Skip to main content

Richard B. Fair

Lord-Chandran Distinguished Professor of Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Box 90291, Durham, NC 27708-0291
3519 Ciemas, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engrg., Durham, NC 27708
Office hours MWF 1:30-3:00pm  

Selected Publications


Enhanced fluorescent detection of nucleosomes using functionalized magnetic beads on a digital microfluidic device

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · January 1, 2022 Epigenetics, the study of inheritable mechanisms that regulate gene expression, has clinical ramifications from cancer to autoimmune disorders to psychiatric pathologies. The main tool to study epigenetics is chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which pro ... Full text Cite

Fluorescent detection of nucleosomes using functionalized magnetic beads on a digital microfluidic device

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · January 1, 2021 Epigenetics, the study of inheritable mechanisms that regulate gene expression, has clinical ramifications from cancer to autoimmune disorders to psychiatric pathologies. The main tool to study epigenetics is chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which pro ... Full text Cite

ENHANCED BIOMOLECULAR BINDING TO BEADS ON A DIGITAL MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE

Conference MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences · January 1, 2021 Biomolecular assays typically require large reagent volumes, long processing times and provide low throughput analysis. To overcome some of these limitations, we have developed devices to enhance binding efficiencies between antibodies and magnetic beads i ... Cite

Digital Microfluidics for the Detection of Selected Inorganic Ions in Aerosols.

Journal Article Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) · February 2020 A prototype aerosol detection system is presented that is designed to accurately and quickly measure the concentration of selected inorganic ions in the atmosphere. The aerosol detection system combines digital microfluidics technology, aerosol impaction a ... Full text Cite

Adaptive droplet routing in digital microfluidic biochips using deep reinforcement learning

Conference 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2020 · January 1, 2020 We present and investigate a novel application domain for deep reinforcement learning (RL): droplet routing on digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs). A DMFB, composed of a twodimensional electrode array, manipulates discrete fluid droplets to automatically ... Cite

Piezo-driven acoustic streaming in an electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics device

Journal Article Microfluidics and Nanofluidics · December 1, 2017 We report the integration of a lead zirconate titanate, Pb[Zr xTi 1-xO 3] (PZT), piezoelectric transducer disk into the top plate of an otherwise conventional electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) digital microfluidics device to demonstrate on-demand inductio ... Full text Cite

Scalable Device for Automated Microbial Electroporation in a Digital Microfluidic Platform.

Journal Article ACS synthetic biology · September 2017 Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) digital microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip platforms demonstrate excellent performance in automating labor-intensive protocols. When coupled with an on-chip electroporation capability, these systems hold promise for stream ... Full text Cite

Automated electrotransformation of Escherichia coli on a digital microfluidic platform using bioactivated magnetic beads.

Journal Article Biomicrofluidics · January 2017 This paper reports on the use of a digital microfluidic platform to perform multiplex automated genetic engineering (MAGE) cycles on droplets containing Escherichia coli cells. Bioactivated magnetic beads were employed for cell binding, washing, and ... Full text Cite

Fluid transport in partially shielded electrowetting on dielectric digital microfluidic devices

Journal Article Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems · August 1, 2016 Theoretical and experimental approaches verifying the fluidic operation of a partially shielded digital microfluidics device are presented in this paper. This paper is motivated by recent demand from the synthetic biology community for electrowetting on di ... Full text Cite

Experimental demonstration of error recovery in an integrated cyberphysical digital-microfluidic platform

Conference IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference: Engineering for Healthy Minds and Able Bodies, BioCAS 2015 - Proceedings · December 4, 2015 Digital (droplet-based) microfluidics enables the integration of fluid-handling operations and reaction-outcome detection. Despite these benefits, defects and erroneous fluidic operations continue to be major barriers to the adoption and deployment of thes ... Full text Cite

Digital microfluidics chip with integrated intra-droplet magnetic bead manipulation

Journal Article Microfluidics and Nanofluidics · December 1, 2015 This paper demonstrates an integrated device combining both EWD droplet actuation and intra-droplet magnetic bead manipulation. Magnetic bead manipulation is achieved by using current-carrying wires acting as microelectromagnets. The current wire structure ... Full text Cite

Intra-droplet magnetic bead manipulation integrated on a digital microfluidic chip

Conference 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2014 · January 1, 2014 This paper demonstrates a device which is capable of performing both magnetic molecular segregation within a droplet as well as droplet actuation. Segregation of magnetic beads is performed within a droplet while the droplet is dispensed and transported us ... Cite

Droplet-based sensing: Optical microresonator sensors embedded in digital electrowetting microfluidics systems

Journal Article IEEE Sensors Journal · October 21, 2013 Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) microfluidics is an emerging platform for practical applications such as water quality testing and medical diagnostics. Low power consumption, low sample and reagent volumes, small size, and rapid fluid transport are feat ... Full text Cite

Fault detection, real-time error recovery, and experimental demonstration for digital microfluidic biochips

Journal Article Proceedings -Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE · January 1, 2013 Advances in digital microfluidics and integrated sensing hold promise for a new generation of droplet-based biochips that can perform multiplexed assays to determine the identity of target molecules. Despite these benefits, defects and erroneous fluidic op ... Full text Cite

Software automated genomic engineering (SAGE) enabled by electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics

Journal Article 17th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2013 · January 1, 2013 Software automated genomic engineering (SAGE) enables arbitrary genetic modification of bacteria on a fluidic platform that implements the multiplex automated genomic engineering (MAGE) process [1]. Electrowetting-ondielectric (EWD) digital microfluidics i ... Cite

Integrated sample preparation and sensing: Polymer microresonator sensors embedded in digital electrowetting microfluidic systems

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Journal · December 10, 2012 Portable point-of-care (POC) medical diagnostic devices demand low power consumption, efficient use of low sample and reagent volumes, and small size. A Bdigital[ electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) microfluidics system with integrated optical sensors is a ... Full text Cite

Development of digital microfluidic impactor for online determination of sulfate

Journal Article Air and Waste Management Association - Air Quality Measurement Methods and Technology Conference 2012 · December 1, 2012 Cite

Low voltage picoliter droplet manipulation utilizing electrowetting-on-dielectric platforms.

Journal Article Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical · October 2012 Picoliter droplets actuated on an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) actuator are demonstrated. In this study, the physical scaling of electrodes for 33 μm and 21 μm EWD devices resulted in droplets of 12 pl and 5 pl being dispensed respectively in conjunc ... Full text Cite

Chip scale optical microresonator sensors integrated with embedded thin film photodetectors on electrowetting digital microfluidics platforms

Journal Article IEEE Sensors Journal · May 8, 2012 Miniaturized, portable, sensitive, and low cost sensing systems are important for medical and environmental diagnostic and monitoring applications. Chip scale integrated photonic sensing systems that combine optical, electrical, and fluidic functions are e ... Full text Cite

Enhanced fluorescent detection of nucleosomes using functionalized magnetic beads on a digital microfluidic device

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · January 1, 2022 Epigenetics, the study of inheritable mechanisms that regulate gene expression, has clinical ramifications from cancer to autoimmune disorders to psychiatric pathologies. The main tool to study epigenetics is chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which pro ... Full text Cite

Fluorescent detection of nucleosomes using functionalized magnetic beads on a digital microfluidic device

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · January 1, 2021 Epigenetics, the study of inheritable mechanisms that regulate gene expression, has clinical ramifications from cancer to autoimmune disorders to psychiatric pathologies. The main tool to study epigenetics is chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which pro ... Full text Cite

ENHANCED BIOMOLECULAR BINDING TO BEADS ON A DIGITAL MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE

Conference MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences · January 1, 2021 Biomolecular assays typically require large reagent volumes, long processing times and provide low throughput analysis. To overcome some of these limitations, we have developed devices to enhance binding efficiencies between antibodies and magnetic beads i ... Cite

Digital Microfluidics for the Detection of Selected Inorganic Ions in Aerosols.

Journal Article Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) · February 2020 A prototype aerosol detection system is presented that is designed to accurately and quickly measure the concentration of selected inorganic ions in the atmosphere. The aerosol detection system combines digital microfluidics technology, aerosol impaction a ... Full text Cite

Adaptive droplet routing in digital microfluidic biochips using deep reinforcement learning

Conference 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2020 · January 1, 2020 We present and investigate a novel application domain for deep reinforcement learning (RL): droplet routing on digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs). A DMFB, composed of a twodimensional electrode array, manipulates discrete fluid droplets to automatically ... Cite

Piezo-driven acoustic streaming in an electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics device

Journal Article Microfluidics and Nanofluidics · December 1, 2017 We report the integration of a lead zirconate titanate, Pb[Zr xTi 1-xO 3] (PZT), piezoelectric transducer disk into the top plate of an otherwise conventional electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) digital microfluidics device to demonstrate on-demand inductio ... Full text Cite

Scalable Device for Automated Microbial Electroporation in a Digital Microfluidic Platform.

Journal Article ACS synthetic biology · September 2017 Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) digital microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip platforms demonstrate excellent performance in automating labor-intensive protocols. When coupled with an on-chip electroporation capability, these systems hold promise for stream ... Full text Cite

Automated electrotransformation of Escherichia coli on a digital microfluidic platform using bioactivated magnetic beads.

