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April S. Brown

Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Box 90291, Durham, NC 27708-0291
3573 Ciemas, Box 90291, Durham, NC 27708

Selected Publications


Gallium Plasmonic Nanoantennas Unveiling Multiple Kinetics of Hydrogen Sensing, Storage, and Spillover.

Journal Article Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) · July 2021 Hydrogen is the key element to accomplish a carbon-free based economy. Here, the first evidence of plasmonic gallium (Ga) nanoantennas is provided as nanoreactors supported on sapphire (α-Al2 O3 ) acting as direct plasmon-enhanced pho ... Full text Cite

Polymorphic gallium for active resonance tuning in photonic nanostructures: From bulk gallium to two-dimensional (2D) gallenene

Journal Article Nanophotonics · October 1, 2020 Reconfigurable plasmonics is driving an extensive quest for active materials that can support a controllable modulation of their optical properties for dynamically tunable plasmonic structures. Here, polymorphic gallium (Ga) is demonstrated to be a very pr ... Full text Cite

Plasmonics beyond noble metals: Exploiting phase and compositional changes for manipulating plasmonic performance

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · August 28, 2020 Reconfigurable plasmonics constitutes an exciting and challenging new horizon in nanophotonics. This blooming field aims at providing plasmonic nanostructures that present a dynamic and active plasmonic response that can be switched or manipulated by exter ... Full text Cite

Sustainable and Tunable Mg/MgO Plasmon-Catalytic Platform for the Grand Challenge of SF6 Environmental Remediation.

Journal Article Nano letters · May 2020 Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the most harmful greenhouse gases producing environmental risks. Therefore, developing ways of degrading SF6 without forming hazardous products is increasingly important. Herein, we demonstrate for ... Full text Cite

Understanding electromagnetic interactions and electron transfer in Ga nanoparticle-graphene-metal substrate sandwich systems

Journal Article Applied Sciences (Switzerland) · October 1, 2019 Plasmonic metal nanoparticle (NP)-graphene (G) systems are of great interest due their potential role in applications as surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced photodetection, and photocatalysis. Most of these studies have been performed using noble met ... Full text Cite

Gallium Polymorphs: Phase-Dependent Plasmonics

Journal Article Advanced Optical Materials · July 4, 2019 Interest in gallium (Ga) is growing rapidly, thanks in part to its wide spectral tunability and its intriguing temperature-dependent polymorphism. In order to exploit and control phase-change plasmonics in the liquid and solid phases of Ga, an accurate und ... Full text Cite

Optically addressing interaction of Mg/MgO plasmonic systems with hydrogen.

Journal Article Optics express · February 2019 Magnesium-based films and nanostructures are being studied in order to improve hydrogen reversibility, storage capacity, and kinetics, because of their potential in the hydrogen economy. Some challenges with magnesium (Mg) samples are their unavoidable oxi ... Full text Cite

Dielectric function and plasmonic behavior of Ga(II) and Ga(III)

Journal Article Optical Materials Express · January 1, 2019 In order to exploit gallium's (Ga) rich polymorphism in the design of phase-change plasmonic systems, accurate understanding of the dielectric function of the different Ga-phases is crucial. The dielectric dispersion profiles of those phases appearing at a ... Full text Cite

Signal yields of keV electronic recoils and their discrimination from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon

Journal Article Physical Review D · May 1, 2018 We report on the response of liquid xenon to low energy electronic recoils below 15 keV from beta decays of tritium at drift fields of 92 V/cm, 154 V/cm and 366 V/cm using the XENON100 detector. A data-to-simulation fitting method based on Markov Chain Mon ... Full text Cite

Unidirectional lateral nanowire formation during the epitaxial growth of GaAsBi on vicinal substrates.

Journal Article Nanotechnology · January 2018 We report on enhanced control of the growth of lateral GaAs nanowires (NWs) embedded in epitaxial (100) GaAsBi thin films enabled by the use of vicinal substrates and the growth-condition dependent role of Bi as a surfactant. Enhanced step-flow growth is a ... Full text Cite

Multiphase gallium-based nanoparticles for a versatile plasmonic platform

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2018 Gallium nanoparticles have been deposited on various substrates of technological interest. The interaction with the substrate leads to two plasmon resonance modes that can be tuned from the UV to the visible and infrared. Large polarization-dependent split ... Full text Cite

Determination of the impact of Bi content on the valence band energy of GaAsBi using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Journal Article AIP Advances · July 1, 2017 We investigate the change of the valence band energy of GaAs1-xBix (0 Full text Cite

UVB-emitting InAlGaN multiple quantum well synthesized using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article AIP Advances · March 1, 2017 A high Al-content (y > 0.4) multi-quantum-well (MQW) structure with a quaternary InxAlyGa(1-x-y)N active layer was synthesized using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The MQW structure exhibits strong carrier confinement and room temperature ultravio ... Full text Cite

Thermally stable coexistence of liquid and solid phases in gallium nanoparticles.

Journal Article Nature materials · September 2016 Gallium (Ga), a group III metal, is of fundamental interest due to its polymorphism and unusual phase transition behaviours. New solid phases have been observed when Ga is confined at the nanoscale. Herein, we demonstrate the stable coexistence, from 180 K ... Full text Cite

The characteristics of MBE-grown InxAl1-xN/GaN surface states

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · August 22, 2016 The density and energy distribution of InxAl1-xN/GaN surface donor states are studied for InxAl1-xN structures with varying indium compositions. The results support a surface states model with a constant energy distribution of 2.17-2.63 eV below the conduc ... Full text Cite

Impact of vicinal GaAs(001) substrates on Bi incorporation and photoluminescence in molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs1-xBix

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · June 6, 2016 The controlled incorporation of Bi into GaAs is a key challenge to synthesizing dilute Bi materials. This work reveals the importance of the surface step density and direction on Bi incorporation. Steps in the [110] direction are demonstrated to enhance Bi ... Full text Cite

Droplet-mediated formation of embedded GaAs nanowires in MBE GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) films.

Journal Article Nanotechnology · March 2016 We have examined the morphology and composition of embedded nanowires that can be formed during molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) using high angle annular dark field ('Z-contrast') imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron mi ... Full text Cite

Characterization of MBE-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructure valence band offsets with varying in composition

Journal Article AIP Advances · March 1, 2016 Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used in this work to experimentally determine the valence band offsets of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructures with varying indium composition. We find that the internal elec ... Full text Cite

Structural Characterization of the Nanocolumnar Microstructure of InAlN

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · November 6, 2015 © 2015 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society In x Al (1−x) N (InAlN) thin films, lattice-matched to GaN with an In composition of ∼17%, are of interest for GaN-based devices. However, InAlN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy exhibit a characte ... Full text Cite

Room temperature Ultraviolet B emission from InAlGaN films synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · September 28, 2015 Thin films of the wide bandgap quaternary semiconductor InxAlyGa(1-x-y)N with low In (x=0.01-0.05) and high Al composition (y=0.40-0.49) were synthesized on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-reso ... Full text Cite

Gallium Plasmonic Nanoantennas Unveiling Multiple Kinetics of Hydrogen Sensing, Storage, and Spillover.

Journal Article Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) · July 2021 Hydrogen is the key element to accomplish a carbon-free based economy. Here, the first evidence of plasmonic gallium (Ga) nanoantennas is provided as nanoreactors supported on sapphire (α-Al2 O3 ) acting as direct plasmon-enhanced pho ... Full text Cite

Polymorphic gallium for active resonance tuning in photonic nanostructures: From bulk gallium to two-dimensional (2D) gallenene

Journal Article Nanophotonics · October 1, 2020 Reconfigurable plasmonics is driving an extensive quest for active materials that can support a controllable modulation of their optical properties for dynamically tunable plasmonic structures. Here, polymorphic gallium (Ga) is demonstrated to be a very pr ... Full text Cite

Plasmonics beyond noble metals: Exploiting phase and compositional changes for manipulating plasmonic performance

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · August 28, 2020 Reconfigurable plasmonics constitutes an exciting and challenging new horizon in nanophotonics. This blooming field aims at providing plasmonic nanostructures that present a dynamic and active plasmonic response that can be switched or manipulated by exter ... Full text Cite

Sustainable and Tunable Mg/MgO Plasmon-Catalytic Platform for the Grand Challenge of SF6 Environmental Remediation.

Journal Article Nano letters · May 2020 Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the most harmful greenhouse gases producing environmental risks. Therefore, developing ways of degrading SF6 without forming hazardous products is increasingly important. Herein, we demonstrate for ... Full text Cite

Understanding electromagnetic interactions and electron transfer in Ga nanoparticle-graphene-metal substrate sandwich systems

Journal Article Applied Sciences (Switzerland) · October 1, 2019 Plasmonic metal nanoparticle (NP)-graphene (G) systems are of great interest due their potential role in applications as surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced photodetection, and photocatalysis. Most of these studies have been performed using noble met ... Full text Cite

Gallium Polymorphs: Phase-Dependent Plasmonics

Journal Article Advanced Optical Materials · July 4, 2019 Interest in gallium (Ga) is growing rapidly, thanks in part to its wide spectral tunability and its intriguing temperature-dependent polymorphism. In order to exploit and control phase-change plasmonics in the liquid and solid phases of Ga, an accurate und ... Full text Cite

Optically addressing interaction of Mg/MgO plasmonic systems with hydrogen.

Journal Article Optics express · February 2019 Magnesium-based films and nanostructures are being studied in order to improve hydrogen reversibility, storage capacity, and kinetics, because of their potential in the hydrogen economy. Some challenges with magnesium (Mg) samples are their unavoidable oxi ... Full text Cite

Dielectric function and plasmonic behavior of Ga(II) and Ga(III)

Journal Article Optical Materials Express · January 1, 2019 In order to exploit gallium's (Ga) rich polymorphism in the design of phase-change plasmonic systems, accurate understanding of the dielectric function of the different Ga-phases is crucial. The dielectric dispersion profiles of those phases appearing at a ... Full text Cite

Signal yields of keV electronic recoils and their discrimination from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon

Journal Article Physical Review D · May 1, 2018 We report on the response of liquid xenon to low energy electronic recoils below 15 keV from beta decays of tritium at drift fields of 92 V/cm, 154 V/cm and 366 V/cm using the XENON100 detector. A data-to-simulation fitting method based on Markov Chain Mon ... Full text Cite

Unidirectional lateral nanowire formation during the epitaxial growth of GaAsBi on vicinal substrates.

Journal Article Nanotechnology · January 2018 We report on enhanced control of the growth of lateral GaAs nanowires (NWs) embedded in epitaxial (100) GaAsBi thin films enabled by the use of vicinal substrates and the growth-condition dependent role of Bi as a surfactant. Enhanced step-flow growth is a ... Full text Cite

Multiphase gallium-based nanoparticles for a versatile plasmonic platform

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2018 Gallium nanoparticles have been deposited on various substrates of technological interest. The interaction with the substrate leads to two plasmon resonance modes that can be tuned from the UV to the visible and infrared. Large polarization-dependent split ... Full text Cite

Determination of the impact of Bi content on the valence band energy of GaAsBi using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Journal Article AIP Advances · July 1, 2017 We investigate the change of the valence band energy of GaAs1-xBix (0 Full text Cite

UVB-emitting InAlGaN multiple quantum well synthesized using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article AIP Advances · March 1, 2017 A high Al-content (y > 0.4) multi-quantum-well (MQW) structure with a quaternary InxAlyGa(1-x-y)N active layer was synthesized using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The MQW structure exhibits strong carrier confinement and room temperature ultravio ... Full text Cite

Thermally stable coexistence of liquid and solid phases in gallium nanoparticles.

Journal Article Nature materials · September 2016 Gallium (Ga), a group III metal, is of fundamental interest due to its polymorphism and unusual phase transition behaviours. New solid phases have been observed when Ga is confined at the nanoscale. Herein, we demonstrate the stable coexistence, from 180 K ... Full text Cite

The characteristics of MBE-grown InxAl1-xN/GaN surface states

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · August 22, 2016 The density and energy distribution of InxAl1-xN/GaN surface donor states are studied for InxAl1-xN structures with varying indium compositions. The results support a surface states model with a constant energy distribution of 2.17-2.63 eV below the conduc ... Full text Cite

Impact of vicinal GaAs(001) substrates on Bi incorporation and photoluminescence in molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs1-xBix

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · June 6, 2016 The controlled incorporation of Bi into GaAs is a key challenge to synthesizing dilute Bi materials. This work reveals the importance of the surface step density and direction on Bi incorporation. Steps in the [110] direction are demonstrated to enhance Bi ... Full text Cite

Droplet-mediated formation of embedded GaAs nanowires in MBE GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) films.

