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Avshalom Caspi

Edward M. Arnett Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience
Psychology & Neuroscience
2020 W Main Street Suite 201, Box 104410, Durham, NC 27708
2020 W Main Street Suite 201, Box 104410, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Posttraumatic stress disorder, trauma, and accelerated biological aging among post-9/11 veterans.

Journal Article Transl Psychiatry · January 6, 2024 People who experience trauma and develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk for poor health. One mechanism that could explain this risk is accelerated biological aging, which is associated with the accumulation of chronic diseases, ... Full text Link to item Cite

The general factor of psychopathology (p): Choosing among competing models and interpreting p.

Journal Article Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · January 2024 Over the past 10 years, the general factor of psychopathology, p, has attracted interest and scrutiny. We review the history of the idea that all mental disorders share something in common, p; how we arrived at this idea; and how it became conflated with a ... Full text Cite

The Continuity of Adversity: Negative Emotionality Links Early Life Adversity With Adult Stressful Life Events

Journal Article Clinical Psychological Science · January 1, 2024 Adversity that exhibits continuity across the life course has long-term detrimental effects on physical and mental health. Using 920 participants from the Dunedin Study, we tested the following hypotheses: (a) Children (ages 3–15) who experienced adversity ... Full text Cite

Tracing the origins of midlife despair: association of psychopathology during adolescence with a syndrome of despair-related maladies at midlife.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · December 2023 BackgroundMidlife adults are experiencing a crisis of deaths of despair (i.e. deaths from suicide, drug overdose, and alcohol-related liver disease). We tested the hypothesis that a syndrome of despair-related maladies at midlife is preceded by ps ... Full text Cite

Test-retest reliability and predictive utility of a macroscale principal functional connectivity gradient.

Journal Article Human brain mapping · December 2023 Mapping individual differences in brain function has been hampered by poor reliability as well as limited interpretability. Leveraging patterns of brain-wide functional connectivity (FC) offers some promise in this endeavor. In particular, a macroscale pri ... Full text Cite

Association between relative age at school and persistence of ADHD in prospective studies: an individual participant data meta-analysis.

Journal Article Lancet Psychiatry · December 2023 BACKGROUND: The youngest children in a school class are more likely than the oldest to be diagnosed with ADHD, but this relative age effect is less frequent in older than in younger school-grade children. However, no study has explored the association betw ... Full text Link to item Cite

Worldwide Well-Being: Simulated Twins Reveal Genetic and (Hidden) Environmental Influences.

Journal Article Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · November 2023 What are the major sources of worldwide variability in subjective well-being (SWB)? Twin and family studies of SWB have found substantial heritability and strong effects from unique environments but virtually no effects from shared environments. However, e ... Full text Cite

Accelerated Pace of Aging in Schizophrenia: Five Case-Control Studies.

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · November 2023 BackgroundSchizophrenia is associated with increased risk of developing multiple aging-related diseases, including metabolic, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, and Alzheimer's and related dementias, leading to the hypothesis that schizophr ... Full text Cite

Translating the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP) from potential to practice: Ten research questions.

Journal Article The American psychologist · October 2023 The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a novel diagnostic system grounded in empirical research into the architecture of mental illness. Its basic units are continuous dimensions-as opposed to categories-that are organized into a hierarchy ... Full text Cite

Lifetime Incidence of Treated Mental Health Disorders and Psychotropic Drug Prescriptions and Associated Socioeconomic Functioning.

Journal Article JAMA psychiatry · October 2023 ImportanceFew studies have estimated the lifetime incidence of mental health disorders and the association with socioeconomic functioning.ObjectiveTo investigate whether the lifetime incidence of treated mental health disorders is substan ... Full text Cite

Disordered gambling in a longitudinal birth cohort: from childhood precursors to adult life outcomes.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · September 2023 BackgroundDespite its introduction into the diagnostic nomenclature over four decades ago, there remain large knowledge gaps about disordered gambling. The primary aims of the present study were to document the long-term course, childhood precurso ... Full text Cite

Childhood caries is associated with poor health and a faster pace of aging by midlife.

Journal Article Journal of public health dentistry · September 2023 ObjectivesChildhood caries is associated with poorer self-rated general health in adulthood, but it remains unclear whether that holds for physical health and aging. The aim of this study was to identify whether age-5 caries is associated with (a) ... Full text Cite

Cross-National and Cross-Generational Evidence That Educational Attainment May Slow the Pace of Aging in European-Descent Individuals.

Journal Article The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences · August 2023 ObjectivesIndividuals with more education are at lower risk of developing multiple, different age-related diseases than their less-educated peers. A reason for this might be that individuals with more education age slower. There are 2 complication ... Full text Cite

Genetic associations with parental investment from conception to wealth inheritance in six cohorts.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · August 2023 Genetic inheritance is not the only way parents' genes may affect children. It is also possible that parents' genes are associated with investments into children's development. We examined evidence for links between parental genetics and parental investmen ... Full text Cite

Childhood Adversity and Midlife Health: Shining a Light on the Black Box of Psychosocial Mechanisms.

Journal Article Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research · July 2023 Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poorer health, which has spurred public health efforts to reduce the number of adverse events children experience. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that all ACEs can be prevented. For adults who already ... Full text Cite

The p factor of psychopathology and personality in middle childhood: genetic and gestational risk factors.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · July 2023 BackgroundA joint, hierarchical structure of psychopathology and personality has been reported in adults but should also be investigated at earlier ages, as psychopathology often develops before adulthood. Here, we investigate the joint factor str ... Full text Cite

Which Types of Stress Are Associated With Accelerated Biological Aging? Comparing Perceived Stress, Stressful Life Events, Childhood Adversity, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Journal Article Psychosom Med · June 1, 2023 OBJECTIVE: Stress and stressful events are associated with poorer health; however, there are multiple ways to conceptualize and measure stress and stress responses. One physiological mechanism through which stress could result in poorer health is accelerat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Functional topography of the neocortex predicts covariation in complex cognitive and basic motor abilities.

Journal Article Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) · June 2023 Although higher-order cognitive and lower-order sensorimotor abilities are generally regarded as distinct and studied separately, there is evidence that they not only covary but also that this covariation increases across the lifespan. This pattern has bee ... Full text Cite

Problematic technology use and sleep quality in young adulthood: novel insights from a nationally representative twin study.

Journal Article Sleep · June 2023 Study objectivesDigital technology use is associated with poor sleep quality in adolescence and young adulthood although research findings have been mixed. No studies have addressed the association between the two using a genetically informative t ... Full text Cite

Posttraumatic stress disorder, trauma, and accelerated biological aging among post-9/11 veterans.

Journal Article Transl Psychiatry · January 6, 2024 People who experience trauma and develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk for poor health. One mechanism that could explain this risk is accelerated biological aging, which is associated with the accumulation of chronic diseases, ... Full text Link to item Cite

The general factor of psychopathology (p): Choosing among competing models and interpreting p.

Journal Article Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · January 2024 Over the past 10 years, the general factor of psychopathology, p, has attracted interest and scrutiny. We review the history of the idea that all mental disorders share something in common, p; how we arrived at this idea; and how it became conflated with a ... Full text Cite

The Continuity of Adversity: Negative Emotionality Links Early Life Adversity With Adult Stressful Life Events

Journal Article Clinical Psychological Science · January 1, 2024 Adversity that exhibits continuity across the life course has long-term detrimental effects on physical and mental health. Using 920 participants from the Dunedin Study, we tested the following hypotheses: (a) Children (ages 3–15) who experienced adversity ... Full text Cite

Tracing the origins of midlife despair: association of psychopathology during adolescence with a syndrome of despair-related maladies at midlife.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · December 2023 BackgroundMidlife adults are experiencing a crisis of deaths of despair (i.e. deaths from suicide, drug overdose, and alcohol-related liver disease). We tested the hypothesis that a syndrome of despair-related maladies at midlife is preceded by ps ... Full text Cite

Test-retest reliability and predictive utility of a macroscale principal functional connectivity gradient.

Journal Article Human brain mapping · December 2023 Mapping individual differences in brain function has been hampered by poor reliability as well as limited interpretability. Leveraging patterns of brain-wide functional connectivity (FC) offers some promise in this endeavor. In particular, a macroscale pri ... Full text Cite

Association between relative age at school and persistence of ADHD in prospective studies: an individual participant data meta-analysis.

Journal Article Lancet Psychiatry · December 2023 BACKGROUND: The youngest children in a school class are more likely than the oldest to be diagnosed with ADHD, but this relative age effect is less frequent in older than in younger school-grade children. However, no study has explored the association betw ... Full text Link to item Cite

Worldwide Well-Being: Simulated Twins Reveal Genetic and (Hidden) Environmental Influences.

Journal Article Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · November 2023 What are the major sources of worldwide variability in subjective well-being (SWB)? Twin and family studies of SWB have found substantial heritability and strong effects from unique environments but virtually no effects from shared environments. However, e ... Full text Cite

Accelerated Pace of Aging in Schizophrenia: Five Case-Control Studies.

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · November 2023 BackgroundSchizophrenia is associated with increased risk of developing multiple aging-related diseases, including metabolic, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, and Alzheimer's and related dementias, leading to the hypothesis that schizophr ... Full text Cite

Translating the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology (HiTOP) from potential to practice: Ten research questions.

Journal Article The American psychologist · October 2023 The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a novel diagnostic system grounded in empirical research into the architecture of mental illness. Its basic units are continuous dimensions-as opposed to categories-that are organized into a hierarchy ... Full text Cite

Lifetime Incidence of Treated Mental Health Disorders and Psychotropic Drug Prescriptions and Associated Socioeconomic Functioning.

Journal Article JAMA psychiatry · October 2023 ImportanceFew studies have estimated the lifetime incidence of mental health disorders and the association with socioeconomic functioning.ObjectiveTo investigate whether the lifetime incidence of treated mental health disorders is substan ... Full text Cite

Disordered gambling in a longitudinal birth cohort: from childhood precursors to adult life outcomes.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · September 2023 BackgroundDespite its introduction into the diagnostic nomenclature over four decades ago, there remain large knowledge gaps about disordered gambling. The primary aims of the present study were to document the long-term course, childhood precurso ... Full text Cite

Childhood caries is associated with poor health and a faster pace of aging by midlife.

Journal Article Journal of public health dentistry · September 2023 ObjectivesChildhood caries is associated with poorer self-rated general health in adulthood, but it remains unclear whether that holds for physical health and aging. The aim of this study was to identify whether age-5 caries is associated with (a) ... Full text Cite

Cross-National and Cross-Generational Evidence That Educational Attainment May Slow the Pace of Aging in European-Descent Individuals.

Journal Article The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences · August 2023 ObjectivesIndividuals with more education are at lower risk of developing multiple, different age-related diseases than their less-educated peers. A reason for this might be that individuals with more education age slower. There are 2 complication ... Full text Cite

Genetic associations with parental investment from conception to wealth inheritance in six cohorts.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · August 2023 Genetic inheritance is not the only way parents' genes may affect children. It is also possible that parents' genes are associated with investments into children's development. We examined evidence for links between parental genetics and parental investmen ... Full text Cite

Childhood Adversity and Midlife Health: Shining a Light on the Black Box of Psychosocial Mechanisms.

Journal Article Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research · July 2023 Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poorer health, which has spurred public health efforts to reduce the number of adverse events children experience. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that all ACEs can be prevented. For adults who already ... Full text Cite

The p factor of psychopathology and personality in middle childhood: genetic and gestational risk factors.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · July 2023 BackgroundA joint, hierarchical structure of psychopathology and personality has been reported in adults but should also be investigated at earlier ages, as psychopathology often develops before adulthood. Here, we investigate the joint factor str ... Full text Cite

Which Types of Stress Are Associated With Accelerated Biological Aging? Comparing Perceived Stress, Stressful Life Events, Childhood Adversity, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Journal Article Psychosom Med · June 1, 2023 OBJECTIVE: Stress and stressful events are associated with poorer health; however, there are multiple ways to conceptualize and measure stress and stress responses. One physiological mechanism through which stress could result in poorer health is accelerat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Functional topography of the neocortex predicts covariation in complex cognitive and basic motor abilities.

Journal Article Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) · June 2023 Although higher-order cognitive and lower-order sensorimotor abilities are generally regarded as distinct and studied separately, there is evidence that they not only covary but also that this covariation increases across the lifespan. This pattern has bee ... Full text Cite

Problematic technology use and sleep quality in young adulthood: novel insights from a nationally representative twin study.

Journal Article Sleep · June 2023 Study objectivesDigital technology use is associated with poor sleep quality in adolescence and young adulthood although research findings have been mixed. No studies have addressed the association between the two using a genetically informative t ... Full text Cite

The developmental course of loneliness in adolescence: Implications for mental health, educational attainment, and psychosocial functioning.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · May 2023 The present study examined patterns of stability and change in loneliness across adolescence. Data were drawn from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a UK population-representative cohort of 2,232 individuals born in 1994 and 1995. Lo ... Full text Cite

Fear and anxiety: Lessons learned from the Dunedin longitudinal study.

Journal Article Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews · May 2023 Four related lines of research on anxiety were reviewed from the 'Dunedin Study', an investigation of a representative longitudinal birth cohort of 50-years duration, with 94% retention at the last follow-up. Findings include: (i) Childhood fears deemed ev ... Full text Cite

A comparison of feature selection methodologies and learning algorithms in the development of a DNA methylation-based telomere length estimator.

Journal Article BMC bioinformatics · May 2023 BackgroundThe field of epigenomics holds great promise in understanding and treating disease with advances in machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence being vitally important in this pursuit. Increasingly, research now utilises DNA methyl ... Full text Cite

Are trajectories of social isolation from childhood to mid-adulthood associated with adult depression or suicide outcomes.

Journal Article Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology · March 2023 PurposeSocial isolation has been shown to have negative effects on mental health outcomes though little is known about trajectories across the life course. We examined the relationship between trajectory groups and selected mental health outcomes ... Full text Cite

Are macular drusen in midlife a marker of accelerated biological ageing?

Journal Article Clinical & experimental optometry · January 2023 Clinical relevanceMacular drusen are associated with age-related maculopathy but are not an ocular manifestation or biomarker of systemic ageing.BackgroundMacular drusen are the first sign of age-related maculopathy, an eye disease for wh ... Full text Cite

Kidney-Function Trajectories From Young Adulthood to Midlife: Identifying Risk Strata and Opportunities for Intervention.

Journal Article Kidney international reports · January 2023 IntroductionUnderstanding normative patterns of change in kidney function over the life course may allow targeting of early interventions to slow or prevent the onset of kidney disease, but knowledge about kidney functional change before middle ag ... Full text Cite

Diminished Structural Brain Integrity in Long-term Cannabis Users Reflects a History of Polysubstance Use.

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · December 2022 BackgroundCannabis legalization and use are outpacing our understanding of its long-term effects on brain and behavior, which is fundamental for effective policy and health practices. Existing studies are limited by small samples, cross-sectional ... Full text Cite

Preparedness for healthy ageing and polysubstance use in long-term cannabis users: a population-representative longitudinal study.

Journal Article The lancet. Healthy longevity · October 2022 BackgroundCannabis is often characterised as a young person's drug. However, people who began consuming cannabis in the 1970s and 1980s are no longer young and some have consumed it for many years. This study tested the preregistered hypothesis th ... Full text Cite

Association of Pace of Aging Measured by Blood-Based DNA Methylation With Age-Related Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

Journal Article Neurology · September 2022 Background and objectivesDNA methylation algorithms are increasingly used to estimate biological aging; however, how these proposed measures of whole-organism biological aging relate to aging in the brain is not known. We used data from the Alzhei ... Full text Cite

Externalizing the threat from within: A new direction for researching associations between suicide and psychotic experiences.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · August 2022 A recent suicidal drive hypothesis posits that psychotic experiences (PEs) may serve to externalize internally generated and self-directed threat (i.e., self-injurious/suicidal behavior [SIB]) in order to optimize survival; however, it must first be demons ... Full text Cite

Association between genetic and socioenvironmental risk for schizophrenia during upbringing in a UK longitudinal cohort.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · June 2022 BackgroundAssociations of socioenvironmental features like urbanicity and neighborhood deprivation with psychosis are well-established. An enduring question, however, is whether these associations are causal. Genetic confounding could occur due to ... Full text Cite

Differential Effects of Cannabis and Tobacco on Lung Function in Mid-Adult Life.

Journal Article American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine · May 2022 Rationale: Evidence suggests that the effects of smoking cannabis on lung function are different from tobacco. However, long-term follow-up data are scarce and mostly based on young adults. Objectives: To assess the effects of cannabis and to ... Full text Cite

Long-Term Cannabis Use and Cognitive Reserves and Hippocampal Volume in Midlife.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · May 2022 ObjectiveCannabis use is increasing among midlife and older adults. This study tested the hypotheses that long-term cannabis use is associated with cognitive deficits and smaller hippocampal volume in midlife, which is important because midlife co ... Full text Cite

Deep-seated psychological histories of COVID-19 vaccine hesitance and resistance.

Journal Article PNAS nexus · May 2022 To design effective pro-vaccination messaging, it is important to know "where people are coming from"-the personal experiences and long-standing values, motives, lifestyles, preferences, emotional tendencies, and information-processing capacities of people ... Full text Cite

Association of Treatable Health Conditions During Adolescence With Accelerated Aging at Midlife.

Journal Article JAMA pediatrics · April 2022 ImportanceBiological aging is a distinct construct from health; however, people who age quickly are more likely to experience poor health. Identifying pediatric health conditions associated with accelerated aging could help develop treatment appro ... Full text Cite

Longitudinal Associations of Mental Disorders With Dementia: 30-Year Analysis of 1.7 Million New Zealand Citizens.