Journal Article Biomicrofluidics · January 2017 This paper reports on the use of a digital microfluidic platform to perform multiplex automated genetic engineering (MAGE) cycles on droplets containing Escherichia coli cells. Bioactivated magnetic beads were employed for cell binding, washing, and ... Full text Cite

Fluid transport in partially shielded electrowetting on dielectric digital microfluidic devices

Journal Article Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems · August 1, 2016 Theoretical and experimental approaches verifying the fluidic operation of a partially shielded digital microfluidics device are presented in this paper. This paper is motivated by recent demand from the synthetic biology community for electrowetting on di ... Full text Cite

Experimental demonstration of error recovery in an integrated cyberphysical digital-microfluidic platform

Conference IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference: Engineering for Healthy Minds and Able Bodies, BioCAS 2015 - Proceedings · December 4, 2015 Digital (droplet-based) microfluidics enables the integration of fluid-handling operations and reaction-outcome detection. Despite these benefits, defects and erroneous fluidic operations continue to be major barriers to the adoption and deployment of thes ... Full text Cite

Digital microfluidics chip with integrated intra-droplet magnetic bead manipulation

Journal Article Microfluidics and Nanofluidics · December 1, 2015 This paper demonstrates an integrated device combining both EWD droplet actuation and intra-droplet magnetic bead manipulation. Magnetic bead manipulation is achieved by using current-carrying wires acting as microelectromagnets. The current wire structure ... Full text Cite

Intra-droplet magnetic bead manipulation integrated on a digital microfluidic chip

Conference 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2014 · January 1, 2014 This paper demonstrates a device which is capable of performing both magnetic molecular segregation within a droplet as well as droplet actuation. Segregation of magnetic beads is performed within a droplet while the droplet is dispensed and transported us ... Cite

Droplet-based sensing: Optical microresonator sensors embedded in digital electrowetting microfluidics systems

Journal Article IEEE Sensors Journal · October 21, 2013 Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) microfluidics is an emerging platform for practical applications such as water quality testing and medical diagnostics. Low power consumption, low sample and reagent volumes, small size, and rapid fluid transport are feat ... Full text Cite

Fault detection, real-time error recovery, and experimental demonstration for digital microfluidic biochips

Journal Article Proceedings -Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE · January 1, 2013 Advances in digital microfluidics and integrated sensing hold promise for a new generation of droplet-based biochips that can perform multiplexed assays to determine the identity of target molecules. Despite these benefits, defects and erroneous fluidic op ... Full text Cite

Software automated genomic engineering (SAGE) enabled by electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics

Journal Article 17th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2013 · January 1, 2013 Software automated genomic engineering (SAGE) enables arbitrary genetic modification of bacteria on a fluidic platform that implements the multiplex automated genomic engineering (MAGE) process [1]. Electrowetting-ondielectric (EWD) digital microfluidics i ... Cite

Integrated sample preparation and sensing: Polymer microresonator sensors embedded in digital electrowetting microfluidic systems

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Journal · December 10, 2012 Portable point-of-care (POC) medical diagnostic devices demand low power consumption, efficient use of low sample and reagent volumes, and small size. A Bdigital[ electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) microfluidics system with integrated optical sensors is a ... Full text Cite

Development of digital microfluidic impactor for online determination of sulfate

Journal Article Air and Waste Management Association - Air Quality Measurement Methods and Technology Conference 2012 · December 1, 2012 Cite

Low voltage picoliter droplet manipulation utilizing electrowetting-on-dielectric platforms.

Journal Article Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical · October 2012 Picoliter droplets actuated on an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) actuator are demonstrated. In this study, the physical scaling of electrodes for 33 μm and 21 μm EWD devices resulted in droplets of 12 pl and 5 pl being dispensed respectively in conjunc ... Full text Cite

Chip scale optical microresonator sensors integrated with embedded thin film photodetectors on electrowetting digital microfluidics platforms

Journal Article IEEE Sensors Journal · May 8, 2012 Miniaturized, portable, sensitive, and low cost sensing systems are important for medical and environmental diagnostic and monitoring applications. Chip scale integrated photonic sensing systems that combine optical, electrical, and fluidic functions are e ... Full text Cite

Accelerate sepsis diagnosis by seamless integration of DNA purification and QPCR

Journal Article Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2012 · January 1, 2012 The high mortality rate of sepsis has been attributed to delayed pathogen identification. Hence, a fluidic device is being developed to accelerate the procedures from DNA purification to qPCR sequence detection. Demonstrated herein is the key feature the d ... Cite

Integrated sample preparation and sensing: Microresonator optical sensors embedded in digital electrowetting microfluidics systems

Journal Article Proceedings of IEEE Sensors · December 1, 2011 The intimate integration of digital electrowetting microfluidics and optical microcavity sensors results in an excellent platform for low power consumption, high sensitivity integrated sample preparation and testing, which is particularly useful for medica ... Full text Cite

Droplet-based pyrosequencing using digital microfluidics.

Journal Article Analytical chemistry · November 2011 The feasibility of implementing pyrosequencing chemistry within droplets using electrowetting-based digital microfluidics is reported. An array of electrodes patterned on a printed-circuit board was used to control the formation, transportation, merging, m ... Full text Cite

Picoliter DNA sequencing chemistry on an electrowetting-based digital microfluidic platform.

Journal Article Biotechnology journal · February 2011 The results of investigations into performing DNA sequencing chemistry on a picoliter-scale electrowetting digital microfluidic platform are reported. Pyrosequencing utilizes pyrophosphate produced during nucleotide base addition to initiate a process endi ... Full text Cite

Parallel processing of multifunctional, point-of-care bio-applications on electrowetting chips

Journal Article 14th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences 2010, MicroTAS 2010 · December 1, 2010 We report on performing parallel processing on electrowetting-based digital microfluidic chips by taking advantage of reconfigurable architecture combined with programmable control, scalability, and contamination-free liquid handling. The opportunity is to ... Cite

Low Voltage Electrowetting-on-Dielectric Platform using Multi-Layer Insulators.

Journal Article Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical · September 2010 A low voltage, two-level-metal, and multi-layer insulator electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) platform is presented. Dispensing 300pl droplets from 140nl closed on-chip reservoirs was accomplished with as little as 11.4V solely through EWD forces, and the a ... Full text Cite

Design tools for digital microfluidic biochips: Toward functional diversification and more than Moore

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems · July 1, 2010 Microfluidics-based biochips enable the precise control of nanoliter volumes of biochemical samples and reagents. They combine electronics with biology, and they integrate various bioassay operations, such as sample preparation, analysis, separation, and d ... Full text Cite

Scaling fundamentals and applications of digital microfluidic microsystems

Journal Article NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology · January 1, 2010 With the first experimental demonstration of droplet flow on an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) array platform in 2000, there has been significant interest in droplet actuation for lab-on-a-chip applications. A hydrodynamic scaling model of droplet actu ... Full text Cite

Material study for electrowetting-based multi-microfluidics array printing of high resolution tissue construct with embedded cells and growth factors

Journal Article Proceedings of the ASME 1st Global Congress on NanoEngineering for Medicine and Biology 2010, NEMB2010 · January 1, 2010 Full text Cite

Digital microfluidic chips for chemical and biological applications.

Journal Article Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference · December 1, 2009 The advent of digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technology offers an excellent platform for developing diagnostic applications. In diagnostics raw physiological samples must be introduced onto the chip and then further processed by lysing blood cell ... Cite

Digital microfluidic chips for chemical and biological applications.

Journal Article Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference · January 2009 The advent of digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technology offers an excellent platform for developing diagnostic applications. In diagnostics raw physiological samples must be introduced onto the chip and then further processed by lysing blood cell ... Full text Cite

A scaling model for electrowetting-on-dielectric microfluidic actuators

Journal Article Microfluidics and Nanofluidics · January 1, 2009 A hydrodynamic scaling model of droplet actuation in an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) actuator is presented that takes into account the effects of contact angle hysteresis, drag from the filler fluid, drag from the solid walls, and change in the actua ... Full text Cite

Chip scale integration of optical microresonator sensors with digital microfludics systems

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2008 Chip scale integration of optical microresonator sensors with digital microfluidics systems has been demonstrated. Glucose solution of different concentrations were dispensed, actuated, and sensed on this lab-on-chip platform. ©2008 IEEE. ... Full text Cite

Integrated optical sensor in a digital microfluidic platform

Journal Article IEEE Sensors Journal · May 1, 2008 The advent of digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technology offers a platform for developing diagnostic applications with the advantages of portability, increased automation, low-power consumption, compatibility with mass manufacturing, and high thro ... Full text Cite

Electrowetting-based multi-microfluidics array printing of high resolution tissue construct with embedded cells and growth factors

Journal Article Virtual and Physical Prototyping · December 1, 2007 To overcome limitations of current tissue fabrication methods, explore new biocompatible materials, and develop new biomimetic manufacturing process for soft tissue, we are developing a new technology, electrowetting-based microfluidics array printing, whi ... Full text Cite

Electrowetting based multi-microfluidics array printing of high resolution tissue construct with embedded cells and growth factors

Journal Article Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping: Virtual and Rapid Manufacturing Advanced Research Virtual and Rapid Prototyping · December 1, 2007 To overcome limitations of current tissue fabrication methods, explore new biocompatible materials, and develop new biomimetic manufacturing process for soft tissue, we are conducting a new technology, electrowetting based microfluidics array printing, whi ... Cite

Optical detection heterogeneously integrated with a coplanar digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platform

Journal Article Proceedings of IEEE Sensors · December 1, 2007 The intimate integration of optical components with microfluidics technology will enable next generation portable LoC systems that may completely contain optical generation, processing, and detection. Toward the chip scale integration of digital microfluid ... Full text Cite

Digital microfluidics: Is a true lab-on-a-chip possible?