Journal Article Nanotechnology · March 2016 We have examined the morphology and composition of embedded nanowires that can be formed during molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs(1-x)Bi(x) using high angle annular dark field ('Z-contrast') imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron mi ... Full text Cite

Characterization of MBE-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructure valence band offsets with varying in composition

Journal Article AIP Advances · March 1, 2016 Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used in this work to experimentally determine the valence band offsets of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructures with varying indium composition. We find that the internal elec ... Full text Cite

Structural Characterization of the Nanocolumnar Microstructure of InAlN

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · November 6, 2015 © 2015 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society In x Al (1−x) N (InAlN) thin films, lattice-matched to GaN with an In composition of ∼17%, are of interest for GaN-based devices. However, InAlN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy exhibit a characte ... Full text Cite

Room temperature Ultraviolet B emission from InAlGaN films synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · September 28, 2015 Thin films of the wide bandgap quaternary semiconductor InxAlyGa(1-x-y)N with low In (x=0.01-0.05) and high Al composition (y=0.40-0.49) were synthesized on GaN templates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High-reso ... Full text Cite

Insights into the effects of metal nanostructuring and oxidation on the work function and charge transfer of metal/graphene hybrids.

Journal Article Nanoscale · August 2015 Graphene/metal heterojunctions are ubiquitous in graphene-based devices and, therefore, have attracted increasing interest of researchers. Indeed, the literature on the field reports apparently contradictory results about the effect of a metal on graphene ... Full text Cite

Effect of strain in sputtered AlN buffer layers on the growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · July 20, 2015 The strain dynamic of thin film AlN is investigated before and after the deposition of a GaN epitaxial layer using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction ω / 2 θ-scan and asymmetric reciprocal space mapping analysis show that the deposit ... Full text Cite

First-principles studies on molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaA s1-x B ix

Journal Article Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics · July 14, 2015 We investigate the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaAs1-xBix film using density functional theory with spin-orbit coupling to understand the growth of this film, especially the mechanisms of Bi incorporation. We study the stable adsorption structur ... Full text Cite

GaAs1-yBiy Raman signatures: Illuminating relationships between the electrical and optical properties of GaAs1-yBiy and Bi incorporation

Journal Article AIP Advances · June 1, 2015 We report the use of two Raman signatures, the Bi-induced longitudinal-optical-plasmon-coupled (LOPC) mode and the GaAs Fröhlich scattering intensity, present in nominally undoped (100) GaAs1-yBiy to predict the 300K photoluminescence intensity and Bi comp ... Full text Cite

Increased bismuth concentration in MBE GaAs1-xBix films by oscillating III/V flux ratio during growth

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films · May 1, 2015 The authors have examined bismuth concentration profiles in GaAs1-xBix films grown by molecular beam epitaxy using high angle annular dark field imaging (Z-contrast imaging) in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope in conjunctio ... Full text Cite

Gallium plasmonics: deep subwavelength spectroscopic imaging of single and interacting gallium nanoparticles.

Journal Article ACS nano · February 2015 Gallium has recently been demonstrated as a phase-change plasmonic material offering UV tunability, facile synthesis, and a remarkable stability due to its thin, self-terminating native oxide. However, the dense irregular nanoparticle (NP) ensembles fabric ... Full text Open Access Cite

In Situ Characterization of Epitaxy

Chapter · January 1, 2015 Methods enabling in situ characterization of epitaxy have been crucial to achieving device-quality materials. This chapter focuses on key characterization techniques, including spectroscopic ellipsometry, reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy, desorption mas ... Full text Cite

Room temperature photoluminescence from InxAl(1-x)N films deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · September 29, 2014 InAlN films deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy exhibited a lateral composition modulation characterized by 10-12 nm diameter, honeycomb-shaped, columnar domains with Al-rich cores and In-rich boundaries. To ascertain the effect of this mic ... Full text Open Access Cite

GaAs1-y-zPyBiz, an alternative reduced band gap alloy system lattice-matched to GaAs

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · September 15, 2014 The growth and properties of alloys in the alternative quaternary alloy system GaAs1-y-zPyBizwere explored. This materials system allows simultaneous and independent tuning of lattice constant and band gap energy, Eg, over a wide range for potential near- ... Full text Cite

Growth of GaAs1-xBix by molecular beam epitaxy: Trade-offs in optical and structural characteristics

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 28, 2014 Recent work has shown that Bi incorporation increases during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) when surface processes are kinetically limited through increased growth rate. Herein we explore how the structural and optical properties of GaAs1-xBix films are modi ... Full text Cite

Ultraviolet-Visible Plasmonic Properties of Gallium Nanoparticles Investigated by Variable-Angle Spectroscopic and Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry

Journal Article ACS Photonics · July 16, 2014 Self-assembled, irregular ensembles of hemispherical Ga nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited on sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy. These samples, whose constituent unimodal or bimodal distribution of NP sizes was controlled by deposition time, exhibited loc ... Full text Open Access Cite

Personalized diagnostics and biosensors: a review of the biology and technology needed for personalized medicine.

Journal Article Critical reviews in biotechnology · June 2014 Exploiting the burgeoning fields of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics improves understanding of human physiology and, critically, the mutations that signal disease susceptibility. Through these emerging fields, rational design approaches to diagnosis, ... Full text Cite

Graphene as an electron shuttle for silver deoxidation: Removing a key barrier to plasmonics and metamaterials for sers in the visible

Journal Article Advanced Functional Materials · April 2, 2014 The role of graphene in enabling deoxidation of silver nanostructures, thereby contributing to enhance plasmonic properties and to improve the temporal stability of graphene/silver hybrids for both general plasmonic and meta-materials applications, as well ... Full text Cite

Demonstrating the capability of the high-performance plasmonic gallium-graphene couple.

Journal Article ACS nano · March 2014 Metal nanoparticle (NP)-graphene multifunctional platforms are of great interest for exploring strong light-graphene interactions enhanced by plasmons and for improving performance of numerous applications, such as sensing and catalysis. These platforms ca ... Full text Cite

P-type GaN grown by phase shift epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 6, 2014 Phase shift epitaxy (PSE) is a periodic growth scheme, which desynchronizes host material growth process from dopant incorporation, allowing independent optimization. p-type doping of GaN with Mg by PSE is accomplished with molecular beam epitaxy by period ... Full text Cite

Metals for UV plasmonics

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2014 Electromagnetic enhancement of metallic nanoparticles on substrates is assessed by an exhaustive numerical analysis. The potential of each technologically promising metal for UVplasmonic applications may be ascertained.© OSA 2014. ... Cite

Metals for UV plasmonics

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2014 Electromagnetic enhancement of metallic nanoparticles on substrates is assessed by an exhaustive numerical analysis. The potential of each technologically promising metal for UVplasmonic applications may be ascertained.© OSA 2014. ... Full text Cite

The relationship between depth-resolved composition and strain relaxation in InAlN and InGaN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · October 14, 2013 A study of the relationship between strain and the incorporation of group III elements in ternary InGaN and InAlN grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy compositional depth profiles with x-ray diffraction, we ar ... Full text Cite

UV plasmonic behavior of various metal nanoparticles in the near- and far-field regimes: Geometry and substrate effects

Journal Article Journal of Physical Chemistry C · September 26, 2013 The practical efficacy of technologically promising metals for use in ultraviolet plasmonics (3-6 eV) is assessed by an exhaustive numerical analysis. This begins with estimates of the near- and far-field electromagnetic enhancement factors of isolated hem ... Full text Cite

Point-of-Care Devices

Journal Article · August 29, 2013 Full text Cite

Ultraviolet nanoplasmonics: a demonstration of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence, and photodegradation using gallium nanoparticles.

Journal Article Nano letters · June 2013 Self-assembled arrays of hemispherical gallium nanoparticles deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on a sapphire support are explored as a new type of substrate for ultraviolet plasmonics. Spin-casting a 5 nm film of crystal violet upon these nanoparticles p ... Full text Cite

Real-time ellipsometry for probing charge-transfer processes at the nanoscale

Chapter · January 1, 2013 Nanoscale charge transfer is important to both the frontier of fundamental science and to applications in molecular electronics, photonic, electronic, optical, imaging, catalysis, sensing devices, photovoltaics, and energy savings and storage. For many of ... Full text Cite

Mixed semiconductor alloys for optical devices.

Journal Article Annual review of chemical and biomolecular engineering · January 2013 There is an increasing technological need for a wider array of semiconducting materials that will allow greater control over the physical and electronic structure within multilayer heterostructures. This need has led to an expansion in the range of semicon ... Full text Cite

Homodyne near-degenerate four-wave-mixing microscopy for graphene imaging and biomedical applications

Conference 2012 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2012 · December 6, 2012 Homodyne detection of near-degenerate four-wave-mixing with a single laser pulse is used to imaging graphene in biological samples. © 2012 OSA. ... Cite

Point-of-Care Devices

Chapter · November 15, 2012 Full text Cite

Evidence of plasmonic coupling in gallium nanoparticles/graphene/SiC.

Journal Article Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) · September 2012 Graphene is emerging as a promising material for plasmonics applications due to its strong light-matter interactions, most of which are theoretically predicted but not yet experimentally realized. Therefore, the integration of plasmonic nanoparticles to cr ... Full text Cite

Chemical characterization of DNA-immobilized InAs surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure.

Journal Article Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids · August 2012 Single-stranded DNA immobilized on an III-V semiconductor is a potential high-sensitivity biosensor. The chemical and electronic changes occurring upon the binding of DNA to the InAs surface are essential to understanding the DNA-immobilization mechanism. ... Full text Cite

Plasma-plasmonics synergy in the Ga-catalyzed growth of Si-nanowires

Journal Article Materials Science and Engineering: B · June 5, 2012 This paper reports on the growth of Si nanowires (NWs) by SiH 4/H2 plasmas using the non-noble Ga-nanoparticles (NPs) catalysts. A comparative investigation of conventional Si-NWs vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) growth catalyzed by Au NPs is also reported. We in ... Full text Cite

Real-time studies of In-adlayer during PAMBE of InGaN/GaN MQWs

Journal Article Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics · March 1, 2012 The control of In adlayer during plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) of InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells (MQWs) is critical to achieve good structural and optical properties. This contribution focuses on the investigation by real-time spectroscopic ... Full text Cite

Hemin-functionalized InAs-based high sensitivity room temperature NO gas sensors

Journal Article Journal of Physical Chemistry C · January 12, 2012 We investigate the chemistry and kinetics of the surface functionalization of InAs with hemin aimed at demonstrating novel hemin-functionalized InAs planar resistors or molecularly controlled resistors (MOCSERs) with subparts per billion sensitivity to NO ... Full text Cite

Homodyne near-degenerate four-wave-mixing microscopy for graphene imaging and biomedical applications

Conference CLEO: Science and Innovations, CLEO_SI 2012 · January 1, 2012 Homodyne detection of near-degenerate four-wave-mixing with a single laser pulse is used to imaging graphene in biological samples. © OSA 2012. ... Full text Cite

Cysteamine-based functionalization of InAs surfaces: revealing the critical role of oxide interactions in biasing attachment.

Journal Article Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids · January 2012 Attaching functional molecules such as thiols and proteins to semiconductor surfaces is increasingly exploited in functional devices such as sensors. Despite extensive research to understand this interface and demonstrate a robust protocol for attachment, ... Full text Cite

Characterization of immobilized DNA on sulfur-passivated InAs surfaces

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · December 1, 2011 The immobilization of DNA on passivated n-type InAs (100) surfaces has been studied using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The benefits of sulfur passivation using ammonium sulfide solution ((NH 4) 2S) for DNA immobilization were examined. ... Full text Cite

Shape matters: plasmonic nanoparticle shape enhances interaction with dielectric substrate.