Journal Article JAMA psychiatry · April 2022 ImportanceMental disorders are an underappreciated category of modifiable risk factors for dementia. Developing an evidence base about the link between mental disorders and dementia risk requires studies that use large, representative samples, con ... Full text Cite

A longitudinal twin study of victimization and loneliness from childhood to young adulthood.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · February 2022 The present study used a longitudinal and discordant twin design to explore in depth the developmental associations between victimization and loneliness from mid-childhood to young adulthood. The data were drawn from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitu ... Full text Cite

Development of the Thought Disorder Measure for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology.

Journal Article Assessment · January 2022 The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology consortium aims to develop a comprehensive self-report measure to assess psychopathology dimensionally. The current research describes the initial conceptualization, development, and item selection for the thoug ... Full text Cite

DunedinPACE, a DNA methylation biomarker of the pace of aging.

Journal Article eLife · January 2022 BackgroundMeasures to quantify changes in the pace of biological aging in response to intervention are needed to evaluate geroprotective interventions for humans. Previously, we showed that quantification of the pace of biological aging from a DNA ... Full text Cite

Improving risk indexes for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias for use in midlife.

Journal Article Brain communications · January 2022 Knowledge of a person's risk for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRDs) is required to triage candidates for preventive interventions, surveillance, and treatment trials. ADRD risk indexes exist for this purpose, but each includes only a subset ... Full text Cite

Resource profile and user guide of the Polygenic Index Repository.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · December 2021 Polygenic indexes (PGIs) are DNA-based predictors. Their value for research in many scientific disciplines is growing rapidly. As a resource for researchers, we used a consistent methodology to construct PGIs for 47 phenotypes in 11 datasets. To maximize t ... Full text Cite

Do socially isolated children become socially isolated adults?

Journal Article Advances in life course research · December 2021 Social isolation - the lack of social contacts in number and frequency - has been shown to have a negative impact on health and well-being. Using group-based trajectory analysis of longitudinal data from a New Zealand birth cohort, we created a typology of ... Full text Cite

Linking stressful life events and chronic inflammation using suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor).

Journal Article Brain, behavior, and immunity · October 2021 Stressful life events have been linked to declining health, and inflammation has been proposed as a physiological mechanism that might explain this association. Using 828 participants from the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, we tested whether people who experi ... Full text Cite

Association of subcortical gray-matter volumes with life-course-persistent antisocial behavior in a population-representative longitudinal birth cohort.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · October 2021 Neuropsychological evidence supports the developmental taxonomy theory of antisocial behavior, suggesting that abnormal brain development distinguishes life-course-persistent from adolescence-limited antisocial behavior. Recent neuroimaging work confirmed ... Full text Cite

Polygenic Risk and the Course of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder From Childhood to Young Adulthood: Findings From a Nationally Representative Cohort.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · September 2021 ObjectiveTo understand whether genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with the course of the disorder across childhood and into young adulthood.MethodParticipants were from the Environmental Risk (E ... Full text Cite

Lower Cardiovascular Reactivity is Associated with More Childhood Adversity and Poorer Midlife Health: Replicated Findings from the Dunedin and MIDUS Cohorts.

Journal Article Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · September 2021 Cardiovascular reactivity has been proposed as a biomarker linking childhood adversity and poorer health. The current study examined the association of childhood adversity, cardiovascular reactivity, and health in the Dunedin (n=922) and MIDUS studi ... Full text Cite

Moving geroscience from the bench to clinical care and health policy.

Journal Article Journal of the American Geriatrics Society · September 2021 Geriatricians and others must embrace the emerging field of geroscience. Until recently geroscience research was pursued in laboratory animals, but now this field requires specialized expertise in the care of vulnerable older patients with multiple chronic ... Full text Cite

Vital personality scores and healthy aging: Life-course associations and familial transmission.

Journal Article Social science & medicine (1982) · September 2021 ObjectivesPersonality traits are linked with healthy aging, but it is not clear how these associations come to manifest across the life-course and across generations. To study this question, we tested a series of hypotheses about (a) personality-t ... Full text Cite

Genomic and phenotypic insights from an atlas of genetic effects on DNA methylation.

Journal Article Nature genetics · September 2021 Characterizing genetic influences on DNA methylation (DNAm) provides an opportunity to understand mechanisms underpinning gene regulation and disease. In the present study, we describe results of DNAm quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analyses on 32,851 part ... Full text Cite

Identical twins carry a persistent epigenetic signature of early genome programming.

Journal Article Nature communications · September 2021 Monozygotic (MZ) twins and higher-order multiples arise when a zygote splits during pre-implantation stages of development. The mechanisms underpinning this event have remained a mystery. Because MZ twinning rarely runs in families, the leading hypothesis ... Full text Cite

Replicability of structural brain alterations associated with general psychopathology: evidence from a population-representative birth cohort.

Journal Article Molecular psychiatry · August 2021 Transdiagnostic research has identified a general psychopathology factor-often called the 'p' factor-that accounts for shared variation across internalizing, externalizing, and thought disorders in diverse samples. It has been argued that the p factor may ... Full text Cite

Brain-age in midlife is associated with accelerated biological aging and cognitive decline in a longitudinal birth cohort.

Journal Article Molecular psychiatry · August 2021 An individual's brainAGE is the difference between chronological age and age predicted from machine-learning models of brain-imaging data. BrainAGE has been proposed as a biomarker of age-related deterioration of the brain. Having an older brainAGE has bee ... Full text Cite

Long-term Neural Embedding of Childhood Adversity in a Population-Representative Birth Cohort Followed for 5 Decades.

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · August 2021 BackgroundChildhood adversity has been previously associated with alterations in brain structure, but heterogeneous designs, methods, and measures have contributed to mixed results and have impeded progress in mapping the biological embedding of c ... Full text Cite

Autistic traits are associated with faster pace of aging: Evidence from the Dunedin study at age 45.

Journal Article Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research · August 2021 Growing evidence indicates that the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are distributed throughout the general population; hence, understanding the correlates of aging in people with high autistic traits could shed light on ASD and a ... Full text Cite

Nationwide evidence that education disrupts the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · August 2021 Despite overall improvements in health and living standards in the Western world, health and social disadvantages persist across generations. Using nationwide administrative databases linked for 2.1 million Danish citizens, we leveraged a three-generation ... Full text Cite

Unravelling the contribution of complex trauma to psychopathology and cognitive deficits: a cohort study.

Journal Article The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science · August 2021 BackgroundComplex traumas are traumatic experiences that involve multiple interpersonal threats during childhood or adolescence, such as repeated abuse. Complex traumas are hypothesized to lead to more severe psychopathology and poorer cognitive f ... Full text Cite

A deep-learning system for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk via the measurement of retinal-vessel calibre.

Journal Article Nature biomedical engineering · June 2021 Retinal blood vessels provide information on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we report the development and validation of deep-learning models for the automated measurement of retinal-vessel calibre in retinal photographs, using diverse mult ... Full text Cite

Eleven genomic loci affect plasma levels of chronic inflammation marker soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor.

Journal Article Communications biology · June 2021 Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a chronic inflammation marker associated with the development of a range of diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. The genetics of suPAR remain unexplored but may shed light o ... Full text Cite

Association of History of Psychopathology With Accelerated Aging at Midlife.

Journal Article JAMA psychiatry · May 2021 ImportanceIndividuals with mental disorders are at an elevated risk of developing chronic age-related physical diseases. However, it is not clear whether psychopathology is also associated with processes of accelerated aging that precede the onset ... Full text Cite

Population vs Individual Prediction of Poor Health From Results of Adverse Childhood Experiences Screening.

Journal Article JAMA pediatrics · April 2021 ImportanceAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are well-established risk factors for health problems in a population. However, it is not known whether screening for ACEs can accurately identify individuals who develop later health problems.Obj ... Full text Cite

Three recommendations based on a comparison of the reliability and validity of the predominant models used in research on the empirical structure of psychopathology.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · April 2021 The present study compared the primary models used in research on the structure of psychopathology (i.e., correlated factor, higher-order, and bifactor models) in terms of structural validity (model fit and factor reliability), longitudinal measurement inv ... Full text Cite

Assessing the co-variability of DNA methylation across peripheral cells and tissues: Implications for the interpretation of findings in epigenetic epidemiology.

Journal Article PLoS genetics · March 2021 Most epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) quantify DNA methylation (DNAm) in peripheral tissues such as whole blood to identify positions in the genome where variation is statistically associated with a trait or exposure. As whole blood comprises a mi ... Full text Cite

Disparities in the pace of biological aging among midlife adults of the same chronological age have implications for future frailty risk and policy.

Journal Article Nature aging · March 2021 Some humans age faster than others. Variation in biological aging can be measured in midlife, but the implications of this variation are poorly understood. We tested associations between midlife biological aging and indicators of future frailty-risk in the ... Full text Cite

Identifying Adolescents at Risk for Depression: A Prediction Score Performance in Cohorts Based in 3 Different Continents.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · February 2021 ObjectivePrediction models have become frequent in the medical literature, but most published studies are conducted in a single setting. Heterogeneity between development and validation samples has been posited as a major obstacle for the generali ... Full text Cite

Pervasively Thinner Neocortex as a Transdiagnostic Feature of General Psychopathology.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · February 2021 ObjectiveNeuroimaging research has revealed that structural brain alterations are common across broad diagnostic families of disorders rather than specific to a single psychiatric disorder. Such overlap in the structural brain correlates of mental ... Full text Cite

Association Between Elevated suPAR, a New Biomarker of Inflammation, and Accelerated Aging.

Journal Article The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences · January 2021 BackgroundTo understand and measure the association between chronic inflammation, aging, and age-related diseases, broadly applicable standard biomarkers of systemic chronic inflammation are needed. We tested whether elevated blood levels of the e ... Full text Cite

Investigating the genetic architecture of noncognitive skills using GWAS-by-subtraction.

Journal Article Nature genetics · January 2021 Little is known about the genetic architecture of traits affecting educational attainment other than cognitive ability. We used genomic structural equation modeling and prior genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of educational attainment (n = 1,131,881) ... Full text Cite

Childhood self-control forecasts the pace of midlife aging and preparedness for old age.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · January 2021 The ability to control one's own emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in early life predicts a range of positive outcomes in later life, including longevity. Does it also predict how well people age? We studied the association between self-control and midlife ... Full text Cite

Longitudinal Associations of Mental Disorders With Physical Diseases and Mortality Among 2.3 Million New Zealand Citizens.

Journal Article JAMA network open · January 2021 ImportanceExcess risk of physical disease and mortality has been observed among individuals with psychiatric conditions, suggesting that ameliorating mental disorders might also be associated with ameliorating the later onset of physical disabilit ... Full text Cite

Midlife Cardiovascular Fitness Is Reflected in the Brain's White Matter.

Journal Article Frontiers in aging neuroscience · January 2021 Disappointing results from clinical trials designed to delay structural brain decline and the accompanying increase in risk for dementia in older adults have precipitated a shift in testing promising interventions from late in life toward midlife before ir ... Full text Cite

DunedinPACE: A DNA methylation biomarker of the Pace of Aging

Journal Article · 2021 ABSTRACT Measures to quantify changes in the pace of biological aging in response to intervention are needed to evaluate geroprotective interventions for humans. We used data from the Dunedin Study 1972-3 birth cohort tracking within-individual de ... Full text Cite

A polygenic score for age-at-first-birth predicts disinhibition.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · December 2020 BackgroundA recent genome-wide association study identified molecular-genetic associations with age-at-first-birth. However, the meaning of these genetic discoveries is unclear. Drawing on evidence linking early pregnancy with disinhibitory behavi ... Full text Cite

Intimate partner violence and lower relationship quality are associated with faster biological aging.

Conference Psychology and aging · December 2020 The characteristics of people's relationships have relevance to health-high quality romantic relationships are associated with improved health whereas intimate partner violence is associated with poorer health. Recently, increased attention has been focuse ... Full text Cite

Association of Childhood Lead Exposure With MRI Measurements of Structural Brain Integrity in Midlife.

Journal Article JAMA · November 2020 ImportanceChildhood lead exposure has been linked to disrupted brain development, but long-term consequences for structural brain integrity are unknown.ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure is associated with magnet ... Full text Cite

Borderline Symptoms at Age 12 Signal Risk for Poor Outcomes During the Transition to Adulthood: Findings From a Genetically Sensitive Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · October 2020 ObjectiveBorderline personality disorder in adolescence remains a controversial construct. We addressed concerns about the prognostic significance of adolescent borderline pathology by testing whether borderline symptoms at age 12 years predict fu ... Full text Cite

Is cardiovascular fitness associated with structural brain integrity in midlife? Evidence from a population-representative birth cohort study.

Journal Article Aging · October 2020 Improving cardiovascular fitness may buffer against age-related cognitive decline and mitigate dementia risk by staving off brain atrophy. However, it is unclear if such effects reflect factors operating in childhood (neuroselection) or adulthood (neuropro ... Full text Cite

Using DNA From Mothers and Children to Study Parental Investment in Children's Educational Attainment.

Journal Article Child development · September 2020 This study tested implications of new genetic discoveries for understanding the association between parental investment and children's educational attainment. A novel design matched genetic data from 860 British mothers and their children with home-visit m ... Full text Cite

Adolescents' perceptions of family social status correlate with health and life chances: A twin difference longitudinal cohort study.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · September 2020 Children from lower-income households are at increased risk for poor health, educational failure, and behavioral problems. This social gradient is one of the most reproduced findings in health and social science. How people view their position in social hi ... Full text Cite

Identifying Psychological Pathways to Polyvictimization: Evidence from a Longitudinal Cohort Study of Twins from the United Kingdom.

Journal Article Journal of experimental criminology · September 2020 ObjectivesExamine the extent to which cognitive/psychological characteristics predict later polyvictimization. We employ a twin-based design that allows us to test the social neurocriminology hypothesis that environmental factors influence brain-b ... Full text Cite

Social Distancing as a Health Behavior: County-Level Movement in the United States During the COVID-19 Pandemic Is Associated with Conventional Health Behaviors.

Journal Article Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine · August 2020 BackgroundSocial distancing-when people limit close contact with others outside their household-is a primary intervention available to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. The importance of social distancing is unlikely to change until effective treatmen ... Full text Cite

What Is the Test-Retest Reliability of Common Task-Functional MRI Measures? New Empirical Evidence and a Meta-Analysis.

Journal Article Psychological science · July 2020 Identifying brain biomarkers of disease risk is a growing priority in neuroscience. The ability to identify meaningful biomarkers is limited by measurement reliability; unreliable measures are unsuitable for predicting clinical outcomes. Measuring brain ac ... Full text Open Access Cite

Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) as a prognostic marker of mortality in healthy, general and patient populations: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article BMJ open · July 2020 IntroductionChronic inflammation is increasingly recognised as a major contributor to disease, disability and ultimately death, but measuring the levels of chronic inflammation remains non-canonised, making it difficult to relate chronic inflammat ... Full text Cite

Association of Neighborhood Disadvantage in Childhood With DNA Methylation in Young Adulthood.

Journal Article JAMA network open · June 2020 ImportanceDNA methylation has been proposed as an epigenetic mechanism by which the childhood neighborhood environment may have implications for the genome that compromise adult health.ObjectiveTo ascertain whether childhood neighborhood ... Full text Cite

Quantification of the pace of biological aging in humans through a blood test, the DunedinPoAm DNA methylation algorithm.

Journal Article Elife · May 5, 2020 Biological aging is the gradual, progressive decline in system integrity that occurs with advancing chronological age, causing morbidity and disability. Measurements of the pace of aging are needed as surrogate endpoints in trials of therapies designed to ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Does contact with the justice system deter or promote future delinquency? Results from a longitudinal study of British adolescent twins.

Journal Article Criminology : an interdisciplinary journal · May 2020 What impact does formal punishment have on antisocial conduct-does it deter or promote it? The findings from a long line of research on the labeling tradition indicate formal punishments have the opposite-of-intended consequence of promoting future misbeha ... Full text Cite

Patterns of Reliability: Assessing the Reproducibility and Integrity of DNA Methylation Measurement.

Journal Article Patterns (New York, N.Y.) · May 2020 DNA methylation plays an important role in both normal human development and risk of disease. The most utilized method of assessing DNA methylation uses BeadChips, generating an epigenome-wide "snapshot" of >450,000 observations (probe measurements) per as ... Full text Cite

Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Disorders and Comorbidities Across 4 Decades Among Participants in the Dunedin Birth Cohort Study.

Journal Article JAMA network open · April 2020 ImportanceMental health professionals typically encounter patients at 1 point in patients' lives. This cross-sectional window understandably fosters focus on the current presenting diagnosis. Research programs, treatment protocols, specialist clin ... Full text Cite

Clustering of health, crime and social-welfare inequality in 4 million citizens from two nations.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · March 2020 Health and social scientists have documented the hospital revolving-door problem, the concentration of crime, and long-term welfare dependence. Have these distinct fields identified the same citizens? Using administrative databases linked to 1.7 million Ne ... Full text Cite

Associations between life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour and brain structure in a population-representative longitudinal birth cohort.

Journal Article The lancet. Psychiatry · March 2020 BackgroundStudies with behavioural and neuropsychological tests have supported the developmental taxonomy theory of antisocial behaviour, which specifies abnormal brain development as a fundamental aspect of life-course-persistent antisocial behav ... Full text Cite

Mental Health and Functional Outcomes in Young Adulthood of Children With Psychotic Symptoms: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Journal Article Schizophrenia bulletin · February 2020 BackgroundChildhood psychotic symptoms have been associated with various psychiatric disorders in adulthood but their role as early markers of poor outcomes during the crucial transition to adulthood is largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated ... Full text Cite

Association of Adverse Experiences and Exposure to Violence in Childhood and Adolescence With Inflammatory Burden in Young People.

