was diagnosed in 24 hours by a novel whole-genome next-generation sequencing assay. This technology shows great promise in identifying fastidious pathogens, and ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Infective endocarditis.

Journal Article Nat Rev Dis Primers · September 1, 2016 Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare, life-threatening disease that has long-lasting effects even among patients who survive and are cured. IE disproportionately affects those with underlying structural heart disease and is increasingly associated with he ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficient Delivery of Investigational Antibacterial Agents via Sustainable Clinical Trial Networks.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 15, 2016 The economics of antibiotics can be improved by infectious diseases-specific clinical trial networks. While developers would still need to implement an independent phase 1 program as well as studies focused on highly resistant pathogens, standardized proce ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Improving Conduct and Feasibility of Clinical Trials to Evaluate Antibacterial Drugs to Treat Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Recommendations of the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative Antibacterial Drug Development Project Team.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 15, 2016 BACKGROUND: The etiology of hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) is often multidrug-resistant infections. The evaluation of new antibacterial drugs for efficacy in this population is important, as many antibacterial dr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply to Lesho and Clifford.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 15, 2016 Full text Link to item Cite

History of AIDS in HIV-Infected Patients Is Associated With Higher In-Hospital Mortality Following Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stroke.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · June 15, 2016 BACKGROUND: Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons are at increased risk for major cardiovascular events, short-term prognosis after these events is unclear. METHODS: To determine the association between HIV infection and acute myocar ... Full text Link to item Cite

Spectrum of excess mortality due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · June 2016 Patients infected or colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) are often chronically and acutely ill, which results in substantial mortality unrelated to infection. Therefore, estimating excess mortality due to CRKp infections is cha ... Full text Link to item Cite

CAMERA2 - combination antibiotic therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Journal Article Trials · March 31, 2016 BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia is a serious infection resulting in 20-50 % 90-day mortality. The limitations of vancomycin, the current standard therapy for MRSA, make treatment difficult. The only other approved ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Reply to Phillips, Morris, and Walker.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 15, 2016 Full text Link to item Cite

Polymorphisms in HLA Class II Genes Are Associated With Susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus Infection in a White Population.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · March 1, 2016 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus can cause life-threatening infections. Human susceptibility to S. aureus infection may be influenced by host genetic variation. METHODS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a large health plan-based cohort included b ... Full text Link to item Cite

Potential Cost-effectiveness of Early Identification of Hospital-acquired Infection in Critically Ill Patients.

Journal Article Ann Am Thorac Soc · March 2016 RATIONALE: Limitations in methods for the rapid diagnosis of hospital-acquired infections often delay initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy. New diagnostic approaches offer potential clinical and cost-related improvements in the management of these ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Hospital Readmissions in Patients With Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · March 2016 BACKGROUND: Various transmission routes contribute to spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in hospitalized patients. Patients with readmissions during which CRKP is again isolated ("CRKP readmission") potentially contribute to transm ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increased in vitro phenol-soluble modulin production is associated with soft tissue infection source in clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article J Infect · March 2016 BACKGROUND: Phenol-soluble modulins (PSM) are amphipathic proteins produced by Staphylococcus aureus that promote virulence, inflammatory response, and biofilm formation. We previously showed that MRSA isolates from soft tissue infection (SSTI) produced si ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteremic Patients Exhibit Nonprotective Antibody Titers Against Therapeutic Antibody Targets PcrV and Psl Exopolysaccharide.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · February 15, 2016 BACKGROUND: The type 3 secretion protein PcrV and Psl exopolysaccharide are promising therapeutic antibody targets against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We examined P. aeruginosa bloodstream infection (BSI) isolates for the ability to express PcrV and Psl and ev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Host gene expression classifiers diagnose acute respiratory illness etiology.

Journal Article Sci Transl Med · January 20, 2016 Acute respiratory infections caused by bacterial or viral pathogens are among the most common reasons for seeking medical care. Despite improvements in pathogen-based diagnostics, most patients receive inappropriate antibiotics. Host response biomarkers of ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Rapid Molecular Diagnostics, Antibiotic Treatment Decisions, and Developing Approaches to Inform Empiric Therapy: PRIMERS I and II.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · January 15, 2016 BACKGROUND: Rapid molecular diagnostic (RMD) platforms may lead to better antibiotic use. Our objective was to develop analytical strategies to enhance the interpretation of RMDs for clinicians. METHODS: We compared the performance characteristics of 4 RMD ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis.

Journal Article Methods Mol Biol · 2016 Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a gel matrix under the electric field that peri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increasing Incidence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Community Hospitals throughout the Southeastern United States.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · January 2016 OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) infections DESIGN Retrospective cohort SETTING Inpatient care at community hospitals PATIENTS All patien ... Full text Link to item Cite

Application of Whole-Genome Sequencing to an Unusual Outbreak of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · January 2016 Whole-genome analysis was applied to investigate atypical point-source transmission of 2 invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections. Isolates were serotype M4, ST39, and genetically indistinguishable. Comparison with MGAS10750 revealed nonsynonymous p ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Burden of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Hospitalized Infants.

Journal Article JAMA Pediatr · December 2015 IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of infection in hospitalized infants. These infections are associated with increased mortality and morbidity and longer hospital stays, but data on the burden of S aureus disease in hospitalized infants ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endovascular infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are linked to clonal complex-specific alterations in binding and invasion domains of fibronectin-binding protein A as well as the occurrence of fnbB.

Journal Article Infect Immun · December 2015 Endovascular infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus involve interactions with fibronectin present as extracellular matrix or surface ligand on host cells. We examined the expression, structure, and binding activity of the two major S. aureus fibronecti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Geographic Expansion of Lyme Disease in the Southeastern United States, 2000-2014.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · December 2015 Background.  The majority of Lyme disease cases in the United States are acquired on the east coast between northern Virginia and New England. In recent years the geographic extent of Lyme disease has been expanding, raising the prospect of Lyme disease be ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Poor Positive Predictive Value of Lyme Disease Serologic Testing in an Area of Low Disease Incidence.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 1, 2015 BACKGROUND: Lyme disease is diagnosed by 2-tiered serologic testing in patients with a compatible clinical illness, but the significance of positive test results in low-prevalence regions has not been investigated. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Survival Benefit of Empirical Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections in Infants.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · November 2015 BACKGROUND: The impact of early adequate empirical antibiotic therapy on outcomes of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) who develop Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (BSI) is unknown. METHODS: Infants with S. aureus BSI discharge ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association.

Journal Article Circulation · October 13, 2015 BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a potentially lethal disease that has undergone major changes in both host and pathogen. The epidemiology of infective endocarditis has become more complex with today's myriad healthcare-associated factors that predisp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Renal systems biology of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

Journal Article Kidney Int · October 2015 A systems biology approach was used to comprehensively examine the impact of renal disease and hemodialysis (HD) on patient response during critical illness. To achieve this, we examined the metabolome, proteome, and transcriptome of 150 patients with crit ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Clinical MRSA isolates from skin and soft tissue infections show increased in vitro production of phenol soluble modulins.

Journal Article J Infect · October 2015 BACKGROUND: Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are amphipathic, pro-inflammatory proteins secreted by most Staphylococcus aureus isolates. This study tested the hypothesis that in vitro PSM production levels are associated with specific clinical phenotypes. ME ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neonatal Escherichia coli Bloodstream Infections: Clinical Outcomes and Impact of Initial Antibiotic Therapy.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · September 2015 BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is a common cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in infants and is associated with high mortality and morbidity among survivors. The clinical significance of antibiotic resistance and timing of appropriate antimicrobial thera ... Full text Link to item Cite

Desirability of Outcome Ranking (DOOR) and Response Adjusted for Duration of Antibiotic Risk (RADAR).

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · September 1, 2015 Clinical trials that compare strategies to optimize antibiotic use are of critical importance but are limited by competing risks that distort outcome interpretation, complexities of noninferiority trials, large sample sizes, and inadequate evaluation of be ... Full text Link to item Cite

Potential Influence of Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 30 Genotype and Transcriptome on Hematogenous Infections.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · September 2015 Background.  The contemporary Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 30 lineage is associated with complicated infections, including endocarditis and osteomyelitis. This lineage diverged from the phage-type 80/81 S aureus clone responsible for a major b ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Residence in Skilled Nursing Facilities Is Associated with Tigecycline Nonsusceptibility in Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · August 2015 OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of and risk factors for tigecycline nonsusceptibility among carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKPs) isolated from hospitalized patients. DESIGN: Multicenter prospective observational study. SETTING: Acute care h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Rev · July 2015 Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is a leading cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Echocardiographic Findings Predict In-Hospital and 1-Year Mortality in Left-Sided Native Valve Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis: Analysis From the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Echo Cohort Study.

Journal Article Circ Cardiovasc Imaging · July 2015 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus left-sided native valve infective endocarditis (LNVIE) has higher complication and mortality rates compared with endocarditis from other pathogens. Whether echocardiographic variables can predict prognosis in S aureus LNVI ... Full text Link to item Cite

Oritavancin for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.