Journal Article Nano letters · September 2011 Numerical analyses of the ultraviolet and visible plasmonic spectra measured from hemispherical gallium nanostructures on dielectric substrates reveal that resonance frequencies are quite sensitive to illumination angle and polarization in a way that depen ... Full text Cite

Ga-Mg Core-shell nanosystem for a novel full color plasmonics

Journal Article Journal of Physical Chemistry C · July 21, 2011 Gallium-magnesium (Ga-Mg) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by sequential evaporation of gallium and magnesium molecular beams on sapphire substrates. The surface plasmon resonance properties of this novel bimetallic system are demonstrated and inv ... Full text Cite

Nanotechnology research and development for military and industrial applications

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · May 23, 2011 Researchers at the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have initiated multidiscipline efforts to develop nano-based structures and components for insertion into advanced missile, aviation, and autonomous air and ... Full text Cite

GaMg alloy nanoparticles for broadly tunable plasmonics.

Journal Article Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) · March 2011 Full text Cite

Adsorption and desorption kinetics of Ga on GaN(0001): Application of Wolkenstein theory

Journal Article Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics · August 26, 2010 The kinetics of Ga adsorption/desorption on GaN(0001) surfaces is investigated over the temperature range of 680-750°C using real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry. The adsorption and desorption kinetics are described in the framework of the Wolkenstein theo ... Full text Open Access Cite

Demonstration of surface-enhanced Raman scattering by tunable, plasmonic gallium nanoparticles.

Journal Article Journal of the American Chemical Society · September 2009 Size-controlled gallium nanoparticles deposited on sapphire were explored as alternative substrates to enhance Raman spectral signatures. Gallium's resilience following oxidation is inherently advantageous in comparison with silver for practical ex vacuo n ... Full text Cite

InAs(100) surfaces cleaning by an As-Free low-temperature 100°C treatment

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · March 4, 2009 Oxide removal from InAs(100) surfaces was achieved using a combination of HF:methanol wet etching followed by atomic hydrogen treatment at a temperature as low as 100°C without any stabilizing As flux. The process was monitored in real-time exploiting spec ... Full text Cite

Band bending and adsorption/desorption kinetics on N-polar GaN surfaces

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · February 17, 2009 Highly reactive N-polar [000-1] GaN surfaces were analyzed using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Following exposure to air, observed changes in the pseudodielectric function near the GaN band edge indicate that surface contamination reduces the band bending. A ... Full text Cite

Plasmonic Gallium Nanoparticles on Polar Semiconductors: Interplay between Nanoparticle Wetting, Localized Surface Plasmon Dynamics, and Interface Charge

Journal Article Langmuir · January 2009 Ga nanoparticles supported on large band gap semiconductors like SiC, GaN, and ZnO are interesting for plasmon-enhanced UV-emitting solid-state devices. We investigate the influence of the polarity of the SiC, GaN, and ZnO wurtzite semiconductors on the we ... Cite

Optical and Electronic NO(x) Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics.

Journal Article Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) · January 2009 Current production and emerging NO(x) sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) sy ... Full text Cite

Interplay between surface chemistry and optical behavior of semiconductor-biomolecule functionalized sensing systems: An optical investigation by spectroscopic ellipsometry

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · December 1, 2008 Chemical functionalization of bio-molecules, including hemin (an iron porphyrin) and bovine albumin onto Si (100) and GaAs (100) surfaces is reported. Spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis on the optical response of functionalized surfaces provides informati ... Cite

Optical and material characteristics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · November 21, 2008 A series of self-organized InAs/GaAs quantum dots with spacer layer under different thermal-treat (annealing) temperature and environments were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. They were investigated by atomic force microscope and temperature-dependent ... Full text Cite

Comparison of functionalized III-V semiconductor response for nitric oxide

Journal Article Sensor Letters · August 1, 2008 Several III-V materials systems, consisting of InAs, InP, and GaN, were chemically functionalized, characterized, and evaluated for Nitric Oxide (NO) sensor research. The hemin porphyrin has been a particularly successful NO detection functional group for ... Full text Cite

Indium adlayer kinetics on the gallium nitride (0001) surface: Monitoring indium segregation and precursor-mediated adsorption

Journal Article Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics · March 20, 2008 Indium kinetics and evidence for indium segregation on the GaN (0001) surface are investigated via in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Indium deposition exhibits two stable states at coverages of 1.0 and 1.7 ML within the temperature range of 630-688°C. Fo ... Full text Cite

Experimental evidence of different hydrogen donors in n -type InN

Journal Article Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics · March 11, 2008 The multiform donor nature of hydrogen in n -type indium nitride is experimentally observed in samples exposed to atomic hydrogen. Photoluminescence measurements reveal a tenfold increase in the electron concentration and the formation of a shallow donor b ... Full text Cite

Novel, real-time measurement of plasmon resonance - tailoring nanoparticle geometry optically

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2008 We demonstrate novel use of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to probe in real-time metal nanoparticle deposition. Real-time monitoring of NP assembly plasmon resonance enables control of NP size via the plasmon resonance and vice versa. © 2008 OSA. ... Cite

Novel, real-time measurement of plasmon resonance - tailoring nanoparticle geometry optically

Journal Article Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2008 We demonstrate novel use of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to probe in real-time metal nanoparticle deposition. Real-time monitoring of NP assembly plasmon resonance enables control of NP size via the plasmon resonance and vice versa. ... Cite

Novel, real-time measurement of plasmon resonance - tailoring nanoparticle geometry optically

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2008 We demonstrate novel use of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to probe in real-time metal nanoparticle deposition. Real-time monitoring of NP assembly plasmon resonance enables control of NP size via the plasmon resonance and vice versa. ... Full text Cite

InAs growth on submicron (100) SOI islands for InAs-Si composite channel MOSFETs

Journal Article 2007 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, ISDRS · December 1, 2007 Full text Cite

Functionalization and characterization of InAs and InP surfaces with hemin

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · August 7, 2007 Chemical functionalization of hemin molecules onto InAs and InP is reported. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) analyses are used to characterize the III-V surfaces. One notable feature of t ... Full text Cite

Behavior of hydrogen in InN investigated in real time exploiting spectroscopic ellipsometry

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · August 2007 The interaction of hydrogen with InN epitaxial films has been investigated by exposing InN to a remote hydrogen plasma and monitoring changes in the InN optical properties in real time via spectroscopic ellipsometry. Atomic hydrogen reacts swith InN causin ... Cite

Real time optical monitoring of molecular beam epitaxy of InN on SiC substrates

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · June 11, 2007 Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to monitor in real time and in situ the molecular beam epitaxial growth of InN on SiC substrates. A three-step growth process consisting of (i) low-temperature (200 °C) nitridation of the SiC surface, (ii) low-tempe ... Full text Cite

Kinetics of gallium adlayer adsorption/desorption on polar and nonpolar GaN surfaces

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · June 11, 2007 Spectroscopic ellipsometry installed on a GEN-II plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy machine has been shown to be an effective in situ real time tool for monitoring the kinetics of gallium adlayer adsorption/desorption on the GaN surface. In this work, ... Full text Cite

Impact of arsenic species (As2 As4) on the relaxation and morphology of step-graded in Asx P1-x on InP substrates

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · June 11, 2007 The influence of arsenic species (As2 or As4) on compositionally graded In Asx P1-x buffer layers (x=0.15-0.8) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP is investigated. It was found that As2 has a higher incorporation rate than As4. Anisotropic strain relaxa ... Full text Cite

Interfacial chemistry and energy band line-up of pentacene with the GaN (0 0 0 1) surface

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · March 1, 2007 The chemical nature of the GaN surface combined with the bulk and surface electronic structure opens new potential application areas for this material. The nature of specific organic-GaN was developed for two cases in which the surface electronic structure ... Full text Cite

Characteristics of InN grown on SiC under the In-rich regime by molecular beam heteroepitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 15, 2007 InN epitaxial films were grown by N2 plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on 4H- and 6H-SiC substrates using low-temperature InN nucleation layers. InN films grown at various In fluxes under the In-rich regime show improved crystal quality, surface morph ... Full text Cite

Fundamentals of ECE: A rigorous, integrated introduction to electrical and computer engineering

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Education · 2007 The Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Department at Duke University, Durham, NC, is undergoing extensive curriculum revisions that incorporate novel content, organization, and teaching methods. The cornerstone of the new curriculum is a theme-based ... Full text Cite

Effect of surface pretreatment and substrate orientation on the characteristics of InAs quantum dots on Si and SiO2 substrates

Journal Article Journal Of Vacuum Science \& Technology B · 2007 The surface m orphology of InAs quantum dots (QDs) on undoped Si (100) shows a strong dependency on surface pretreatments, with as much as 30\% difference in island density with different size distributions. Lowering the V/III fluxes ratio (5 8: 1 to 10: 1 ... Cite

In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to monitor surface plasmon resonant group-III metals deposited by molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Journal Of Vacuum Science \& Technology B · 2007 The evolution of the surface plasmon resonance of Al, Ga, and In deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN surfaces was monitored in real-time using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The correlation between the metal plasmon resonance modes, the particle size, ... Cite

Real-time plasmon resonance tuning of liquid Ga nanoparticles by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · 2007 Liquid Ga nanoparticles have been deposited on sapphire substrates at room temperature. The optical evolution of Ga nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance during deposition has been characterized by in situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry to control a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Band discontinuity measurements of the wafer bonded InGaAsSi heterojunction

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · 2007 p -type InGaAsSi heterojunctions were fabricated through a wafer fusion bonding process. The relative band alignment between the two materials at the heterointerface was determined using current-voltage (I-V) measurements and applying thermionic emission-d ... Full text Cite

Redesign of the core curriculum at Duke University

Conference ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings · December 1, 2006 Cite

A novel introductory course for teaching the fundamentals of electrical and computer engineering

Conference ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings · December 1, 2006 The Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) department at Duke University is undergoing extensive curriculum revisions incorporating both new content and organization and innovative teaching methods. The cornerstone of the new curriculum is a theme-based ... Cite

Kinetics of gallium adsorption and desorption on (0001) gallium nitride surfaces

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · November 13, 2006 In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry kinetic characterization is used to monitor the behavior of Ga atoms during and after Ga flux impingement upon a (0001) GaN surface at various temperatures in the range of 680-750 °C. The observed saturation of the pseudo ... Full text Cite

Real time ellipsometry for monitoring plasma-assisted epitaxial growth of GaN

Journal Article Applied Surface Science · October 2006 GaN is grown on Si-face 4H-SiC(001) substrates using remote plasma-assisted methods including metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (RP-MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry is used for monitoring all the steps of ... Cite

Structural and optical characterization of GaN heteroepitaxial films on SiC substrates

Journal Article Applied Surface Science · October 2006 We have estimated the threading dislocation density and type via X-ray diffraction and Williamson-Hall analysis to elicit qualitative information directly related to the electrical and optical quality of GaN epitaxial layers grown by PAMBE on 4H- and 6H-Si ... Cite

Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of homoepitaxial GaN grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics · July 31, 2006 The growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on GaN template substrates (GaN on sapphire) is investigated with in-situ multi-channel spectroscopic ellipsometry. Growth is performed under various Ga/N flux ratios at growth temperatures in the ... Full text Cite

Strain monitoring in InAs-Al xGa 1-xAS ySb 1-y structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · July 28, 2006 A study of strained InAs-Al xGa 1-xAs ySb 1-y quantum well structures produced by molecular beam epitaxy is presented. The ability to manipulate quantum well strain by way of the Al xGa 1-xAs ySb 1-y buffer is examined using statistical experimental design ... Full text Cite

Fundamental reactions controlling anion exchange during mixed anion heterojunction formation: Chemistry of As-for-Sb and Sb-for-As exchange reactions

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · July 26, 2006 As-for-Sb and Sb-for-As anion exchange reactions have been investigated by the exposure of GaSb surfaces to As 2 and As 4 species and by the exposure of GaAs to Sb 2, respectively. The effect of surface temperature, anion soak time, and anion species (eith ... Full text Cite