Journal Article Microfluidics and Nanofluidics · June 1, 2007 The suitability of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWD) microfluidics for true lab-on-a-chip applications is discussed. The wide diversity in biomedical applications can be parsed into manageable components and assembled into architecture that requires the a ... Full text Cite

Chemical and biological applications of digital-microfluidic devices

Journal Article IEEE Design and Test of Computers · January 1, 2007 The advent of digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technology offers a platform for developing diagnostic applications with the advantages of portability, reduction of the volumes of the sample and reagents, faster analysis times, increased automation, ... Full text Open Access Cite

Microfluidics-based biochips: Technology issues, implementation platforms, and design automation challenges

Journal Article · December 1, 2006 Microfluidics-based biochips are soon expected to revolutionize clinical diagnosis, DNA sequencing, and other laboratory procedures involving molecular biology. In contrast to continuous-flow systems that rely on permanently-etched microchannels, micropump ... Full text Cite

Development of digital microfluidic impactor for real-time measurements of the aerosol chemical composition

Journal Article Air and Waste Management Association - Symposium on Air Quality Measurement: Methods and Technology 2006 · December 1, 2006 Cite

Microfluidics-based biochips: Technology issues, implementation platforms, and design-automation challenges

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems · February 1, 2006 Microfluidics-based biochips are soon expected to revolutionize clinical diagnosis, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing, and other laboratory procedures involving molecular biology. In contrast to continuous-flow systems that rely on permanently etched ... Full text Cite

A droplet-based lab-on-a-chip for colorimetric detection of nitroaromatic explosives

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) · October 25, 2005 Portable and automated field screening equipment would be very effective in detecting and quantifying explosives at various sites. A droplet-based microfluidic lab-on-a-chip utilizing electrowetting is presented for the colorimetric detection of TNT (trini ... Full text Cite

Protein stamping for maldi mass spectrometry using AN electrowetting-based microfluidic platform

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 2004 MALDI-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry) is one of the most commonly used techniques for protein analysis. In conventional systems sample preparation is typically done in well-plates and transferred onto a MALDI target by ro ... Full text Cite

Integrated chemical/biochemical sample collection, pre-concentration, and analysis on a digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platform

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 2004 An ideal on-site chemical/biochemical analysis system must be inexpensive, sensitive, fully automated and integrated, reliable, and compatible with a broad range of samples. The advent of digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technology offers such a de ... Full text Cite

An integrated digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for clinical diagnostics on human physiological fluids.

Journal Article Lab on a chip · August 2004 Clinical diagnostics is one of the most promising applications for microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems, especially in a point-of-care setting. Conventional microfluidic devices are usually based on continuous-flow in microchannels, and offer little flexibil ... Full text Cite

Droplet-based microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for glucose detection

Journal Article Analytica Chimica Acta · April 1, 2004 A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LoC) platform for in vitro measurement of glucose for clinical diagnostic applications is presented in this paper. The LoC uses a discrete droplet format in contrast to conventional continuous flow microfluidic systems. The dr ... Full text Cite

Automated on-chip droplet dispensing with volume control by electro-wetting actuation and capacitance metering

Journal Article Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical · March 15, 2004 In this work, a method is presented for controlling on-chip droplet dispensing by electro-wetting actuation in conjunction with capacitance feedback. The method exploits the built-in capacitance of an electro-wetting device to meter the droplet volume and ... Full text Cite

Behavioral modeling and performance evaluation of microelectrofluidics- based PCR systems using systemC

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems · 2004 Composite microsystems that incorporate microelectromechanical and microelectrofluidic devices are emerging as the next generation of system-on-a-chip (SOC). We present a performance comparison between two types of microelectrofluidic systems (MEFS): conti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Special issue on biomedical applications for MEMS and microfluidics

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE · January 1, 2004 Full text Cite

Electrowetting-Based On-Chip Sample Processing for Integrated Microfluidics

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · December 1, 2003 In this work, results and data are reported on key aspects of sample processing protocols performed on-chip in a digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip. We report the results of experiments on aspects of sample processing, including on-chip preconcentration an ... Cite

Rapid droplet mixers for digital microfluidic systems.

Journal Article Lab on a chip · November 2003 The mixing of analytes and reagents for a biological or chemical lab-on-a-chip is an important, yet difficult, microfluidic operation. As volumes approach the sub-nanoliter regime, the mixing of liquids is hindered by laminar flow conditions. An electrowet ... Full text Cite

A digital microfluidic biosensor for multianalyte detection

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) · July 23, 2003 A microfluidic lab-on-chip (LoC) for measuring the concentration of human body metabolites, using submicroliter droplets as reaction chambers, is presented in this paper. The device is based on the manipulation of droplets using the principle of electrowet ... Cite

Electrowetting-based droplet mixers for microfluidic systems.

Journal Article Lab on a chip · February 2003 Mixing of analytes and reagents is a critical step in realizing a lab-on-a-chip. However, mixing of liquids is very difficult in continuous flow microfluidics due to laminar flow conditions. An alternative mixing strategy is presented based on the discreti ... Full text Cite

Design and testing of an interpolating mixing architecture for electrowetting-based droplet-on-chip chemical dilution

Conference TRANSDUCERS 2003 - 12th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Digest of Technical Papers · January 1, 2003 An on-chip dilution scheme for an electrowetting based microfluidic system is presented in this paper. The dilution scheme uses the mixing and splitting of two droplets of different concentrations to result in an intermediate concentration, as the fundamen ... Full text Cite

System performance evaluation with systemC for two PCR microelectrofluidic systems

Journal Article 2002 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems - MSM 2002 · December 1, 2002 We present a performance comparison between two types of microfiuidic systems - continuous-flow systems and droplet-based systems. The comparison is based on a specific microfluidic application - a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. The modeling and s ... Cite

Integrated hierarchical design of microelectrofluidic systems using SystemC

Journal Article 2002 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems - MSM 2002 · December 1, 2002 This paper describes the role of SystemC in developing an integrated modeling and simulation environment for microelectrofluidic systems (MEFS). Based on the unique modeling and simulation needs for MEFS, we examine suitability of several existing simulati ... Cite

Dynamics of electro-wetting droplet transport

Journal Article Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical · November 15, 2002 A model is formulated to describe the dynamics of electro-wetting-induced transport of liquid droplets. The velocity of droplet transport as a function of actuation voltage is derived. The operating parameters include the viscosity of the droplet and the m ... Full text Cite

Electrowetting-based actuation of droplets for integrated microfluidics.

Journal Article Lab on a chip · May 2002 The serviceability of microfluidics-based instrumentation including 'lab-on-a-chip' systems critically depends on control of fluid motion. We are reporting here an alternative approach to microfluidics based upon the micromanipulation of discrete droplets ... Full text Cite

Microelectrofluidic systems: Modeling and simulation

Book · January 1, 2002 Composite systems that integrate microelectromechanical and microelectrofluidic (MEF) components with electronics are emerging as the next generation of system-on-a-chip (SOC) designs. However, there remains a pressing need for a structured methodology for ... Cite

Integrated hierarchical design of microelectrofluidic systems using SystemC

Journal Article Microelectronics Journal · 2002 This paper describes the role of SystemC in developing an integrated modeling and simulation environment for microelectrofluidic systems (MEFS). Based on the unique modeling and simulation needs for MEFS, we examine suitability of several existing simulati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Design of reconfigurable composite microsystems based on hardware/software codesign principles

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems · 2002 Composite microsystems that integrate mechanical and fluidic components with electronics are emerging as the next generation of system-on-a-chip. Custom microsystems are expensive, inflexible, and unsuitable for high-volume production. The authors address ... Full text Link to item Cite

Micro/nano liter droplet formation and dispensing by capacitance metering and electrowetting actuation

Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology · January 1, 2002 In this work, a method is presented for dispensing droplets. The method exploits the built-in capacitance of an electrowetting device to meter the droplet volume and control the dispensing process dynamically. A fully automated droplet dispensing device is ... Full text Cite

Microfluidic electrowetting-based droplet mixing

Conference 2001 Microelectromechanical Systems Conference, MEMS 2001 · January 1, 2002 We present a liquid droplet mixer to enable mixing of the samples and reagents for chemical and biological analysis in micro total analysis systems (μTAS). The droplets in the mixer are actuated based on electrowetting phenomenon. The actuator comprises of ... Full text Cite

Scheduling of microfluidic operations for reconfigurable two-dimensional electrowetting arrays

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems · December 1, 2001 We present an architectural design and optimization methodology for performing biochemical reactions using two-dimensional (2-D) electrowetting arrays. We define a set of basic microfluidic operations and leverage electronic design automation principles fo ... Full text Cite

Reconfigurable microfluidic system architecture based on two-dimensional electrowetting arrays

Journal Article 2001 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems - MSM 2001 · December 1, 2001 We present an architectural design and optimization methodology for performing biochemical reactions using two-dimensional electrowetting arrays. We define a set of basic microfiuidic operations and leverage electronic design automation principles for syst ... Cite

Design of reconfigurable composite microsystems based on hardware/software co-design principles 1

Journal Article 2001 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems - MSM 2001 · December 1, 2001 Custom microsystems are expensive, inflexible, and unsuitable for high-volume production. We address this problem by leveraging hardware/software co-design principles to design reconfigurable composite microsystems. We partition the system design parameter ... Cite