Journal Article JAMA pediatrics · January 2020 ImportanceChildhood stress exposure is associated with inflammation as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). However, findings are inconsistent and effect sizes are small. The addition of soluble urokinase plasminogen acti ... Full text Cite

Implications of legacy lead for children's brain development.

Journal Article Nature medicine · January 2020 Full text Cite

Association of Neurocognitive and Physical Function With Gait Speed in Midlife.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · October 2, 2019 IMPORTANCE: Gait speed is a well-known indicator of risk of functional decline and mortality in older adults, but little is known about the factors associated with gait speed earlier in life. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that slow gait speed reflects ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epigenome-wide Association Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Adults.

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · October 2019 BackgroundPrevious studies have reported associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and DNA methylation in children. We report the first epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis of adult attention-deficit/hyperact ... Full text Cite

A Polygenic Score for Higher Educational Attainment is Associated with Larger Brains.

Journal Article Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) · July 2019 People who score higher on intelligence tests tend to have larger brains. Twin studies suggest the same genetic factors influence both brain size and intelligence. This has led to the hypothesis that genetics influence intelligence partly by contributing t ... Full text Cite

Genetics of nurture: A test of the hypothesis that parents' genetics predict their observed caregiving.

Journal Article Developmental psychology · July 2019 Twin studies have documented that parenting behavior is partly heritable, but it is unclear how parents' genetics shape their caregiving. Using tools of molecular genetics, the present study investigated this process by testing hypotheses about association ... Full text Cite

Childhood IQ predicts age-38 oral disease experience and service-use.

Journal Article Community dentistry and oral epidemiology · June 2019 ObjectivesGiven that people with higher intelligence have been shown to live longer, enjoy better health and have more favourable health behaviours, we investigated the association between childhood IQ and a range of important dental health and se ... Full text Cite

Genetics and the geography of health, behaviour and attainment.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · June 2019 Young people's life chances can be predicted by characteristics of their neighbourhood1. Children growing up in disadvantaged neighbourhoods exhibit worse physical and mental health and suffer poorer educational and economic outcomes than childr ... Full text Cite

Residential neighborhood greenery and children's cognitive development.

Journal Article Social science & medicine (1982) · June 2019 Children who grow up in neighborhoods with more green vegetation show enhanced cognitive development in specific domains over short timespans. However, it is unknown if neighborhood greenery per se is uniquely predictive of children's overall cognitive dev ... Full text Cite

Adolescent Victimization and Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors: A Genetically Sensitive Cohort Study.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · May 2019 ObjectiveVictimized adolescents have an increased risk of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors. However, poor understanding of causal and non-causal mechanisms underlying this observed risk limits the development of interventions to prevent prema ... Full text Cite

Loneliness and Neighborhood Characteristics: A Multi-Informant, Nationally Representative Study of Young Adults.

Journal Article Psychological science · May 2019 In this study, we investigated associations between the characteristics of the neighborhoods in which young adults live and their feelings of loneliness, using data from different sources. Participants were drawn from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Tw ... Full text Cite

General functional connectivity: Shared features of resting-state and task fMRI drive reliable and heritable individual differences in functional brain networks.

Journal Article NeuroImage · April 2019 Intrinsic connectivity, measured using resting-state fMRI, has emerged as a fundamental tool in the study of the human brain. However, due to practical limitations, many studies do not collect enough resting-state data to generate reliable measures of intr ... Full text Open Access Cite

Association of Childhood Lead Exposure With Adult Personality Traits and Lifelong Mental Health.

Journal Article JAMA psychiatry · April 2019 ImportanceMillions of adults now entering middle age were exposed to high levels of lead, a developmental neurotoxin, as children. Although childhood lead exposure has been linked to disrupted behavioral development, the long-term consequences for ... Full text Cite

Adolescents Who Self-Harm and Commit Violent Crime: Testing Early-Life Predictors of Dual Harm in a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · March 2019 ObjectiveSelf-harm is associated with violent offending. However, little is known about young people who engage in "dual-harm" behavior. The authors investigated antecedents, clinical features, and life characteristics distinguishing dual-harming ... Full text Cite

The epidemiology of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder in a representative cohort of young people in England and Wales.

Journal Article The lancet. Psychiatry · March 2019 BackgroundDespite the emphasis placed on childhood trauma in psychiatry, comparatively little is known about the epidemiology of trauma and trauma-related psychopathology in young people. We therefore aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical fea ... Full text Cite

Cumulative childhood risk is associated with a new measure of chronic inflammation in adulthood.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · February 2019 BackgroundChildhood risk factors are associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers in adulthood, but it is unknown whether these risk factors are associated with increased adult levels of the chronic inflammation marker soluble urokinase plasmi ... Full text Cite

Effect modification of FADS2 polymorphisms on the association between breastfeeding and intelligence: results from a collaborative meta-analysis.

Journal Article International journal of epidemiology · February 2019 BackgroundAccumulating evidence suggests that breastfeeding benefits children's intelligence, possibly due to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in breast milk. Under a nutritional adequacy hypothesis, an interaction between ... Full text Cite

Establishing a generalized polyepigenetic biomarker for tobacco smoking.

Journal Article Translational psychiatry · February 2019 Large-scale epigenome-wide association meta-analyses have identified multiple 'signatures'' of smoking. Drawing on these findings, we describe the construction of a polyepigenetic DNA methylation score that indexes smoking behavior and that can be utilized ... Full text Cite

Lonely young adults in modern Britain: findings from an epidemiological cohort study.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · January 2019 BackgroundThe aim of this study was to build a detailed, integrative profile of the correlates of young adults' feelings of loneliness, in terms of their current health and functioning and their childhood experiences and circumstances.Methods< ... Full text Cite

White matter hyperintensities are common in midlife and already associated with cognitive decline.

Journal Article Brain communications · January 2019 White matter hyperintensities proliferate as the brain ages and are associated with increased risk for cognitive decline as well as Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. As such, white matter hyperintensities have been targeted as a surrogate biomarke ... Full text Cite

Correction for Belsky et al., Genetic analysis of social-class mobility in five longitudinal studies.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · November 2018 Full text Cite

A polygenic p factor for major psychiatric disorders.

Journal Article Translational psychiatry · October 2018 It has recently been proposed that a single dimension, called the p factor, can capture a person's liability to mental disorder. Relevant to the p hypothesis, recent genetic research has found surprisingly high genetic correlations between pairs of psychia ... Full text Cite

All for One and One for All: Mental Disorders in One Dimension.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · September 2018 In both child and adult psychiatry, empirical evidence has now accrued to suggest that a single dimension is able to measure a person's liability to mental disorder, comorbidity among disorders, persistence of disorders over time, and severity of symptoms. ... Full text Cite

Protective factors for psychotic experiences amongst adolescents exposed to multiple forms of victimization.

Journal Article Journal of psychiatric research · September 2018 Experiencing multiple types of victimization (poly-victimization) during adolescence is associated with the onset of psychotic experiences (such as hearing voices, having visions, or being extremely paranoid). However, many poly-victimized adolescents will ... Full text Cite

Characterizing genetic and environmental influences on variable DNA methylation using monozygotic and dizygotic twins.

Journal Article PLoS genetics · August 2018 Variation in DNA methylation is being increasingly associated with health and disease outcomes. Although DNA methylation is hypothesized to be a mechanism by which both genetic and non-genetic factors can influence the regulation of gene expression, little ... Full text Cite

Genetic analysis of social-class mobility in five longitudinal studies.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · July 2018 A summary genetic measure, called a "polygenic score," derived from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of education can modestly predict a person's educational and economic success. This prediction could signal a biological mechanism: Education-linked ... Full text Cite

The high societal costs of childhood conduct problems: evidence from administrative records up to age 38 in a longitudinal birth cohort.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · June 2018 BackgroundChildren with conduct problems that persist into adulthood are at increased risk for future behavioral, health, and social problems. However, the longer term public service usage among these children has not been fully documented. To aid ... Full text Cite

Analysis of DNA Methylation in Young People: Limited Evidence for an Association Between Victimization Stress and Epigenetic Variation in Blood.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · June 2018 ObjectiveDNA methylation has been proposed as an epigenetic mechanism by which early-life experiences become "embedded" in the genome and alter transcriptional processes to compromise health. The authors sought to investigate whether early-life vi ... Full text Cite

Eleven Telomere, Epigenetic Clock, and Biomarker-Composite Quantifications of Biological Aging: Do They Measure the Same Thing?

Journal Article American journal of epidemiology · June 2018 The geroscience hypothesis posits that therapies to slow biological processes of aging can prevent disease and extend healthy years of life. To test such "geroprotective" therapies in humans, outcome measures are needed that can assess extension of disease ... Full text Cite

Genetics and Crime: Integrating New Genomic Discoveries Into Psychological Research About Antisocial Behavior.

Journal Article Psychological science · May 2018 Drawing on psychological and sociological theories of crime causation, we tested the hypothesis that genetic risk for low educational attainment (assessed via a genome-wide polygenic score) is associated with criminal offending. We further tested hypothese ... Full text Cite

Adolescent Victimization and Early-Adult Psychopathology: Approaching Causal Inference Using a Longitudinal Twin Study to Rule Out Noncausal Explanations.

Journal Article Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · May 2018 Adolescence is the peak age for both victimization and mental disorder onset. Previous research has reported associations between victimization exposure and many psychiatric conditions. However, causality remains controversial. Within the Environmental Ris ... Full text Cite

Structural alterations within cerebellar circuitry are associated with general liability for common mental disorders.

Journal Article Molecular psychiatry · April 2018 Accumulating mental-health research encourages a shift in focus toward transdiagnostic dimensional features that are shared across categorical disorders. In support of this shift, recent studies have identified a general liability factor for psychopatholog ... Full text Cite

The Developmental Nature of the Victim-Offender Overlap.

Journal Article Journal of developmental and life-course criminology · March 2018 PurposeIt is well-established that victims and offenders are often the same people, a phenomenon known as the victim-offender overlap, but the developmental nature of this overlap remains uncertain. In this study, we drew from a developmental theo ... Full text Cite

Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences.

Journal Article Schizophrenia bulletin · February 2018 BackgroundLittle is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences.MethodsParticipants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) L ... Full text Cite

Associations between adolescent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline: a longitudinal co-twin control study.

Journal Article Addiction (Abingdon, England) · February 2018 AimsThis study tested whether adolescents who used cannabis or met criteria for cannabis dependence showed neuropsychological impairment prior to cannabis initiation and neuropsychological decline from before to after cannabis initiation.Desig ... Full text Cite

Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Criminal Offending.

Journal Article JAMA pediatrics · February 2018 ImportanceLead is a neurotoxin with well-documented effects on health. Research suggests that lead may be associated with criminal behavior. This association is difficult to disentangle from low socioeconomic status, a factor in both lead exposure ... Full text Cite

Childhood victimization and inflammation in young adulthood: A genetically sensitive cohort study.

Journal Article Brain, behavior, and immunity · January 2018 ObjectiveChildhood victimization is an important risk factor for later immune-related disorders. Previous evidence has demonstrated that childhood victimization is associated with elevated levels of inflammation biomarkers measured decades after e ... Full text Cite

Measuring childhood maltreatment to predict early-adult psychopathology: Comparison of prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports.

Journal Article Journal of psychiatric research · January 2018 Both prospective informant-reports and retrospective self-reports may be used to measure childhood maltreatment, though both methods entail potential limitations such as underestimation and memory biases. The validity and utility of standard measures of ch ... Full text Cite

From Childhood Conduct Problems to Poor Functioning at Age 18 Years: Examining Explanations in a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · January 2018 ObjectiveChildhood conduct problems are associated with poor functioning in early adulthood. We tested a series of hypotheses to understand the mechanisms underlying this association.MethodWe used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) ... Full text Cite

In the eye of the beholder: Perceptions of neighborhood adversity and psychotic experiences in adolescence.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · December 2017 Adolescent psychotic experiences increase risk for schizophrenia and other severe psychopathology in adulthood. Converging evidence implicates urban and adverse neighborhood conditions in the etiology of adolescent psychotic experiences, but the role of yo ... Full text Cite

Is low cognitive functioning a predictor or consequence of major depressive disorder? A test in two longitudinal birth cohorts.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · November 2017 Cognitive impairment has been identified as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD). We tested two theories regarding the association between MDD and cognitive functioning using data from longitudinal cohort studies. One theory, the cognitiv ... Full text Cite

Childhood body mass index and endothelial dysfunction evaluated by peripheral arterial tonometry in early midlife.

Journal Article International journal of obesity (2005) · September 2017 Background/objectivesEndothelial dysfunction predicts mortality but it is unknown whether childhood obesity predicts adult endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine whether anthropometric indices of body fat in childhood, ado ... Full text Cite

Sleeping with one eye open: loneliness and sleep quality in young adults.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · September 2017 BackgroundFeelings of loneliness are common among young adults, and are hypothesized to impair the quality of sleep. In the present study, we tested associations between loneliness and sleep quality in a nationally representative sample of young a ... Full text Cite

Genetic variants in 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, HTR1A, COMT, and FKBP5 and risk for treated depression after cancer diagnosis.

Journal Article Depression and anxiety · September 2017 BackgroundThe role of gene-environment interactions in the pathogenesis of depression is unclear. Previous studies addressed vulnerability for depression after childhood adversity and stressful life events among carriers of numerous specific genet ... Full text Cite

Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

Journal Article Aging Cell · August 2017 Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children

Chapter · July 5, 2017 We studied a large sample of male children from birth to adulthood to determine why some children who are maltreated grow up to develop antisocial behavior, whereas others do not. A functional polymorphism in the gene encoding the neurotransmitter-metaboli ... Cite

The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): A dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · May 2017 The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic in ... Full text Cite

The Origins of Cognitive Deficits in Victimized Children: Implications for Neuroscientists and Clinicians.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · April 2017 ObjectiveIndividuals reporting a history of childhood violence victimization have impaired brain function. However, the clinical significance, reproducibility, and causality of these findings are disputed. The authors used data from two large coho ... Full text Cite

Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Cognitive Function and Socioeconomic Status at Age 38 Years and With IQ Change and Socioeconomic Mobility Between Childhood and Adulthood.

Journal Article JAMA · March 2017 ImportanceMany children in the United States and around the world are exposed to lead, a developmental neurotoxin. The long-term cognitive and socioeconomic consequences of lead exposure are uncertain.ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that ... Full text Cite

Enduring mental health: Prevalence and prediction.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · February 2017 We review epidemiological evidence indicating that most people will develop a diagnosable mental disorder, suggesting that only a minority experience enduring mental health. This minority has received little empirical study, leaving the prevalence and pred ... Full text Cite

The Longitudinal Study of Aging in Human Young Adults: Knowledge Gaps and Research Agenda.

Journal Article The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences · February 2017 BackgroundTo prevent onset of age-related diseases and physical and cognitive decline, interventions to slow human aging and extend health span must eventually be applied to people while they are still young and healthy. Yet most human aging resea ... Full text Cite

Early-Life Intelligence Predicts Midlife Biological Age.

Journal Article The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences · November 2016 ObjectivesEarly-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deter ... Full text Cite

Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Journal Article Schizophrenia bulletin · November 2016 BackgroundUrban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children's risk ... Full text Cite

Childhood Bullying Victimization and Overweight in Young Adulthood: A Cohort Study.

Journal Article Psychosomatic medicine · November 2016 ObjectiveTo test whether bullied children have an elevated risk of being overweight in young adulthood and whether this association is: (1) consistent with a dose-response relationship, namely, its strength increases with the chronicity of victimi ... Full text Cite

Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study.

Journal Article Clinical psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · November 2016 With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18-38, and economic and social problem ... Full text Cite

Lest we forget: comparing retrospective and prospective assessments of adverse childhood experiences in the prediction of adult health.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · October 2016 BackgroundAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs; e.g. abuse, neglect, and parental loss) have been associated with increased risk for later-life disease and dysfunction using adults' retrospective self-reports of ACEs. Research should test whether a ... Full text Cite

Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted?

Journal Article Journal of criminal justice · September 2016 PurposeTo describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins.MethodsWe defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-c ... Full text Cite

The Genetics of Success: How Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Educational Attainment Relate to Life-Course Development.

Journal Article Psychological science · July 2016 A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 100,000 individuals identified molecular-genetic predictors of educational attainment. We undertook in-depth life-course investigation of the polygenic score derived from this GWAS using the four ... Full text Open Access Cite

Associations Between Cannabis Use and Physical Health Problems in Early Midlife: A Longitudinal Comparison of Persistent Cannabis vs Tobacco Users.

Journal Article JAMA psychiatry · July 2016 ImportanceAfter major policy changes in the United States, policymakers, health care professionals, and the general public seek information about whether recreational cannabis use is associated with physical health problems later in life.Objec ... Full text Cite

Which adolescents develop persistent substance dependence in adulthood? Using population-representative longitudinal data to inform universal risk assessment.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · March 2016 BackgroundTo our knowledge, there are no universal screening tools for substance dependence that (1) were developed using a population-based sample, (2) estimate total risk briefly and inexpensively by incorporating a relatively small number of we ... Full text Cite

Committed to work but vulnerable: self-perceptions and mental health in NEET 18-year olds from a contemporary British cohort.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · February 2016 BackgroundLabour market disengagement among youths has lasting negative economic and social consequences, yet is poorly understood. We compared four types of work-related self-perceptions, as well as vulnerability to mental health and substance ab ... Full text Cite

Telomere length and periodontal attachment loss: a prospective cohort study.