Strain monitoring in InAs-AlxGa1-xAsySb1-y structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · July 2006 A study of strained InAs-AlxGa1-xAsySb1-y quantum well structures produced by molecular beam epitaxy is presented. The ability to manipulate quantum well strain by way of the AlxGa1-xAsySb1-y buffer is examined using statistical experimental design. Result ... Cite

Modification of InN properties by interactions with hydrogen and nitrogen

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings · May 15, 2006 The interaction of InN epitaxial films grown by r.f. plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with atomic hydrogen and nitrogen, produced by remote r.f. H2 and N2 plasmas, is investigated. InN strongly reacts with both atomic hydrogen and nitrogen yielding d ... Cite

Fundamental reactions controlling anion exchange during mixed anion heterojunction formation: Chemistry and kinetics of P-for-As exchange reaction

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · May 1, 2006 The fundamental chemical and kinetic surface processes governing the P-for-As exchange reaction during epitaxial layer synthesis are investigated. Exposure of a GaAs surface to phosphorus molecular beams (P2) is carried out to create superlattice structure ... Full text Cite

Buffer free MOCVD growth of GaN on 4H-SiC: Effect of substrate treatments and UV-photoirradiation

Journal Article Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science · May 1, 2006 GaN has been grown directly on the Si-face 4H-SiC(0001) substrates using remote plasma-assisted metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (RP-MOCVD) with UV-light irradiation. The effects of substrate pre-treatments and UV-photoirradiation of the growth sur ... Full text Cite

Study of the dielectric function of hexagonal InN: Impact of indium clusters and of native oxide

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · March 20, 2006 The complex dielectric function of hexagonal InN has been determined in the 0.72-6.50 eV photon energy range using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The InN films have been synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy on Si-face 6H-SiC (0001) substrates. The fundame ... Full text Cite

Interrelationships in the electronic and structural characteristics of strained InAs quantum well structures

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · January 15, 2006 Indium-arsenide (InAs)-based devices are promising for next generation electronic and optoelectronic applications. Improving these devices requires greater control of the InAs quantum well properties, which in part, are related to the strain induced from t ... Full text Cite

Redesign of the core curriculum at Duke University

Conference ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings · January 1, 2006 Cite

A novel introductory course for teaching the fundamentals of electrical and computer engineering

Conference ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings · January 1, 2006 The Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) department at Duke University is undergoing extensive curriculum revisions incorporating both new content and organization and innovative teaching methods. The cornerstone of the new curriculum is a theme-based ... Cite

Growth of InN on 6H-SiC by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Physica Status Solidi C: Current Topics in Solid State Physics · 2006 We have investigated the growth of InN films by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on the Si-face of 6H-SiC(0001). Growth is performed under In-rich conditions using a two-step process consisting of the deposition of a thin, low-temperature 350°C I ... Full text Link to item Cite

Real time ellipsometry for monitoring plasma-assisted epitaxial growth of GaN

Journal Article Applied Surface Science · 2006 GaN is grown on Si-face 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1) substrates using remote plasma-assisted methods including metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (RP-MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry is used for monitoring all the steps ... Full text Link to item Cite

Structural and optical characterization of GaN heteroepitaxial films on SiC substrates

Journal Article Applied Surface Science · 2006 We have estimated the threading dislocation density and type via X-ray diffraction and Williamson-Hall analysis to elicit qualitative information directly related to the electrical and optical quality of GaN epitaxial layers grown by PAMBE on 4H- and 6H-Si ... Full text Link to item Cite

Surface oxide relationships to band bending in GaN

Journal Article Appl. Phys. Lett. (USA) · 2006 A trend of increased near-surface valence band maximum band bending with increasing O/Ga relative fraction was observed, extrapolating to 2.7 eV±0.1 eV for pristine GaN surfaces (0% O 1s peak area). This trend of apparent oxide overlayer coverage af ... Full text Link to item Cite

InAs-based p-n homojunction diodes: Doping effects and impact of doping on device parameters

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · 2006 InAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) are promising candidates for low power and high frequency (THz) device applications due to their small bandgap, high electron mobility, and high saturation drift velocity. However, doping limits such as the tr ... Cite

Impact of 4H- And 6H-SiC(0001) nitridation on Ga wetting layer development and GaN growth by molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · 2006 GaN epitaxial layers have been grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si-face 4H-and 6H-SiC(0001)Si substrates. The impact of the SiC surface preparation and oxide removal achieved via a Ga flash-off process followed by nitridation on the struc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of unintentional and intentional nitridation of the 6H-SiC(0001)Si substrate on GaN epitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · December 1, 2005 We report the impact of both unintentional and intentional nitridation of 6H-SiC (0001)Si substrates on the epitaxial growth of GaN by molecular-beam epitaxy. The unintentional nitridation is dependent upon the details of the pregrowth Ga flash-off process ... Full text Cite

Nucleation and growth mode of the molecular beam epitaxy of GaN on 4H-SiC exploiting real time spectroscopic ellipsometry

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · October 15, 2005 The heteroepitaxy of GaN directly grown directly on Si-face 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1) by molecular beam epitaxy is explored and characterized using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Critical steps of the process, including SiC substrate cleaning, substrate termina ... Full text Cite

Remote plasma assisted MOCVD growth of GaN on 4H-SiC: Growth mode characterization exploiting ellipsometry

Journal Article EPJ Applied Physics · September 1, 2005 GaN is grown on Si-face 4H-SiC(0001) substrates using remote plasma-assisted metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (RP-MOCVD). The pre-dissociation of nitrogen by the remote plasma is used for lowering the deposition temperature to approximately 700°C. R ... Full text Cite

Pulse response tuning of high speed InGaAs thin film MSM photodetector using external RCL loads

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · July 21, 2005 Practical, packaged photodetectors (PDs) must be interfaced to bias and transmission lines, which introduce parasitics. These parasitics (resistance, capacitance and inductance) can be used to shape the temporal and frequency response of packaged photodete ... Full text Cite

Interfacial reactions during GaN and AiN epitaxy on 4H- and 6H-SiC(0001)

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 10, 2005 Thin layers of AlN and GaN have been grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si-face 4H- and 6H- SiC (0001)Si substrates. The impact of the SiC surface preparation and oxide removal via a Ga deposition and desorption process on the chemistry and ... Full text Cite

Modification of 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC(0001)Si surfaces through the interaction with atomic hydrogen and nitrogen

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · 2005 The interaction of 4H-SiC(0001)Si and 6H-SiC(0001)Si surfaces with atomic hydrogen and atomic nitrogen produced by remote radio-frequency plasmas is investigated. The kinetics of the surface modifications is monitored in real time using ellipsometry, while ... Cite

The impact of SiC substrate treatment on the heteroepitaxial growth of GaN by plasma assisted MBE

Journal Article Crystal Research and Technology · 2005 We report on the impact of the preparation of the Si-face 4H-SiC(0001) Si substrate using a Ga flash-off process on the epitaxial growth of GaN by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The nucleation, as well as the resultant structural and morphological ... Full text Link to item Cite

Flat, cheap, and under control [electrochemical mechanical planarization]

Journal Article IEEE Spectr. (USA) · 2005 This paper describes Applied Material's wafer polishing technology, called electrochemical mechanical planarization (ECMP). ECMP is the answer to the problems of electropolishing and chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) of the chip-making process: manuf ... Full text Link to item Cite

Theme-based redesign of the duke university ECE curriculum: The first steps

Conference ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings · 2005 Undergraduates in Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at Duke University have benefited from the combination of curricular flexibility and rigorous coursework. The current curriculum is further limited in that the core courses do not offer a vertical ... Cite

Work in progress: Theme-based redesign of an electrical and computer engineering curriculum

Conference Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE · December 1, 2004 The goal of this work-in-progress is to develop an innovative ECE curriculum that focuses on ECE fundamentals within the construct of real-world integrated system design, analysis, and problem solving. The curriculum will be formulated around the theme of ... Cite

Etch enhanced low capacitance, large area thin film InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2004 The enhancement of the impulse response and capacitance performance of thin film InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) was carried out through etching. The capacitances of the MSM were measured using scattering parameter measurements using a lightwave com ... Cite

A 10 Gbit/s Si CMOS transimpedance amplifier with an integrated MSM photodetector for optical interconnections

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2004 A wideband preamplifier was designed and fabricated using a 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The amplifier was heterogeneously integrated with a thin film InGaAs inverted photodetector. A successful demonstration at a bit rate of 10 Gbps was reported. All the stag ... Cite

Study of the interaction of 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC(0001)Si surfaces with atomic nitrogen

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · November 1, 2004 The interaction of atomic nitrogen with 4H- and 6H-SiC(0001) Si-face surfaces is investigated. Clean and atomically smooth terraced surfaces obtained by in situ cleaning using atomic hydrogen have been exposed at 200°C and 750°C to atomic nitrogen produced ... Full text Cite

Interaction of GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen

Journal Article Applied Surface Science · August 15, 2004 GaN surface passivation processes are still under development and among others hydrogen treatments are investigated. In this study, we use non-destructive optical and electrical probes such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and surface potential Kelvin pr ... Full text Cite

Fundamental reactions controlling anion exchange during the synthesis of Sb/As mixed-anion heterojunctions

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · July 1, 2004 As/Sb and Sb/As anion exchange reactions to control heterojunction interface intermixing in mixed anion structure were investigated. The substrate temperature, anion flux exposure time, and incident anion molecular species were analyzed. The characterizati ... Full text Cite

High-speed large-area inverted InGaAs thin-film metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · July 1, 2004 Inverted metal-semiconductor-metal (I-MSM) photodetectors, which are thin-film MSMs with the growth substrate removed and fingers on the bottom of the device (to eliminate finger shadowing to enhance responsivity), are reported herein for high-speed high-e ... Full text Cite

Interplay between GaN polarity and surface reactivity towards atomic hydrogen

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · June 15, 2004 The polarity of GaN epitaxial films and its impact on the interaction of GaN surfaces with atomic hydrogen were discussed. GaN epilayers were grown by radio frequency plasma molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with both GaN and AlN buffer layers. It was found tha ... Full text Cite

Study of the temperature-dependent interaction of 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC surfaces with atomic hydrogen

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · May 17, 2004 The interactions of SiC surfaces with atomic hydrogen produced by a remote rf plasma source was investigated. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used for the in situ monitoring of the low and high temperature impact on chemical and morphological surface modifi ... Full text Cite

Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of interface reactivity in GaAs-based superlattices

Journal Article Thin Solid Films · May 1, 2004 Pseudodielectric function spectra of GaAs/GaSb1-yAsy, GaSb/GaAsySb1-y and GaAs/GaPyAs1-y superlattices have been measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the 0.75-5.5 eV photon energy range. The analysis of the E1 interband critical point and modeling of ... Full text Cite

Charge modification in InAs/AlxGa1-xSb HEMT structures

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · April 15, 2004 Intrinsic sheet charge levels in unintentionally doped AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells are reproducibly ∼1012/cm2. While these levels are suitable for depletion-mode operation, realizing enhancement-mode devices ultimately depends on the ability to significan ... Full text Cite

Planar Lightwave Integrated Circuits Using Thin Film Optoelectronic Devices

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2004 The integration of thin film optoelectronic devices with polymer waveguides creates optical signal propagation, distribution, and processing in a planar waveguide format. These planar lightwave integrated circuits are appropriate for applications such as o ... Cite

The surface modification and reactivity of LiGaO2 substrates during GaN epitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · 2004 The chemistry and kinetics of lithium gallate (LGO) substrates during nitridation are investigated. Nitridation experiments have been carried out using two remote nitrogen RF plasma sources: in an MBE system and in a remote plasma MOCVD system. The differe ... Full text Link to item Cite

InGaAs MSM Photodetectors Modeling Using DOE Analysis

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · 2004 Linear statistical models have been generated to predict the performance of metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs for multi-gigabit optical interconnections. The models estimate the bandwidth and responsivity of the MSM PDs based on the input factors: absorb ... Full text Link to item Cite

High speed InGaAs thin film MSM photodetector characterization using a fiber-based electro-optic sampling system

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · 2004 As optoelectronic devices increase in speed, the measurement system used to characterize these devices must have sufficient bandwidth and minimum parasitic loading during test to accurately determine the intrinsic performance of the device under test. Conv ... Full text Link to item Cite