Journal Article Expert Opin Pharmacother · May 2015 INTRODUCTION: Inpatient treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) exerts a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. Oritavancin is a concentration-dependent, rapid bactericidal agent approved for the treatment o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of therapy and strain type on outcomes in urinary tract infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Journal Article J Antimicrob Chemother · April 2015 OBJECTIVES: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is an important healthcare-associated pathogen. We evaluated the impact of CRKP strain type and treatment on outcomes of patients with CRKP bacteriuria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Physician-diagnosed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Candida infective endocarditis: an observational cohort study with a focus on therapy.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · April 2015 Candida infective endocarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Our understanding of this infection is derived from case series, case reports, and small prospective cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and u ... Full text Link to item Cite

No survival benefit with empirical vancomycin therapy for coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in infants.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · April 2015 BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is the most common cause of bloodstream infections (BSI) in hospitalized infants. CoNS BSI is most reliably treated with vancomycin; however, concerns about side effects and promoting resistance often de ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of early valve surgery on outcome of Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 1, 2015 BACKGROUND: The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between EVS, performed within the fir ... Full text Link to item Cite

Macrophage Phagocytosis Assay of Staphylococcus aureus by Flow Cytometry.

Journal Article Bio Protoc · February 20, 2015 This protocol describes a straightforward technique to evaluate the phagocytotic capacity of murine macrophages for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). By staining S. aureus with Hexidium Iodide and staining murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) wi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Amino acid alterations in fibronectin binding protein A (FnBPA) and bacterial genotype are associated with cardiac device related infection in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

Journal Article J Infect · February 2015 OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus initiates cardiac device-related infection (CDI) by binding of fibronectin binding protein A (FnBPA) to the device's surface. In FnBPA, specific "binding enhancing" amino acid alterations are associated with CDI. However, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between surgical indications, operative risk, and clinical outcome in infective endocarditis: a prospective study from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis.

Journal Article Circulation · January 13, 2015 BACKGROUND: Use of surgery for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) as related to surgical indications and operative risk for mortality has not been well defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The International Collaboration on Endocarditis-PLUS (ICE-PLUS) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Characterization of alpha-toxin hla gene variants, alpha-toxin expression levels, and levels of antibody to alpha-toxin in hemodialysis and postsurgical patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · January 2015 Alpha-toxin is a major Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor. This study evaluated potential relationships between in vitro alpha-toxin expression of S. aureus bloodstream isolates, anti-alpha-toxin antibody in serum of patients with S. aureus bacteremia ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus infections following knee and hip prosthesis insertion procedures.

Journal Article Antimicrob Resist Infect Control · 2015 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common and most important pathogen following knee and hip arthroplasty procedures. Understanding the epidemiology of invasive S. aureus infections is important to quantify this serious complication. METHODS: Th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Polymorphisms in Fibronectin Binding Proteins A and B among Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Isolates Are Not Associated with Arthroplasty Infection.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2015 BACKGROUND: Nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fibronectin binding protein A (fnbA) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with cardiac device infections. However, the role of fnbA SNPs in S. aureus arthroplasty infection is unknown. ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Tigecycline therapy for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) bacteriuria leads to tigecycline resistance.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · December 2014 Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is an increasing global threat. Here, we describe the prevalence and impact of tigecycline use in a cohort of patients with CRKP bacteriuria nested within a multicentre, prospective study. In the 21-month s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Whole Genome Sequencing of a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Pseudo-Outbreak in a Professional Football Team.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · December 2014 Two American football players on the same team were diagnosed with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections on the same day. Our investigation, including whole genome sequencing, confirmed that players did not tran ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Invasive gram-positive bacterial infection in cancer patients.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 15, 2014 Systematic studies have shown that gram-positive organisms are the leading cause of invasive bacterial disease in patients with cancer. A broad range of gram-positive bacteria cause serious infections in the cancer patient with the greatest burden of disea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a review.

Journal Article JAMA · October 1, 2014 IMPORTANCE: Several management strategies may improve outcomes in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. OBJECTIVES: To review evidence of management strategies for S. aureus bacteremia to determine whether transesophageal echocardiography is nece ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia at 5 US academic medical centers, 2008-2011: significant geographic variation in community-onset infections.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · September 15, 2014 BACKGROUND: The incidence of community-onset (CO) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia rose from the late 1990s through the 2000s. However, hospital-onset (HO) MRSA rates have recently declined in the United States and Europe. METH ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus Infections After Elective Cardiothoracic Surgery: Observations From an International Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of an Investigational S aureus Vaccine.

Journal Article Open Forum Infect Dis · September 2014 BACKGROUND: An unmet need to prevent Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections after cardiothoracic surgery persists despite current practices. Cost-effective implementation of preventive strategies requires contemporary knowledge about modifiable risk factors ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Integrative "omic" analysis of experimental bacteremia identifies a metabolic signature that distinguishes human sepsis from systemic inflammatory response syndromes.

Journal Article Am J Respir Crit Care Med · August 15, 2014 RATIONALE: Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Currently, early diagnosis and the progression of the disease are difficult to make. The integration of metabolomic and transcriptomic data in a primate model of sepsis may provide a novel mo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rising rates of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae in community hospitals: a mixed-methods review of epidemiology and microbiology practices in a network of community hospitals in the southeastern United States.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · August 2014 OBJECTIVE: Describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and examine the effect of lower carbapenem breakpoints on CRE detection. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Inpatient care at community hospitals. PATIENTS: All patie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Emerging and resistant infections.

Conference Ann Am Thorac Soc · August 2014 The lungs are a major target for infection and a key battleground in the fight against the development of antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogens. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with mortality rates of 24-50%. The optimal duration of an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: tracking molecular epidemiology and outcomes through a regional network.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · July 2014 Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is on the rise in the United States. A regional network was established to study microbiological and genetic determinants of clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with carbapenem-resistant (CR) Klebsiell ... Full text Link to item Cite

Antibacterial resistance leadership group: open for business.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 2014 Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is tasked with developing a clinical research agenda and conducting clinical studies to address the growing public health threat of an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dusp3 and Psme3 are associated with murine susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection and human sepsis.

Journal Article PLoS Pathog · June 2014 Using A/J mice, which are susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus, we sought to identify genetic determinants of susceptibility to S. aureus, and evaluate their function with regard to S. aureus infection. One QTL region on chromosome 11 containing 422 genes ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A randomized Phase 2 trial of telavancin versus standard therapy in patients with uncomplicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: the ASSURE study.

Journal Article BMC Infect Dis · May 23, 2014 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a common infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide active against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Where does a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine stand?

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · May 2014 In this review, we examine the current status of Staphylococcus aureus vaccine development and the prospects for future vaccines. Examination of the clinical trials to date show that murine models have not predicted success in humans for active or passive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: a pooled analysis of five prospective, observational studies.

Journal Article J Infect · March 2014 OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common, often fatal infection. Our aim was to describe how its clinical presentation varies between populations and to identify common determinants of outcome. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis on 33 ... Full text Link to item Cite

A genome-wide association study of variants associated with acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in a healthcare setting.

Journal Article BMC Infect Dis · February 13, 2014 BACKGROUND: Humans vary in their susceptibility to acquiring Staphylococcus aureus infection, and research suggests that there is a genetic basis for this variability. Several recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified variants that may ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Metabolomic derangements are associated with mortality in critically ill adult patients.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolomic biomarkers predictive of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality in adults. RATIONALE: Comprehensive metabolomic profiling of plasma at ICU admission to identify biomarkers associated with mortality has recently become feasib ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Bloodstream infections in community hospitals in the 21st century: a multicenter cohort study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 BACKGROUND: While the majority of healthcare in the US is provided in community hospitals, the epidemiology and treatment of bloodstream infections in this setting is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook this multicenter, retrospective cohort study ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

A randomized Phase 2 trial of telavancin versus standard therapy in patients with uncomplicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: The ASSURE study

Journal Article BMC Infectious Diseases · 2014 Background: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a common infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide active against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). ... Full text Cite

An integrated transcriptome and expressed variant analysis of sepsis survival and death.

Journal Article Genome Med · 2014 BACKGROUND: Sepsis, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, is not a homogeneous disease but rather a syndrome encompassing many heterogeneous pathophysiologies. Patient factors including genetics predispose to poor outcomes, though current clinical ch ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

High-dose daptomycin therapy for left-sided infective endocarditis: a prospective study from the international collaboration on endocarditis.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · December 2013 The use of daptomycin in Gram-positive left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) has significantly increased. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of high-dose daptomycin on the outcome of left-sided IE due to Gram-positive pathogens. This wa ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · October 2013 Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal bacterium found in the nasal cavity and other body sites. Identifying risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage is of interest, as nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent invasive infection. We recently inv ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply to Parra-Ruiz.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 2013 Full text Link to item Cite

A host-based RT-PCR gene expression signature to identify acute respiratory viral infection.