Scalable macromodels for microelectromechanical systems

Journal Article 2001 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems - MSM 2001 · December 1, 2001 A fully automatic macromodeling methodology to generate scalable reduced-order models for microelectromechanical systems is presented in this paper. Krylov subspace methods are used to generate reduced-order models from detailed higher-order models of the ... Cite

The coupled-domain system simulation/simulatability problem

Journal Article 2001 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems - MSM 2001 · December 1, 2001 This paper discusses the difficulties in current approaches to modeling and simulation of coupled-domain systems and presents new approaches and solutions to simulation execution and the model-simulation gap. The ongoing paradigm shift toward coupled-domai ... Cite

Mechanical property measurement of thin-film gold using thermally actuated bimetallic cantilever beams

Journal Article 2001 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems - MSM 2001 · December 1, 2001 We describe a method for estimating the Young's modulus of thin-film gold deposited on the poly2 layer in the MUMPs process is described. An optical detection system employing position sensitive detectors (PSD) is built to measure the bimetallic (gold/poly ... Cite

Statistical optimal design of microelectromechanical system (MEMS)

Journal Article 2001 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems - MSM 2001 · December 1, 2001 A three-step technique for MEMS quality optimization is demonstrated. It exploits the relative merits of its constituent optimization components. Analog Devices' ADXL50 accelerometer was the test device with microstructure dimensions serving as design para ... Cite

A micro-watt metal-insulator-solution-transport (MIST) device for scalable digital bio-microfluidic systems

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · December 1, 2001 In this work new data, models, and applications are presented of an ultra-low power, microfluidic device for use in integrated bio-microelectrofluidic systems (Bio-MEFS). The metal-insulator-solution transport (MIST) device is based on the high-speed manip ... Cite

Performance analysis of microelectrofluidic systems using hierarchical modeling and simulation (vol 48, pg 482, 2001)

Journal Article IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS II-ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING · July 1, 2001 Link to item Cite

Corrections to “Performance Analysis of Microelectrofluidic Systems Using Hierarchical Modeling and Simulation”

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing · January 1, 2001 Full text Cite

Performance analysis of microelectrofluidic systems using hierarchical modeling and simulation

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing · 2001 With the development of increasingly complex microelectrofluidic devices and systems, system-level performance analysis is becoming an important aspect of design. System-level performance analysis is challenging because coupled-energy dynamics link system- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Towards microelectrofluidic system (MEFS) computing and architecture

Journal Article 2000 International Conference on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems - MSM 2000 · December 1, 2000 This paper presents the rationale, design, and simulation of next-generation microelectrofluidic system computational architectures for the emerging field of bioinformatics. Current microelectrofluidic processors (e.g. biochips) have largely dedicated arch ... Cite

Electrowetting-based actuation of liquid droplets for microfluidic applications

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · September 11, 2000 A microactuator for rapid manipulation of discrete microdroplets is presented. Microactuation is accomplished by direct electrical control of the surface tension through two sets of opposing planar electrodes fabricated on glass. A prototype device consist ... Full text Cite

Detection of dissolved TNT and DNT in soil with a MEMS explosive particle detector

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 2000 MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology was used to fabricate bimetallic cantilever sensors for detecting the trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) residue found in mine fields. A number of experiments yielded reproducible results for the ... Cite

A hierarchical approach to stochastic discrete and continuous performance simulation using composable software components

Journal Article Microelectronics Journal · January 1, 2000 This paper describes an integrated approach to modeling and simulation of discrete, continuous, and combined discrete/continuous dynamical behavior of stochastic systems. Representational paradigms and simulation techniques are presented. Integration is ac ... Full text Cite

A historical view of the role of ion-implantation defects in PN junction formation for devices

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2000 The early use of ion bombardment of semiconductors for forming doped regions was viewed as a room-temperature process by solid-state scientists. Many interesting, but relatively useless devices were made by implanting species such as Na and Cs ions to form ... Full text Cite

Detection of dissolved TNT and DNT in soil with a MEMS explosive particle detector

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · 2000 MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology was used to fabricate bimetallic cantilever sensors for detecting the trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) residue found in mine fields. A number of experiments yielded reproducible results for the ... Cite

Anomalous B penetration through ultrathin gate oxides during rapid thermal annealing

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · September 1, 1999 We have observed accelerated diffusion of B in ultrathin gate oxides during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of the gate stack. Enhanced diffusion by 10-100 times over standard furnace annealing has been measured in SiO2. The activation energy for B diffusion ... Full text Cite

Thermal model for the initiation of programming in metal-to-metal amorphous-silicon antifuses

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · April 1, 1999 A thermal model for the initiation of programming in metal-to-metal amorphous-silicon antifuses is described. The current and field crowding at the edges of the via cause the temperature at the via corners to increase due to Joule heating. Programming is i ... Full text Cite

Detection of nanogram explosive particles with a MEMS sensor

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1999 MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology was used to fabricate arrays of sensors for detecting the explosive micro particulate residue found in mine fields. MEMS devices were fabricated by a surface micromachining process provided by MCNC. The sens ... Cite

Suppression of boron transport out of p+ polycrystalline silicon at polycrystalline silicon dielectric interfaces

Journal Article J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. (USA) · 1999 The transport of B atoms out of p+ polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) gate electrodes through SiO2 gate oxides to the Si-SiO2 interface during dopant activation anneals degrades performance and reliability of hole-conducting (p-channel) field effect transis ... Full text Link to item Cite

MEMS devices for detecting the presence of explosive material residues in mine fields

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 1998 We report on the development of MEMS devices for detecting explosive particles associated with anti-personnel mines. Because of the affinity of explosive substances for surfaces and owing to the high partition coefficients of explosives in soils relative t ... Full text Cite

ON-state reliability of amorphous-silicon antifuses

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1998 The ON state of metal-to-metal amorphous-silicon antifuses suffers from two reliability concerns: switch-off and de-stress failure. The switch-off current and de-stress lifetime are strongly dependent on the temperature of the conducting filament and hence ... Full text Cite

Energy considerations during the growth of a molten filament in metal-to-metal amorphous-silicon antifuses

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · November 1, 1998 A model for the growth of a conducting filament in metal-to-metal amorphous-silicon antifuses is presented. The transition from a high-resistance state to a low-resistance one is initiated by the formation of a localized hot spot. The growth of the filamen ... Full text Cite

Photonic effects in the deactivation of ion implanted arsenic

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · April 15, 1998 Observation has been made of a photonic enhancement effect during optical rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of high dose, As implants in Si. Arsenic implant activation using optical radiation heating from tungsten-halogen lamps, λpeak=0.8 μm, was compared with ... Full text Cite

History of some early developments in ion-implantation technology leading to silicon transistor manufacturing

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE · January 1, 1998 Ion implantation of dopant impurities to form p-n junctions and other doped regions in silicon transistors has evolved from an experimental curiosity in solid-state physics to become a dominant technology in today's integrated circuit manufacturing. This p ... Full text Cite

Tapered microvalves fabricated by off-axis X-ray exposures

Journal Article Microsystem Technologies · January 1, 1998 A method for creating angled structures for use in microvalve devices applicable to control of liquid flow is presented. This technique utilizes a modified LIGA process with successive angled and rotated exposures into free standing acrylic sheets to form ... Full text Cite

MEMS-based explosive particle detection and remote particle stimulation

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 1997 We report on a new methodology for chemical detection of explosive particles associated with anti-personnel mines. Trace particle detection can be used to complement vapor detection of explosives with an electronic noise. Our approach is to remotely stimul ... Cite

Photon effect on radiative properties of silicon during rapid thermal processing

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 15, 1997 Emissivity is a critical parameter in the rapid thermal processing (RTP) of semiconductors for temperature control and thermal modeling. It is often considered as a material property that depends on the sample temperature and surface finishing. For a silic ... Full text Cite

Modeling boron diffusion in ultrathin nitrided oxide p + Si gate technology

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · June 1, 1997 Based on a network defect model for the diffusion of B in SiO 2, we propose that B diffuses via a peroxy linkage defect (pld) whose concentration in the oxide changes under different processing conditions. We show that as N is added to the gate oxide (nitr ... Full text Cite

Focus on the Future

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE · January 1, 1997 Full text Cite

Integrated force array: interface to external systems

Journal Article Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (USA) · 1997 Integrated Force Arrays (IFAs) are thin film linear actuators which operate with substantial displacement and force. The methods of attachment of these devices to external systems are under development. Our current methods to incorporate IFAs in an scannin ... Cite

Physical models of boron diffusion in ultrathin gate oxides

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1997 Based on a network defect model for the diffusion of B in SiO2, we propose that B diffuses via a peroxy linkage defect whose concentration in the oxide changes under different processing conditions. We show that as the gate oxide is scaled below 80 Å in th ... Full text Cite

Ultra-shallow 2D dopant profile simulation versus experimental measurement in the low thermal budget regime

Journal Article Measurement, Characterization and Modeling of Ultra-Shallow Doping Profiles in Semiconductors · 1997 The relationship between lateral and vertical impurity diffusion distances in silicon is mathematically well established for profiles that have been diffused at high temperature for a long time. And this relationship is experimentally verified. However, fo ... Cite

Modeling boron diffusion in thin-oxide p+ Si gate technology

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · November 1, 1996 A network defect model suitable for use in process simulation is presented for the diffusion of B in SiO2 and, in particular, B in the presence of F and H2. We find that B diffuses via a peroxy linkage defect the concentration in the oxide of which changes ... Full text Cite