Alternative substrates for InP and related materials

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials · July 25, 2003 The transfer and separation of device layers or even finished device structures from a III-V substrate allows can lead to higher utilization of bulk wafer and the incorporation of multiple materials onto a single larger wafer. Depending on thethermal budge ... Cite

The impact of substrate nitridation temperature and buffer design and synthesis on the polarity of GaN epitaxial films

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · May 1, 2003 The polarity of GaN epitaxial layers grown on GaN and AlN buffer layers was investigated and found to be dependent on nitridation temperature over the range of 200-700°C. When low temperature (LT), 500°C, GaN buffer layers are used, GaN epitaxial layers gr ... Full text Cite

Effect of dissimilar anion annealing on structures of InAs/GaAs quantum dots

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · May 1, 2003 In this paper, we report microstructural characterization of InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The InAs islands were annealed in a range of temperatures under Pa flux. Prior to annealing, it is shown that the InAs islands are mainly l ... Full text Cite

The heterogeneous integration of optical interconnections into integrated microsystems

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · March 1, 2003 Emerging techniques for integrating optoelectronic (OE) devices, analog interface circuitry, RF circuitry, and digital logic into ultra-mixed signal systems offers approaches toward and demonstrations of integrated optical interconnections in electrical mi ... Full text Cite

Large Area, High Speed InGaAs Thin Film MSMs for Heterogeneously Integrated Optoelectronics

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2003 Thin film InGaAs photodetectors for heterogeneously integrated optoelectronics are demonstrated with low dark current (0.16nA at 5V), and high speed (3ps rise time, 6.3ps FWHM), large area (40 µm), and good responsivity (0.19A/W at 5V). ... Cite

Superconducting circuit makers pin hopes on wireless filters

Journal Article IEEE Spectr. (USA) · 2003 The discovery of ceramic superconductors in 1986 sparked dreams of levitating trains, cheap electric power, and desktop medical scanners. Some savvy investors instead set their sights on superconducting microelectronics. In 1987, a group that included Inte ... Cite

Challenges and potential payoff for crystalline oxides in wide bandgap semiconductor technology

Journal Article Solid-State Electronics · 2003 While growth of wide bandgap semiconductor materials on crystalline oxides (sapphire, lithium gallate, lithium aluminate, zinc oxide and others) has become routine, growth of crystalline oxides on wide bandgap materials remains challenging and minimally ex ... Full text Link to item Cite

Large area, high speed InGaAs thin film MSMs for heterogeneously integrated optoelectronics

Journal Article OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series · January 1, 2003 Thin film InGaAs photodetectors for heterogeneously integrated optoelectronics are demonstrated with low dark current (0.16nA at 5V), and high speed (3ps rise time, 6.3ps FWHM), large area (40 μm), and good responsivity (0.19A/W at 5V). ... Cite

Surface potential measurements of doping and defects in p-GaN

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2003 The interaction of Be-, Mg-, and Si- doped GaN epitaxial films with atomic hydrogen, produced by a remote r.f. hydrogen plasma, is investigated. The kinetics of the interaction is monitored in real time by spectroscopic ellipsometry through the measurement ... Full text Cite

A study of anion exchange reactions at GaAs surfaces for heterojunction interface control

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2003 GaPyAs1-y/GaAs, GaAsySbi-y/GaSb and GaSbyAs1-y/GaAs superlattices (SLs) grown by MBE, by exposure of GaAs to phosphorus and antimonide fluxes, and by exposure of GaSb to an arsenic flux, respectively, have been investigated. The focus is on the abruptness ... Full text Cite

Effect of buffer design on AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostrucutres by MBE

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2003 The effect of the buffer layers on the subsequent GaN epitaxial layers and electrical properties of AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterojunction structures nitrided at various temperatures was investigated. For AlN buffer layers, two different growth conditions of AlN buf ... Full text Cite

The Heterogeneous Integration of InAlAs/InGaAs Heterojunction Diodes on GaAs: Impact of Wafer Bonding on Structural and Electrical Characteristics

Journal Article Proceedings IEEE Lester Eastman Conference on High Performance Devices · December 1, 2002 We have investigated the influence of low temperature wafer bonding on the electrical and structural characteristics of InAlAs/InGaAs n-p heterojunction structures with similar structure to an emitter-base junction of InAlAs/InGaAs HBTs. Those n-p junction ... Cite

Thermodynamic analysis of anion exchange during heteroepitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · July 1, 2002 A thermodynamic approach is presented to assess the extent of anion exchange reactions during the heteroepitaxy (molecular beam epitaxy) of dissimilar anion III-V compound semiconductor structures. It is shown that the extent of anion exchange can be predi ... Full text Cite

Anion exchange at the interfaces of mixed anion III-V heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · July 1, 2002 Anion exchange at the interfaces of mixed anion heterostructures were studied and characterized via high-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis of anion exposed static surfaces. Superlattices were formed primarily due to anion exchange and related processes ... Full text Cite

Engineering vertically aligned InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures via anion exchange

Journal Article Solid State Communications · June 1, 2002 P/As anion exchange is exploited to modify stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is shown that the vertical alignment and size uniformity can be remarkably improved via P/As anion exchange. This, therefore, demo ... Full text Cite

Role of low-temperature (200 °C) nitridation in the growth of GaN by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · May 1, 2002 The effects of sapphire nitridation temperature on the properties of GaN grown by radiofrequency (rf) plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) were discussed. It was found that the optical and structural characteristics of GaN epitaxial layers were dra ... Full text Cite

Role of sapphire nitridation temperature on GaN growth by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy: Part II. Interplay between chemistry and structure of layers

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · February 15, 2002 The effect of sapphire nitridation temperature on the chemistry and microstructure of the sapphire substrate/GaN interface, nucleation layer, and of the GaN epilayers grown by rf plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy is investigated. It is found that a sa ... Full text Cite

Role of sapphire nitridation temperature on GaN growth by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy: Part I. Impact of the nitridation chemistry on material characteristics

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · February 1, 2002 The impact of the nitridation temperature on sapphire/GaN interface modifications and the structural, chemical, and optical properties of GaN epitaxial thin films with N plasma radicals is investigated. Based on ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and x-ray ... Full text Cite

The heterogeneous integration of GaN thin-film metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors onto silicon

Journal Article IEEE Photonics Technology Letters · February 1, 2002 The heterogeneous integration of GaN thin-film metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors onto a host substrate of SiO2-Si is reported herein. Thin-film GaN photodetectors were separated from the lithium gallate (LiGaO2) growth substrate using selectiv ... Full text Cite

Plasmas for the low-temperature growth of high-quality GaN films by molecular beam epitaxy and remote plasma MOCVD

Conference Physica Status Solidi (A) Applied Research · 2002 GaN heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire (0001) substrates was carried out by both radio-frequency (rf) remote plasma metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (RP-MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A multistep growth process including substrate plasma cl ... Full text Cite

Thin Film GaN Metal-semiconductor-metal Photodetectors Integrated onto Silicon

Conference Optics InfoBase Conference Papers · January 1, 2002 Cite

InP-based AlInAs/GaAs0.51Sb0.49/GaInAs single heterojunction bipolar transistor for high-speed and RF wireless applications

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 2002 The InP-based AlInAs-GaAsSb-GaInAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) have been grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy (SSMBE). Since the AlInAs-GaAsSb heterojunction has a type-II (staggered) band lineup, the conduction-band discontinuity is ... Full text Cite

Plasmas for the low-temperature growth of high-quality GaN films by molecular beam epitaxy and remote plasma MOCVD

Journal Article Physica Status Solidi (A) Applied Research · 2002 GaN heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire (0001) substrates was carried out by both radio-frequency (rf) remote plasma metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (RP-MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A multistep growth process including substrate plasma cl ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of strained Al0.7In0.3As emitter layers on abrupt N-p+ AlInAs-GaInAs heterojunction diodes and heterojunction bipolar transistors

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 2002 Strained AlxIn1-xAs/Ga0.47In0.53As heterojunction N-p+ diodes and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) have been grown on InP substrates by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy, fabricated, and characterized. To determine the effects of the conduction- ... Full text Cite

Thin film GaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors integrated onto silicon

Journal Article Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO - Technical Digest · January 1, 2002 The metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector dark current and responsivity results for the growth of gallium nitride on lithium gallate substrates were reported. The heterogeneous integration of thin film gallium nitride MSM detectors onto host substr ... Cite

Modeling electron mobility in MBE-grown InAs/AlSb thin films for HEMT applications using neural networks

Journal Article Solid-State Electronics · January 1, 2002 This paper presents experiments that examined the formation of the InAs/AlSb interface in high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). At the interface, indium barrier thickness and substrate temperature were vari ... Full text Cite

Thickness influence on optical and morphological properties of HVPE GaN layers grown on MOCVD GaN layers

Journal Article Physica Status Solidi (A) Applied Research · 2002 A new domain of growth experimentally observed in conditions of expected fast etching by HCl ensures growth rates of 50-60 μm/h without parasitic GaN deposit by using the suitable temperature profile. In these conditions, different thicknesses from 8 to 52 ... Full text Cite

III-nitride growth on lithium niobate: A new substrate material for polarity engineering in III-nitride heteroepitaxy

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2002 Herein, we discuss the use of a novel new substrate for III-Nitride epitaxy, Lithium Niobate. It is shown that Lithium Niobate (LN) has a smaller lattice mismatch to III-Nitrides than sapphire and can be used to control the polarity of III-Nitride films gr ... Full text Cite

Time resolved optical studies of InGaN layers grown on LGO

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2002 Radiative recombination processes in bulk InGaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on lithium gallate (LGO or LiGaO2) substrates were investigated using microscopic PL and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL). The improved structural quality resulting ... Full text Cite

A chemical perspective of GaN polarity: The use of hydrogen plasma dry etching versus NaOH wet etching to determine polarity

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 2002 The use of dry hydrogen plasma etching is evaluated for determination of GaN polarity and critically compared to wet etching in NaOH. It is shown that hydrogen plasma etching is effective in revealing inversion domains (IDs) and some types of dislocations. ... Full text Cite

Heterogeneous materials integration: Compliant substrates to active device and materials packaging

Journal Article Materials Science and Engineering: B · December 19, 2001 The drive for the heterogeneous integration of materials has led to significant advances in materials and device processing, and in the understanding of defect production and control during epitaxy. Heterogeneous integration is driven by microelectronic an ... Full text Cite

Institutional self-assessments as change agents: Georgia tech's two year experience

Journal Article ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings · December 1, 2001 The Georgia Institute of Technology, the lead institution in the consortium due to its reputation, is discussed. The Georgia Tech InGEAR staff convened an Advisory Committee consisting of over 20 Georgia Tech faculty and staff who were instrumental in desi ... Cite

Interfacial roughening in lattice-matched GaInP/GaAs heterostructures

Journal Article Thin Solid Films · November 1, 2001 The microstructure of solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) lattice-matched GaInP-GaAs heterostructures has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that atomic-scale roughening occurs in the first several (∼five) interfaces, ... Full text Cite

A comparative study of surface reconstruction of wurtzite GaN on (0 0 0 1) sapphire by RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · September 1, 2001 We present a comprehensive study of the electrical, optical, and structural properties of wurtzite GaN films grown under various initial growth conditions The GaN films were grown directly on sapphire substrates using GaN nucleation layers by a Riber 3200 ... Full text Cite

GaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors grown on lithium gallate substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · August 27, 2001 The growth, fabrication, and characterization of ultraviolet metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) GaN photodetectors grown on LiGaO2 by molecular-beam epitaxy are reported herein. GaN/LiGaO2 material with dislocation densities of approximately 108 cm-2 and x-ra ... Full text Cite

Self-assembled quantum dot transformations via anion exchange

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · July 1, 2001 Anion anneals have different effects on the quantum dot size distributions and vertical self-assembly. Phosphorus anneal at 300°C can enhance the uniformity of the dot size distribution for both 2 and 3 ML multilayer structures. TEM shows vertically aligne ... Full text Cite

Modeling electron mobility in MBE-grown InAs/AlSb thin films for HEMT applications using neural networks

Conference 2001 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, ISDRS 2001 - Proceedings · January 1, 2001 Statistical experimental design was used to explore the effects of the HEMT channel growth parameters on device performance. A 22 full-factorial central composite circumscribed Box-Wilson design with three center points was implemented. The growth paramete ... Full text Cite

The Chemistry of Sapphire Nitridation in Relation to the GaN Structural Quality: Why Low Temperature 200°C Nitridation?