Journal Article Sci Transl Med · September 18, 2013 Improved ways to diagnose acute respiratory viral infections could decrease inappropriate antibacterial use and serve as a vital triage mechanism in the event of a potential viral pandemic. Measurement of the host response to infection is an alternative to ... Full text Link to item Cite

In-hospital and 1-year mortality in patients undergoing early surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis.

Journal Article JAMA Intern Med · September 9, 2013 IMPORTANCE: There are limited prospective, controlled data evaluating survival in patients receiving early surgery vs medical therapy for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). OBJECTIVE: To determine the in-hospital and 1-year mortality in patients with PVE ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bacterial Infections

Journal Article · August 29, 2013 Full text Cite

Virulence of endemic nonpigmented northern Australian Staphylococcus aureus clone (clonal complex 75, S. argenteus) is not augmented by staphyloxanthin.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · August 1, 2013 Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 75 (herein referred to as S. argenteus) lacks the carotenoid pigment operon, crtOPQMN, responsible for production of the putative virulence factor, staphyloxanthin. Although a common cause of community-onset skin infect ... Full text Link to item Cite

An integrated clinico-metabolomic model improves prediction of death in sepsis.

Journal Article Sci Transl Med · July 24, 2013 Sepsis is a common cause of death, but outcomes in individual patients are difficult to predict. Elucidating the molecular processes that differ between sepsis patients who survive and those who die may permit more appropriate treatments to be deployed. We ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intravascular infection

Chapter · July 8, 2013 Cite

Is it time to replace vancomycin in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections?

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 2013 For more than 4 decades, vancomycin has been the antibiotic of choice for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Recently, infections due to isolates with high but susceptible vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations have been a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of an investigational vaccine for preventing Staphylococcus aureus infections after cardiothoracic surgery: a randomized trial.

Journal Article JAMA · April 3, 2013 IMPORTANCE: Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus are serious complications of cardiothoracic surgery. A novel vaccine candidate (V710) containing the highly conserved S. aureus iron surface determinant B is immunogenic and generally well tolerated in vo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

Journal Article European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases · 2013 Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal bacterium found in the nasal cavity and other body sites. Identifying risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage is of interest, as nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent invasive infection. We recently inv ... Full text Cite

Gene expression-based classifiers identify Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice and humans.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 Staphylococcus aureus causes a spectrum of human infection. Diagnostic delays and uncertainty lead to treatment delays and inappropriate antibiotic use. A growing literature suggests the host's inflammatory response to the pathogen represents a potential t ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Influence of the timing of cardiac surgery on the outcome of patients with infective endocarditis and stroke.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · January 2013 BACKGROUND: The timing of cardiac surgery after stroke in infective endocarditis (IE) remains controversial. We examined the relationship between the timing of surgery after stroke and the incidence of in-hospital and 1-year mortalities. METHODS: Data were ... Full text Link to item Cite

Host gene expression profiling and in vivo cytokine studies to characterize the role of linezolid and vancomycin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) murine sepsis model.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 Linezolid (L), a potent antibiotic for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. By contrast, vancomycin (V) is a cell wall active agent. Here, we used a murine sepsis model to test the hypothesis that L trea ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

HACEK infective endocarditis: characteristics and outcomes from a large, multi-national cohort.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 The HACEK organisms (Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter species, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species) are rare causes of infective endocarditis (IE). The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Delays in appropriate antibiotic therapy for gram-negative bloodstream infections: a multicenter, community hospital study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infection (BSI) is a serious condition with estimated 30% mortality. Clinical outcomes for patients with severe infections improve when antibiotics are appropriately chosen and given early. The objective of t ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Epidemiology and outcome of major postoperative infections following cardiac surgery: risk factors and impact of pathogen type.

Journal Article Am J Infect Control · December 2012 BACKGROUND: Major postoperative infections (MPIs) are poorly understood complications of cardiac surgery. We examined the epidemiology, microbiology, and outcome of MPIs occurring after cardiac surgery. METHODS: The study cohort was drawn from the Society ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bacterial Infections

Chapter · November 15, 2012 Full text Cite

Influence of host genetics and environment on nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus in danish middle-aged and elderly twins.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · October 2012 BACKGROUND: Nasal carriage is a major risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Approximately, one-quarter of adults carry S. aureus. However, the role of host genetics on S. aureus nasal carriage is unknown. METHODS: Nasal swabs were obtained from ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Chelating agents exert distinct effects on biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus depending on strain background: role for clumping factor B.

Journal Article J Med Microbiol · August 2012 Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of catheter infections, and biofilm formation plays a key role in the pathogenesis. Metal ion chelators inhibit bacterial biofilm formation and viability, making them attractive candidates as components in catheter ... Full text Link to item Cite

Discriminative value of inflammatory biomarkers for suspected sepsis.

Journal Article J Emerg Med · July 2012 BACKGROUND: Circulating biomarkers can facilitate sepsis diagnosis, enabling early management and improved outcomes. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been suggested to have superior diagnostic utility compared to other biomarkers. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To define the di ... Full text Link to item Cite

Haplotype Association Mapping Identifies a Candidate Gene Region in Mice Infected With Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article G3 (Bethesda) · June 2012 Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus has a variety of outcomes, from asymptomatic colonization to fatal infection. Strong evidence suggests that host genetics play an important role in susceptibility, but the specific host genetic factors involved are not kno ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Intravascular infection

Chapter · May 15, 2012 Cite

Clinical characteristics and outcome of infective endocarditis involving implantable cardiac devices.

Journal Article JAMA · April 25, 2012 CONTEXT: Infection of implantable cardiac devices is an emerging disease with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of cardiac device infective endocarditis (CDIE) with att ... Full text Link to item Cite

Colonization, pathogenicity, host susceptibility, and therapeutics for Staphylococcus aureus: what is the clinical relevance?

Journal Article Semin Immunopathol · March 2012 Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that can also cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease. Factors associated with clinical disease are myriad and dynamic and include pathogen virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and host susceptibility. Addition ... Full text Link to item Cite

Presence of genes encoding panton-valentine leukocidin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · March 2012 The impact of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) on the outcome in Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is controversial. We genotyped S. aureus isolates from patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) enrolled in two registrational multinational clinical t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply to gould

Journal Article Journal of Infectious Diseases · March 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Dissociation rate constants of human fibronectin binding to fibronectin-binding proteins on living Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical patients.

Journal Article J Biol Chem · February 24, 2012 Staphylococcus aureus is part of the indigenous microbiota of humans. Sometimes, S. aureus bacteria enter the bloodstream, where they form infections on implanted cardiovascular devices. A critical, first step in such infections is a bond that forms betwee ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infective Endocarditis

Journal Article · January 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Panton-Valentine leukocidin is not the primary determinant of outcome for Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: evaluation from the CANVAS studies.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2012 The impact of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) on the severity of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus is controversial. We evaluated potential associations between clinical outcome and PVL presence in bot ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Genetic variability in beta-defensins is not associated with susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2012 INTRODUCTION: Human beta-defensins are key components of human innate immunity to a variety of pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential association between gene variations in DEFB1 and DEFB103/ ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Reply to McBride and Holland

Journal Article Clinical Infectious Diseases · December 15, 2011 Full text Cite

Identifying and aligning expectations in a mentoring relationship.

Journal Article Clin Transl Sci · December 2011 The mentoring relationship between a scholar and their primary mentor is a core feature of research training. Anecdotal evidence suggests this relationship is adversely affected when scholar and mentor expectations are not aligned. We examined three questi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Polymorphisms in fibronectin binding protein A of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with infection of cardiovascular devices.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · November 8, 2011 Medical implants, like cardiovascular devices, improve the quality of life for countless individuals but may become infected with bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus. Such infections take the form of a biofilm, a structured community of bacterial cells adh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis isolates are associated with clonal complex 30 genotype and a distinct repertoire of enterotoxins and adhesins.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · September 1, 2011 BACKGROUND: Using multinational collections of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates from infective endocarditis (IE) and soft tissue infections (STIs), we sought to (1) validate the finding that S. aureus in clonal complex (CC) 30 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in the neonatal intensive care unit.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · July 2011 BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most commonly isolated pathogens in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). CoNS infections are associated with increased morbidity, including neurodevelopmental impairment. OBJECTIVE: To describ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of a simple criteria set for guiding echocardiography in nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · July 1, 2011 BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe complication in patients with nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). We sought to develop and validate criteria to identify patients at low risk for the development of IE in whom transesophage ... Full text Link to item Cite

Management of skin abscesses by primary care pediatricians.

Journal Article Clin Pediatr (Phila) · June 2011 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of skin abscesses. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate primary care pediatricians' management of skin abscesses. METHODS: A national mail survey of a random sample of 385 general pediatricians conducted from April to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: the value of screening with echocardiography.