Oxide thickness effect on boron diffusion in thin oxide p+ Si gate technology

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · May 1, 1996 Based on a network defect model for the diffusion of B in SiO2, we propose that B diffuses via a peroxy linkage defect whose concentration in the oxide changes under different processing conditions. We show that as the gate oxide is scaled below 80 Å in th ... Full text Cite

Integrated force array: positioning drive applications

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1996 Integrated Force Arrays (IFAs) are thin film membrane actuators that act as transfer devices for electrostatic force. They are capable of large amplitude motion and evidence significant energies per unit volume (eg. 8.2 erg/mm 3). Devices which use IFAs as ... Cite

Rapid thermal annealing issues in silicon processing

Conference TRANSIENT THERMAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES IN ELECTRONIC MATERIALS · January 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

Boron diffusion in ultrathin silicon dioxide layers

Conference PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF SIO(2) AND THE SI-SIO(2) INTERFACE-3, 1996 · January 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

Process simulation of dopant atom diffusion in SiO2

Conference PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PROCESS PHYSICS AND MODELING IN SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY · January 1, 1996 Link to item Cite

Unified model of boron diffusion in thin gate oxides: effects of F, H2, N, oxide thickness and injected Si interstitials

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · December 1, 1995 This work is describes the first unified network-defect-level model for B diffusion in SiO2 for use in process simulation. Models have been developed to explain silicon processing effects on B diffusion through thin gate oxides. With these models we can pr ... Cite

Subquarter-mícrometre elevated source-and-drain MOSFET structure using polysilicon spacers

Journal Article Electronics Letters · January 1, 1994 A novel subquarter-micrometre MOSFET with a selfaligned source and drain, structure is proposed with elevated sources and drains formed by using polysilicon spacers. The spacers can reduce the effective channel length by 50% compared to the mask length, an ... Full text Cite

Proof-concept collaboration model for advanced packaging research at MCNC

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 1993 MCNC's research in flip chip processing has occurred over several years within the center and in concert with several universities. In order to make the research available to industry, a flip chip technology center (FCTC) has been established within MCNC t ... Cite

Microelectromechanical systems: a new technology for biomedical applications

Journal Article Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology · December 1, 1993 Microelectromechanical systems on a scale as small as a few micrometers can be fabricated using photolithographic and anisotropic etching processes on single crystal substrates such as silicon. Processing steps similar to those used to fabricate integrated ... Cite

Engineering Research Centers: goals and results

Journal Article Proc. IEEE (USA) · 1993 The goals and features of the Engineering Research Centers (ERC) Program, which was created in 1985 to improve engineering research and education in the US, are discussed. The creative approaches the centers have applied to research management, education, ... Cite

Junction formation in silicon by rapid thermal annealing

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 1993 The feasibility of using isothermal RTA in annealing ion implanted layers for forming junctions has been investigated for the past 10 years.While many of the scientific details surrounding defect formation, transient diffusion and dopant activation remain ... Full text Cite

Junction formation in silicon by rapid thermal annealing

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · January 1, 1993 The feasibility of using isothermal RTA in annealing ion implanted layers for forming junctions has been investigated for the past 10 years. While many of the scientific details surrounding defect formation, transient diffusion and dopant activation remain ... Full text Cite

Technology transfer utilizing the proof-of-concept facility

Journal Article IEEE/SEMI Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Conference and Workshop · January 1, 1992 The proof-of-concept (POC) facility model addresses the university-industry research gap and accelerates the transfer of new technology through engineering prototypes, data, and documentation. The generation of engineering prototypes which are qualified in ... Cite

Modeling the enhanced diffusion of implanted boron in silicon

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1991 A simulation model was developed to describe the anomalous transient enhanced diffusion of implanted boron in silicon characterized by profiles in which a secondary peak is formed near the amorphous/crystalline interface. In this model, the diffusion equat ... Cite

Physical modeling of the time constant of transient enhancement in the diffusion of ion-implanted dopants in silicon

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1991 The supersaturation of point defects in silicon during the annealing of implantation damage causes a transient enhanced diffusion of dopants. A model describing the time constant for the transient enhanced diffusion of implanted dopants was developed based ... Cite

TwoDimensional Process Simulation Using Verified Phenomenological Models

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems · January 1, 1991 Twodimensional (2-D) effects are becoming increasingly important in the diffusion of impurities in submicrometer silicon devices. Existing process simulators cannot accurately model some of these effects. We describe a 2-D process simulator PREDICT2 that h ... Full text Cite

Challenges and priorities for two dimensional process simulation

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1991 Silicon technology requires two-dimensional process simulation. However the complexity of such simulation has increased rapidly with decreasing device dimensions. This paper addresses some of the challenges for two-dimensional process simulation, such as-w ... Cite

Thermal oxidation of heavily doped silicon in the thin-film regime. Dopant behavior and modeling growth kinetics

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · December 1, 1990 A three-stage model is proposed to describe SiO2 growth kinetics and the behavior of high concentrations of phosphorus in silicon during oxidation in dry oxygen in the thin-film regime. In the first stage, the formation of a silicide phase at the interface ... Cite

Process model for simulating the effect of amorphizing implants on phosphorus diffusion

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · December 1, 1990 A model is proposed to account for the effect of end-of-range (EOR) dislocations, produced by amorphizing implants, on the diffusion of phosphorus. It is shown that the location of EOR dislocations relative to the P profile is critical. For high concentrat ... Cite

Role of end-of-range dislocation loops as a diffusion barrier

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · December 1, 1990 The effect of end-of-range (EOR) dislocation loops on phosphorus diffusion was studied in the diffusion of P implanted in single-crystal and preamorphized silicon. After annealing at 850°C for 5 to 60 min in an oxidizating ambient, P profiles obtained by s ... Cite

TRANSIENT DIFFUSION IN SILICON - MODELS AND CURES

Conference JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS · July 1, 1990 Link to item Cite

Thermal budget issues for deep submicron ULSI

Journal Article Solid State Technology · May 1, 1990 The thermal budget available for sub 0.5 μm silicon processing decreases rapidly due to implantation damage-assisted diffusion, which derives junctions deeper than desired. Thus current ion implantation technology may not be practical for scaled 0.25 μm MO ... Cite

Comparison of Measured and Simulated Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Diffusion Profiles in Silicon

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1990 The two-dimensional diffusion of phosphorus has been studied by comparing profiles measured experimentally after furnace and rapid thermal annealing with simulated profiles obtained with the two-dimensional simulators SUPREM IV and PREDICT 2. It was first ... Full text Cite

Point defect generation during phosphorus diffusion in silicon. II. Concentrations below solid solubility, ion-implanted phosphorus

Journal Article J. Electrochem. Soc. (USA) · 1990 For pt. I. see ibid., vol.134, p.1508 (1987). Defect generation during phosphorus diffusion at concentration levels below solid solubility was investigated from ion-implanted samples. Diffusions were performed in low oxygen ambient and in nitrogen with a s ... Cite

The Effect of Annealing Ambient on Dopant Diffusion in Silicon during Low-Temperature Processing

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1990 Annealing ambient effects on dopant diffusion in silicon were investigated during low-temperature processing. BF2, P, and As were implanted at room temperature in (100) silicon through a 140Å thick layer of SiO2 with the ion beam normal to the wafer surfac ... Full text Cite

Damage Removal/Dopant Diffusion Tradeoffs in Ultra-Shallow Implanted p+-n Junctions

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1990 The tradeoffs between implant damage annealing and shallow junction formation are investigated. For very-low-energy amorphizing implants the time for damage anneal has a fourth-power dependence on depth below the Si surface. The depth effect depends on the ... Full text Cite

Point Defect Charge-State Effects on Transient Diffusion of Dopants in Si

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1990 Ion implantation damage produces point defects during annealing which can significantly enhance dopant diffusion. This diffusion at low temperatures was studied for P, As, and B implants in Si. Enhanced diffusion was observed below certain doping concentra ... Full text Cite

Challenges to Manufacturing Submicron, Ultra-Large Scale Integrated Circuits

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE · January 1, 1990 The cost of manufacturing submicron, ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) integrated circuits (ICs) is scaling upwards at least in inverse proportion to the downwards scaling of device feature sizes. These costs are driven by a parameter budget crisis asso ... Full text Cite

The role of silicon self-interstitial supersaturation in the retardation of oxygen precipitation in Czochralski silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1989 The retardation phenomenon of oxygen precipitation in Czochralski silicon has been studied simultaneously with the growth of surface stacking faults under a silicon nitride capping layer. The surface faults were intentionally introduced to monitor the bulk ... Full text Cite

Diffusion and oxidation of silicon

Journal Article Advances in Chemistry Series · December 1, 1989 Oxidation and diffusion in silicon are processes that significantly affect the fabrication of microelectronic devices. However, our knowledge of the fundamental principles governing these processes is inadequate, and this inadequacy affects our ability to ... Cite

Shallow junctions--Modeling the dominance of point defect charge states during transient diffusion

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · December 1, 1989 Ion implantation damage produces point defects during annealing which can significantly enhance dopant diffusion. This diffusion at low temperatures was studied for P, As, and B implants in Si. Enhanced diffusion was observed below certain doping concentra ... Cite

The effect of ion-implantation damage on dopant diffusion in silicon during shallow-junction formation

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · March 1, 1989 Low-thermal-budget annealing of ion-implanted BF 2 +, P, and As in Si was studied for shallow-junction formation. Implant doses were sufficient to amorphize the silicon surface region. Low-temperature furnace annealing and rapid-thermal annealing of ionimp ... Full text Cite

The role of transient damage annealing in shallow junction formation

Journal Article Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B · February 2, 1989 Damage introduced into the Si substrate by ion-implantation can have a profound effect on the diffusion of dopants during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or low temperature furnace annealing. In this paper defect production models are discussed for three cas ... Full text Cite

Phenomenological versus point-defect-based process modeling. Where should you put your money?