Journal Article Physica Status Solidi (A) Applied Research · 2001 The effect of c-plane sapphire nitridation upon exposure to a rf N2 plasma at temperatures in the range 100-700°C on the quality of GaN epilayers grown by MBE is investigated. A homogeneous A1N layer is formed at 200°C. Nitridation at higher temperatures c ... Full text Cite

The chemistry of sapphire nitridation in relation to the GaN structural quality: Why low temperature 200°C nitridation?

Journal Article Phys. Status Solidi A (Germany) · 2001 The effect of c-plane sapphire nitridation upon exposure to an rf N2 plasma at temperatures in the range 100-700°C on the quality of GaN epilayers grown by MBE is investigated. A homogeneous AlN layer is formed at 200°C. Nitridation at higher tempe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Characterization of algan/gan structures on various substrates grown by radio frequency-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 2001 The structural properties and surface morphology of AlGaN/GaN structures grown on LiGaO2 (LGO), sapphire, and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE)-grown GaN templates are compared. AlGaN grown on LGO substrates shows the narrowest x-ray full width at half ma ... Full text Cite

Recent advances in III-nitride devices grown on lithium gallate

Journal Article Phys. Status Solidi A (Germany) · 2001 We discuss recent advances in the growth of III-nitride materials and devices, which include: (i) The reduction of the near-surface threading dislocation density in GaN on lithium gallate (LGO) to ≈2×107 cm-2. (ii) The demonstration of GaN, 50&tim ... Full text Link to item Cite

Heterogeneous integration: From substrate technology to active packaging

Journal Article Technical Digest-International Electron Devices Meeting · January 1, 2001 Heterogeneous integration of dissimilar materials and devices is necessary for the continued advancement of electronic and optoelectronic systems. A range of processes has been developed in recent years that will enable system integration and advanced pack ... Full text Cite

Highly alignment tolerant InGaAs inverted MSM photodetector heterogeneously integrated on a differential Si CMOS receiver operating at 1 Gbps

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · January 1, 2001 The increasing demand for high bandwidth, low latency I/O in gigascale systems is challenging current packaging technology. Optoelectronic I/O offers needed performance, but presents new challenges in mixed signal (digital, analog, optical, RF) design and ... Full text Cite

Incorporation of Mg in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 25, 2000 We describe dramatically decreased Mg incorporation in GaN above a critical Mg flux. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis showed a linear increase in Mg concentration up to a flux equivalent to 8.0×10-10 Torr beam equivalent pressure (BEP) and 1.6×10-9 ... Full text Cite

Smart photonics: Optoelectronics integrated with Si CMOS VLSI circuits

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 2000 Smart photonics, the integration of optoelectronic devices with electronic circuits and systems, has growing applications in many fields, one of which is computing. An exploration of the opportunities, integration technologies, and some recent results usin ... Cite

Alignment tolerant InP/Si CMOS hybrid integrated photoreceivers operating at 0.9 Gbps

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2000 An overview is given on the hybrid integration of a thin film large area, low capacitance InGaAsP/InP inverted metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector onto a Si CMOS differential receiver circuit. The integrated receiver has a measured bit-error-rate (BER) ... Cite

Analysis of alignment tolerant hybrid optoelectronic receivers for high density interconnection substrates

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · December 1, 2000 High frequency signal distribution in HDI/HDW substrates can be achieved using optical interconnections. To realize effective milli- and micro-haul interconnections on these substrates, the hybrid integration of independently optimized interface circuits a ... Cite

Neural Network Modeling of Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Journal Article American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Heat Transfer Division, (Publication) HTD · December 1, 2000 This paper presents the systematic characterization of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) process to quantitatively model the effects of process conditions on film qualities. A five-layer, undoped AlGaAs and InGaAs single quantum well structure grown on a Ga ... Cite

GaN thin film material bonded to host substrates using selective chemical etching

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 2000 GaN-based materials and devices are drawing significant interest for ultraviolet and blue optical device applications, and high power electronic device applications. An alternative approach toward GaN thin film separation and integration on dissimilar mate ... Cite

Growth and characterization of InGaAs/AlInAs HEMT structures on oxide-bonded InGaAs substrates

Journal Article IEEE International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, Proceedings · December 1, 2000 InGaAs/AlInAs HEMT structures have been grown on oxide-bonded InGaAs substrates. De-oxidation and growth conditions are developed that enable good electrical properties. The highest electron mobility obtained was 7258 cm2/V at 300K. The surface morphology ... Cite

Status and promise of compliant substrate technology

Journal Article Applied Surface Science · October 9, 2000 Compliant substrates offer significant promise as a new approach for strain management in semiconductors. The primary application is to produce device-quality highly mismatched materials on dissimilar substrates. Various implementations and processes for a ... Full text Cite

Configurations of misfit dislocations at interfaces of lattice-matched Ga0.5In0.5P/GaAs heterostructures

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · July 10, 2000 A configuration of misfit dislocation dipoles is observed in a Ga0.5In0.5P heterostructure grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs. The dipole dislocations are mostly of 60° type, separated by ∼3.5 nm. The dislocations are not produced by conv ... Full text Cite

Using statistical experimental design to investigate the role of the initial growth conditions on GaN epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · May 1, 2000 The initial growth stage of GaN growth directly on basal plane sapphire substrate is investigated. Statistical experimental design is used for the optimization of processes with a large number of interwoven effects. The effects of growth conditions on elec ... Full text Cite

MBE growth of high quality GaN on LiGaO2 for high frequency, high power electronic applications

Journal Article Solid-State Electronics · February 1, 2000 Lithium gallate is receiving ever increasing attention as a possible candidate for III-nitride material growth due to its superior lattice match. This paper summarizes the recent, promising results from material growths on lithium gallate including aluminu ... Full text Cite

Neural network modeling of molecular beam epitaxy

Conference ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) · January 1, 2000 This paper presents the systematic characterization of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) process to quantitatively model the effects of process conditions on film qualities. A five-layer, undoped AlGaAs and InGaAs single quantum well structure grown on a Ga ... Full text Cite

Comparison of AlGaN and GaN grown on various substrates: Step flow growth on LiGaO2 at low growth temperature

Journal Article Materials Science Forum · 2000 AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were grown on LiGaO2 (LGO), sapphire, and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown GaN substrates. Structural properties and surface morphology of each film was compared. LGO substrates produced the lowest FWHM values for both sy ... Cite

Electrical properties of InAlAs/InAsxP1-x/InP composite-channel modulation-doped structures grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 2000 We report on the electrical characteristics of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in an InAlAs/InAsxP1-x/InP pseudomorphic composite-channel modulation-doped (MD) structure grown by solid source (arsenic and phosphorus) molecular beam epitaxy ( ... Full text Cite

Low temperature nitridation combined with high temperature buffer annealing for high quality GaN grown by plasma-assisted MBE

Journal Article MRS Internet Journal of Nitride Semiconductor Research · January 1, 2000 The effect of the initial nitridation of the sapphire substrate on the GaN crystal quality as a function of substrate temperature was studied. GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on sapphire substrates nitridated at differ ... Full text Cite

Growth of GaN on lithium gallate (LiGaO2) substrates for material integration

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 2000 Compliant substrates offer a new approach for strain management in semiconductors. Various implementations and processes for achieving substrate compliancy have been proposed and demonstrated. These include the use of twist-, glass-, and metal-bonds. A rec ... Full text Cite

Microsystem Optoelectronic Integration for Mixed Multisignal Systems

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · January 1, 2000 The integration and packaging of optoelectronic devices with electronic circuits and systems has growing application in many fields, ranging from long to micro haul links. An exploration of the opportunities, integration technologies, and some recent resul ... Full text Cite

Building collaborative teams for multi-disciplinary educational projects in optoelectronics

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 2000 Multidisciplinary team-oriented research is an effective method for investigating systems spanning multiple knowledge areas. Building on cross-functional team strategies developed for highly competitive industries, experts from a variety of technical domai ... Full text Cite

Lateral compositional modulation in lattice-matched GaInP/GaAs heterostructures

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 2000 High-resolution transmission electron microscopy has been employed to study the microstructure of GaAs lattice-matched GaInP heterostructures grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that the GaInP epilayers undergo lateral compositional m ... Full text Cite

Design of a smart pixel multispectral imaging array using 3D stacked thin film detectors on Si CMOS circuits

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · January 1, 2000 A 'smart' multispectral imaging system that can be fabricated with independently optimized detector arrays and Si CMOS circuits is described. This imager utilizes the heterogeneous integration of thin film GaN (UV), MCT (MWIR), and Si CMOS circuitry to cre ... Full text Cite

Alignment tolerant hybrid photoreceivers using inverted MSMs

Journal Article LEOS Summer Topical Meeting · January 1, 2000 A thin film large area, low capacitance, high responsivity InGaAs/InP inverted metal-semiconductor-metal (I-MSM) was hybrid integrated onto a Si CMOS differential receiver circuit. The integrated receiver demonstrated a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10-11 at 414 ... Cite

Comparison of AlGaN and GaN grown on various substrates: Step flow growth on LiGaO2 at low growth temperature

Journal Article Materials Science Forum · 2000 AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were grown on LiGaO2 (LGO), sapphire, and hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown GaN substrates. Structural properties and surface morphology of each film was compared. LGO substrates produced the lowest FWHM values for both sy ... Cite

Using neural networks to construct models of the molecular beam epitaxy process

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing · January 1, 2000 This paper presents the systematic characterization of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) process to quantitatively model the effects of process conditions on film qualities. A five-layer, undoped AlGaAs and InGaAs single quantum well structure grown on a Ga ... Full text Cite

Smart photonics: Optoelectronics integrated onto Si CMOS circuits

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 1999 Smart photonics, or the integration of optoelectronic (OE) devices and links with circuitry such as Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits, can yield both advanced optical links and possibly integrated ... Cite

Electrical and structural characterization of AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown on LiGaO2 substrates

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · May 31, 1999 In this letter, we report on the properties of a AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructure grown on LiGaO2. A two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is observed with mobility of 731 cm2/V s at room temperature and 2166 cm2/V s at 77 K. A comparison of the structural qual ... Full text Cite

High resolution X-ray diffraction analyses of GaN/LiGaO2

Journal Article Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics · May 21, 1999 Lithium gallate (LiGaO2) is gaining increasing attention as a potential substrate for the growth of the important semiconductor GaN. In order to better understand this material we have performed high-resolution double- and triple-axis x-ray diffraction ana ... Full text Cite

Three-layer 3-D silicon system using through-Si vertical optical interconnections and Si CMOS hybrid building blocks

Journal Article IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics · March 1, 1999 We present for the first time a three-dimensional (3-D) Si CMOS interconnection system consisting of three layers of optically interconnected hybrid integrated Si CMOS transceivers. The transceivers were fabricated using 0.8-μm digital Si CMOS foundry circ ... Full text Cite

Optical and structural properties of strained InAlAs/InAsxP1-x multi-quantum wells grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 1999 The growth of InP/InAsxP1-x and InAlAs/InAsxP1-x heterostructures was studied using P and As sources. The As4 flux is incorporated much less efficiently into higher As percentage InAsP due to the higher strain in the grown InAsP film. The InP/InAsP multipl ... Full text Cite

Arsenic incorporation in InAsP/InP quantum wells

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 1999 InAsP/InP multiquantum well structures were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy using either As2 or As4 over a substrate temperature range of 420-535 °C. All quantum wells had similar arsenic compositions with a 2.2% standard deviation regardless ... Full text Cite

Solid source MBE growth of InAsP/InP quantum wells

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 1999 Strained InAsP multiquantum wells (MWQs) were grown on InP(100) substrates by solid source molecular beam epitaxy and were characterized to relate structural and optical quality to growth conditions. The multiquantum wells were grown using either dimer or ... Full text Cite

Growth of InAsP/InP quantum wells by solid source MBE on misoriented and exact InP (1 1 1)B: Substrate temperature and arsenic species effects