Journal Article Eur J Echocardiogr · June 2011 AIMS: Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Potential associations between severity of infection and the presence of virulence-associated genes in clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article PLoS One · April 26, 2011 BACKGROUND: The clinical spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus infection ranges from asymptomatic nasal carriage to osteomyelitis, infective endocarditis (IE) and death. In this study, we evaluate potential association between the presence of specific genes in ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between human and hamster.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · April 2011 Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between humans and animals is increasingly recognized. We newly document that the transmission of MRSA between human and hamster is possible. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Combinatorial phenotypic signatures distinguish persistent from resolving methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia isolates.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · February 2011 Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia (PB) (positive blood cultures after ≥7 days of therapy) represents a clinically challenging subset of invasive MRSA infections. In this investigation, we examined the potential correl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Transmission of MRSA between companion animals and infected human patients presenting to outpatient medical care facilities.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2011 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpat ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Future challenges and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with emphasis on MRSA.

Journal Article Future Microbiol · January 2011 Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an urgent medical problem due to its growing frequency and its poor associated outcome. As healthcare delivery increasingly involves invasive procedures and implantable devices, the number of patients at risk for S ... Full text Link to item Cite

A tactile response in Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article Biophys J · November 3, 2010 It is well established that bacteria are able to respond to temporal gradients (e.g., by chemotaxis). However, it is widely held that prokaryotes are too small to sense spatial gradients. This contradicts the common observation that the vast majority of ba ... Full text Link to item Cite

Daptomycin compared to standard therapy for the treatment of native valve endocarditis.

Journal Article Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin · October 2010 INTRODUCTION: In a recent randomized trial of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and native valve endocarditis, daptomycin was found not inferior to standard therapy. We summarized findings in the subgroup of patients with endocarditis according to the Duke ... Full text Link to item Cite

Two genes on A/J chromosome 18 are associated with susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infection by combined microarray and QTL analyses.

Journal Article PLoS Pathog · September 2, 2010 Although it has recently been shown that A/J mice are highly susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus sepsis as compared to C57BL/6J, the specific genes responsible for this differential phenotype are unknown. Using chromosome substitution strains (CSS), we fo ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Bonds between fibronectin and fibronectin-binding proteins on Staphylococcus aureus and Lactococcus lactis.

Journal Article Langmuir · July 6, 2010 Bacterial cell-wall-associated fibronectin binding proteins A and B (FnBPA and FnBPB) form bonds with host fibronectin. This binding reaction is often the initial step in prosthetic device infections. Atomic force microscopy was used to evaluate binding in ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Variation in the type and frequency of postoperative invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections according to type of surgical procedure.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · July 2010 OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of postoperative invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection following 4 types of major surgical procedures.design. Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Eleven hospitals (9 community hospitals and 2 ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Case-control study to identify factors associated with mortality among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

Journal Article Clin Microbiol Infect · June 2010 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia is associated with increased mortality. Delay in appropriate antimicrobial therapy (DAAT) is an important risk factor for death, although confounding between carriage of MRSA and DAAT has not b ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determination of an inoculum effect with various cephalosporins among clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · May 2010 Using 98 clinical methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates of known beta-lactamase (Bla) type, we found a pronounced inoculum effect for cephalexin (mostly Bla type A and C strains), a mild inoculum effect for cephalothin (especially types B ... Full text Link to item Cite

Disease progression in hemodynamically stable patients presenting to the emergency department with sepsis.

Journal Article Acad Emerg Med · April 2010 BACKGROUND: Aggressive diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with septic shock has been shown to reduce mortality. To enhance the ability to intervene in patients with lesser illness severity, a better understandin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development of pooled suppression subtractive hybridization to analyze the pangenome of Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article J Microbiol Methods · April 2010 We describe the development and application of a Pooled Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (PSSH) method to describe differences between the genomic content of a pool of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates and a sequenced reference strain. In compar ... Full text Link to item Cite

Analysis of the impact of early surgery on in-hospital mortality of native valve endocarditis: use of propensity score and instrumental variable methods to adjust for treatment-selection bias.

Journal Article Circulation · March 2, 2010 BACKGROUND: The impact of early surgery on mortality in patients with native valve endocarditis (NVE) is unresolved. This study sought to evaluate valve surgery compared with medical therapy for NVE and to identify characteristics of patients who are most ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Multiplex PCR to diagnose bloodstream infections in patients admitted from the emergency department with sepsis.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · January 2010 Sepsis is caused by a heterogeneous group of infectious etiologies. Early diagnosis and the provision of appropriate antimicrobial therapy correlate with positive clinical outcomes. Current microbiological techniques are limited in their diagnostic capacit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of diabetic patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · December 2009 The complications from S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) and infective endocarditis (SAIE) are higher in patients with diabetes. We summarize the characteristics and outcome of diabetic patients enrolled in a multicenter trial of daptomycin vs. standard therapy f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Presence of genes encoding the panton-valentine leukocidin exotoxin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: results of a multinational trial.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · December 2009 The role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in determining the severity and outcome of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is controversial. We evaluated potenti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evans' infections of humans: Staphylococcal infections

Journal Article · December 1, 2009 Despite major advances in the medical arena, staphylococci remain important agents of infectious diseases in the human host. Although initially disregarded as contaminants in cultures, coagulase-negative staphylococci have recently gained great clinical si ... Full text Cite

Staphylococci in Human Disease: Second Edition

Journal Article Staphylococci in Human Disease: Second Edition · November 18, 2009 Staphylococci remain the most important cause of hospital-acquired infections in the U.S. and MRSA has become the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infection in many parts of the world. There is now a much greater understanding of the physiology an ... Full text Cite

Heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate susceptibility phenotype in bloodstream methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from an international cohort of patients with infective endocarditis: prevalence, genotype, and clinical significance.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · November 1, 2009 BACKGROUND: The significance of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) is unknown. Using a multinational collection of isolates from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infective endocarditis (IE), we characterized patients ... Full text Link to item Cite

Using decision analysis to improve malaria control policy making.

Journal Article Health Policy · October 2009 Malaria and other vector-borne diseases represent a significant and growing burden in many tropical countries. Successfully addressing these threats will require policies that expand access to and use of existing control methods, such as insecticide-treate ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Treatment for bacteraemia due to Staphylococcus aureus

Journal Article Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews · September 18, 2009 Full text Cite

Reply to Bruss

Journal Article Clinical Infectious Diseases · September 1, 2009 Full text Cite

Inoculum effect with cefazolin among clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: frequency and possible cause of cefazolin treatment failure.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · August 2009 Methicillin (meticillin)-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains producing large amounts of type A beta-lactamase (Bla) have been associated with cefazolin failures, but the frequency and impact of these strains have not been well studied. Here we ... Full text Link to item Cite

Health care-associated native valve endocarditis: importance of non-nosocomial acquisition.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · May 5, 2009 BACKGROUND: The clinical profile and outcome of nosocomial and non-nosocomial health care-associated native valve endocarditis are not well defined. OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics and outcomes of community-associated and nosocomial and non-nosoc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reduced valve replacement surgery and complication rate in Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis patients receiving acetyl-salicylic acid.

Journal Article J Infect · May 2009 OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA) on clinical outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (SA-IE). METHODS: The International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study database was used in this o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Coagulase-negative staphylococcal prosthetic valve endocarditis--a contemporary update based on the International Collaboration on Endocarditis: prospective cohort study.

Journal Article Heart · April 2009 OBJECTIVE: To describe the contemporary features of coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). DESIGN: Observational study of prospectively collected data from a multinational cohort of patients with infective endocarditi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Living arrangement and coronary heart disease: the JPHC study.

Journal Article Heart · April 2009 BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that living in a multi-generational household (a type of family structure prevalent in Japan) confers mixed health benefits and stresses, especially for women who report such living arrangements. OBJECTIVE: To ex ... Full text Link to item Cite

Critical role of NOD2 in regulating the immune response to Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article Infect Immun · April 2009 NOD2 (the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing protein 2) is known to be involved in host recognition of bacteria, although its role in the host response to Staphylococcus aureus infection is unknown. NOD2-deficient (Nod2(-/-)) mice and wil ... Full text Link to item Cite

Initial low-dose gentamicin for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis is nephrotoxic.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 15, 2009 BACKGROUND: The safety of adding initial low-dose gentamicin to antistaphylococcal penicillins or vancomycin for treatment of suspected Staphylococcus aureus native valve endocarditis is unknown. This study evaluated the association between this practice a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis in the 21st century: the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study.

Journal Article Arch Intern Med · March 9, 2009 BACKGROUND: We sought to provide a contemporary picture of the presentation, etiology, and outcome of infective endocarditis (IE) in a large patient cohort from multiple locations worldwide. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 2781 adults with definite IE ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among patients with health care-associated fever.

Journal Article Am J Med · March 2009 BACKGROUND: Although Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a common, serious infection, accurately identifying febrile patients with this diagnosis at the time of initial evaluation is difficult. The purpose of this investigation was to define clinical chara ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incidence of and preoperative risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and chest wound infection after cardiac surgery.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · March 2009 OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus infections after cardiac surgery result in significant morbidity and mortality. Identifying patients at elevated risk for these infections preoperatively could facilitate efforts to reduce infection rates. The objectives of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus infection in hemodialysis-dependent patients.