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · 1989 Cite

Accurate junction-depth measurements using chemical staining

Journal Article ASTM Special Technical Publication · 1989 Cite

The role of transient damage annealing in shallow junction formation

Journal Article Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B · 1989 Damage introduced into the Si substrate by ion-implantation can have a profound effect on the diffusion of dopants during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or low temperature furnace annealing. In this paper defect production models are discussed for three cas ... Cite

Point defect/dopant diffusion considerations following preamorphization of silicon via Si+ and Ge+ implantation

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1988 A comparison has been made between two shallow preamorphization techniques using Si+ and Ge+ implantation, followed by B+ implantation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The subsequent impact on boron diffusion profiles and extended defects have been exami ... Full text Cite

Very shallow p+-n junction formation by low-energy BF 2+ ion implantation into crystalline and germanium preamorphized silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1988 Very low energy (6 keV) BF2+ ion implantation has been used to form very shallow (≤1000 Å) junctions in crystalline and Ge+ preamorphized Si. Low-temperature furnace annealing was used to regrow the crystal, and rapid thermal annealing was used for dopant ... Full text Cite

Low-Thermal-Budget Process Modeling with the PREDICT™ Computer Program

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1988 Low-thermal-budget processing models have Been developed that are applicable to a broad range of ion-implantation and annealing conditions. The cases discussed in this paper include low-temperature furnace annealing of B implants, preamorphization or posta ... Full text Cite

Experimental characterization of two-dimensional dopant profiles in silicon using chemical staining

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 1, 1988 An experimental technique for the measurement of two-dimensional impurity diffusion profiles in silicon has been developed. Both the lateral and in-depth extent of dopant diffusion under a mask edge are magnified mechanically by sawing and angle lapping, a ... Full text Cite

Boron profile changes during low-temperature annealing of BF +2-implanted silicon

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 1, 1988 BF+2 ions were implanted in (100) silicon at room temperature with an energy of 40 keV through a 140-Å-thick SiO2 layer. Boron profiling by secondary-ion mass spectrometry indicates that subsequent annealing in a conventional furnace in the 650-850°C range ... Full text Cite

The influence of HCl on the oxidation-enhanced diffusion of boron and arsenic in silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1987 The influence of HCl on the oxidation-enhanced diffusion of boron and arsenic in silicon has been studied. Experimental data at 1000, 1100, and 1150 °C were obtained using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). A previously proposed empirical model was us ... Full text Cite

PROCESS SIMULATION OF SUBMICRON TECHNOLOGIES.

Journal Article Semiconductor International · December 1, 1987 The development of advanced computer-aided engineering and design (CAE/CAD) tools has greatly enhanced the ability of U. S. manufacturers to quickly design a product. Process development is an engineering-intensive effort, perpaps even more so than the IC ... Cite

DEEP DECISION TREE APPROACH TO MODELING SUBMICRON SILICON TECHNOLOGIES.

Journal Article · December 1, 1987 A robust, accurate process simulator, PREDICT 1. 1, has been written that is based on tightly coupled simulation models. Model coupling is accounted for by using an internal decision tree that activates models on the basis of prior wafer processing. Thus, ... Cite

MEASUREMENT OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL DIFFUSION PROFILES

Journal Article JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY · August 1, 1987 Link to item Cite

POINT-DEFECT KINETICS DURING BACK SIDE OXIDATION MEASURED BY FRONT SIDE STACKING-FAULT GROWTH

Journal Article JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY · March 1, 1987 Link to item Cite

Reply to comments of F. F. Morehead

Journal Article Journal of Materials Research · January 1, 1987 The expression used for electric field in the article being discussed is not appropriate for the experimental conditions, but there is a built-in electric field present that affects Sb diffusion. Thus the calculated values of D are reasonably within the ex ... Full text Cite

Point Defect Generation during Phosphorus Diffusion in Silicon I. Concentrations above Solid Solubility

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1987 The goal of the present research was to investigate the proposal that P diffusion at concentrations above solid solubility generates silicon self-interstitials. Buried layers of As and Sb were created by either implanting Sb at 150 keV, 5 x 1013 cm-2 or As ... Full text Cite

Comment on `The diffusion of antimony in heavily doped and (sic) n- and p-type silicon' [J. Mater. Res. 1, 705 (1986)]

Journal Article J. Mater. Res. (USA) · 1987 R.B. Fair et al. have analyzed original data on the effect of heavy, uniform background doping with As and B on the diffusivity of Sb in Si at 1000°-1200°C. Their analysis attributed a role to `electric fields' and led to the conclusion that, for n ... Cite

PROCESS MODELS FOR ULTRA-SHALLOW JUNCTION TECHNOLOGIES.

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · January 1, 1987 Submicrometer technologies include low thermal budget processing, Ge** plus or Si** plus preamorphization implants, ultra low-energy B and As implants, thin oxides, and silicide contacts. These technologies and the models required to simulate them are not ... Full text Cite

Modeling of dopant diffusion during rapid thermal annealing

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films · January 1, 1986 Observations of enhanced dopant diffusion during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) have been made and correlated with the existence of the following phenomena: (1) amorphization of the ion implanted layer; (2) damage-induced dislocation formation; (3) damage a ... Full text Cite

STRESS-ASSISTED DIFFUSION OF BORON AND ARSENIC IN SILICON.

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings · December 1, 1985 The diffusion of B and As in mechanically stressed silicon has been investigated for initial implant doses of 10**1**3, 10**1**4, and 10**1**5 cm** minus **2, over a range of annealing temperatures. At stresses near the silicon yield point, no significant ... Cite

IMPURITY DIFFUSION DURING RTA.

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings · December 1, 1985 Enhanced dopant diffusion during rapid thermal annealing (RTA) depends whether the following physical phenomena occur individually or in combination: (1) amorphization of the Si, (2) damage-induced dislocation formation, (3) damage annealing, (4) self-inte ... Cite

Predict - A new design tool for shallow junction processes

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · April 9, 1985 A new one-dimensional.process estimator for the Resign of X£ technologies (PREDICT) has been developed which rigorously solves coupled equations describing dopant behavior under modern processing conditions. All of the models in PREDICT have been verified ... Full text Cite

IIB-6 Shallow p+-n Junction for CMOS VLSI Application Using Germanium Preamorphization

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1985 Full text Cite

CURVE FITTING MODELS FOR BORON, PHOSPHORUS AND ARSENIC ION IMPLANTATIONS IN CRYSTALLINE SILICON.

Journal Article Electrochemical Society Extended Abstracts · January 1, 1985 A curve-fitting model has been developed to calculate as-implanted profiles for As, B and P ions implanted into crystalline silicon. In general, good agreement was shown to exist between the calculated profiles and the experimental profiles for specific im ... Cite

MEASUREMENT AND MODELING OF CHARGE FEEDTHROUGH IN N-CHANNEL MOS ANALOG SWITCHES.

Journal Article IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits · 1985 Charge feedthrough in analog MOS switches has been measured. The dependence of the feedthrough voltage on the input and tub voltages, device dimensions, and load capacitances was characterized. Most importantly, it was observed that the feedthrough voltage ... Cite

OBSERVATIONS OF VACANCIES AND SELF-INTERSTITIALS IN DIFFUSION EXPERIMENTS IN SILICON.

Journal Article · January 1, 1985 Silicon self-interstitials and vacancies are known to influence atomic diffusion in silicon. While the dual mechanism has been established, to clearly elucidate the roles that vacancies and self-interstitials play, it is necessary to understand their inter ... Cite

Measurement and Modeling of Charge Feedthrough in n-Channel MOS Analog Switches

Journal Article IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits · January 1, 1985 Charge feedthrough in analog MOS switches has been measured. The dependence of the feedthrough voltage on the input and tub voltages, device dimensions, and load capacitances was characterized. Most importantly, it was observed that the feedthrough voltage ... Full text Cite

COMPUTER SIMULATION OF OXYGEN PRECIPITATION AND DENUDED ZONE FORMATION.

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · December 1, 1984 A computer model of oxygen-precipitate nucleation, growth and dissolution, and oxygen outdiffusion from a silicon wafer surface has been developed. The model assumes homogeneous nucleation and uses nucleation and growth expressions available in the literat ... Cite

COMPUTER SIMULATION OF OXYGEN PRECIPITATION AND DENUDED ZONE FORMATION.