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · January 1, 1999 Two series of strained InAsP/InP multiquantum wells (MQWs) were grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (SSMBE) simultaneously on Fe-doped InP substrates with a growth orientation of either (1 0 0), exact (1 1 1)B, and (1 1 1)B misoriented 1° toward 〈 ... Full text Cite

Compliant substrate processes

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 1999 Recent results indicate that compliant substrates offer significant promise as a new approach for strain management in semiconductors. The potential applications include 1) the growth of device-quality highly mismatched materials on dissimilar substrates, ... Full text Cite

Composite-channel InP HEMT for W-band power amplifiers

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials · January 1, 1999 We have developed composite-channel InP-InGaAs HEMTs for W-band high power amplifier applications. The optimized 0.15 μm T-gate device demonstrated state-of-the-art gm-Imax combination. It also showed a 1.5 V improvement in on-state and off-state breakdown ... Cite

Compliant substrate strain modulated epitaxy for WDM laser arrays

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting-LEOS · December 1, 1998 A new method for making a multiple-wavelength laser array by using strain modulated epitaxy is described. This growth process, which enables growth on a smooth substrate surface while enabling three dimensional band structure engineering, uses a bottom-pat ... Cite

Compliant substrate technology: Status and prospects

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · January 1, 1998 Compliant substrates offer a new approach to strain management in lattice-mismatched structures. The role of the compliant substrate is to reduce the strain in a mismatched overlayer by sharing the strain via deformation of the substrate, or by nucleating ... Full text Cite

Modification of quantum dot properties via surface exchange and annealing: Substrate temperature effects

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · January 1, 1998 Increasingly self-assembled quantum dots produced by the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode during molecular beam epitaxy are being used for both photonic and electronic devices. In order to fully realize the potential of these nanostructures, control of both ... Full text Cite

MBE growth of high quality GaN on LiGaO2

Journal Article J. Electron. Mater. (USA) · 1998 We report on the growth of high structural quality (as determined by X-ray diffraction) GaN on a near lattice matched substrate, lithium gallate (LiGaO2 or LGO). Low temperature growth conditions are described that result in very thin GaN films (<0.3 &m ... Cite

Selective wet etchinq of lithium gallate

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1998 Lithium gallate (LGO) is an attractive, near lattice matched substrate for the growth of GaN. In addition, LGO substrates provide a convenient route to forming thin films of GaN as used in substrate removal or lift-off processes. We report the wet etching ... Full text Cite

Growth of GaN on lithium gallate substrates for development of a GaN thin compliant substrate

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · January 1, 1998 Since we have found that an entire substrate can be chemically removed in less than 5 min and since GaN is impervious to chemical etching, the GaN on lithium gallate (LGO) system is an excellent template (due to near infinite etch selectivity) for developi ... Full text Cite

A new mechanism for spontaneous nanostructure formation on bottom-patterned compliant substrates

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · November 10, 1997 Bottom-patterned compliant substrates can be used to laterally modulate the properties of a mismatched epilayer. At temperatures where strain-dependent growth kinetics are significant, the GaAs bottom pattern compliant substrates affected the growth of str ... Full text Cite

Metastability modeling of compliant substrate critical thickness using experimental strain relief data

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · September 8, 1997 A metastability model for GaAs compliant substrates is developed using the compliant substrate partitioning formula and experimental strain relief data. The developed model agrees with compliant substrate strain relief data deduced from double crystal x-ra ... Full text Cite

Analysis of In0.07Ga0.93As layers on GaAs compliant substrates by double crystal x-ray diffraction

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · March 31, 1997 Double crystal x-ray diffraction data is presented from the most extensive compliant substrate experiment to date. Five consecutive InGaAs-GaAs growths were performed simultaneously on GaAs-based thin film compliant substrates and thick reference substrate ... Full text Cite

A 100 Mbps, LED through-wafer optoelectronic link for multicomputer interconnection networks

Journal Article Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing · February 25, 1997 Through-wafer optoelectronic interconnect offers some architectural alternatives that are not available with wire-based interconnects. In order to compete with wire-based technologies, optoelectronic interconnects must provide reasonable performance in ter ... Full text Cite

The growth of AlGaAs-InGaAs quantum-well structures by molecular beam epitaxy: Observation of critical interdependent effects

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 6, 1997 Critical interdependent effects have been observed in the growth of AlGaAs/InGaAs quantum-well structures by molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that statistical experimental design is an effective method for quickly optimizing complex device structures. T ... Full text Cite

Modeling MBE RHEED signals using PCA and neural networks

Conference Proceedings of the IEEE 24th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, ISCS 1997 · January 1, 1997 This paper introduces a novel technique for constructing an empirical model which relates RHEED intensity patterns to the physical characteristics of MBE grown thin films. A fractional factorial experiment is used to systematically characterize the growth ... Full text Cite

Analysis of GaAs substrate removal etching with citric acid:H2O2 and NH4OH:H2O2 for application to compliant substrates

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · January 1, 1997 New properties associated with selective substrate removal have been observed in the application of this technique to GaAs thin film compliant substrates. Citric acid- and NH4OH-based etches are used to selectively etch the GaAs substrate and stop on an Al ... Full text Cite

Growth dynamics of InGaAs/GaAs by MBE

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · January 1, 1997 The growth dynamics of the InGaAs/GaAs system have been investigated by desorption mass spectrometry (DMS). Indium desorption spectra indicate the presence of one or two desorption mechanisms depending on the V/III beam equivalent pressure ratio. The activ ... Full text Cite

Coupling efficiency of an alignment-tolerant, single fiber, bi-directional link

Journal Article Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference · January 1, 1997 In this paper, we present a novel Fourier technique to calculate the emitter-to-fiber coupling efficiency between an incoherent source of arbitrary directivity and a multimode fiber. The technique expresses the 4-D integral that describes the coupling as a ... Cite

Growth dynamics of InGaAs/GaAs by MBE

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · 1997 The growth dynamics of the InGaAs/GaAs system have been investigated by desorption mass spectrometry (DMS). Indium desorption spectra indicate the presence of one or two desorption mechanisms depending on the V/III beam equivalent pressure ratio. The activ ... Cite

The growth of AlGaAs-InGaAs quantum-well structures by molecular beam epitaxy: Observation of critical interdependent effects utilizing the design of experiments approach

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · January 1, 1997 The traditional approach to determine relationships between growth conditions and material properties has rested on the standard experimental approach - varying one parameter while holding all others constant. This technique does not effectively allow the ... Full text Cite

Real-time monitoring of RHEED using machine vision techniques

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · January 1, 1997 A RHEED system has been developed that allows real-time monitoring of RHEED information throughout a multilayer growth run with rotation. The machine vision system consists of high-speed image capture hardware coupled with digital signal processing softwar ... Full text Cite

Analysis of GaAs substrate removal etching with citric acid:H 2O 2 and NH 4OH:H 2O 2 for application to compliant substrates

Journal Article Journal of the Electrochemical Society · 1997 New properties associated with selective substrate removal have been observed in the application of this technique to GaAs thin film compliant substrates. Citric acid- and NH 4OH-based etches are used to selectively etch the GaAs substrate and stop on an A ... Cite

Compliant substrates for reduction of strain relief in mismatched overlayers

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 1997 Thin film compliant substrates can be used to extend the critical thickness in mismatched overlayers. A metastability model has been coupled with recent experimental strain relief data to determine the critical thickness of InGaAs epilayers grown on GaAs c ... Cite

Growth of GaN on lithium gallate substrates for development of a GaN thin compliant substrate

Journal Article Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings · January 1, 1997 The GaN on LGO system is the near perfect template (due to extremely high etch selectivity) for developing a viable thin film/compliant GaN substrate. Herein, we report on our efforts to grow GaN on LGO, including improvement of the microscopic surface mor ... Full text Cite

Double heterojunction bipolar transistors with InP epitaxial layers grown by solid-source MBE

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials · January 1, 1997 InP-based HBTs featuring InP emitters and collectors are compared to those containing InAlAs emitters and InGaAs collectors. The InP emitter HBTs exhibited excellent β and no As-P intermixing. The InP collector HBTs showed two orders of magnitude improveme ... Cite

Dependence of Al0.48In0.52As Schottky diode properties on molecular beam epitaxial growth temperature

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1996 We have observed a degradation in the epitaxial layer quality of AlInAs when it is grown by molecular beam epitaxy at a substrate temperature of about 400°C compared to that for alloys grown at 300 and 500°C. The barrier height and ideality factor of Ti- a ... Full text Cite

SIMPil: An OE integrated SIMD architecture for focal plane processing applications

Journal Article International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI), Proceedings · December 1, 1996 Focal plane processing applications present a growing computing need for portable telecomputing and videoputing systems. This paper demonstrates the integration of digital processing, analog interface circuitry, and thin film OE devices into a compact comp ... Cite

Statistical experimental design for MBE process characterization

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE/CPMT International Electronic Manufacturing Technology (IEMT) Symposium · December 1, 1996 This paper presents a statistically designed experiment for systematic characterization of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) process to quantitatively describe the effects of process conditions on the qualities of grown films. This methodology is applied to ... Cite

Strain-modulated epitaxy: A flexible approach to 3-D band structure engineering without surface patterning

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · July 8, 1996 Thin compliant growth substrates have been used to reduce the strain in lattice-mismatched overlayers during epitaxial growth. This letter reports a new thin compliant substrate technology which allows these thin substrates to be patterned on the bottom, b ... Full text Cite

n-paraffin solid solutions: modification of phase separation with carbon number

Journal Article Chem. Phys. Lett. (Netherlands) · 1996 Small-angle neutron scattering is used to monitor microphase formation in the solid state in equimolar binary hydrocarbon systems CnH2n+2:CmD2m+2 for selected n=20-34 and m=36. Microphase formation is maximum for n=28 and negligible for n=20, 32 and 34. n= ... Full text Link to item Cite

Strain-modulated epitaxy: Modification of growth kinetics via patterned, compliant substrates

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures · January 1, 1996 Bonded, thin film compliant substrates can be used to reduce the strain in a lattice-mismatched overlayer during epitaxial growth. We have presented an initial demonstration of the use of thin film GaAs compliant substrates fabricated by epitaxial liftoff ... Full text Cite

Strain accommodation in mismatched layers by molecular beam epitaxy: Introduction of a new compliant substrate technology

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · January 1, 1996 Compliant substrates allow a new approach to the growth of strained epitaxial layers, in which part of the strain is accommodated in the substrate. In this article compliant substrates are discussed and a new compliant substrate technology based on bonded ... Full text Cite

Design issues for through-wafer optoelectronic multicomputer interconnects

Journal Article International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI), Proceedings · December 1, 1995 This paper presents several design issues associated with the implementation of a three dimensional optically interconnected parallel processing system. A technique for improving bit error rate in low power multistage networks is presented. Error detection ... Cite

Dependence of Al0.48In0.52As Schottky diode properties on molecular beam epitaxial growth temperature

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1995 We have observed a degradation in the epitaxial layer quality of AlInAs when it is grown by molecular beam epitaxy at a substrate temperature of about 400°C compared to that for alloys grown at 300 and 500°C. The barrier height and ideality factor of Ti- a ... Cite

Strain-modulated epitaxy: A flexible approach to 3-D band structure engineering without surface patterning

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1995 Thin compliant growth substrates have been used to reduce the strain in lattice-mismatched overlayers during epitaxial growth. This letter reports a new thin compliant substrate technology which allows these thin substrates to be patterned on the bottom, b ... Cite

Manufacturable multi-material integration: Compound semiconductor devices bonded to silicon circuitry

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · September 15, 1995 The integration of thin film optoelectronic devices with host substrates such as circuits, waveguides, and micromachines offers to the systems engineer the freedom to choose the optimal materials to achieve performance and cost objectives. In essence, the ... Full text Cite

155- and 213-GHz AlInAs/GaInAs/InP HEMT MMIC Oscillators

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques · January 1, 1995 We report on the design and measurement of monolithic 155- and 213-GHz quasi-optical oscillators using AlInAs/GaInAs/InP HEMT' s. These results are believed to be the highest frequency three-terminal oscillators reported to date. The indium concentration i ... Full text Cite