Journal Article Journal of clinical periodontology · February 2016 AimThe aim of the study was to examine the association between telomere erosion and periodontitis in a long-standing prospective cohort study of New Zealand adults. Specific hypotheses tested were as follows: (i) that exposure to periodontitis at ... Full text Cite

Is Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Related to Brain and Behavior Impairments in Humans? Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort.

Journal Article PloS one · January 2016 BackgroundToxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a protozoan parasite present in around a third of the human population. Infected individuals are commonly asymptomatic, though recent reports have suggested that infection might influence aspects of the h ... Full text Cite

Childhood forecasting of a small segment of the population with large economic burden.

Journal Article Nature human behaviour · January 2016 Policy-makers are interested in early-years interventions to ameliorate childhood risks. They hope for improved adult outcomes in the long run, bringing return on investment. How much return can be expected depends, partly, on how strongly childhood risks ... Full text Open Access Cite

Childhood to Early-Midlife Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectories: Early-Life Predictors, Effect Modifiers, and Adult Cardiovascular Outcomes.

Journal Article Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) · December 2015 Previous studies examining blood pressure change over time have modeled an average population trajectory. Recent research among older adults suggests there may be subgroups with different blood pressure trajectories. Identifying subgroups at risk of develo ... Full text Cite

Measuring adolescents' exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · November 2015 This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twi ... Full text Cite

Living alongside more affluent neighbors predicts greater involvement in antisocial behavior among low-income boys.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · October 2015 BackgroundThe creation of economically mixed communities has been proposed as one way to improve the life outcomes of children growing up in poverty. However, whether low-income children benefit from living alongside more affluent neighbors is unk ... Full text Cite

Is Adult ADHD a Childhood-Onset Neurodevelopmental Disorder? Evidence From a Four-Decade Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · October 2015 ObjectiveDespite a prevailing assumption that adult ADHD is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, no prospective longitudinal study has described the childhoods of the adult ADHD population. The authors report follow-back analyses of ADHD ... Full text Cite

5-HTTLPR and use of antidepressants after colorectal cancer including a meta-analysis of 5-HTTLPR and depression after cancer.

Journal Article Translational psychiatry · September 2015 The serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is one of the most extensively investigated candidates to be involved in gene-environment interaction associated with depression. Nevertheless, the interaction remains controversial. In an orig ... Full text Cite

Quantification of biological aging in young adults.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · July 28, 2015 Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Social jetlag, obesity and metabolic disorder: investigation in a cohort study.

Journal Article International journal of obesity (2005) · May 2015 BackgroundObesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Circadian rhythms are known to control both sleep timing and energy homeostasis, and disruptions in circadian rhythms have been linked with metabolic dysfunction and ob ... Full text Cite

Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in midlife: neuroprotection or neuroselection?

Journal Article Ann Neurol · April 2015 OBJECTIVE: A study was undertaken to determine whether better cognitive functioning at midlife among more physically fit individuals reflects neuroprotection, by which fitness protects against age-related cognitive decline, or neuroselection, by which chil ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Is insomnia associated with deficits in neuropsychological functioning? Evidence from a population-based study.

Journal Article Sleep · April 2015 Study objectivesPeople with insomnia complain of cognitive deficits in daily life. Results from empirical studies examining associations between insomnia and cognitive impairment, however, are mixed. Research is needed that compares treatment-seek ... Full text Cite

Social isolation and mental health at primary and secondary school entry: a longitudinal cohort study.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · March 2015 ObjectiveWe tested whether children who are socially isolated early in their schooling develop mental health problems in early adolescence, taking into account their mental health and family risk at school entry.MethodWe used data from th ... Full text Cite

Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for childhood psychotic symptoms.

Journal Article Epigenetics · January 2015 Childhood psychotic symptoms are associated with increased rates of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders, and suicide attempts in adulthood; thus, elucidating early risk indicators is crucial to target prevention efforts. There is considerable discor ... Full text Cite

Methylomic markers of persistent childhood asthma: a longitudinal study of asthma-discordant monozygotic twins.

Journal Article Clinical epigenetics · January 2015 BackgroundAsthma is the most common chronic inflammatory disorder in children. The aetiology of asthma pathology is complex and highly heterogeneous, involving the interplay between genetic and environmental risk factors that is hypothesized to in ... Full text Cite

Blood Substrate Collection and Handling Procedures under Pseudo-Field Conditions: Evaluation of Suitability for Inflammatory Biomarker Measurement.

Journal Article Biodemography and social biology · January 2015 Routine incorporation of blood-based biomarker measurements in population studies has been hampered by challenges in obtaining samples suitable for biomarker assessment outside of laboratory settings. Here, we assessed the suitability of venous blood left ... Full text Cite

Internalizing disorders and leukocyte telomere erosion: a prospective study of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Journal Article Molecular psychiatry · November 2014 There is evidence that persistent psychiatric disorders lead to age-related disease and premature mortality. Telomere length has emerged as a promising biomarker in studies that test the hypothesis that internalizing psychiatric disorders are associated wi ... Full text Cite

Mental health antecedents of early midlife insomnia: evidence from a four-decade longitudinal study.

Journal Article Sleep · November 2014 Study objectivesInsomnia is a highly prevalent condition that constitutes a major public health and economic burden. However, little is known about the developmental etiology of adulthood insomnia.DesignWe examined whether indicators of p ... Full text Cite

Perinatal complications and aging indicators by midlife.

Journal Article Pediatrics · November 2014 BACKGROUND: Perinatal complications predict increased risk for morbidity and early mortality. Evidence of perinatal programming of adult mortality raises the question of what mechanisms embed this long-term effect. We tested a hypothesis related to the the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences · November 2014 Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health ... Full text Open Access Cite

Accelerated biological aging in schizophrenia

Conference EARLY INTERVENTION IN PSYCHIATRY · November 1, 2014 Link to item Cite

Mental Health Antecedents of Early Midlife Insomnia: Evidence from a Four-Decade Longitudinal Study.

Journal Article Sleep · October 2014 Study Objectives: Insomnia is a highly prevalent condition that constitutes a major public health and economic burden. However, little is known about the developmental etiology of adulthood insomnia. Design: We examined whether indicators of psychological ... Cite

Is chronic asthma associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length at midlife?

Journal Article American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine · August 2014 RATIONALE: Asthma is prospectively associated with age-related chronic diseases and mortality, suggesting the hypothesis that asthma may relate to a general, multisystem phenotype of accelerated aging. OBJECTIVES: To test whether chronic asthma is associat ... Full text Open Access Cite

Response to Bora.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · March 2014 Full text Cite

The p Factor: One General Psychopathology Factor in the Structure of Psychiatric Disorders?

Journal Article Clinical Psychological Science: A Journal of the Association for Psychological Science · March 2014 Mental disorders traditionally have been viewed as distinct, episodic, and categorical conditions. This view has been challenged by evidence that many disorders are sequentially comorbid, recurrent/chronic, and exist on a continuum. Using the Dunedin Multi ... Full text Cite

Suicide attempt in young people: a signal for long-term health care and social needs.

Journal Article JAMA psychiatry · February 2014 ImportanceSuicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications.ObjectiveTo test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later ... Full text Cite

Translating personality psychology to help personalize preventive medicine for young adult patients

Journal Article Journal of Personality and Social Psychology · 2014 The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by health care reform will soon increase demands on primary care physicians. Physicians will face more young adult patients, which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the ... Full text Cite

The Behavioural Genetics of Personality Development in Adulthood-Classic, Contemporary, and Future Trends

Journal Article European Journal of Personality · January 1, 2014 Behavioural genetic research has led to important advances in the field of personality psychology. When carried out on longitudinal data, behavioural genetic studies also offer promising ways to examine the genetic and environmental origins of personality ... Full text Cite

Unraveling girls’ delinquency: Biological, dispositional, and contextual contributions to adolescent misbehavior

Chapter · January 1, 2014 We examined processes linking biological and behavioral changes in different contexts during adolescence by studying an unselected cohort of New Zealand girls from childhood through adolescence when they entered either mixed-sex or all-girl secondary schoo ... Cite

Neuropsychological decline in schizophrenia from the premorbid to the postonset period: evidence from a population-representative longitudinal study.

Journal Article Am J Psychiatry · January 2014 OBJECTIVE: Despite the widespread belief that neuropsychological decline is a cardinal feature of the progression from the premorbid stage to the chronic form of schizophrenia, few longitudinal studies have examined change in neuropsychological functioning ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microvascular abnormality in schizophrenia as shown by retinal imaging.

Journal Article Am J Psychiatry · December 2013 OBJECTIVE: Retinal and cerebral microvessels are structurally and functionally homologous, but unlike cerebral microvessels, retinal microvessels can be noninvasively measured in vivo by retinal imaging. The authors tested the hypothesis that individuals w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is obesity associated with a decline in intelligence quotient during the first half of the life course?

Journal Article American Journal of Epidemiology · November 2013 Cross-sectional studies have found that obesity is associated with low intellectual ability and neuroimaging abnormalities in adolescence and adulthood. Some have interpreted these associations to suggest that obesity causes intellectual decline in the fir ... Full text Cite

Genetics in population health science: strategies and opportunities

Journal Article American journal of public health · October 2013 Translational research is needed to leverage discoveries from the frontiers of genome science to improve public health. So far, public health researchers have largely ignored genetic discoveries, and geneticists have ignored important aspects of population ... Full text Cite

Specificity of childhood psychotic symptoms for predicting schizophrenia by 38 years of age: a birth cohort study.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · October 2013 BackgroundChildhood psychotic symptoms have been used as a subclinical phenotype of schizophrenia in etiological research and as a target for preventative interventions. However, recent studies have cast doubt on the specificity of these symptoms ... Full text Cite

Prospective developmental subtypes of alcohol dependence from age 18 to 32 years: implications for nosology, etiology, and intervention.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · August 2013 The purpose of the present study is to identify child and adult correlates that differentiate (a) individuals with persistent alcohol dependence from individuals with developmentally limited alcohol dependence and (b) individuals with adult-onset alcohol d ... Full text Cite

The relationship between multiple sex partners and anxiety, depression, and substance dependence disorders: a cohort study.

Journal Article Archives of sexual behavior · July 2013 Changes in sexual behavior have resulted in longer periods of multiple serial or concurrent relationships. This study investigated the effects of multiple heterosexual partners on mental health, specifically, whether higher numbers of partners were linked ... Full text Cite

Retinal vessel caliber and lifelong neuropsychological functioning: retinal imaging as an investigative tool for cognitive epidemiology.

Journal Article Psychol Sci · July 1, 2013 Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new, noninvasive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study.

Journal Article Molecular psychiatry · May 2013 There is increasing interest in discovering mechanisms that mediate the effects of childhood stress on late-life disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested one potential mechanism linking stress to cellular aging, disease and mortalit ... Full text Cite

Polygenic risk and the developmental progression to heavy, persistent smoking and nicotine dependence: evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal study.

Journal Article JAMA psychiatry · May 2013 ImportanceGenome-wide hypothesis-free discovery methods have identified loci that are associated with heavy smoking in adulthood. Research is needed to understand developmental processes that link newly discovered genetic risks with adult heavy sm ... Full text Cite

Reply to Rogeberg and Daly: No evidence that socioeconomic status or personality differences confound the association between cannabis use and IQ decline.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · March 2013 Full text Cite

Development and evaluation of a genetic risk score for obesity.

Journal Article Biodemography Soc Biol · 2013 Multi-locus profiles of genetic risk, so-called "genetic risk scores," can be used to translate discoveries from genome-wide association studies into tools for population health research. We developed a genetic risk score for obesity from results of 16 pub ... Full text Link to item Cite

Polygenic risk and the development and course of asthma: an analysis of data from a four-decade longitudinal study

Journal Article The Lancet Respiratory Medicine · 2013 Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered genetic variants that predispose individuals to asthma. To integrate these new discoveries with emerging models of asthma pathobiology, we aimed to test how genetic discoveries relate to dev ... Full text Cite

Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · October 2, 2012 Recent reports show that fewer adolescents believe that regular cannabis use is harmful to health. Concomitantly, adolescents are initiating cannabis use at younger ages, and more adolescents are using cannabis on a daily basis. The purpose of the present ... Full text Link to item Cite

Systematic social observation of children's neighborhoods using Google Street View: a reliable and cost-effective method.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · October 2012 BackgroundChildren growing up in poor versus affluent neighborhoods are more likely to spend time in prison, develop health problems and die at an early age. The question of how neighborhood conditions influence our behavior and health has attract ... Full text Cite

'Contamination' by personality

Journal Article European Journal of Oral Sciences · October 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Childhood trauma and telomere maintenance

Journal Article European Journal of Psychotraumatology · September 10, 2012 Full text Cite

Supportive parenting mediates neighborhood socioeconomic disparities in children's antisocial behavior from ages 5 to 12.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · August 2012 We report a graded relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and children's antisocial behavior that (a) can be observed at school entry, (b) widens across childhood, (c) remains after controlling for family-level SES and risk, and (d) i ... Full text Cite

Polygenic risk, rapid childhood growth, and the development of obesity: evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal study.

Journal Article Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med · June 1, 2012 OBJECTIVE: To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. DESIGN: A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. SETTING: The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Dev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Undercontrolled temperament at age 3 predicts disordered gambling at age 32: a longitudinal study of a complete birth cohort.

Journal Article Psychological science · May 2012 Using data from the large, 30-year prospective Dunedin cohort study, we examined whether preexisting individual differences in childhood temperament predicted adulthood disordered gambling (a diagnosis covering the full continuum of gambling-related proble ... Full text Cite

Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments.

Journal Article Sleep · April 2012 Study objectivesTo examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment.DesignMothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interv ... Full text Cite

Family history and oral health: findings from the Dunedin Study.

Journal Article Community dentistry and oral epidemiology · April 2012 ContextThe effects of the oral health status of one generation on that of the next within families are unclear.Objectives  To determine whether parental oral health history is a risk factor for oral disease.MethodsOral examinatio ... Full text Cite

Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · February 2012 It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderli ... Full text Cite

Bullying victimisation increases risk of self-harm in early adolescence

Journal Article British Medical Journal E-pub. · 2012 Cite

Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces.

Journal Article Development and Psychopathology, 25th Anniversary Special issue · 2012 Cite

Convergent translational evidence of a role for anandamide in amygdala-mediated fear extinction, threat processing and stress-reactivity

Journal Article Molecular psychiatry · 2012 Endocannabinoids are released 'on-demand' on the basis of physiological need, and can be pharmacologically augmented by inhibiting their catabolic degradation. The endocannabinoid anandamide is degraded by the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (F ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bullying victimisation and risk of self harm in early adolescence: longitudinal cohort study

Journal Article BMJ · 2012 OBJECTIVES: To test whether frequent bullying victimisation in childhood increases the likelihood of self harming in early adolescence, and to identify which bullied children are at highest risk of self harm. DESIGN: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitu ... Full text Cite

Risk factors prospectively associated with adult obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · December 2011 BackgroundVery few longitudinal studies have evaluated prospective neurodevelopmental and psychosocial risk factors for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Furthermore, despite the heterogeneous nature of OCD, no research has examined risk factor ... Full text Cite

Serotonin transporter gene moderates childhood maltreatment's effects on persistent but not single-episode depression: replications and implications for resolving inconsistent results.

Journal Article Journal of affective disorders · December 2011 BackgroundGenetic and environmental factors shape life-long vulnerability to depression, but most gene-environment interaction (G×E) research has focused on cross-sectional assessments rather than life-course phenotypes. This study tests the hypot ... Full text Cite

Blunted cortisol responses to stress signal social and behavioral problems among maltreated/bullied 12-year-old children.

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · December 2011 BackgroundEvidence from animal and human studies suggests that early-life stress such as physical maltreatment has long-lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is associated with blunted HPA axis reactivity in adulthoo ... Full text Cite

Interaction of FKBP5 gene variants and adverse life events in predicting depression onset: results from a 10-year prospective community study.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · October 2011 ObjectiveThe binding protein FKBP5 is an important modulator of the function of the glucocorticoid receptor, the main receptor of the stress hormone system. This turns the FKBP5 gene into a key candidate for gene-environment interactions, which ar ... Full text Cite

Personality and oral health.

Journal Article European journal of oral sciences · October 2011 We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was m ... Full text Cite

A discordant monozygotic twin design shows blunted cortisol reactivity among bullied children.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · June 2011 ObjectiveChildhood adverse experiences are known to engender persistent changes in stress-related systems and brain structures involved in mood, cognition, and behavior in animal models. Uncertainty remains about the causal effect of early stressf ... Full text Cite

Mothers and children as informants of bullying victimization: results from an epidemiological cohort of children.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal child psychology · April 2011 Stressful events early in life can affect children's mental health problems. Collecting valid and reliable information about children's bad experiences is important for research and clinical purposes. This study aimed to (1) investigate whether mothers and ... Full text Cite

Inter-generational continuity in periodontal health: findings from the Dunedin family history study.

Journal Article Journal of clinical periodontology · April 2011 ObjectiveTo determine whether parental periodontal disease history is a risk factor for periodontal disease in adult offspring.MethodsProband periodontal examination [combined attachment loss (CAL) at age 32, and incidence of CAL from age ... Full text Cite

A longitudinal twin study of skewed X chromosome-inactivation.

Journal Article PloS one · March 2011 X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a pivotal epigenetic mechanism involved in the dosage compensation of X-linked genes between males and females. In any given cell, the process of XCI in early female development is thought to be random across alleles and ... Full text Cite

A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · February 2011 Policy-makers are considering large-scale programs aimed at self-control to improve citizens' health and wealth and reduce crime. Experimental and economic studies suggest such programs could reap benefits. Yet, is self-control important for the health, we ... Full text Cite

Childhood trauma and children's emerging psychotic symptoms: A genetically sensitive longitudinal cohort study.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · January 2011 ObjectiveUsing longitudinal and prospective measures of trauma during childhood, the authors assessed the risk of developing psychotic symptoms associated with maltreatment, bullying, and accidents in a nationally representative U.K. cohort of you ... Full text Cite

The challenging pupil in the classroom: the effect of the child on the teacher.