Journal Article Electrochemical Society Extended Abstracts · December 1, 1984 As both the adverse and the beneficial effects of oxygen in Czochralski grown silicon become clear, the need to precisely control its behavior is apparent. Of great utility to the wafer processing engineer would be a quantitative means to predict oxygen pr ... Cite

Modeling Physical Limitations on Junction Scaling for CMOS

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1984 Accurate calculations of diffusion and ion-implantition processes in silicon require the utilization of complex steady-state physical models that include the effects of both vacancies and self-intersti tials. A new one-dimensional computer program, PROSIM ... Full text Cite

The role of vacancies and self-interstitials in impurity diffusion in silicon

Chapter · January 1, 1984 Research in the areas of self diffusion and dopant diffusion in Si has focused on identifying the specific mechanisms and point defects involved. Recent approaches include observing the effects of diffusion and doping on stacking fault growth or shrinkage, ... Full text Cite

The role of vacancies and self-interstitials in impurity diffusion in silicon

Journal Article Diffus. Defect Data (Switzerland) · 1984 Research in the areas of self-diffusion and dopant diffusion in Si has focused on the identification of the specific mechanisms and point defects involved. Recent approaches include the observation of the effects of diffusion and doping on stacking fault g ... Cite

MODELING PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS ON JUNCTION SCALING FOR CMOS.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · 1984 Accurate calculations of diffusion and ion-implantation processes in silicon require the utilization of complex steady-state physical models that include the effects of both vacancies and self-interstitials. A new one-dimensional computer program, PROSIM I ... Cite

Modeling Rapid Thermal Diffusion of Arsenic and Boron in Silicon

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1984 Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of high dose B and As implants is believed to produce large transients of point defects that may exist for the duration of the anneal (2-30s). Enhanced diffusion during RTA of boron implants >1015cm-2is related to damage clust ... Full text Cite

The effects of impurity diffusion and surface damage on oxygen precipitation in silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1983 The rate of oxygen precipitation in Czochralski-grown silicon with oxygen supersaturation ratios s>5 and s<5 at 1000°C was studied as a function of surface processing. Reference samples were compared with samples diffused with high-concentration phosphorus ... Full text Cite

IIIB-8 Modeling Physical Limitations on Junction Scaling for CMOS

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1983 Full text Cite

Dynamic Behavior of the Buildup of Fixed Charge and Interface States During Hot-Carrier Injection in Encapsulated MOSFET's

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1983 The aging behavior of MOSFET's encapsulated with various types of capping layers was studied. Aging consisted of room-temrerature pulsed gate bias operation with a drain-to-source voltage sufficient to cause avalanche multiplication in the channel. It was ... Full text Cite

The teams and the players [fifth-generation computers]

Journal Article IEEE Spectr. (USA) · 1983 Strategies for development of fifth-generation computers in Japan, the United States, and Western Europe are compared and contrasted briefly in a short introductory article. Individual approaches are then explored in depth in a series of short articles. Th ... Cite

DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE BUILDUP OF FIXED CHARGE AND INTERFACE STATES DURING HOT-CARRIER INJECTION IN ENCAPSULATED MOSFET's.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · 1983 The aging behavior of MOSFET's encapsulated with various types of capping layers was studied. Aging consisted of room-temperature pulsed gate bias operation with a drain-to-source voltage sufficient to cause avalanche multiplication in the channel. It was ... Cite

MODELING RAPID THERMAL ANNEALING PROCESSES FOR SHALLOW JUNCTION FORMATION IN SILICON.

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · January 1, 1983 Full text Cite

MODELING OF DOPANT DIFFUSION AND ASSOCIATED EFFECTS IN SILICON.

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings · January 1, 1983 Cite

MCNC - ORGANIZING RESEARCH ON THE STATE LEVEL

Journal Article IEEE SPECTRUM · January 1, 1983 Link to item Cite

On the Doping Dependence of Oxidation-Induced Stacking Fault Shrinkage in Silicon

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1982 The effect of dopant concentration on the shrinkage of oxidation-induced stacking faults (OSF) in silicon during N2 annealing has been controversial. In this work, we demonstrate that OSF shrinkage during N2 annealing can be enhanced by the presence of rel ... Full text Cite

SILICON PROCESS BALANCING ACT FOR VLSI.

Journal Article Solid State Technology · January 1, 1982 The act of heating and cooling a silicon wafer in order to perform thermal diffusion and oxidation can introduce or produce point defects, dissolved impurities, microdefects and strain. In addition, the silicon surface bonding arrangements can be altered. ... Cite

ON THE DOPING DEPENDENCE OF OXIDATION-INDUCED STACKING FAULT SHRINKAGE IN SILICON.

Journal Article J ELECTROCHEM SOC · 1982 THE EFFECT OF DOPANT CONCENTRATION ON THE SHRINKAGE OF OXIDATION-INDUCED STACKING FAULTS (OSF) IN SILICON DURING N//2 ANNEALING HAS BEEN CONTROVERSIAL. IN THIS WORK, THE AUTHORS DEMONSTRATE THAT OSF SHRINKAGE DURING N//2 ANNEALING CAN BE ENHANCED BY THE PR ... Cite

MODELING ANOMALOUS PHENOMENA IN ARSENIC DIFFUSION IN SILICON.

Journal Article Proceedings - The Electrochemical Society · December 1, 1981 Cite

Threshold-Voltage Instability in MOSFET's Due to Channel Hot-Hole Emission

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1981 Hydrogen introduced and trapped in the gate oxide of MOSFET's by the silicon-nitride capping process can be activated by emitted holes from the MOSFET channel to produce a large threshold-voltage shift. This effect requires avalanche multiplication in the ... Full text Cite

Oxidation, Impurity Diffusion, and Defect Growth in Silicon—An Overview

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1981 As a result of a large body of literature on oxidation, impurity diffusion, and defect growth in silicon, a consistent picture has emerged of oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) and oxidation-induced, stacking fault growth (OISF). It is believed that silico ... Full text Cite

Molecular transport and diffusion in solids

Journal Article Sens. Actuators (Switzerland) · 1981 Fundamental theories of diffusion and molecular transport are reviewed as a starting point for understanding the complex migration processes in solids. It is shown that in diffusion the author determines which of a number of lattice defects controls the di ... Full text Link to item Cite

THRESHOLD-VOLTAGE INSTABILITY IN MOSFET's DUE TO CHANNEL HOT-HOLE EMISSION.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · 1981 Hydrogen introduced and trapped in the gate oxide of MOSFET's by the silicon-nitride capping process can be activated by emitted holes from the MOSFET channel to produce a large threshold-voltage shift. This effect requires avalanche multiplication in the ... Cite

Molecular transport and diffusion in solids

Journal Article Sensors and Actuators · 1981 Fundamental theories of diffusion and molecular transport are reviewed as a starting point for understanding the complex migration processes in solids. It is shown that in diffusion one must determine which of a number of lattice defects controls the diffu ... Cite

On the role of self-interstitials in impurity diffusion in silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1980 The question of whether the monovacancy or the self-interstitial is the point defect responsible for impurity diffusion is reviewed in the light of buried marker diffusion experiments and irradiation-enhanced diffusion data. It is concluded that coupled va ... Full text Cite

THRESHOLD VOLTAGE INSTABILITY IN MOSFET's DUE TO CHANNEL HOT HOLE EMISSION.

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · January 1, 1980 Authors report a model to explain the observed degradations in MOSFET performance based upon channel hot hole emission. ... Full text Cite

Modeling laser-induced diffusion of implanted arsenic in silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1979 An approximate theory of laser-induced diffusion in Si is presented. Starting with the concept of molecular motion in liquids, the self-diffusion coefficient of liquid Si at the melting temperature is calculated. By introducing the temperature dependence o ... Full text Cite

The effect of strain-induced band-gap narrowing on high concentration phosphorus diffusion in silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1979 A strain effect has been found to explain the anomalous reduction in P diffusivity at surface concentrations greater than ∼4×1020 cm-3. It is shown that at diffusion temperatures, misfit-induced strain causes a reduction in the effective Si band gap up to ... Full text Cite

EFFECT OF STRAIN-INDUCED BAND-GAP NARROWING ON E-CENTRE CONCENTRATIONS IN Si.

Journal Article Institute of Physics Conference Series · December 1, 1979 A strain effect has been found to explain the anomalous reduction of phosphorus diffusivity in Si at surface concentrations greater than about 4 multiplied by 10**2**0 cm** minus **3. It is shown that band-gap narrowing results in reduce P diffusivity thro ... Cite

EFFECT OF STRAIN-INDUCED BAND-GAP NARROWING ON E-CENTRE CONCENTRATIONS IN Si.

Conference Institute of Physics Conference Series · January 1, 1979 A strain effect has been found to explain the anomalous reduction of phosphorus diffusivity in Si at surface concentrations greater than about 4 multiplied by 10**2**0 cm** minus **3. It is shown that band-gap narrowing results in reduce P diffusivity thro ... Cite

Quantitative Model for the Diffusion of Phosphorus in Silicon and the Emitter

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1978 Full text Cite

A Quantitative Model for the Diffusion of Phosphorus in Silicon and the Emitter Dip Effect

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1978 Full text Cite

Quantified Conditions for Emitter-Misfit Dislocation Formation in Silicon

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1978 The conditions under which misfit dislocations are generated during phosphorus diffusion in silicon are discussed. Van der Merwe's concept of critical misfit is used to determine the critical surface region depth for a given P surface concentration which c ... Full text Cite

Theory and direct measurement of boron segregation in SiO2 during dry, near dry, and wet O2 oxidation

Journal Article J. Electrochem. Soc. (USA) · 1978 A theory of B segregation is developed which accounts for the differences in m observed in, for example, diffusion from a highly doped B2O3 source as compared to oxidation of B-doped Si in wet and dry oxidizing ambients. Most dry O2 oxidations are really o ... Cite

Analysis of Phosphorus-Diffused Layers in Silicon

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1978 Using the Fair-Tsai model of P diffusion in Si, equations have been derived which relate the total P concentration, electron concentration, sheet resistance, and junction depth of a P-diffused layer. Curves are presented which show surface concentration as ... Full text Cite

Theory and Direct Measurement of Boron Segregation in SiO2 during Dry, Near Dry, and Wet O2 Oxidation

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1978 A theory of B segregation is developed which accounts for the differences in m observed in, for example, diffusion from a highly doped B2O3 source as compared to oxidation of B-doped Si in wet and dry oxidizing ambients. We have found that most dry O2 oxid ... Full text Cite