Journal Article Clin J Am Soc Nephrol · February 2009 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of infection in patients with ESRD. Clinical and economic outcomes associated with S. aureus bacteremia and other S. aureus infections in patients with ESRD were examined. DESIGN, SETTING, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in vitro and in an experimental endocarditis model.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · January 15, 2009 BACKGROUND: Persistent MRSA bacteremia (PB) represents an important subset of Staphylococcus aureus infections and correlates with poor clinical outcomes. METHODS: We profiled relevant in vitro phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of MRSA isolates from ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in a tropical setting: patient outcome and impact of antibiotic resistance.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2009 BACKGROUND: Most information on invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections comes from temperate countries. There are considerable knowledge gaps in epidemiology, treatment, drug resistance and outcome of invasive S. aureus infection in the tropics. METHODS: ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in a tropical setting: Patient outcome and impact of antibiotic resistance

Journal Article PLoS ONE · 2009 Background: Most information on invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections comes from temperate countries. There are considerable knowledge gaps in epidemiology, treatment, drug resistance and outcome of invasive S. aureus infection in the tropics. Methods: ... Full text Cite

Nanoscale forces at the heart of staphylococcus infections

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · December 1, 2008 Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated bacteria from infected medical implants. S. aureus has the capacity to adhere to the surface of an implant where it forms a biofilm. We used atomic force microscopy to probe binding forces betwee ... Cite

A Bacterium's Sense of Touch

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · December 1, 2008 The sheer number of bacteria living on solid surfaces makes a compelling argument for the existence of surface sensing mechanisms. However, surface sensing abilities have not been widely studied in bacteria, because such abilities are not macroscopically o ... Cite

First reported case of infective endocarditis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil.

Journal Article Braz J Infect Dis · December 2008 We report here the first case of endocarditis due to CA-MRSA not associated with healthcare contact in Brazil in Brazil. A previously healthy patient presented with history of endocarditis following a traumatic wound infection. Patient had multiple positiv ... Full text Link to item Cite

Analysis of the genotype and virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from patients with infective endocarditis.

Journal Article Infect Immun · November 2008 Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the most common causes of infections of prosthetic heart valves (prosthetic valve endocarditis [PVE]) and an increasingly common cause of infections of native heart valves (native valve endocarditis [NVE]). While S. epi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Current features of infective endocarditis in elderly patients: results of the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study.

Journal Article Arch Intern Med · October 27, 2008 BACKGROUND: Elderly patients are emerging as a population at high risk for infective endocarditis (IE). However, adequately sized prospective studies on the features of IE in elderly patients are lacking. METHODS: In this multinational, prospective, observ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Health care-associated infection (HAI): a critical appraisal of the emerging threat-proceedings of the HAI Summit.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · October 1, 2008 During the Health Care-Associated Pneumonia Summit conducted in June 2007, it was found that there is a need for educational efforts in several areas of health care-associated infections (HAI) that extend beyond pneumonia. This supplement to Clinical Infec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Correction

Journal Article Circulation · September 16, 2008 Full text Cite

Correction

Journal Article Circulation · September 16, 2008 Full text Cite

Associations between the genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates and clinical characteristics and outcomes of bacteremic patients.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · September 2008 We investigated associations between the genotypic and phenotypic features of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates and the clinical characteristics of bacteremic patients enrolled in a phase III trial of S. aureus bacteremia and endocarditis. Isolate ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microbiological and genotypic analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · September 2008 In a recent landmark trial of bacteremia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, vancomycin MICs were >or=1 microg/ml for only 16% of the isolates, and accessory gene regulator (agr) function as measured by delta-hemolysin ac ... Full text Link to item Cite

Candida infective endocarditis.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · July 2008 Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Telavancin versus vancomycin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections caused by gram-positive organisms.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 1, 2008 BACKGROUND: Telavancin is an investigational, rapidly bactericidal lipoglycopeptide with a multifunctional mechanism of action. METHODS: We conducted 2 parallel, randomized, double-blind, active-control, phase 3 studies with a prespecified pooled analysis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 1, 2008 Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis are serious infections that demand prompt clinical attention to ensure good outcomes. Of foremost importance is identifying and managing the source of infection and any associated complications. Evaluation ... Full text Link to item Cite

Binding forces associated with staphylococcus aureus biofilms on medical implants

Journal Article ACS Symposium Series · May 30, 2008 Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated bacteria from infected medical implants. S. aureus has the capacity to adhere to the surface of an implant where it forms a biofilm. We used atomic force microscopy to probe binding forces betwee ... Full text Cite

Genotypic diversity of coagulase-negative staphylococci causing endocarditis: a global perspective.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · May 2008 Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important causes of infective endocarditis (IE), but their microbiological profiles are poorly described. We performed DNA target sequencing and susceptibility testing for 91 patients with definite CNS IE who were ... Full text Link to item Cite

Echocardiographic risk stratification for early surgery with endocarditis: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

Journal Article Heart · May 2008 BACKGROUND: Despite widespread acceptance of echocardiography for diagnosis of infective endocarditis, few investigators have evaluated its utility as a risk-stratification tool to aid therapeutic decision-making. METHODS: A decision tree and Markov analys ... Full text Link to item Cite

Daptomycin use in infants: report of two cases with peak and trough drug concentrations.

Journal Article J Perinatol · March 2008 We report two infants treated with daptomycin for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and describe peak and trough blood concentrations measured during therapy. The peak concentrations were 41.7 and 36.7 mcg ml(-1), and the 12-hour trough ... Full text Link to item Cite

Venous thrombosis in patients with short- and long-term central venous catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Crit Care Med · February 2008 OBJECTIVE: Infection and thrombosis are important complications of intravascular catheters. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of thrombosis in patients with central venous catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Leptotrichia endocarditis: report of two cases from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) database and review of previous cases.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · February 2008 Leptotrichia species typically colonize the oral cavity and genitourinary tract. We report the first two cases of endocarditis secondary to L. goodfellowii sp. nov. Both cases were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Review of the English literature ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a multinational trial of complicated skin and skin structure infections.

Journal Article J Clin Microbiol · February 2008 The impact of bacterial genetic characteristics on the outcome of patients with Staphylococcus aureus infections is uncertain. This investigation evaluated potential associations between bacterial genotype and clinical outcome using isolates collected as p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Emergence of coagulase-negative staphylococci as a cause of native valve endocarditis.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · January 15, 2008 BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are an infrequent cause of native valve endocarditis (NVE), and our understanding of NVE caused by CoNS is incomplete. METHOD: The International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study incl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcomes with daptomycin versus standard therapy for osteoarticular infections associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

Journal Article J Antimicrob Chemother · January 2008 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of patients with osteoarticular infections (OAIs) associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). METHODS: The clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with OAI ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical outcomes and costs among patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and orthopedic device infections.

Journal Article Scand J Infect Dis · 2008 We evaluated costs and outcomes of patients with S. aureus bacteremia and orthopedic device infections (ODI). Patients with ODI had higher relapse of S. aureus infection, compared to bacteremic patients without ODI. Costs and outcomes were similar among OD ... Full text Link to item Cite

Non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · December 18, 2007 BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis caused by non-HACEK (species other than Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, or Kingella species) gram-negative bacilli is rare, is poorly characterized, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a polyclonal anti-Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide immune globulin in treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · December 2007 New treatment modalities are needed for the treatment of infections due to multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus capsular polysaccharide immune globulin (Altastaph) is a polyclonal immune globulin preparation that is being developed as adjun ... Full text Link to item Cite

Mortality and neurodevelopmental outcome after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in infants.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · December 2007 We compared outcomes in infants with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Infants with methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection had a longer median duration of bacteremia (4.5 versus 1 day, P = 0.01), but no di ... Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship between the initiation of antimicrobial therapy and the incidence of stroke in infective endocarditis: an analysis from the ICE Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS).

Journal Article Am Heart J · December 2007 BACKGROUND: Embolic events to the central nervous system are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). The appropriate role of valvular surgery in reducing such embolic events is unclear. The purpose of this stu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Optimizing therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Semin Respir Crit Care Med · December 2007 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients in intensive care units is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt clinical attention is essential to ensure good outcomes, including identification and management of th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Expression of antimicrobial peptides in the normal and involved skin of patients with infective cellulitis.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · November 1, 2007 BACKGROUND: Endogenous antimicrobial peptides participate in the innate defense of skin against a variety of pathogens. The systemic expression of these peptides in normal-appearing skin of patients with infective cellulitis is unknown. METHODS: Study pati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Potential associations between hematogenous complications and bacterial genotype in Staphylococcus aureus infection.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · September 1, 2007 BACKGROUND: The impact of bacterial clonality on infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus is unclear. METHODS: Three hundred seventy-nine S. aureus isolates (125 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] and 254 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]) wer ... Full text Link to item Cite

Medical treatment of endocarditis.

Journal Article Curr Infect Dis Rep · July 2007 Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious and deadly disease. The incidence, which varies by gender and on the presence of predisposing factors, has not decreased, due in part to the aging population with more healthcare exposures and predisposing risk ... Full text Link to item Cite

Contemporary clinical profile and outcome of prosthetic valve endocarditis.