Journal Article Psychological science · December 2010 Teaching children requires effort, and some children naturally require more effort than others. In this study, we tested whether teacher effort devoted to individual children varies as a function of each child's personal characteristics. In a nationwide lo ... Full text Cite

Context and sequelae of food insecurity in children's development.

Journal Article American journal of epidemiology · October 2010 The authors examined the role of food insecurity in the etiology of children's cognitive and mental health problems. Data from a prospective longitudinal study of 1,116 United Kingdom families with twins (sample constructed in 1999-2000) were used to test ... Full text Cite

Serotonin transporter gene moderates the development of emotional problems among children following bullying victimization.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · August 2010 ObjectiveBullying is the act of intentionally and repeatedly causing harm to someone who has difficulty defending him- or herself, and is a relatively widespread school-age phenomenon. Being the victim of bullying is associated with a broad spectr ... Full text Cite

A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins.

Journal Article Epigenetics · August 2010 DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism involved in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Alterations in DNA methylation are established contributors to inter-individual phenotypic variation and have been associated with disease susceptibi ... Full text Open Access Cite

Families promote emotional and behavioural resilience to bullying: evidence of an environmental effect.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · July 2010 BackgroundBullied children are at risk for later emotional and behavioural problems. 'Resilient' children function better than would be expected given their experience of bullying victimisation. This study examined the role of families in promotin ... Full text Cite

How common are common mental disorders? Evidence that lifetime prevalence rates are doubled by prospective versus retrospective ascertainment.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · June 2010 BackgroundMost information about the lifetime prevalence of mental disorders comes from retrospective surveys, but how much these surveys have undercounted due to recall failure is unknown. We compared results from a prospective study with those f ... Full text Open Access Cite

Genetic sensitivity to the environment: the case of the serotonin transporter gene and its implications for studying complex diseases and traits.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · May 2010 Evidence of marked variability in response among people exposed to the same environmental risk implies that individual differences in genetic susceptibility might be at work. The study of such Gene-by-Environment (GxE) interactions has gained momentum. In ... Full text Cite

In reply

Journal Article Pediatrics · May 1, 2010 Full text Cite

Etiological and clinical features of childhood psychotic symptoms: results from a birth cohort.

Journal Article Arch Gen Psychiatry · April 2010 CONTEXT: It has been reported that childhood psychotic symptoms are common in the general population and may signal neurodevelopmental processes that lead to schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether these symptoms are associated with the same extens ... Full text Link to item Cite

Implications of extending the ADHD age-of-onset criterion to age 12: results from a prospectively studied birth cohort.

Journal Article J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry · March 2010 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairmen ... Link to item Cite

Static and dynamic cognitive deficits in childhood preceding adult schizophrenia: a 30-year study.

Journal Article Am J Psychiatry · February 2010 OBJECTIVE: Premorbid cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are well documented and have been interpreted as supporting a neurodevelopmental etiological model. The authors investigated the following three unresolved questions about premorbid cognitive deficit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Arguable assumptions, debatable conclusions.

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · February 2010 Full text Cite

The challenging pupil in the classroom: Child effects on teachers

Journal Article Psychological Science · 2010 Cite

Effects of cannabis on lung function: a population-based cohort study.

Journal Article The European respiratory journal · January 2010 The effects of cannabis on lung function remain unclear and may be different from those of tobacco. We compared the associations between use of these substances and lung function in a population-based cohort (n = 1,037). Cannabis and tobacco use were repor ... Full text Cite

Adverse childhood experiences and adult risk factors for age-related disease: depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers.

Journal Article Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine · December 2009 ObjectiveTo understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress ... Full text Cite

Mental health context of food insecurity: a representative cohort of families with young children.

Journal Article Pediatrics · October 2009 ObjectiveChildren from food-insecure families (ie, families that lack access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food) are at risk for developmental problems. Food insecurity disproportionately occurs among low-socioeconomic status (SES) and low-i ... Full text Cite

Protective effect of CRHR1 gene variants on the development of adult depression following childhood maltreatment: replication and extension.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · September 2009 ContextA previous study reported a gene x environment interaction in which a haplotype in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) was associated with protection against adult depressive symptoms in individuals who were maltreat ... Full text Cite

The protective effects of neighborhood collective efficacy on British children growing up in deprivation: a developmental analysis.

Journal Article Developmental psychology · July 2009 This article reports on the influence of neighborhood-level deprivation and collective efficacy on children's antisocial behavior between the ages of 5 and 10 years. Latent growth curve modeling was applied to characterize the developmental course of antis ... Full text Cite

Predictive value of family history on severity of illness: the case for depression, anxiety, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · July 2009 ContextIf family history is associated with clinical features that are thought to index seriousness of disorder, this could inform clinicians predicting patients' prognosis and researchers selecting cases for genetic studies. Although tests of ass ... Full text Cite

School, neighborhood, and family factors are associated with children's bullying involvement: a nationally representative longitudinal study.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · May 2009 ObjectiveTo test whether school, neighborhood, and family factors are independently associated with children's involvement in bullying, over and above their own behaviors that may increase their risk for becoming involved in bullying.Method Full text Cite

Five-year predictive validity of DSM-IV conduct disorder research diagnosis in 4(1/2)-5-year-old children.

Journal Article European child & adolescent psychiatry · May 2009 ObjectiveThis longitudinal study of a non-referred, population-based sample tested the 5-year predictive validity of the DSM-IV conduct disorder (CD) research diagnosis in children 4(1/2)-5 years of age.MethodIn the E-Risk Study, a repres ... Full text Cite

Sleep problems in childhood predict neuropsychological functioning in adolescence.

Journal Article Pediatrics · April 2009 ObjectivesOur goal was to examine the association between parent-rated sleep problems during childhood and neuropsychological functioning during adolescence.Participants and methodsLongitudinal prospective data on an entire birth cohort f ... Full text Cite

Links between anxiety and allergies: psychobiological reality or possible methodological bias?

Journal Article Journal of personality · April 2009 The objective of the study was to examine the link between anxiety and allergies to establish whether it reflects a psychobiological reality or a possible methodological bias. A cohort of 1,037 children enrolled in the study. Anxiety disorders were assesse ... Full text Cite

Obsessions and compulsions in the community: prevalence, interference, help-seeking, developmental stability, and co-occurring psychiatric conditions.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · March 2009 ObjectiveIt is unclear how many people in the community have obsessions and compulsions and associated levels of interference. It is also unknown what variables predict help-seeking for these symptoms, whether they are developmentally stable, and ... Full text Cite

Temperament and Personality

Journal Article · February 10, 2009 Full text Cite

The validity of the family history screen for assessing family history of mental disorders.

Journal Article American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics · January 2009 There is a need to collect psychiatric family history information quickly and economically (e.g., for genome-wide studies and primary care practice). We sought to evaluate the validity of family history reports using a brief screening instrument, the Famil ... Full text Cite

Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: a test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · January 2009 ObjectiveCognitive reserve has been proposed as important in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, tests of the association between premorbid IQ and adult mental disorders other than schizophrenia have been limited and inconclusive. ... Full text Cite

How should we construct psychiatric family history scores? A comparison of alternative approaches from the Dunedin Family Health History Study.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · December 2008 BackgroundThere is increased interest in assessing the family history of psychiatric disorders for both genetic research and public health screening. It is unclear how best to combine family history reports into an overall score. We compare the pr ... Full text Cite

Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents?

Journal Article Psychological science · October 2008 Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether ea ... Full text Cite

The developmental mental-disorder histories of adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · May 2008 Clinical and epidemiologic studies have established that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly comorbid with other mental disorders. However, such studies have largely relied on adults' retrospective reports to ascertain comorbidity. The authors e ... Full text Cite

Elevated inflammation levels in depressed adults with a history of childhood maltreatment.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · April 2008 ContextThe association between depression and inflammation is inconsistent across research samples.ObjectiveTo test whether a history of childhood maltreatment could identify a subgroup of depressed individuals with elevated inflammation ... Full text Cite

Unintentional injuries in a twin study of preschool children: environmental, not genetic, risk factors.

Journal Article Journal of pediatric psychology · March 2008 ObjectiveTo analyze the relative contribution of latent genetic and environmental factors to differences in the injury liability of children, and to examine the association between measured socio-economic, family, and child-behavior variables and ... Full text Cite

Being bullied as an environmentally mediated contributing factor to children's internalizing problems: a study of twins discordant for victimization.

Journal Article Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine · February 2008 ObjectiveTo test whether the experience of being bullied has an environmentally mediated effect on internalizing symptoms in young children.DesignA genetically informative, longitudinal 1994-1995 birth cohort.SettingA nationally ... Full text Cite

Cannabis smoking and periodontal disease among young adults.

Journal Article JAMA · February 2008 ContextTobacco smoking is a recognized behavioral risk factor for periodontal disease (through its systemic effects), and cannabis smoking may contribute in a similar way.ObjectiveTo determine whether cannabis smoking is a risk factor for ... Full text Cite

A replicated molecular genetic basis for subtyping antisocial behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · February 2008 ContextAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that in some cases is accompanied by antisocial behavior.ObjectiveTo test if variations in the catechol O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) ... Full text Cite

Genetic and environmental influences on victims, bullies and bully-victims in childhood.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · January 2008 BackgroundThree groups of children are involved in bullying: victims, bullies and bully-victims who are both bullies and victims of bullying. Understanding the origins of these groups is important since they have elevated emotional and behavioural ... Full text Cite

A replicated molecular-genetic basis for subtyping antisocial behavior in ADHD

Journal Article Archives of General Psychiatry · 2008 Cite

Female and male antisocial trajectories: from childhood origins to adult outcomes.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · January 2008 This article reports on the childhood origins and adult outcomes of female versus male antisocial behavior trajectories in the Dunedin longitudinal study. Four antisocial behavior trajectory groups were identified among females and males using general grow ... Full text Cite

The Power of Personality: The Comparative Validity of Personality Traits, Socioeconomic Status, and Cognitive Ability for Predicting Important Life Outcomes.

Journal Article Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · December 2007 The ability of personality traits to predict important life outcomes has traditionally been questioned because of the putative small effects of personality. In this article, we compare the predictive validity of personality traits with that of socioeconomi ... Full text Cite

Moderation of breastfeeding effects on the IQ by genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · November 2007 Children's intellectual development is influenced by both genetic inheritance and environmental experiences. Breastfeeding is one of the earliest such postnatal experiences. Breastfed children attain higher IQ scores than children not fed breast milk, pres ... Full text Cite

Why do children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer from poor health when they reach adulthood? A life-course study.

Journal Article American journal of epidemiology · October 2007 The authors investigated what risk factors contribute to an excess risk of poor adult health among children who experience socioeconomic disadvantage. Data came from 1,037 children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972-1973, who were followed from birth to ... Full text Cite

Predicting prognosis for the conduct-problem boy: can family history help?

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · October 2007 ObjectiveMany children with conduct disorder develop life-course persistent antisocial behavior; however, other children exhibit childhood-limited or adolescence-limited conduct disorder symptoms and escape poor adult outcomes. Prospective predict ... Full text Cite

Childhood behavior problems linked to sexual risk taking in young adulthood: a birth cohort study.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · October 2007 ObjectiveTo study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. Full text Cite

The content validity of juvenile psychopathy: an empirical examination.

Journal Article Psychological assessment · September 2007 This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). ... Full text Cite

Predicting the counterproductive employee in a child-to-adult prospective study.

Journal Article The Journal of applied psychology · September 2007 The present research tested the relations between a battery of background factors and counterproductive work behaviors in a 23-year longitudinal study of young adults (N = 930). Background information, such as diagnosed adolescent conduct disorder, crimina ... Full text Cite

Premorbid behavioral and intellectual functioning in schizophrenia patients with poor response to treatment with antipsychotic drugs.

Journal Article Schizophrenia research · August 2007 IntroductionApproximately one third of schizophrenia patients show partial or no response to pharmacotherapy. Despite intensive investigations, the phenomenological and biological characteristics of such patients are far from elucidated. This stud ... Full text Cite

Work stress precipitates depression and anxiety in young, working women and men.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · August 2007 BackgroundRates of depression have been rising, as have rates of work stress. We tested the influence of work stress on diagnosed depression and anxiety in young working adults.MethodParticipants were enrolled in the Dunedin study, a 1972 ... Full text Cite

Birthweight predicts IQ: fact or artefact?

Journal Article Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies · August 2007 It has been shown that lower birthweight is associated with lower IQ, but it remains unclear whether this association is causal or spurious. We examined the relationship between birthweight and IQ in two prospective longitudinal birth cohorts: a UK cohort ... Full text Cite

Developmentally-limited versus persistent alcohol dependence: A longitudinal birth cohort study

Conference ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH · June 1, 2007 Link to item Cite

Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 years.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · June 2007 ContextThe close association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) prompts questions about how to characterize this association in future diagnostic systems. Most information about GAD-MDD comorbidity comes ... Full text Cite

Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · April 2007 ContextA cardinal feature of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder is the distinction between childhood- vs adolescent-onset subtypes. Whether such developmental subtypes exist in the population and have different prognoses should be ... Full text Cite

Generalized anxiety disorder and depression: childhood risk factors in a birth cohort followed to age 32.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · March 2007 BackgroundThe close association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) prompts questions about how to characterize them in future diagnostic systems. We tested whether risk factors for MDD and GAD are simila ... Full text Cite

Individual, family, and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: a cumulative stressors model.

Journal Article Child abuse & neglect · March 2007 ObjectiveChildren who are physically maltreated are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes in childhood and adulthood, but some children who are maltreated manage to function well despite their history of adversity. Which individual, family, and n ... Full text Cite

Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · February 2007 ObjectiveInformation about the psychiatric histories of adults with anxiety disorders was examined to further inform nosology and etiological/ preventive efforts.MethodThe authors used data from a prospective longitudinal study of a repre ... Full text Cite

Early childhood factors associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · February 2007 BackgroundChildhood factors have been associated with increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies assessed only a limited number of childhood factors retrospectively. We examined the association between chi ... Full text Cite

Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · February 2007 This study examined the relation between psychopathy assessed at age 13 by using the mother-reported Childhood Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997) and psychopathy assessed at age 24 by using the interviewer-rated Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version ... Full text Cite

Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation in a life-course study.

Journal Article Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America · January 2007 Stress in early life has been associated with insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in adulthood, possibly affecting inflammation processes. Childhood maltreatment has been linked to increased risk of adult disease with potential inflammatory origin. Howev ... Full text Cite

Conduct problems subtypes in males predict differential adult health burden

Journal Article Archives of General Psychiatry · 2007 Cite

Genetic influences on the overlap between low IQ and antisocial behavior in young children.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · November 2006 The well-documented relation between the phenotypes of low IQ and childhood antisocial behavior could be explained by either common genetic influences or environmental influences. These competing explanations were examined through use of the Environmental ... Full text Cite

Genetic and environmental influences on age at sexual initiation in the Colorado Adoption Project.

Journal Article Behavior genetics · November 2006 Whereas the majority of research on adolescent sexual initiation has focused solely on environmental factors, the present study used behavioral genetic analyses to investigate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences. Structural e ... Full text Cite

Neuropsychological performance at the age of 13 years and adult schizophreniform disorder: prospective birth cohort study.

Journal Article The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science · November 2006 We examined neuropsychological functioning at age 13 years in adolescents who later developed schizophreniform disorder, compared with healthy controls and with adolescents diagnosed as having had a manic episode or depression or anxiety disorder. Particip ... Full text Cite

MAOA, maltreatment, and gene-environment interaction predicting children's mental health: new evidence and a meta-analysis.

Journal Article Molecular psychiatry · October 2006 Previous research on adults has shown that a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene moderates the impact of childhood maltreatment on risk for developing antisocial behavior. Thus far, attempts to replicate th ... Full text Cite

Trends in cannabis use prior to first presentation with schizophrenia, in South-East London between 1965 and 1999.

Journal Article Psychological medicine · October 2006 BackgroundThere is evidence that cannabis use might be relevant to the aetiology of schizophrenia. We aimed to measure any change in cannabis use over time in those first presenting with schizophrenia in South-East London from 1965 to 1999, and co ... Full text Cite

Family conflict in childhood: a predictor of later insomnia

Conference JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH · September 1, 2006 Link to item Cite

De-investment in work and non-normative personality trait change in young adulthood

Journal Article European Journal of Personality · September 1, 2006 The present study investigated the relationship between experiences of de-investment in work and change in personality traits in an 8-year longitudinal study of young adults (N = 907). De-investment was defined as participating in activities that run count ... Full text Cite

Adolescent cannabis use and later psychosis

Conference AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY · August 1, 2006 Link to item Cite

Family conflict in childhood: a predictor of later insomnia.

Journal Article Sleep · August 2006 Study objectivesTo examine the association between childhood exposure to family conflict and insomnia at 18 years of age.DesignLongitudinal prospective data on an entire birth cohort were obtained. Parents completed the Conflict subscale ... Full text Cite

Socially isolated children 20 years later: risk of cardiovascular disease.

Journal Article Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine · August 2006 ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that children who occupy peripheral or isolated roles in their peer groups (isolated children) are at risk of poor adult health.DesignLongitudinal study of an entire birth cohort.SettingDunedin, Ne ... Full text Cite

Gene-environment interactions in psychiatry: joining forces with neuroscience.