A Quantitative Model for the Diffusion of Phosphorus in Silicon and the Emitter Dip Effect

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1977 A consistent model of P diffusion in Si is presented which accounts quantitatively for the existence of electrically inactive P, the “kink” and the tail regions of the P profile, and the emitter dip effect. In this model it is shown that three intrinsic P ... Full text Cite

Zener and Avalanche Breakdown in As-Implanted Low-Voltage Si n-p Junctions

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1976 Implanted-diffused As layers in Si have been well-characterized and have been used in fabricating low-voltage n-p junctions. It is shown that these As layers form linearly graded junctions with a uniform B-doped background (ρ ≃ 0.006 Ω·cm). The grade const ... Full text Cite

Transistor design considerations for low-noise preamplifiers

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science · January 1, 1976 A review is presented of design considerations for GaAs Schottky-barrier FETs and other types of transistors in low-noise amplifiers for capacitive sources which are used in nuclear radiation detectors and high speed fiberoptic communication systems. Ultim ... Full text Cite

Profile parameters of implanted-diffused arsenic layers in silicon

Journal Article J. Electrochem. Soc. (USA) · 1976 Equations have been derived that describe the important profile variables that are required to characterize the diffusion of As implanted layers for which the surface concentration is greater than ~1×1019 cm-3. In addition, data obtained from differe ... Cite

ZENER AND AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN IN As-IMPLANTED LOW-VOLTAGE Si n-p JUNCTIONS.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · 1976 Following a verification of the calculated I-V curves and their temperature dependence as a function of grade constant, calculated curves are presented which correlate As implant dose and diffusion with junction breakdown voltage, breakdown impedance, and ... Cite

Transistor design considerations for low-noise preamplifiers

Journal Article IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (USA) · 1976 A review is presented of design considerations for GaAs Schottky-barrier FETs and other types of transistors in low-noise amplifiers for capacitive sources which are used in nuclear radiation detectors and high speed fiber-optic communication systems. Ulti ... Cite

Diffusion of Ion-Implanted B in High Concentration P- and As-Doped Silicon

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1975 The diffusion of ion-implanted B in Si in the presence of a uniform background of high concentration P or As has been studied by correlating numerical profile calculations with profiles determined by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Retarded B diffu ... Full text Cite

The gettering of boron by an ion-implanted antimony layer in silicon

Journal Article Solid State Electronics · January 1, 1975 Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been employed to reveal the gettering of implanted B by an annealed, implanted Sb layer. It is shown that the gettering of B is significant, and may be caused by electric-field-enhanced diffusion of the B as well as by s ... Full text Cite

Boron Diffusion in Silicon-Concentration and Orientation Dependence, Background Effects, and Profile Estimation

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1975 Boron is almost universally used as a p-type dopant in Si devices. Since this dopant is introduced into the Si lattice under a wide range of diffusion conditions, effects are often observed which appear anomalous because the mechanism of B diffusion is not ... Full text Cite

The Diffusion of Ion-Implanted Arsenic in Silicon

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1975 In order to characterize implanted-diffused As layers in Si and to develop general processing information, impurity profiles were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and differential conductivity measurements. An analysis of these profiles ... Full text Cite

ZENER AND AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN IN As-IMPLANTED, LOW-VOLTAGE Si N-P JUNCTIONS.

Journal Article · January 1, 1975 Implanted-diffused As layers in Si have been well-characterized, and have been used in fabricating low-voltage n-p junctions. It is shown that these As layers form linearly-graded junctions with a uniform B-doped background. The grade constant of the As pr ... Full text Cite

Cooperative effects between arsenic and boron in silicon during simultaneous diffusions from ion implanted and chemical source predepositions

Journal Article Solid State Electronics · January 1, 1974 Simultaneous diffusions of As and B from predeposited layers (chemical source or ion implantation) have been used in order to fabricate the emitter and base regions, respectively, of microwave transistors. Mathematical simulations of the doping profiles in ... Full text Cite

Graphical Design and Iterative Analysis of the DC Parameters of GaAs FET's

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1974 Two-dimensional numerical solutions of Poisson's equation and the carrier continuity equation for the short-gate GaAs field-effect transistor structure have been used to predict device performance. However, a generally accepted simplified approach to FET d ... Full text Cite

Explanation of anomalous base regions in transistors

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1973 The recent experimental results of Ziegler, Cole, and Baglin showed that in sequentially diffused boron-arsenic npn silicon transistors, an unexplained depletion of boron occurs near the emitter-base junction. This depletion effect could have an appreciabl ... Full text Cite

Quantitative theory of retarded base diffusion in silicon n-p-n structures with arsenic emitters

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1973 When As is sequentially diffused into Ga or B-doped Si, a retardation of the p -type base layer is generally observed. This is in contrast to the "emitter-push" effect associated with sequential phosphorus diffusions. In order to simulate transistor profil ... Full text Cite

Correction of calculated vacancy diffusion length at 1000°C in silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1973 In attempting to calculate the anomalous transistor profiles published by Ziegler, Cole, and Baglin, it was necessary to assume the shape of the initial B profile. A complementary error function distribution was used, based upon their published junction de ... Full text Cite

Relationship between resistivity and total arsenic concentration in heavily doped n - And p -type silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1973 It has been observed that considerable discrepancy occurs between total As in Si diffusion profiles obtained by Irvin's curve and those determined by neutron-activation analysis. This discripancy can be explained in terms of the formation of inactive [VSiA ... Full text Cite

Effect of complex formation on diffusion of arsenic in silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1973 When As diffuses into Si, only a fraction of the As remains electrically active. Because of the importance of As as an emitter dopant, it is necessary to understand the nature of the inactive As and how it affects the solubility and diffusion of As+ ions. ... Full text Cite

OPtimum Low-Level Injection Efficiency of Silicon Transistors with Shallow Arsenic Emitters

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1973 The influence of As surface concentration CsE on the emitter efficiency βϒ and the temperature dependence of βϒ are reported. The theoretical model that is used to explain the variation ofβϒ with CSE is based upon the difference in the effective energy ban ... Full text Cite

Optimum low-level injection efficiency of silicon transistors with shallow arsenic emitters

Journal Article IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (USA) · 1973 The influence of As surface concentration CSE on the emitter efficiency βγ and the temperature dependence of βγ are reported. The theoretical model that is used to explain the variation of βγ with CSE is based upon the diff ... Cite

OPTIMUM LOW-LEVEL INJECTION EFFICIENCY OF SILICON TRANSISTORS WITH SHALLOW ARSENIC EMITTERS.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · 1973 It is the purpose of this paper to present the results of an investigation of the optimization of beta // gamma with respect to the As emitter surface concentration C//S//E. The theoretical model that will be used to explain the dependence of beta // gamma ... Cite

Profile estimation of high-concentration arsenic diffusions in silicon

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1972 In order to facilitate surface concentration estimation for arsenic diffusion, a simple expression has been derived which is dependent only upon the junction depth xJ and the sheet resistance Rs: C s = 1.56 × 1017/xJRs. This equation was derived from exper ... Full text Cite

Harmonic Distortion in the Junction Fieldeffect Transistor with Field-Dependent Mobility

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1972 It has been found that a harmonic analysis of the usual power-law transfer characteristic of the JFET does not yield equations which accurately predict the third-harmonic distortion products for short-gate structures. However, if field-dependent mobility i ... Full text Cite

HIGH CONCENTRATION ARSENIC DIFFUSION IN SILICON FROM A DOPED OXIDE SOURCE.

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1972 The properties of As-doped SiO//2 and As-doped Ge/SiO//2 diffusion sources as a function of the O//2 concentration in a horizontal, open-tube deposition chamber are examined. The effect of the Ge doping in the oxide is to enhance the etch rate and to reduc ... Full text Cite

Harmonic distortion in the junction field-effect transistor with field-dependent mobility

Journal Article IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (USA) · 1972 It has been found that a harmonic analysis of the usual power-law transfer characteristic of the JFET does not yield equations which accurately predict the third-harmonic distortion products for short-gate structures. However, if field-dependent mobility i ... Cite

A wide slit scanning method for measuring electron and ion beam profiles

Journal Article Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments · December 1, 1971 In order to eliminate the problem of calibration in beam spot size measurements, a wide slit scanning technique has been developed. As the beam scans across the edge of a slit, the ions or electrons are collected, and the resulting signal is displayed on a ... Full text Cite

Analysis and design of ion-beam deposition apparatus

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1971 In order to establish an upper limit on the practicality and usefulness of ion-beam deposition of thin films, an experimental beam-deposition system was assembled which was capable of producing an ideally focused ion beam. The system was designed under the ... Full text Cite

A self-consistent method for estimating non-step junction doping profiles from capacitance-voltage measurements

Journal Article J. Electrochem. Soc. (USA) · 1971 The use of the step-junction approximation for calculating the net doping density from C-V measurement data can lead to serious errors in the resulting profiles for sequentially diffused structures. Non-step junction behavior can be accounted for if the eq ... Cite

Electron-beams with a dual purpose

Journal Article Vacuum · January 1, 1966 Full text Cite

The diffusion of antimony in heavily doped and n- and p-type silicon

Journal Article J. Mater. Res. (USA) The diffusion of Sb in heavily doped n- and p-type Si has been studied to determine the activation energies and charge states of the point defects responsible for Sb diffusion. It is shown that neutral point defects, probably Vx, dominate under intrinsic d ... Cite