Journal Article JAMA · March 28, 2007 CONTEXT: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The contemporary clinical profile and outcome of PVE are not well defined. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Correlation between fundamental binding forces and clinical prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus infections of medical implants.

Journal Article Langmuir · February 27, 2007 Atomic force microscopy was used to "fish" for binding reactions between a fibronectin-coated probe (i.e., substrate simulating an implant device) and each of 15 different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from either patients with an infected car ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early surgery in patients with infective endocarditis: a propensity score analysis.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 1, 2007 BACKGROUND: An accurate assessment of the predictors of long-term mortality in patients with infective endocarditis is not possible using retrospective data because of inherent treatment biases and predictable imbalances in the distribution of prognostic f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Use of vancomycin or first-generation cephalosporins for the treatment of hemodialysis-dependent patients with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · January 15, 2007 BACKGROUND: Because of its ease of dosing, vancomycin is commonly used to treat methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Clinical outcomes resulting from such a therapeutic strategy have ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infective endocarditis caused by daptomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis: a case report.

Journal Article Scand J Infect Dis · 2007 Daptomycin is a first-in-class antibiotic with efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. We document the second report of daptomycin resistance in a clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecalis. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dr. Cosgrove and colleagues reply [4]

Journal Article New England Journal of Medicine · November 16, 2006 Cite

Therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Reply

Journal Article NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE · November 16, 2006 Link to item Cite

Periannular complications in infective endocarditis involving prosthetic aortic valves.

Journal Article Am J Cardiol · November 1, 2006 The periannular extension of infection in prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a serious complication of infective endocarditis associated with high mortality. Periannular lesions in PVE occasionally rupture into adjacent cardiac chambers, leading to aor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Periannular complications in infective endocarditis involving native aortic valves.

Journal Article Am J Cardiol · November 1, 2006 The extension of infection in native valve infective endocarditis (IE) from valvular structures to the periannular tissue is incompletely understood. It is unknown, for example, whether the prognosis of patients with aortocavitary fistulae is worse than th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Daptomycin versus standard therapy for bacteremia and endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · August 17, 2006 BACKGROUND: Alternative therapies for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis are needed. METHODS: We randomly assigned 124 patients with S. aureus bacteremia with or without endocarditis to receive 6 mg of daptomycin intravenously per kilogram o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Phase II, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study comparing the safety and pharmacokinetics of tefibazumab to placebo for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · August 2006 Tefibazumab (Aurexis), a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the surface-expressed adhesion protein clumping factor A, is under development as adjunctive therapy for serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Sixty patients with documented S. aureus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci: findings from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Merged Database.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · June 2006 Infective endocarditis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci is increasingly recognized as a difficult-to-treat disease associated with poor outcome. The aim of this report is to describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with prosthetic valve ... Full text Link to item Cite

A blinded, randomized, multicenter study of an intravenous Staphylococcus aureus immune globulin.

Journal Article J Perinatol · May 2006 OBJECTIVES: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are vulnerable to nosocomial infections and subsequent morbidity; including infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus: 85% of nosocomial S. aureus infections are caused by capsular polysaccharide (CPS) type ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship between clinical outcomes and vascular access type among hemodialysis patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Clin J Am Soc Nephrol · May 2006 The association between hemodialysis vascular access type, costs, and outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) among patients with ESRD remains incompletely characterized. This study was undertaken to compare resource utilization, costs, and clini ... Full text Link to item Cite

Neonatal meningitis: what is the correlation among cerebrospinal fluid cultures, blood cultures, and cerebrospinal fluid parameters?

Journal Article Pediatrics · April 2006 BACKGROUND: Meningitis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Clinicians frequently use the presence of positive blood cultures to determine whether neonates should undergo lumbar puncture. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) paramet ... Full text Link to item Cite

Update on infective endocarditis.

Journal Article Curr Probl Cardiol · April 2006 With infective endocarditis afflicting 15,000 patients each year and with a mortality rate that still hovers at almost 40%, the disease remains a very serious health problem. Surprisingly, the incidence has not declined over the last 30 years, and now with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Telavancin versus standard therapy for treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive bacteria: FAST 2 study.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · March 2006 Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide with a multifunctional mechanism of action. We conducted a randomized, double blind, active-control phase II trial. Patients > or = 18 years of age with complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by ... Full text Link to item Cite

[Staphylococcus aureus infections: new challenges from an old pathogen].

Journal Article Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin · March 2006 Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile organism with several virulent characteristics and resistance mechanisms at its disposal. It is also a significant cause of a wide range of infectious diseases in humans. S. aureus often causes life-threatening deep sea ... Full text Link to item Cite

COLL 23-A bacterium's sense of touch: Staphylococcus biofilms on surfaces

Conference ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY · 2006 Cite

Influence of diabetes mellitus on the clinical manifestations and prognosis of infective endocarditis: a report from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Merged Database.

Other Scand J Infect Dis · 2006 The purpose of this investigation was to study the influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) on outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE). Outcomes were compared between 150 diabetic and 905 non-diabetic patients with IE from the International Collaboration on End ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endocarditis from Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article JAMA · December 21, 2005 Full text Link to item Cite

Endocarditis From

Journal Article JAMA · December 21, 2005 Full text Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with prosthetic devices: costs and outcomes.

Journal Article Am J Med · December 2005 PURPOSE: Although Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial infection, little is known about the impact of S. aureus bacteremia on patients with prosthetic devices. This investigation sought to define the clinical outcome, health care resource ... Full text Link to item Cite

A returning traveler with fever and rash.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 15, 2005 Full text Link to item Cite

Use of surgery in patients with native valve infective endocarditis: results from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Merged Database.

Journal Article Am Heart J · November 2005 BACKGROUND: Early surgery has been shown to be beneficial for patients with infective endocarditis (IE), yet surgery is not used in most patients. Evidence of the uncertainty around the use of surgery can be found in the wide variations in the use of cardi ... Full text Link to item Cite

The use and effect of surgical therapy for prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: a propensity analysis of a multicenter, international cohort.

Journal Article Am Heart J · November 2005 BACKGROUND: Although surgical intervention is often used in the treatment of prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE), an understanding of its effect on survival has been limited by the biases of observational studies and lack of controlled trials. M ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical characteristics and outcome of aortic endocarditis with periannular abscess in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Merged Database.

Journal Article Am J Cardiol · October 1, 2005 The aims of this study were to determine the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who had definite infective endocarditis (IE) complicated by aortic ring abscess formation that was detected with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and to det ... Full text Link to item Cite

A meta-analysis of medical versus surgical therapy for Candida endocarditis.

Journal Article J Infect · October 2005 OBJECTIVES: The optimal management of Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is unknown. METHODS: We reviewed all 879 cases of Candida IE reported from 1966-2002 in the peer-reviewed literature to better understand the role of medical and surgical therapies. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enterococcal prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: report of 45 episodes from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-merged database.

Journal Article Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis · October 2005 Enterococcal prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVE) is an incompletely understood disease. In the present study, patients with enterococcal PVE were compared to patients with enterococcal native valve endocarditis (NVE) and other types of PVE to det ... Full text Link to item Cite

Osteoblasts produce monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in a murine model of Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis and infected human bone tissue.

Journal Article Bone · October 2005 Incidences of osteomyelitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus have increased dramatically in recent years, in part, due to the appearance of community-acquired antibiotic-resistant strains. Therefore, understanding the pathogenesis of this organism has becom ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical predictors of major infections after cardiac surgery.

Journal Article Circulation · August 30, 2005 BACKGROUND: Major infections are infrequent but important complications of cardiac surgery. Predicting their occurrence is essential for future prevention. The objective of the current investigation was to create and validate a bedside scoring system to es ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus native valve infective endocarditis: report of 566 episodes from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Merged Database.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 15, 2005 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus native valve infective endocarditis (SA-NVIE) is not completely understood. The objective of this investigation was to describe the characteristics of a large, international cohort of patients with SA-NVIE. METHODS: The In ... Full text Link to item Cite

Repeat infective endocarditis: differentiating relapse from reinfection.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · August 1, 2005 Repeat infective endocarditis due to the same species can represent relapse of the initial infection or a new infection. We used time-based clinical criteria and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-based molecular criteria to classify 13 cases of repeat infec ... Full text Link to item Cite

Enterococcal endocarditis: 107 cases from the international collaboration on endocarditis merged database.

Journal Article Am J Med · July 2005 PURPOSE: To describe clinical features and outcomes of enterococcal left-sided native valve endocarditis and to compare it to endocarditis caused by other pathogens. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Merged D ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reduced susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to vancomycin and platelet microbicidal protein correlates with defective autolysis and loss of accessory gene regulator (agr) function.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · July 2005 Loss of agr function, vancomycin exposure, and abnormal autolysis have been linked with both development of the GISA phenotype and low-level resistance in vitro to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal proteins (tPMPs). We examined the potential in vitro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: a consequence of medical progress.