Journal Article Nature reviews. Neuroscience · July 2006 Gene-environment interaction research in psychiatry is new, and is a natural ally of neuroscience. Mental disorders have known environmental causes, but there is heterogeneity in the response to each causal factor, which gene-environment findings attribute ... Full text Cite

Bullying victimization uniquely contributes to adjustment problems in young children: a nationally representative cohort study.

Journal Article Pediatrics · July 2006 ObjectiveIt has been shown that bullying victimization is associated with behavior and school adjustment problems, but it remains unclear whether the experience of bullying uniquely contributes to those problems after taking into account preexisti ... Full text Cite

The caregiving environments provided to children by depressed mothers with or without an antisocial history.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · June 2006 ObjectiveMany depressed women have a history of antisocial behavior, but research into maternal depression has not ascertained if this has implications for children of depressed mothers. This study compared the developmental outcomes in and caregi ... Full text Cite

Evidence for monozygotic twin (MZ) discordance in methylation level at two CpG sites in the promoter region of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene.

Journal Article American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics · June 2006 Monozygotic (MZ) twin concordance for a range of psychiatric conditions is rarely 100%. It has been suggested that epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation, may account for a proportion of the variation in behavioral traits observed between these geneti ... Full text Cite

When parents have a history of conduct disorder: how is the caregiving environment affected?

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · May 2006 Individuals with early-emerging conduct problems are likely to become parents who expose their children to considerable adversity. The current study tested the specificity of and alternative explanations for this trajectory. The sample included 246 members ... Full text Cite

Is domestic violence followed by an increased risk of psychiatric disorders among women but not among men? A longitudinal cohort study.

Journal Article Am J Psychiatry · May 2006 OBJECTIVE: The association between violence between intimate partners and psychiatric disorders is assumed to reflect a causal link. This assumption is now questioned because several longitudinal studies have documented that adolescents with psychiatric di ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prediction of heterogeneity in intelligence and adult prognosis by genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from 2 birth cohorts.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · April 2006 ContextThe study and treatment of psychiatric disorders is made difficult by the fact that patients with identical symptoms often differ markedly in their clinical features and presumably in their etiology. A principal aim of genetic research is t ... Full text Cite

Measured Gene-Environment Interactions in Psychopathology: Concepts, Research Strategies, and Implications for Research, Intervention, and Public Understanding of Genetics.

Journal Article Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science · March 2006 There is much curiosity about interactions between genes and environmental risk factors for psychopathology, but this interest is accompanied by uncertainty. This article aims to address this uncertainty. First, we explain what is and is not meant by gene- ... Full text Cite

Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behavior, and limited economic prospects during adulthood.

Journal Article Developmental psychology · March 2006 Using prospective data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study birth cohort, the authors found that adolescents with low self-esteem had poorer mental and physical health, worse economic prospects, and higher levels of criminal beha ... Full text Cite

Gene-environment interplay and psychopathology: multiple varieties but real effects.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · March 2006 Gene-environment interplay is a general term that covers several divergent concepts with different meanings and different implications. In this review, we evaluate research evidence on four varieties of gene-environment interplay. First, we consider epigen ... Full text Cite

Evidence from behavioral genetics for environmental contributions to antisocial conduct

Journal Article · January 1, 2006 Despite assiduous efforts to eliminate it, antisocial behavior is still a problem. Approximately 20 percent of people in the developed world experience victimization by perpetrators of violent and non-violent illegal behavior each year (US Bureau of Justic ... Full text Cite

S.03.02 Gene-environment interaction in depression

Conference European Neuropsychopharmacology · January 2006 Full text Cite

Revisiting the association between reading achievement and antisocial behavior: new evidence of an environmental explanation from a twin study.

Journal Article Child development · January 2006 Previous studies have reported, but not explained, the reason for a robust association between reading achievement and antisocial behavior. This association was investigated using the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally repres ... Full text Cite

Evidence from behavioral genetics for environmental contributions to antisocial conduct

Conference · January 1, 2006 This chapter reviews recent behavioral-genetic research that is helping to address questions about the non-genetic, environmental causes of antisocial conduct. We illustrate how behavioral-genetic methods are being newly applied to detect the genuine envir ... Cite

Elaboration on premorbid intellectual performance in schizophrenia: premorbid intellectual decline and risk for schizophrenia.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · December 2005 ContextConsistent evidence indicates that some, but not most, patients with schizophrenia have below-average intelligence years before they manifest psychosis. However, it is not clear whether this below-average premorbid intelligence is stable or ... Full text Cite

Mental disorder and violent victimization in a total birth cohort.

Journal Article American journal of public health · November 2005 ObjectiveWe examined the association between mental disorder and violent victimization in a general population sample.MethodsWe performed a multivariate analysis of violent victimization in a 12-month period on a total birth cohort with f ... Full text Cite

Psychometric evaluation of 5- and 7-year-old children's self-reports of conduct problems.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal child psychology · October 2005 Past research suggests that young children are incapable of reporting information about their own behavior problems. To test this, we examined the validity and the usefulness of children's self-reports in the E-Risk Study, a nationally representative birth ... Full text Cite

Adolescent psychopathy and the big five: results from two samples.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal child psychology · August 2005 The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and int ... Full text Cite

Personality and problem gambling: a prospective study of a birth cohort of young adults.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · July 2005 ContextIndividual differences in dimensions of personality may play an important role in explaining risk for disordered gambling behavior as well as the comorbidity between disordered gambling behavior and other substance-related addictive disorde ... Full text Cite

Validity of DSM-IV conduct disorder in 41/2-5-year-old children: a longitudinal epidemiological study.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · June 2005 ObjectiveThis longitudinal study of a nonreferred, population-based sample tested the concurrent, convergent, and predictive validity of DSM-IV conduct disorder in children 4(1/2)-5 years of age.MethodIn the Environmental Risk Longitudina ... Full text Cite

Strategy for investigating interactions between measured genes and measured environments.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · May 2005 The purpose of this article is to promote research that tests hypotheses of measured gene-environment interaction (GxE). A GxE occurs when the effect of exposure to an environmental pathogen on health is conditional on a person's genotype (or conversely, w ... Full text Cite

Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction.

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · May 2005 BackgroundRecent evidence documents that cannabis use by young people is a modest statistical risk factor for psychotic symptoms in adulthood, such as hallucinations and delusions, as well as clinically significant schizophrenia. The vast majority ... Full text Cite

Prospective longitudinal associations between persistent sleep problems in childhood and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal child psychology · April 2005 The objective of this study was to examine the associations between persistent childhood sleep problems and adulthood anxiety and depression. Parents of 943 children (52% male) participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study pro ... Full text Cite

Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency.

Journal Article Psychological science · April 2005 The present research explored the controversial link between global self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. In three studies, we found a robust relation between low self-esteem and externalizing prob ... Full text Cite

Origins of individual differences in theory of mind: from nature to nurture?

Journal Article Child development · March 2005 In this study of the origins of individual differences in theory of mind (ToM), the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study sample of 1,116 sixty-month-old twin pairs completed a comprehensive battery of ToM tasks. Individual differences in ToM ... Full text Cite

Maternal depression and children's antisocial behavior: nature and nurture effects.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · February 2005 BackgroundChildren of depressed mothers have elevated conduct problems, presumably because maternal depression disrupts the caregiving environment. Alternatively, the association between maternal depression and children's antisocial behavior (ASB) ... Full text Cite

Neurocognitive impairments in boys on the life-course persistent antisocial path.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · February 2005 This study addresses 5 unresolved issues in the neuropsychology of antisocial behavior using a community sample of 325 school boys in whom neurocognitive measures were assessed at age 16-17 years. Antisocial behavior measures collected from age 7-17 years ... Full text Cite

Life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial males: Longitudinal followup to adulthood

Journal Article · January 1, 2005 This chapter tests and refines a developmental taxonomy of antisocial behavior, which proposed two primary hypothetical prototypes: life-course persistent offenders whose antisocial behavior begins in childhood and continues worsening thereafter, versus ad ... Full text Cite

Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children - Fears of the future in children und young people

Journal Article ZEITSCHRIFT FUR SOZIOLOGIE DER ERZIEHUNG UND SOZIALISATION · January 1, 2005 Link to item Cite

Personality development: stability and change.

Journal Article Annual review of psychology · January 2005 In this review, we evaluate four topics in the study of personality development where discernible progress has been made since 1995 (the last time the area of personality development was reviewed in this series). We (a) evaluate research about the structur ... Full text Cite

Nature X nurture: genetic vulnerabilities interact with physical maltreatment to promote conduct problems.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · January 2005 Maltreatment places children at risk for psychiatric morbidity, especially conduct problems. However, not all maltreated children develop conduct problems. We tested whether the effect of physical maltreatment on risk for conduct problems was strongest amo ... Full text Cite

Body mass index and future schizophrenia in Israeli male adolescents.

Journal Article The Journal of clinical psychiatry · November 2004 BackgroundCompared with the general population, individuals suffering from schizophrenia are more likely to be overweight, a finding attributed to the effect of antipsychotic medications, poor nutrition, and sedentary lifestyle. As evidence accumu ... Full text Cite

The limits of child effects: evidence for genetically mediated child effects on corporal punishment but not on physical maltreatment.

Journal Article Developmental psychology · November 2004 Research on child effects has demonstrated that children's difficult and coercive behavior provokes harsh discipline from adults. Using a genetically sensitive design, the authors tested the limits of child effects on adult behavior that ranged from the no ... Full text Cite

Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health in childhood and adulthood in a birth cohort.

Journal Article Community dentistry and oral epidemiology · October 2004 ObjectivesTo determine whether adult oral health is predicted by (a) childhood socioeconomic advantage or disadvantage (controlling for childhood oral health), or (b) oral health in childhood (controlling for childhood socioeconomic advantage or d ... Full text Cite

Prenatal smoking and early childhood conduct problems: testing genetic and environmental explanations of the association.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · August 2004 BackgroundExtensive evidence now supports a statistical association between prenatal smoking and increased risk for antisocial outcomes in offspring. Though this statistical link may signal a causal association, commentators have urged caution in ... Full text Cite

Genetic and environmental processes in young children's resilience and vulnerability to socioeconomic deprivation.

Journal Article Child development · May 2004 Some children exposed to socioeconomic (SES) deprivation are resilient and function better than expected, given the level of deprivation they have experienced. The present study tested genetic and environmental contributions to young children's resilience ... Full text Cite

Does the perceived risk of punishment deter criminally prone individuals? Rational choice, self-control, and crime

Journal Article Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency · May 1, 2004 Society's efforts to deter crime with punishment may be ineffective because those individuals most prone to commit crime often act impulsively, with little thought for the future, and so they may be unmoved by the threat of later punishment. Deterrence mes ... Full text Cite

Clinically abusive relationships in an unselected birth cohort: men's and women's participation and developmental antecedents.

Journal Article J Abnorm Psychol · May 2004 In an unselected birth cohort (N=980, age 24-26 years), individuals in abusive relationships causing injury and/or official intervention (9% prevalence) were compared with participants reporting physical abuse without clinical consequences and with control ... Full text Link to item Cite

What effect does classroom separation have on twins' behavior, progress at school, and reading abilities?

Journal Article Twin research : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies · April 2004 We investigated the effects of classroom separation on twins' behavior, progress at school, and reading abilities. This investigation was part of a longitudinal study of a nationally-representative sample of twins (the E-risk Study) who were assessed at th ... Full text Cite

Sex differences in developmental reading disability: new findings from 4 epidemiological studies.

Journal Article JAMA · April 2004 ContextAn influential article published in 1990 claimed that the increased rate of reading disability in boys was a consequence of referral bias.ObjectivesTo summarize the history of research on sex differences in reading disability and t ... Full text Cite

Does maternal warmth moderate the effects of birth weight on twins' attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ?

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · April 2004 The moderating effect of maternal warmth on the association between low birth weight and children's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and low IQ was studied in 2,232 twins. Half of 5-year-old children had low birth weights, below 2,5 ... Full text Cite

Maternal expressed emotion predicts children's antisocial behavior problems: using monozygotic-twin differences to identify environmental effects on behavioral development.

Journal Article Developmental psychology · March 2004 If maternal expressed emotion is an environmental risk factor for children's antisocial behavior problems, it should account for behavioral differences between siblings growing up in the same family even after genetic influences on children's behavior prob ... Full text Cite

Physical maltreatment victim to antisocial child: evidence of an environmentally mediated process.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · February 2004 The well-documented finding that child physical maltreatment predicts later antisocial behavior has at least 2 explanations: (a). Physical maltreatment causes antisocial behavior, and (b). genetic factors transmitted from parents to children influence the ... Full text Cite

Life-Course Development: The Interplay of Social Selection and Social Causation within and across Generations

Chapter · January 1, 2004 Basic and applied scientists who study psychosocial influences on human development confront a similar challenge, which is to conduct research that can achieve two goals. First, we need to conduct research that can separate the effects of persons on their ... Full text Cite

Co-occurrence of ADHD and low IQ has genetic origins.

Journal Article American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics · January 2004 Previous studies show that the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lower intelligence quotient (IQ) covary in children. We investigated the aetiology of this association in a large population-based sample of 5-year-old twins. Th ... Full text Cite

Does maternal warmth moderate the effects of birth weight on twins’ ADHD symptoms and low IQ?

Journal Article Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology · 2004 Cite

Substance abuse hinders desistance in young adults' antisocial behavior.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · January 2004 We examined two hypotheses about the developmental relation between substance abuse and individual differences in desistance from antisocial behavior during young adulthood. The "snares" hypothesis posits that substance abuse should result in time-specific ... Full text Cite

Childhood origins of violent behaviour in adults with schizophreniform disorder.

Journal Article The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science · December 2003 BackgroundPeople with psychosis have an elevated risk of violence.AimsTo examine whether violent behaviour in adults with psychosis can be accounted for by psychotic symptoms or physical aggression in childhood.MethodWe used data ... Full text Cite

Commentary: Personality and the socioeconomic-health gradient.

Journal Article International journal of epidemiology · December 2003 Full text Cite

Intergenerational relationships in young adulthood and their life course, mental health, and personality correlates.

Journal Article Journal of family psychology : JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) · December 2003 To evaluate effects of life-course events and experiences of young adults, as well as personality and mental-health history on intergenerational relationships in young adulthood, the authors examined dyadic relationship data drawn from a sample of more tha ... Full text Cite

Using sex differences in psychopathology to study causal mechanisms: unifying issues and research strategies.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · November 2003 BackgroundAlthough there is an extensive literature, both speculative and empirical, on postulated differences between males and females in their rates of particular types of disorder, very little is known about the mechanisms that underlie these ... Full text Cite

Genotype-environment interaction in children's adjustment to parental separation.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · September 2003 BackgroundUnderstanding the processes by which genetic risks lead to psychopathology is a key conceptual and methodological task for research. The current study, based on an at-risk adoption design, examines the hypothesis that the effect of genet ... Full text Cite

Strong genetic effects on cross-situational antisocial behaviour among 5-year-old children according to mothers, teachers, examiner-observers, and twins' self-reports.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · September 2003 BackgroundEarly childhood antisocial behaviour is a strong prognostic indicator for poor adult mental health. Thus, information about its etiology is needed. Genetic etiology is unknown because most research with young children focuses on environm ... Full text Cite

Relationship between abdominal pain subgroups in the community and psychiatric diagnosis and personality. A birth cohort study.

Journal Article Journal of psychosomatic research · September 2003 IntroductionIt is unclear if there is a causal link between psychiatric disorders and unexplained chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptomatology. The role of personality is also in dispute. We aimed to assess the association of these factors with fu ... Full text Cite

A longitudinal evaluation of adolescent depression and adult obesity.

Journal Article Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine · August 2003 BackgroundPrior studies have had conflicting results regarding the relationship between adolescent depression and adult obesity.ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that depression in adolescence would increase the risk for obesity in early ad ... Full text Cite

Children's behavioral styles at age 3 are linked to their adult personality traits at age 26.

Journal Article Journal of personality · August 2003 We observed 1,000 3-year-old children who exhibited five temperament types: Undercontrolled, Inhibited, Confident, Reserved, and Well-adjusted. Twenty-three years later, we reexamined 96% of the children as adults, using multiple methods of comprehensive p ... Full text Cite

Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · July 2003 In a prospective-longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort, we tested why stressful experiences lead to depression in some people but not in others. A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter (5-HT T) gene was f ... Full text Cite

Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective-longitudinal cohort.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · July 2003 BackgroundIf most adults with mental disorders are found to have a juvenile psychiatric history, this would shift etiologic research and prevention policy to focus more on childhood mental disorders.MethodOur prospective longitudinal stud ... Full text Cite

Recall bias in patients with schizophrenia

Conference Schizophrenia Research · March 2003 Full text Cite

Maternal adjustment, parenting and child behaviour in families of school-aged twins conceived after IVF and ovulation induction.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · March 2003 BackgroundPrevious studies that have examined the long-term effects of infertility and assisted reproductive technology on parenting and child behaviour in families with twins have suffered from methodological problems. This study compared measure ... Full text Cite

Work experiences and personality development in young adulthood.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · March 2003 This longitudinal study provides an analysis of the relationship between personality traits and work experiences with a special focus on the relationship between changes in personality and work experiences in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses uncovere ... Full text Cite

Preventing the Inter-Generational continuity of antisocial behaviour: Implications of partner violence

Journal Article · January 1, 2003 Antisocial behaviour is highly stable across the life course of individuals (Farrington, 1995; Loeber, 1982), and it runs strongly from generation to generation within families (Huesmann et al., 1984; Rowe and Farrington, 1997). Indeed, the correlation bet ... Full text Cite

Personality differences in childhood and adolescence: measurement, development, and consequences.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · January 2003 Child psychologists and psychiatrists are interested in assessing children's personalities. This interest is fueled by the practical desire to identify differences between children that have predictive utility, and by recognition that future advances in de ... Full text Cite

The human personality shows stability from age 3 to age 26

Journal Article Journal of Personality · 2003 Cite

Personality and the socioeconomic-health gradient

Journal Article International Journal of Epidemiology · 2003 Cite

Fluctuating asymmetry and physical health among young adults

Journal Article Evolution and Human Behavior · January 1, 2003 Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the random deviations from perfect symmetry found in the bilateral structures of bilaterally symmetric organisms, has been inconsistently linked to health. In this study, the association between FA and an array of health measure ... Full text Cite

Life with (or without) father: the benefits of living with two biological parents depend on the father's antisocial behavior.

Journal Article Child development · January 2003 The salutary effects of being raised by two married, biological parents depend on the quality of care parents can provide. Using data from an epidemiological sample of 1,116 5-year-old twin pairs and their parents, this study found that the less time fathe ... Full text Cite

Domestic violence is associated with environmental suppression of IQ in young children.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · January 2003 Research suggests that exposure to extreme stress in childhood, such as domestic violence, affects children's neurocognitive development, leading to lower intelligence. But studies have been unable to account for genetic influences that might confound the ... Full text Cite

Personality and self-esteem development across the life span

Journal Article Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology · January 1, 2003 Full text Cite

A population-based cohort study of premorbid intellectual, language, and behavioral functioning in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and nonpsychotic bipolar disorder.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · December 2002 ObjectiveThe premorbid intellectual, language, and behavioral functioning of patients hospitalized for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or nonpsychotic bipolar disorder was compared with that of healthy comparison subjects.MethodT ... Full text Cite

Rebellious teens? Genetic and environmental influences on the social attitudes of adolescents.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · December 2002 Genetic and environmental influences in social attitudes were investigated in adopted and nonadopted children (N = 654) and their biological and adoptive relatives in the Colorado Adoption Project. Conservatism and religious attitudes were measured in the ... Full text Cite

It's not just who you're with, it's who you are: personality and relationship experiences across multiple relationships.

Journal Article Journal of personality · December 2002 The present study examined the influence of stable personality traits on romantic relationships using longitudinal data on a large, representative sample of young adults. Relationship experiences (quality, conflict, and abuse) showed relatively small mean- ... Full text Cite

Etiology of disruptive behaviors in young twins

Conference BEHAVIOR GENETICS · November 1, 2002 Link to item Cite

Association between children's experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: a life-course study.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · November 2002 BackgroundResearch into social inequalities in health has tended to focus on low socioeconomic status in adulthood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children's experience of socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with a wide range of health ... Full text Cite

Teen-aged mothers in contemporary Britain.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · September 2002 BackgroundThis paper describes the circumstances of contemporary young mothers and their children from a nationally representative sample, and compares them to the circumstances of mothers who delayed childbearing beyond age 20.MethodsThe ... Full text Cite

Influence of adult domestic violence on children's internalizing and externalizing problems: an environmentally informative twin study.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · September 2002 ObjectiveExternalizing and internalizing problems may aggregate in families because (1) siblings share genetic risks for problem behaviors or (2) siblings are exposed to similar environmental risks. A genetically sensitive design was used to deter ... Full text Cite

Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children.

Journal Article Science (New York, N.Y.) · August 2002 We studied a large sample of male children from birth to adulthood to determine why some children who are maltreated grow up to develop antisocial behavior, whereas others do not. A functional polymorphism in the gene encoding the neurotransmitter-metaboli ... Full text Cite

Evidence for early-childhood, pan-developmental impairment specific to schizophreniform disorder: results from a longitudinal birth cohort.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · May 2002 BackgroundChildhood developmental abnormalities have been previously described in schizophrenia. It is not known, however, whether childhood developmental impairment is specific to schizophrenia or is merely a marker for a range of psychiatric out ... Full text Cite

'I'm gonna beat you!' SNap!: an observational paradigm for assessing young children's disruptive behaviour in competitive play.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · May 2002 BackgroundThis study focuses on a novel observational paradigm (SNAP) involving a rigged competitive card game (Murray, Woolgar, Cooper, & Hipwell, 2001) designed to expose children to the threat of losing. Recent work suggests that this paradigm ... Full text Cite

Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · March 2002 BackgroundFamily and twin studies suggest that juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) may be etiologically distinct from adult-onset MDD. This study is the first to distinguish prospectively between juvenile- and adult-onset cases of MDD i ... Full text Cite

Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in Israel: utilization and implantation trends.

Journal Article International journal of cardiology · January 2002 BackgroundSince its introduction, the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has evolved to its present status as the dominant therapeutic modality for patients with life-threatening arrhythmias. Several randomized studies have shown the ben ... Full text Cite

Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 years.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · January 2002 This article reports a comparison on outcomes of 26-year-old males who were defined several years ago in the Dunedin longitudinal study as exhibiting childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial behavior and who were indistinguishable on delinquent o ... Full text Cite

The dopamine D4 receptor and the hyperactivity phenotype: a developmental-epidemiological study.

Journal Article Molecular psychiatry · January 2002 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 2-6% of school-age children and is a precursor of behavioural problems in adolescence and adulthood. Underlying the categorical definition of ADHD are the quantitative traits of activity, impulsivity, ... Full text Cite

Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis

Journal Article British Medical Journal · 2002 Cite

The targets of violence committed by young offenders with alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: findings from a birth cohort.

Journal Article Criminal behaviour and mental health : CBMH · January 2002 BackgroundEstimates of who is most at risk from violence by people with mental illness rest mainly on identified patient samples. This study, without such selection bias, examined the targets of violence committed by young adults with as-yet untre ... Full text Cite

Persistence and perceived consequences of cannabis use and dependence among young adults: implications for policy.

Journal Article The New Zealand medical journal · December 2001 AimsTo document patterns of cannabis use and dependence from late-adolescence through to the mid-twenties; to describe perceived consequences of cannabis use among young people; and to consider policy implications of these findings.Methods Cite

Male mental health problems, psychopathy, and personality traits: key findings from the first 14 years of the Pittsburgh Youth Study.

Journal Article Clinical child and family psychology review · December 2001 This paper reviews key findings on juvenile mental health problems in boys, psychopathy, and personality traits, obtained in the first 14 years of studies using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. This is a study of 3 samples, each of about 500 boys init ... Full text Cite

The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, behaviour, and psychopathology: A developmental-epidemiological study

Journal Article American Journal of Medical Genetics - Neuropsychiatric Genetics · October 8, 2001 Variation at the DRD4 locus has been postulated to be associated with a wide range of personality traits and psychopathologies. Most notably, the association between the 7-repeat allele of the exon-3 VNTR and ADHD is one of the most replicated findings in ... Cite

The kids are alright: growth and stability in personality development from adolescence to adulthood.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · October 2001 This longitudinal study provides a comprehensive analysis of continuity and change in personality functioning from age 18 to age 26 in a birth cohort (N = 921) using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (A. Tellegen, 1982). Data were analyzed usi ... Full text Cite

Can women provide reliable information about their children's fathers? cross-informant agreement about men's lifetime antisocial behaviour.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · October 2001 It is difficult to study the contribution of fathers' antisocial behaviour to children's development because fathers with behavioural problems are often absent or reluctant to participate in research. This study examines whether mothers' reports about thei ... Full text Cite

Brain drain or OE? Characteristics of young New Zealanders who leave.

Journal Article The New Zealand medical journal · October 2001 AimsTo characterise the emigration patterns of young New Zealanders.MethodsThe 980 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study participating in the "age-26" (1998-1999) assessment provided information about emigr ... Cite

Predicting early fatherhood and whether young fathers live with their children: prospective findings and policy reconsiderations.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · September 2001 This prospective study of a birth cohort addressed three questions. Which individual and family-of-origin characteristics predict the age at which young men make the transition to fatherhood? Do these same characteristics predict how long young men live wi ... Full text Cite

Personality development across the life course: The argument for change and continuity

Journal Article Psychological Inquiry · January 1, 2001 In this article we review answers to 5 questions concerning the development of personality across the life course: How early in the life course can we identify characteristics unique to individuals that will show continuity over time? When in the life cour ... Full text Cite

A couples analysis of partner abuse with implications for abuse prevention

Journal Article Criminology and Public Policy · 2001 Cite

Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · January 2001 This article reports a comparison on childhood risk factors of males and females exhibiting childhood-onset and adolescent-onset antisocial behavior, using data from the Dunedin longitudinal study. Childhood-onset delinquents had childhoods of inadequate p ... Full text Cite

Why are children born to teen mothers at risk for adverse outcomes in young adulthood? Results from a 20-year longitudinal study.

Journal Article Development and psychopathology · January 2001 This 20-year longitudinal study showed that the young adult offspring of teen mothers are at risk for a range of adverse outcomes including early school leaving, unemployment, early parenthood, and violent offending. We tested how much the effect of teen c ... Full text Cite

The effects of social ties on crime vary by criminal propensity: A life-course model of interdependence

Journal Article Criminology · January 1, 2001 Previous studies have explained the transition from criminal propensity in youth to criminal behavior in adulthood with hypotheses of enduring criminal propensity, unique social causation, and cumulative social disadvantage. In this article we develop an a ... Full text Cite

Epidemiological personology: the unifying role of personality in population-based research on problem behaviors.

Journal Article Journal of personality · December 2000 Epidemiological personology refers to a paradigm in which a developmental perspective on individual differences is paired with a population-based sampling frame to yield insights about the role of personality in consequential social outcomes. We review our ... Full text Cite

Mental Disorders and Violence in a Total,::Birth Cohorts Results from the Dunedin Study

Journal Article Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry · December 1, 2000 Background: Because most individuals with mental illness are not hospitalized and most violent individuals are not convicted of crimes, hospital-and prison-based research underestimates the rates of mental illness and violence found in the general populati ... Cite

Children's self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: a 15-year longitudinal study.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · November 2000 BackgroundChildhood risk factors for the development of adult schizophrenia have proved to have only modest and nonspecific effects, and most seem unrelated to the adult phenotype. We report the first direct examination of the longitudinal relatio ... Full text Cite

The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood context on offending: the effects of impulsivity are stronger in poorer neighborhoods.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · November 2000 This research blends 2 traditions of theorizing on the causes of crime, one focused on the role of individual differences and the other focused on structural and contextual variables. Two related studies examined the relations among impulsivity, neighborho ... Full text Cite

Mental disorders and violence in a total birth cohort: results from the Dunedin Study.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · October 2000 BackgroundWe report on mental disorders and violence for a birth cohort of young adults, regardless of their contact with the health or justice systems.MethodsWe studied 961 young adults who constituted 94% of a total-city birth cohort in ... Full text Cite

A holistic approach to variation in dopamine genes

Journal Article American Journal of Medical Genetics - Neuropsychiatric Genetics · August 7, 2000 Many behavioral disorders have a multifactorial etiology, with a genetic contribution provided by multiple Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs). It is probable that such QTLs will be functionally related and interacting (epistatic). To investigate this general h ... Cite

Two personalities, one relationship: both partners' personality traits shape the quality of their relationship.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · August 2000 This research tested 6 models of the independent and interactive effects of stable personality traits on each partner's reports of relationship satisfaction and quality. Both members of 360 couples (N = 720) completed the Multidimensional Personality Quest ... Full text Cite

Are associations between parental divorce and children's adjustment genetically mediated? An adoption study.

Journal Article Developmental psychology · July 2000 The hypothesis that the association between parental divorce and children's adjustment is mediated by genetic factors was examined in the Colorado Adoption Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 398 adoptive and biological families. In biological fam ... Full text Cite

Neighborhood deprivation affects children's mental health: environmental risks identified in a genetic design.

Journal Article Psychological science · July 2000 The possibility that neighborhood conditions affect children's development has captured much attention because of its implications for prevention. But does growing up in deprived neighborhoods matter above and beyond a genetic liability to behavior problem ... Full text Cite

Psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviour in young adulthood: cross sectional study in birth cohort.

Journal Article BMJ (Clinical research ed.) · July 2000 ObjectiveTo determine if risky sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexual intercourse at an early age are associated with psychiatric disorder.DesignCross sectional study of a birth cohort at age 21 years with assessmen ... Full text Cite

Good test--retest reliability for standard and advanced false-belief tasks across a wide range of abilities.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · May 2000 Although tests of young children's understanding of mind have had a remarkable impact upon developmental and clinical psychological research over the past 20 years, very little is known about their reliability. Indeed, the only existing study of test-retes ... Full text Cite

The child is father of the man: personality continuities from childhood to adulthood.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · January 2000 This article presents findings about continuities in personality development that have been uncovered in the Dunedin study, an investigation of a cohort of children studied from age 3 to 21. At age 3, children were classified into temperament groups on the ... Full text Cite

Psychiatric disorders and risky sex in young people

Journal Article British Medical Journal · 2000 Cite

Partner abuse and general crime: How are they the same? How are they different?

Journal Article Criminology · January 1, 2000 Both partner abuse and general crime violate the rights and safety of victims. But are these phenomena the same or are they distinct, demanding their own research and intervention specialties? Are persons who abuse their partners the same people who commit ... Full text Cite

Retrograde particle transport on/in fibroblasts: a tracer actomyosin activity.

Conference MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL · November 1, 1999 Link to item Cite

Reconsidering the relationship between SES and delinquency: Causation but not correlation

Journal Article Criminology · January 1, 1999 Many theories of crime have linked low levels of socioeconomic status (SES) to high levels of delinquency. However, empirical studies have consistently found weak or nonexistent correlations between individuals' SES and their self-reported delinquent behav ... Full text Cite

Low self-control, social bonds, and crime: Social causation, social selection, or both?

Journal Article Criminology · January 1, 1999 This article examines the social-selection and social-causation processes that generate criminal behavior. We describe these processes with three theoretical models: a social-causation model that links crime to contemporaneous social relationships; a socia ... Full text Cite

Staying in school protects boys with poor self-regulation in childhood from later crime: A longitudinal study

Journal Article International Journal of Behavioral Development · January 1, 1999 Based on a theoretical model that emphasises the distinction between individual and contextual determinants of antisocial behaviour, the current study examined whether school attendance throughout adolescence acted as a protective factor for individuals at ... Full text Cite

Low socioeconomic status and mental disorders: A longitudinal study of selection and causation during young adulthood

Journal Article American Journal of Sociology · January 1, 1999 This article examines low socioeconomic staus (SES) as both a cause and a consequence of mental illnesses by investigating the mutual influence of mental disorders and educational attainment, a core element of SES. The analyses are based on a longitudinal ... Full text Cite

Developmental antecedents of partner abuse: a prospective-longitudinal study.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · August 1998 Prospective measures of risk factors for partner abuse were obtained from a large birth cohort in 4 domains: socioeconomic resources, family relations, educational achievements, and problem behaviors. Partner abuse outcomes were measured at age 21. Results ... Full text Cite

Adoption results for self-reported personality: evidence for nonadditive genetic effects?

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · July 1998 Twin studies consistently indicate moderate genetic influence on individual differences in personality as assessed using self-report questionnaires, with heritability estimates typically about 40%. In this first analysis of self-report personality data fro ... Full text Cite

Adult physical health outcomes of adolescent girls with conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety.

Journal Article Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry · June 1998 ObjectiveTo examine the young adult physical health outcomes of adolescent girls with behavior problems.MethodGirls with conduct disorder, girls with depression, girls with anxiety, and healthy girls (N = 459) who had been evaluated at ag ... Full text Cite

Assortative mating for antisocial behavior: developmental and methodological implications.

Journal Article Behavior genetics · May 1998 Do people mate assortatively for antisocial behavior? If so, what are the implications for the development and persistence of antisocial behavior? We investigated assortative mating for antisocial behavior and its correlates in a sample of 360 couples from ... Full text Cite

The structure and stability of common mental disorders (DSM-III-R): a longitudinal-epidemiological study.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · May 1998 The latent structure and stability of 10 common mental disorders were examined in a birth cohort at ages 18 and 21. A 2-factor model, in which some disorders were presumed to reflect internalizing problems and others were presumed to reflect externalizing ... Full text Cite

Comorbid mental disorders: implications for treatment and sample selection.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · May 1998 Disorders from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) were assessed in a birth cohort of 961 young adults. Comorbid cases exceeded single-disordered cases in chronic history of ment ... Full text Cite

Whole blood serotonin relates to violence in an epidemiological study.

Journal Article Biological psychiatry · March 1998 BackgroundClinical and animal studies suggest that brain serotonergic systems may regulate aggressive behavior; however, the serotonin/violence hypothesis has not been assessed at the epidemiological level. For study of an epidemiological sample w ... Full text Cite

Delayed percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty after acute myocardial infarction.

Journal Article International journal of cardiology · February 1998 The value of delayed percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (> 12 h from admission or after thrombolytic therapy) following acute myocardial infarction is controversial. We compared the short- and long-term prognosis of 1940 consecutive patients af ... Full text Cite

Annotation: implications of violence between intimate partners for child psychologists and psychiatrists.

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · February 1998 Full text Cite

DNA and personality

Journal Article European Journal of Personality · January 1, 1998 The purpose of this paper is to describe new genetic approaches that are beginning to identify genes for personality and to consider how these findings will affect personality research in the future. Genetic approaches to complex traits such as personality ... Full text Cite

Comorbidity between abuse of an adult and DSM-III-R mental disorders: evidence from an epidemiological study.