Journal Article JAMA · June 22, 2005 CONTEXT: The global significance of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Staphylococcus aureus is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To document the international emergence of health care-associated S aureus IE and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) IE and to evalua ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infective endocarditis: diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, American Heart Association: endorsed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Journal Article Circulation · June 14, 2005 BACKGROUND: Despite advances in medical, surgical, and critical care interventions, infective endocarditis remains a disease that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The continuing evolution of antimicrobial resistance among common pat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infective endocarditis: Diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications a statement for healthcare professionals from the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, American Heart Association - Executive summary

Journal Article Circulation · June 14, 2005 Background - Despite advances in medical, surgical, and critical care interventions, infective endocarditis remains a disease that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The continuing evolution of antimicrobial resistance among common pa ... Full text Cite

Telavancin versus standard therapy for treatment of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections due to gram-positive bacteria.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 1, 2005 BACKGROUND: Telavancin, a novel lipoglycopeptide, exerts concentration-dependent, rapid bactericidal activity on account of its multiple mechanisms of action. Telavancin is highly active against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staph ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical outcomes and costs due to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among patients receiving long-term hemodialysis.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · June 2005 OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical outcomes and costs associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among hemodialysis-dependent patients. DESIGN: Prospectively identified cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary-care university medical center in North Carolin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors for hematogenous complications of intravascular catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 1, 2005 BACKGROUND: The role of both host and pathogen characteristics in hematogenous seeding following Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is incompletely understood. METHODS: Consecutive patients with intravascular catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bactere ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk of endocarditis among patients with prosthetic valves and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Am J Med · March 2005 PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacteremia and of native valve infective endocarditis. However, the risk of endocarditis in patients with a prosthetic valve who develop S. aureus bacteremia is unclear. The aim of this study was to defin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Costs and outcomes among hemodialysis-dependent patients with methicillin-resistant or methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol · February 2005 OBJECTIVE: Comorbid conditions have complicated previous analyses of the consequences of methicillin resistance for costs and outcomes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. We compared costs and outcomes of methicillin resistance in patients with S. aureus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aorto-cavitary fistulous tract formation in infective endocarditis: clinical and echocardiographic features of 76 cases and risk factors for mortality.

Journal Article Eur Heart J · February 2005 AIMS: To investigate the clinical features, echocardiographic characteristics, management, and prognostic factors of mortality of aorto-cavitary fistulization (ACF) in infective endocarditis (IE). Extension of infection in aortic valve IE beyond valvular s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis: A consequence of medical progress (vol 293, pg 3012, 2005)

Journal Article JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION · 2005 Cite

Frequency of infective endocarditis among infants and children with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Pediatrics · January 2005 PURPOSE: The prevalence of infective endocarditis (IE) among children with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine prospectively the prevalence of IE among pediatric patients with SAB in a large terti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Native valve endocarditis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci: report of 99 episodes from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Merged Database.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · November 15, 2004 Using a large cohort of patients from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Merged Database, we compared coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) native-valve endocarditis (NVE) to NVE caused by more common pathogens. Rates of heart failure and m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Persistent bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection is associated with agr dysfunction and low-level in vitro resistance to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · September 15, 2004 BACKGROUND: The causes of persistent bacteremia (PB) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are poorly understood. This investigation examined potential associations between PB with key clinical features and several in vitro bacterial ge ... Full text Link to item Cite

Issues in the Management of Endocarditis Caused by Resistant Gram-positive Organisms.

Journal Article Curr Infect Dis Rep · August 2004 Most cases of infective endocarditis (IE) are caused by gram-positive bacteria such as enterococci, streptococci, and staphylococci. Increasing resistance among these organisms has eroded the utility of mainstay antibiotics and complicated the management o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors for postoperative mediastinitis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · June 1, 2004 Risk factors for developing postoperative mediastinitis (POM) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were analyzed in a case-case control study of patients who underwent median sternotomy during the period from 1994 through 2000. Three p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prognostic factors in 61 cases of Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve infective endocarditis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis merged database.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · May 1, 2004 Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (SA-PVIE) is associated with a high mortality rate, but prognostic factors have not been clearly elucidated. The International Collaboration on Endocarditis merged database (ICE-MD) contained 22 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · April 15, 2004 Clinical management of infective endocarditis (IE) is expected to become more difficult with the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (SARV) in the United States and worldwide. We report the strain characterization a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early predictors of in-hospital death in infective endocarditis.

Journal Article Circulation · April 13, 2004 BACKGROUND: Data on early determinants of outcome in infective endocarditis (IE) are limited. We evaluated the prognostic significance of early clinical characteristics in a large, prospective cohort of patients with IE. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred si ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increasing rates of cardiac device infections among Medicare beneficiaries: 1990-1999.

Journal Article Am Heart J · April 2004 BACKGROUND: Although cardiac devices have been found to reduce symptoms and mortality rates in appropriate patient populations, the implications of certain important risks, such as infection, are incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to us ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel approaches to clinical trials: device-related infections.

Journal Article Am Heart J · April 2004 The explosive growth in the use of cardiac devices and the continued large number of thoracic operations produce a significant number of costly infectious complications. These infections represent a leading cause of death and disability after device implan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Osteoblasts express the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in a murine model of Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis and infected human bone tissue.

Journal Article Am J Pathol · April 2004 Staphylococcus aureus is the single most common cause of osteomyelitis in humans. Incidences of osteomyelitis caused by S. aureus have increased dramatically in recent years, in part due to the appearance of community-acquired antibiotic resistant strains. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Candida endocarditis: contemporary cases from the International Collaboration of Infectious Endocarditis Merged Database (ICE-mD).

Journal Article Scand J Infect Dis · 2004 Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is increasingly common, yet most reports have been single-center reviews. We evaluated 16 patients with Candida IE nested within a cohort of 2,022 patients with IE. Prosthetic valve IE was more common in patients with Ca ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fatal outcome of bacteraemic patients caused by infection with staphylokinase-deficient Staphylococcus aureus strains.

Journal Article J Med Microbiol · October 2003 Staphylokinase (SAK) is a plasminogen-activator protein produced by Staphylococcus aureus. SAK production was evaluated in vitro in S. aureus isolates from the bloodstream of patients with lethal (n = 56) and non-lethal (n = 57) bacteraemia and from anteri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Surgical treatment of pacemaker and defibrillator lead endocarditis: the impact of electrode lead extraction on outcome.

Journal Article Chest · October 2003 BACKGROUND: Cardiac device (CD) endocarditis is an infrequent but potentially lethal infectious complication of permanent pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and mortality rates of 30 to 35% have been reported. Medical treatment h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical identifiers of complicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Arch Intern Med · September 22, 2003 BACKGROUND: Complications of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) are often difficult to identify. The ability to accurately predict the likelihood of these complications would impact patient management. This investigation sought to define readily availa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia after median sternotomy: clinical utility of blood culture results in the identification of postoperative mediastinitis.

Journal Article Circulation · July 8, 2003 BACKGROUND: Mediastinitis is a complication of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) that can be difficult to diagnose. This study evaluated the utility of blood culture results in identifying patients with mediastinitis. METHODS AND RESULTS: All uni ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis.

Journal Article Cardiol Clin · May 2003 Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteremia and endocarditis. Over the past several years, the frequency of S aureus bacteremia (SAB) has increased dramatically. This increasing frequency, coupled with increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early predictors of mortality in patients with endocarditis

Conference JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY · March 19, 2003 Link to item Cite

Adverse clinical and economic outcomes attributable to methicillin resistance among patients with Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · March 1, 2003 Data for 479 patients were analyzed to assess the impact of methicillin resistance on the outcomes of patients with Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections (SSIs). Patients infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) had a greater 90-day mo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis.

Journal Article Infect Dis Clin North Am · June 2002 Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacteremia and endocarditis. Over the past several years, the frequency of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) has increased dramatically. This increasing frequency, coupled with increasing rates of antibiotic resistance, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial differences in endocarditis treatment and outcome

Journal Article JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY · March 6, 2002 Link to item Cite

Antimicrobial activity of prosthetic heart valve sewing cuffs coated with minocycline and rifampin.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · February 2002 Prosthetic heart valve sewing cuffs coated with minocycline and rifampin exhibited in vitro zones of inhibition against all 52 tested clinical isolates responsible for prosthetic valve endocarditis. An in vitro elution study of these coated sewing cuffs de ... Full text Link to item Cite

Changing patient characteristics and the effect on mortality in endocarditis.

Journal Article Arch Intern Med · January 14, 2002 BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on recent demographic and microbiological changes in infective endocarditis (IE) and the impact of these changes on patient survival. METHODS: Data were collected from all patients with definite or possible IE at Duke Univers ... Full text Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with permanent pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

Journal Article Circulation · August 28, 2001 BACKGROUND: Although cardiac device infections (CDIs) are a devastating complication of permanent pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, the incidence of CDI in patients with bacteremia is not well defined. The objective of this study was t ... Full text Link to item Cite

The intercellular adhesin locus ica is present in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bacteremic patients with infected and uninfected prosthetic joints.