Journal Article The American journal of psychiatry · January 1998 ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to report the prevalence, risk, and implications of comorbidity between partner violence and psychiatric disorders.MethodData were obtained from a representative birth cohort of 941 young adults thro ... Full text Cite

Hitting without a license: Testing explanations for differences in partner abuse between young adult daters and cohabitors

Journal Article Journal of Marriage and Family · January 1, 1998 We compared partner abuse by cohabitors and daters among 21-year-olds. Cohabitors were significantly more likely than daters to perform abusive behaviors. We identified factors that differentiate cohabitors from daters and tested whether these factors expl ... Full text Cite

Factors Associated with Doubled-Up Housing - A Common Precursor to Homelessness

Journal Article Social Service Review · January 1, 1998 Previous research on housing problems has concentrated on the more visible homelessness rather than more intermediate forms of housing problems such as doubled-up housing. This article expands this research by analyzing entrance into doubled-up housing amo ... Full text Cite

Early failure in the labor market: childhood and adolescent predictors of unemployment in the transition to adulthood

Journal Article American Sociological Review · January 1, 1998 We investigate the childhood and adolescent predictors of youth unemployment in a US longitudinal study of young adults who have been studied for the 21 years since their births in 1972-1973. We test hypotheses about the predictors of youth unemployment us ... Full text Cite

Personality differences predict health-risk behaviors in young adulthood: evidence from a longitudinal study.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · November 1997 In a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, the authors identified youth involved in each of 4 different health-risk behaviors at age 21: alcohol dependence, violent crime, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving habits. At age 18, the Multidimensional Personalit ... Full text Cite

Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: results from northern and southern hemispheres.

Journal Article Developmental psychobiology · September 1997 An extreme degree of shyness in young children is a temperamental trait under modest genetic influence and characterized by distinct physiological profiles. Data from both the United States and New Zealand indicate that maternal exposure to short daylength ... Full text Cite

Randomised placebo-controlled trial of abciximab before and during coronary intervention in refractory unstable angina: the CAPTURE Study.

Journal Article Lancet (London, England) · May 1997 BackgroundPlatelet aggregation is a dominant feature in the pathophysiology of unstable angina. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in patients with this disorder carries an increased risk of thrombotic complications. Abciximab ( ... Cite

Antecedents of adult interpersonal functioning: effects of individual differences in age 3 temperament.

Journal Article Developmental psychology · March 1997 We examined whether temperamental differences at age 3 are linked to interpersonal functioning in young adulthood. In a sample of over 900 children, we identified 5 distinct groups of children based on behavioral observations: Well-adjusted, undercontrolle ... Full text Cite

Do partners agree about abuse in their relationship? A psychometric evaluation of interpartner agreement

Journal Article Psychological Assessment · March 1, 1997 This study tested whether partners can be relied on to provide congruent reports about abuse in their relationship. The authors examined whether interpartner agreement (IA) varies as a function of whether the perpetrator is the man or the woman, and by whe ... Full text Cite

Gender differences in partner violence in a birth cohort of 21-year-olds: bridging the gap between clinical and epidemiological approaches.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · February 1997 This study describes partner violence in a representative sample of young adults. Physical violence perpetration was reported by 37.2% of women and 21.8% of men. Correlates of involvement in severe physical violence differed by gender. Severe physical viol ... Full text Cite

Whole blood serotonin and family background relate to male violence

Conference BIOSOCIAL BASES OF VIOLENCE · January 1, 1997 Link to item Cite

Temperamental and familial predictors of criminal conviction

Conference BIOSOCIAL BASES OF VIOLENCE · January 1, 1997 Link to item Cite

Predictors of youth unemployment

Journal Article Focus · 1997 Cite

Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders. Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort.

Journal Article Archives of general psychiatry · November 1996 BackgroundThis study provides, to our knowledge, the first empirical test of whether behavioral differences among children in the first 3 years of life are linked to specific adult psychiatric disorders: anxiety and mood disorders, antisocial pers ... Full text Cite

Personality traits are differentially linked to mental disorders: a multitrait-multidiagnosis study of an adolescent birth cohort.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · August 1996 The authors assessed the relation between personality and mental disorder in a representative birth cohort of 897 men and women. Personality was assessed at age 18 with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; A. Tellegen, 1982), and 4 types of ... Full text Cite

Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21.

Journal Article Journal of consulting and clinical psychology · June 1996 Mental health data were gathered at ages 11, 13, 15, 18, and 21 in an epidemiological sample using standardized diagnostic assessments. Prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed. revised; American Psychiatric Association, ... Full text Cite

Delay of gratification, psychopathology, and personality: is low self-control specific to externalizing problems?

Journal Article Journal of personality · March 1996 We assessed the delay of gratification behavior of 428 twelve- and thirteen-year-old boys, half of whom were known to manifest symptoms of behavioral disturbance. Consistent with the hypothesis that low self-control is a risk factor specific to externalizi ... Full text Cite

The (artefactual) remission of reading disability: Psychometric lessons in the study of stability and change in behavioral development

Journal Article Developmental Psychology · January 1, 1996 Patterns of reading disability were examined in 2 longitudinal studies. The major findings were (a) that on the basis of the observed data, remission of reading disability was relatively common with up to 37% of reading-disabled children showing remission ... Full text Cite

Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled boys: three replicable personality types.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · January 1996 Three replicable personality types were identified in a sample of 300 adolescent boys and shown to generalize across African Americans and Caucasians. The types had conceptually coherent relations with the Big Five dimensions, ego resiliency, and ego contr ... Full text Cite

Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problems in males: Natural history from ages 3 to 18 years

Journal Article Development and Psychopathology · January 1, 1996 We report data that support the distinction between childhood-onset and adolescent-onset type conduct problems. Natural histories are described from a representative birth cohort of 457 males studied longitudinally from age 3 to 18 years. Childhood- and ad ... Full text Cite

Temperamental and familial predictors of violent and nonviolent criminal convictions: Age 3 to age 18

Journal Article Developmental Psychology · January 1, 1996 This study examined the relations between family characteristics, childhood temperament, and convictions for violent and nonviolent offenses at age 18 in a representative birth cohort of men who are part of a longitudinal study. Three groups of men were id ... Full text Cite

The Life History Calendar: A Research and clinical assessment method for collecting retrospective event-history data

Journal Article International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research · January 1, 1996 This article describes the Life History Calendar (LHC), a data-collection method for obtaining reliable retrospective data about life events and activities. The LHC method was developed in the context of longitudinal research to record central events that ... Full text Cite

Adult mental health and social outcomes of adolescent girls with depression and conduct disorder

Journal Article Development and Psychopathology · January 1, 1996 Follow-up studies of adolescent depression and conduct disorder have pointed to homotypic continuity, but less information exists about outcomes beyond mental disorders and about the extent to which adolescents with different disorders experience different ... Full text Cite

Plasma fibrinogen levels and their correlates in 6457 coronary heart disease patients. The Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) Study.

Journal Article Journal of clinical epidemiology · June 1995 The association between fibrinogen measured in healthy individuals and subsequent development of ischemic heart disease is well established, but studies reporting fibrinogen levels in coronary heart disease patients are scarce. Plasma fibrinogen was determ ... Full text Cite

Does the electrocardiographic pattern of "anteroseptal" myocardial infarction correlate with the anatomic location of myocardial injury?

Journal Article The American journal of cardiology · April 1995 The current electrocardiographic (ECG) definition of anteroseptal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a Q wave or QS wave > 0.03 second in leads V1 to V3, with or without involvement of lead V4. To verify whether there is a correlation between the ECG pat ... Full text Cite

Temperamental qualities at age three predict personality traits in young adulthood: longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort.

Journal Article Child development · April 1995 In an unselected sample of over 800 subjects we studied whether behavioral styles at age 3 are linked to personality traits at age 18. We identified 5 temperament groups (labeled Undercontrolled, Inhibited, Confident, Reserved, and Well-adjusted) based on ... Full text Cite

Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: from age three to age fifteen.

Journal Article Child development · February 1995 We assessed relations between early temperament and behavior problems across 12 years in an unselected sample of over 800 children. Temperament measures were drawn from behavior ratings made by examiners who observed children at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9. Factor ... Full text Cite

Identification of personality types at risk for poor health and injury in late adolescence

Journal Article Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health · January 1, 1995 In an unselected general birth cohort of 862 18-year-olds, we sought to identify the personality characteristics associated with involvement in each of five afferent health-risk behaviours (unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners, dangerous d ... Full text Cite

Personality traits are linked to crime among men and women: evidence from a birth cohort.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · May 1994 Is there a relationship between personality and criminal behavior? We addressed this question in a representative birth cohort of 862 male and female 18-year-olds. Personality was assessed with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). The MPQ ... Full text Cite

Measuring impulsivity and examining its relationship to delinquency.

Journal Article Journal of abnormal psychology · May 1994 A multimethod, multisource assessment of impulsivity was conducted in a sample of more than 400 boys who were members of a longitudinal study of the development of antisocial behavior. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the 11 different impuls ... Full text Cite

The "little five": exploring the nomological network of the five-factor model of personality in adolescent boys.

Journal Article Child development · February 1994 The California Child Q-set (CCQ) was used to explore the structure of personality in early adolescence and to develop scales to measure the "Big Five" dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Moth ... Full text Cite

The measurement of impulsivity and its relationship to delinquency

Journal Article Journal of Abnormal Psychology · 1994 Cite

ARE SOME PEOPLE CRIME‐PRONE? REPLICATIONS OF THE PERSONALITY‐CRIME RELATIONSHIP ACROSS COUNTRIES, GENDERS, RACES, AND METHODS

Journal Article Criminology · January 1, 1994 We examined the relation between personality traits and crime in two studies. In New Zealand we studied 18‐year‐old males and females from an entire birth cohort. In Pittsburgh we studied an ethnically diverse group of 12‐ and 13‐year‐old boys. In both stu ... Full text Cite

On the "Remembrance of Things Past": A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Retrospective Method

Journal Article Psychological Assessment · January 1, 1994 This study examines the extent of agreement between retrospective and prospective measures of variables in 7 different content domains: Residence changes, anthropometrics, injuries, reading ability, family characteristics, behavior problems, and delinquenc ... Full text Cite

When Do Individual Differences Matter? A Paradoxical Theory of Personality Coherence

Journal Article Psychological Inquiry · October 1, 1993 We propose that individual differences in personality should be studied during periods of environmental change because these periods provide an opportunity to discern the general mechanisms that govern the functions and processes of personality. We delinea ... Full text Cite

The natural history of change in intellectual performance: who changes? How much? Is it meaningful?

Journal Article Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines · May 1993 A prerequisite step for studying the magnitude and meaning of IQ change is to distinguish between true IQ change that is a researchable phenomenon and IQ "change" that can be accounted for by measurement error. We studied the reliability, magnitude and mea ... Full text Cite

Rationale and design of a secondary prevention trial of increasing serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reducing triglycerides in patients with clinically manifest atherosclerotic heart disease (the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Trial).

Journal Article The American journal of cardiology · April 1993 Controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of reducing the blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in reducing the incidence of coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic middle-aged men. However, a similar reversibility of ... Full text Cite

Marital assortment and phenotypic convergence: longitudinal evidence.

Journal Article Social biology · March 1993 This study provides a direct test of whether the observed similarity of spouses is due to initial assortment rather than to convergence of phenotypes. With data from three well-known longitudinal studies, phenotypic convergence is examined using both varia ... Full text Cite

Personality, arousal, and pleasure: A test of competing models of interpersonal attraction

Journal Article Personality and Individual Differences · January 1, 1993 What do people find attractive in others? This study tests four hypotheses about interpersonal attraction: the similarity, repulsion, optimal dissimilarity, and ideal partner hypotheses. To test these hypotheses, we manipulated the degree of correspondence ... Full text Cite

Unraveling Girls' Delinquency: Biological, Dispositional, and Contextual Contributions to Adolescent Misbehavior

Journal Article Developmental Psychology · January 1, 1993 We examined processes linking biological and behavioral changes in different contexts during adolescence by studying an unselected cohort of New Zealand girls from childhood through adolescence when they entered either mixed-sex or all-girl secondary schoo ... Full text Cite

Paradox regained

Journal Article Psychological Inquiry · 1993 Cite

Childhood experience and the onset of menarche: a test of a sociobiological model.

Journal Article Child development · February 1992 We tested predictions about psychosocial factors in the onset of menarche using data from a longitudinal study of 16-year-old girls. Belsky, Steinberg, and Draper have proposed a model that seeks to explain individual differences in maturational timing in ... Full text Cite

Shared experiences and the similarity of personalities: a longitudinal study of married couples.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · February 1992 Do spouses become more similar over time? What processes contribute to enduring similarities between them? Using the 20-year Kelly Longitudinal Study of couples, no support for the hypothesis that couples increasingly resemble each other with time was foun ... Full text Cite

A "Common-Language" Version of the California Child Q-Set for Personality Assessment

Journal Article Psychological Assessment · January 1, 1992 J. Block and J.H. Block's (1980) California Child Q-Set (CCQ), a unique instrument used by professional observers to assess children's personalities, has contributed important information about the nature of personality development. The authors of this art ... Full text Cite

Frequency of use of thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction in Israel.

Journal Article The American journal of cardiology · November 1991 Thrombolysis is now generally accepted as the initial treatment for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The extent to which this therapy is implemented in daily practice and the reasons for exclusion from thrombolytic therapy among 413 consecu ... Full text Cite

Twin studies of psychopathology: why do the concordance rates vary?

Journal Article Schizophrenia research · October 1991 Many current discussions of hereditary factors in psychopathology focus on twin studies as the primary source of evidence supporting the importance of genetic determinants. In summarizing the results of these studies, authors often derive estimates of conc ... Full text Cite

Individual differences are accentuated during periods of social change: the sample case of girls at puberty.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · July 1991 The emergence of new behaviors and the reorganization of psychological structures are often attributed to critical events and crises in the life course. A fundamentally different perspective is offered: Potentially disruptive transitions produce personalit ... Full text Cite

Cleaning up the environment

Journal Article Behavioral and Brain Sciences · January 1, 1991 Full text Cite

Prolegomena to a model of continuity and change in behavioural development.

Journal Article Ciba Foundation symposium · January 1991 It is now widely acknowledged that personality and behaviour are shaped in large measure by interactions between the person and the environment. There are many kinds of interaction but we suggest that three types play particularly important roles both in s ... Full text Cite

Twelve-lead electrocardiogram recording during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Analysis of reciprocal changes.

Journal Article Journal of electrocardiology · July 1990 Coronary angioplasty was used as a human model of transient myocardial ischemia to evaluate the electrocardiographic characteristics and significance of "reciprocal" ST-segment depression and T wave changes. Continuous 12-lead ECGs were recorded before and ... Full text Cite

Importance of reciprocal ST segment depression in leads V5 and V6 as an indicator of disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery in acute inferior wall myocardial infarction.

Journal Article British heart journal · June 1990 The purpose of this study was to determine the coronary angiographic correlations (specifically disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery) of reciprocal ST segment depression appearing during inferior acute myocardial infarction. Forty six pa ... Full text Cite

Continuity and change: assortative marriage and the consistency of personality in adulthood.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · February 1990 How is personality stability possible amid the myriad of social changes and transformations that characterize a human life? We argue that by choosing situations that are compatible with their dispositions and by affiliating with similar others, individuals ... Full text Cite

Continuities and consequences of interactional styles across the life course.

Journal Article Journal of personality · June 1989 Behavior patterns can be sustained across the life course by two kinds of person-environment interaction. Cumulative continuity arises when an individual's interactional style channels him or her into environments that themselves reinforce that style, ther ... Full text Cite

Economic Stress in Lives: Developmental Perspectives

Journal Article Journal of Social Issues · January 1988 A major task for research on the social costs of economic stress is to trace how macrosocial changes affect increasingly smaller social units and ultimately those microsocial phenomena that directly influence children in their families. In this pap ... Full text Cite

Moving Away From the World: Life-Course Patterns of Shy Children

Journal Article Developmental Psychology · January 1, 1988 What are the life-course sequelae of childhood shyness? Using archival data from the Berkeley Guidance Study (Macfarlane, Allen, & Honzik, 1954), we identified individuals who were shy and reserved in late childhood and traced the continuities and conseque ... Full text Cite

Personality in the life course.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · December 1987 Using elements borrowed from psychology, sociology, and history, this article outlines a conceptual framework for the analysis of personality in the life course. It is proposed that the interactional framework toward which personality psychology aspires ma ... Full text Cite

Everyday problem solving in adulthood and old age.

Journal Article Psychology and aging · June 1987 We examined everyday problem solving in adulthood and compared it with traditional measures of cognitive abilities. In the first phase of the research, we describe the construction of an inventory to assess problem solving in situations that adults might e ... Full text Cite

Linking person and context in the daily stress process.

Journal Article Journal of personality and social psychology · January 1987 In this study we combined daily diary data with interview data to investigate individual differences in the impact of stressful daily events on mood. Using a sample of 96 women in an urban community, we examined perceived neighborhood quality and major lif ... Full text Cite

Moving Against the World: Life-Course Patterns of Explosive Children

Journal Article Developmental Psychology · January 1, 1987 Do ill-tempered children become ill-tempered adults? What are the life-course consequences of such an explosive interactional style? What processes can account for the persistence of maladaptive behavior across time and circumstance? To answer these questi ... Full text Cite

Self-perceptions of intellectual control and aging

Journal Article Educational Gerontology · January 1, 1986 The present research was conducted to investigate middle-aged and older adults’ beliefs about intellectual control and aging. Self-perception theory suggests that adults’ beliefs may be an outcome rather than a cause of their behavior in intellectual tasks ... Full text Cite

Linking family hardship to children's lives.

Journal Article Child development · April 1985 The impact of drastic income loss on children is mediated by a number of family adaptations, including the shift toward more labor-intensive households and altered relationships. Using newly developed codes on parenting behavior during the Great Depression ... Full text Cite