Journal Article Med Microbiol Immunol · April 2001 Although polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of prosthetic device infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis, its role in prosthetic device infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus is unknown. To a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infection of orthopedic prostheses after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · February 15, 2001 We prospectively evaluated 53 patients with prosthetic joints and 27 patients with other orthopedic prosthetic devices who developed Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). After exclusion of patients with primary postoperative infections, the risk of a pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of changing trends in endocarditis on outcomes

Journal Article JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY · February 1, 2001 Link to item Cite

In vitro resistance to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from endocarditis patients correlates with an intravascular device source.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · October 2000 Platelet microbicidal proteins (PMPs) are small antimicrobial peptides secreted by mammalian platelets. In vitro resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains to PMPs correlates with more extensive disease in experimental infective endocarditis (IE). To dete ... Full text Link to item Cite

Proposed modifications to the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · April 2000 Although the sensitivity and specificity of the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) have been validated by investigators from Europe and the United States, several shortcomings of this schema remain. The Duke IE database contains ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prospective analysis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in nonneutropenic adults with malignancy.

Journal Article J Clin Oncol · March 2000 PURPOSE: To determine the primary sources and secondary complications of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in cancer patients, as well as predictors of outcome in cancer patients with SAB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients at Duke University Me ... Full text Link to item Cite

Emphysematous pyelonephritis.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · January 6, 2000 Full text Link to item Cite

Emphysematous pyelonephritis - Reply

Journal Article NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE · January 6, 2000 Link to item Cite

Meningococcemia in a patient coinfected with hepatitis C virus and HIV.

Journal Article Emerg Infect Dis · 2000 We describe the first reported case of meningococcemia in a patient coinfected with hepatitis C virus and HIV. Hypocomplementemia secondary to hepatic dysfunction may have enhanced the patient's susceptibility to meningococcal infection. ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in the surgical patient: a prospective analysis of 73 postoperative patients who developed Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia at a tertiary care facility.

Journal Article J Am Coll Surg · January 2000 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of infection and bacteremia in the postoperative patient. Unfortunately, there have been no prospective studies evaluating these patients, so the incidence of complications, subsequent treatment algorit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Images in clinical medicine. Emphysematous pyelonephritis.

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · September 2, 1999 Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among elderly vs younger adult patients: comparison of clinical features and mortality.

Journal Article Arch Intern Med · June 14, 1999 BACKGROUND: Previous studies give conflicting results regarding the effect of age on outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). These studies have been limited by retrospective design or small sample size. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Echocardiography for the Diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus Infective Endocarditis.

Journal Article Curr Infect Dis Rep · June 1999 Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a serious and growing problem. A longstanding controversy in infectious diseases has centered around the duration of therapy for patients with SAB. Fortunately, the refinement of echocardiography and the creation o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cost-effectiveness of transesophageal echocardiography to determine the duration of therapy for intravascular catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

Journal Article Ann Intern Med · May 18, 1999 BACKGROUND: The appropriate duration of therapy for catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is controversial. Conventional practice dictates that all patients receive prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics. Some clinicians recommend abbr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Failure of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion in the treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis.

Journal Article Am J Trop Med Hyg · May 1999 Although amphotericin B desoxycholate is considered the most effective treatment for disseminated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infections, little is known about the efficacy of lipid-based formulations of amphotericin B in this infection. In this study, w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis findings in 29 patients.

Journal Article J Infect Dis · May 1999 To identify risk factors for relapse among 309 prospectively identified cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, patients with recurrent S. aureus bacteremia were identified, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on isolates from both ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infective endocarditis due to Staphylococcus aureus: 59 prospectively identified cases with follow-up.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · January 1999 Fifty-nine consecutive patients with definite Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) by the Duke criteria were prospectively identified at our hospital over a 3-year period. Twenty-seven (45.8%) of the 59 patients had hospital-acquired S. aureus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Septic arthritis

Journal Article Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice · January 1, 1999 Full text Cite

In vitro resistance to thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein among clinical bacteremic isolates of Staphylococcus aureus correlates with an endovascular infectious source.

Journal Article Antimicrob Agents Chemother · December 1998 Platelet microbicidal proteins (PMPs), small cationic peptides released at sites of endovascular damage, kill common bloodstream pathogens in vitro. Our group previously showed that in vitro resistance of clinical staphylococcal and viridans group streptoc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incidence and outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in hemodialysis patients.

Journal Article Kidney Int · November 1998 BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is frequently associated with metastatic complications and infective endocarditis (IE). The Duke criteria for the diagnosis of IE utilize echocardiographic techniques and are more sensitive than previous criteri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia according to compliance with recommendations of infectious diseases specialists: experience with 244 patients.

Journal Article Clin Infect Dis · September 1998 To determine whether recommendations of infectious diseases specialists affect outcome for patients, we evaluated 244 hospitalized patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. We offered our management recommendations to each patient's physicians and th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Image of the month. Pyogenic liver abscess.

Journal Article Gastroenterology · September 1998 Full text Link to item Cite

Echocardiography in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia - Reply

Journal Article JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY · May 1, 1998 Link to item Cite

Prospective Study of Clinical Outcome in Endocarditis Patients

Journal Article Journal of the American College of Cardiology · February 1998 Full text Cite

Clostridium septicum myonecrosis presenting as a parapharyngeal abscess in a patient with aplastic anemia.

Journal Article Infection · 1998 The first reported case of Clostridium septicum myonecrosis in an adult with aplastic anemia is described. The patient presented with sepsis, a parapharyngeal abscess that necessitated emergent intubation, and severe intravascular hemolysis attributed to c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia according to compliance with infectious diseases specialist recommendations: experience with 253 patients

Journal Article Clinical Infectious Diseases · December 1, 1997 The impact of infectious disease specialist involvement on the clinical outcome of hospitalized patients has been inadequately studied. To determine whether recommendations of infectious disease specialists affect the clinical outcome of hospitalized patie ... Cite

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: A treatment algorithm

Journal Article Clinical Infectious Diseases · December 1, 1997 An algorithm to define the duration of therapy for patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia was prospectively tested. Recommendations for all patients with SAB were as follows: all removable foci of infection should be removed, surveillance blood cul ... Cite

Bacterial endocarditis in hemodialysis patients.

Journal Article Am J Kidney Dis · October 1997 Infective endocarditis (IE) is one of the most serious complications of bacteremia. Hemodialysis patients with prosthetic vascular access devices such as dual-lumen cuffed venous catheters and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts are at increased risk for ... Full text Link to item Cite

Role of echocardiography in evaluation of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: experience in 103 patients.

Journal Article J Am Coll Cardiol · October 1997 OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the role of echocardiography in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). BACKGROUND: The reported incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients with SAB varies widely. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Carbonised

Journal Article NEW SCIENTIST · 1997 Cite

Bacillus cereus necrotizing cellulitis mimicking clostridial myonecrosis: case report and review of the literature.

Journal Article Scand J Infect Dis · 1997 We describe a case of rapidly progressive necrotizing cellulitis in an immunocompromised farmer caused by Bacillus cereus, and review 15 additional cases of serious soft tissue infection due to this organism reported in the English language literature. The ... Full text Link to item Cite

Predictors of prognosis and risk of acute renal failure in patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Journal Article Am J Med · December 1996 BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure has long been associated with severe Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Despite many descriptions of the protean manifestations of this disease, relatively little is known concerning the risk factors for acute renal failur ... Full text Link to item Cite

Predictors of prognosis and risk of acute renal failure in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

Journal Article JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY · September 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

Infective endocarditis.

Journal Article Curr Opin Cardiol · May 1994 Endocarditis continues to be a popular subject among medical authors. A steady stream of new papers describes evolving aspects of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, natural history, and management. Significant developments include refinements in echoca ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy of chloroquine on Plasmodium falciparum transmitted at Amani, eastern Usambara Mountains, north-east Tanzania: an area where malaria has recently become endemic.

Journal Article J Trop Med Hyg · December 1993 In order to assess the response of newly endemic falciparum malaria to currently used antimalarials, a field study was conducted in Amani, Tanzania. The efficacy of chloroquine (CQ) on Plasmodium falciparum was assessed by in-vivo and in-vitro methods. Fif ... Link to item Cite

Case report: splenic infarction and acute splenic sequestration in adults with hemoglobin SC disease.

Journal Article Am J Med Sci · December 1991 While acute splenic sequestration and splenic infarction are commonly observed in infants and young children with sickle cell anemia, they are rarely experienced by adult hemoglobin S homozygotes because the recurrent splenic infarction that takes place du ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of an immunoreactive glycoprotein in the urine of sarcoma patients.

Journal Article J Surg Res · May 1991 Tumor-associated antigens (TAA) can be detected in the urine of sarcoma patients by a variety of assays. This study was designed to correlate antigen activity in three assays: complement fixation assay (CFA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and ... Full text Link to item Cite