Three-dimensional, massively parallel, optically interconnected silicon computational hardware and architectures for high-speed IR scene generation

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · January 1, 1995 High frame rate infrared scene generation depends on high performance digital processors that are tightly coupled to infrared emitter arrays. Massively parallel image generation hardware can realize the type of high throughput, high frame rate processing t ... Cite

High efficiency, high gain K- and Ku-band InP-based HEMT MMIC amplifiers for array applications

Journal Article · December 1, 1994 We present measurements of two InP-Based HEMT MMIC power amplifiers. One operated at 15 GHz, the other at 20 GHz. Both demonstrated > 20 dB gain, > 40% power added efficiency, and > 100 mW output power with < 2 dB of gain compression, simultaneously achiev ... Cite

Growth of high performance InxGa1-xAs (.52 < x <.9) - (Al.48In.52As) high electron mobility transistors by MBE

Journal Article IEEE International Conferece on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials · 1994 The paper reports the successful attempts at significantly improving the electron mobility in thin channel, device structures with high two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) concentrations. InGaAs-AlInAs modulation-doped structures were grown by MBE in a Rib ... Full text Link to item Cite

Growth of high performance InxGa1-xAs (.52 < x <.9) - (Al.48In.52As) high electron mobility transistors by MBE

Journal Article Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials · 1994 The paper reports the successful attempts at significantly improving the electron mobility in thin channel, device structures with high two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) concentrations. InGaAs-AlInAs modulation-doped structures were grown by MBE in a Rib ... Cite

44-GHz High-Efficiency InP-HEMT MMIC Power Amplifier

Journal Article IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters · January 1, 1994 A high-efficiency power amplifier was developed using 0.15-μm gatelength, InP-based (GalnAs/AlInAs/InP), HEMT MMIC technology. The amplifier demonstrated state-of-the-art performance. The output power at 1-dB compression point was 28 dBm at 44.5 GHz. The c ... Full text Cite

Effect of growth conditions on the electrical and optical properties of AlxIn1-xAs (0.48<x<0.7)-Ga0.47In 0.53As heterostructures

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1993 An increase of the Al- content of AlInAs layers above that of the composition which is lattice matched to InP (Al0.48In 0.52As) has been shown to lead to increased Schottky barrier height [Lin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1593 (1986)]. This technique has ... Full text Cite

Structure of Ga0.47In0.53As epitaxial layers grown on InP substrates at different temperatures

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1993 The evolution of defect structures and surface reconstruction of Ga 0.47In0.53As epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrate have been investigated by TEM and RHEED over a wide growth temperature range (150°C≤Tg≤450°C) before and afte ... Full text Cite

Ordering in InGaAs/InAlAs layers

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · December 1, 1993 The structure of InCaAs/InAlAs layers lattice matched to an InP substrate, grown on either (100) or on (110) with a 4° tilt toward [111] at 500 and 300°C has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. High perfection resulted for the layers gro ... Full text Cite

High-efficiency InP-based HEMT MMIC power amplifier

Journal Article Technical Digest - GaAs IC Symposium (Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuit) · December 1, 1993 High-efficiency monolithic Q-band power amplifiers were developed using InP based HEMT MMIC technology. The amplifiers demonstrated state-of-art power performance including 33 percent power-added efficiency and 26 dBm of output power at 44 GHz. This is the ... Cite

InP-based HEMTs for the realization of ultra-high efficiency millimeterwave power amplifiers

Journal Article Proceedings of the IEEE Cornell Conference on Advanced Concepts in High Speed Semiconductor Devices and Circuits · December 1, 1993 The paper discusses efforts undertaken to find ways for the application of InP high electron mobility transistors. Electric properties of these devices are being improved to be comparable with that of the GaAs based PHEMTs in the critical area of power add ... Cite

High-Power V-Band AlInAs/GaInAs on InP HEMT's

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · January 1, 1993 We report on the dc and RF performance of δ-doped channel AlInAs/GaInAs on InP power HEMT's. A 450-μm-wide device with a gate length of 0.22 μm has achieved an output power of 150 mW (at the 1-dB gain compression point) with power-added efficiency of 20% a ... Full text Cite

50 nm InP high electron mobility transistors

Journal Article Microw. J. (USA) · 1993 A new type of field-effect transistor (FET), the indium phosphide high electron mobility transistor (InP HEMT), has recently emerged as an attractive candidate for low noise applications at microwave and MM-wave frequencies. It exhibits the lowest noise fi ... Cite

A 2-GHz Three-Stage AlInAs—GaInAs—InP HEMT MMIC Low-Noise Amplifier

Journal Article IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters · January 1, 1993 A three-stage monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) low-noise amplifier (LNA) has been fabricated using 0.15-μm gate-length InP-based (AlInAs—GaInAs) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) technology. The LNA exhibited less than 0.5-dB noise fig ... Full text Cite

Highly selective reactive ion etch process for InP-based device fabrication using methane/hydrogen/argon

Journal Article J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom. (USA) · 1993 The etch rates of GaInAs and AlInAs were characterized using a mixture of methane, hydrogen, and argon as a function of self-bias voltage. Effectively infinite etch selectivity between GaInAs and AlInAs was found for voltages below 200 V. This highly selec ... Full text Link to item Cite

V-Band High-Efficiency High-Power AlInAs/GaInAs/InP HEMT’s

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques · January 1, 1993 In this paper, we report on the state-of-the-art power performance of InP-based HEMT’s at V-band. Power HEMT’s were fabricated using two different material layer structures. The power performances of these HEMT’s were measured at 59 GHz. We were able to ac ... Full text Cite

20-GHz High-Efficiency AlInAs-GalnAs on InP Power HEMT

Journal Article IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters · January 1, 1993 A single stage 20-GHz power amplifier was developed using double-doped AlInAs-GaInAs on InP HEMT. Output power of 516 mW (0.645 W/mm) with power-added efficiency of 47.1% with 7.1-dB gain were obtained from an 800-μ m wide device. The device had a saturate ... Full text Cite

AlInAs/GaInAs on InP HEMTs for low power supply voltage operation of high power-added efficiency microwave amplifiers

Journal Article Electronics Letters · January 1, 1993 High power-added efficiency microwave power amplifier results are reported for AllnAs/GalnAs on InP HEMTs operated at relatively low power supply voltages (2.5-3V). C-band power amplifiers are reported with power-added efficiencies as high as 67%, and outp ... Full text Cite

Structural and electrical properties of low temperature GaInAs

Journal Article J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom. (USA) · 1993 GaInAs lattice matched to InP was grown by molecular-beam epitaxy over a temperature range of 100-450°C and characterized by X-ray diffraction, resistivity, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the incorporation of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Growth and properties of AlInAs-GaInAs alloys and quantum wells on (110)InP

Journal Article J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom. (USA) · 1993 GaInAs and AlInAs structures have been grown on on-axis and misoriented [4°-(111) In-plane] (110) InP substrates. In general, the growth on the on-axis substrates shows a high density of defects; while the surface morphology using misoriented substrate ... Full text Link to item Cite

Study of the dependence of Ga0.47In0.53As/Alx In1-xAs power HEMT breakdown voltage on Schottky layer design and device layout

Journal Article IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (USA) · 1993 Summary form only given. A systematic study of the improvement of Ga0.47In0.53As/Alx In1-xAs HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) breakdown voltage by varying the Schottky layer design and device geometry is presented. The HEMT structure investigated i ... Full text Link to item Cite

High-Efficiency InP-Based HEMT MMIC Power Amplifier for Q-Band Applications

Journal Article IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters · January 1, 1993 Advanced millimeter-wave systems require high-efficiency MMIC power amplifiers to reduce physical size, weight, and prime power consumption. A high-efficiency MMIC power amplifier was developed using 0.15 um InP-based (Al0.48In0.53As/Ga0.47 In0.53 As) HEMT ... Full text Cite

A 213 GHz AlInAs/GalnAs/InP HEMT MMIC Oscillator

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting, IEDM · January 1, 1993 Cite

V-band high-efficiency high-power AlInAs/GaInAs/InP HEMTs

Journal Article IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest · January 1, 1993 In this paper we report on the stage-of-the-art power performance of InP-based HEMTs at 59 GHz. Using a 448 μm wide HEMT with a gate-length of 0.15 μm, an output power of 155 mW with 4.9 dB gain, and power-added efficiency of 30.1% were obtained. By power ... Cite

Rapid thermal annealing characteristics of bulk AlInAs/InP and AlInAs/GaInAs/InP high electron mobility transistor structures with planar silicon doping

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · December 1, 1992 The effects of high temperature rapid thermal annealing processes on carrier concentration and mobility of bulk AlInAs and AlInAs/GaInAs high electron mobility transistor structures with planar Si doping are studied. At annealing temperatures of 700°C and ... Full text Cite

50-nm Self-Aligned-Gate Pseudomorphic AlInAs/ GaInAs High Electron Mobility Transistors

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1992 We report on the design and fabrication of a new class of 50-nm self-aligned-gate pseudomorphic Alin As/GalnAs High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT’s) with potential for ultra-high-frequency and ultra-low-noise applications. These devices exhibit an ex ... Full text Cite

Growth and properties of high mobility strained inverted AlInAs-GaInAs modulation doped structures

Journal Article J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom. (USA) · 1992 GaInAs-AlInAs inverted modulation-doped structures exhibit degraded two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) transport properties when grown under standard conditions. This results from the surface segregation of Si from the donor layer into the GaInAs channel ... Full text Link to item Cite

650-angstrom self-aligned-gate pseudomorphic Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.20In0.80As high electron mobility transistors

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · 1992 The authors report on the design and fabrication of a 650-angstrom self-aligned-gate pseudomorphic Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.20In0.80As high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a state-of-the-art current gain cutoff frequency of over 300 GHz. This work clear ... Full text Link to item Cite

650-angstrom self-aligned-gate pseudomorphic Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.20In0.80As high electron mobility transistors

Journal Article Electron device letters · 1992 The authors report on the design and fabrication of a 650-angstrom self-aligned-gate pseudomorphic Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.20In0.80As high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a state-of-the-art current gain cutoff frequency of over 300 GHz. This work clear ... Cite

Effect of Si movement on the electrical properties of inverted AlInAs-GaInAs modulation doped structures

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1991 Inverted modulation doped structures typically exhibit degraded electrical characteristics. For the AlInAs-GaInAs heterojunction system, the reduction in electron mobility for two-dimensional electron gases formed at inverted interfaces can be greater than ... Full text Cite

High power and high efficiency AlInAs/GaInAs on InP HEMTs

Journal Article IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest · December 1, 1991 The authors report on the development of AlInAs/GaInAs-on-InP power HEMTs (high electron mobility transistors). Output power densities of more than 730 mW/mm and 960 mW/mm with power-added efficiencies (PAE) of 50% and 40%, respectively, were achieved at 1 ... Cite

Reduced silicon movement in GaInAs/AlInAs HEMT structures with low temperature AlInAs spacers

Journal Article Institute of Physics Conference Series · December 1, 1991 High electron mobility transistors fabricated from GaInAs/AlInAs modulation-doped structure currently exhibit the highest current gain cut-off frequency, highest maximum frequency of oscillation and lowest noise figure of any three terminal device. The dat ... Cite

Growth and characterization of low temperature AlInAs

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · May 2, 1991 Al0.48In0.52As lattice matched to InP and grown by MBE over a temperature range of 250 to 100°C and under an As4 pressure of 1x10-6 to 2x10-5 Torr has been investigated. Over this temperature range of 250 to 100°C, resistivity decreases from 2x107 to 3x106 ... Full text Cite

IIIB-3 InP-Based Inverted High Electron Mobility Transistors

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1991 Full text Cite

An overview of microwave waveguide technology

Journal Article Electrotechnology (UK) · 1991 With the increasing demand for microwave circuitry in both the consumer and industrial markets the engineering expertise to develop these techniques is becoming a key issue. The profusion of engineers now being faced with the problems of signal processing ... Cite

A model study of the κ-refinement procedure for fitting valence electron densities

Journal Article Acta Crystallogr. A, Found. Crystallogr. (Denmark) · 1991 Monopole electron-density deformations for first- and second-row atoms are obtained using Hirshfeld partitioning of near Hartree-Fock limit electron densities for 28 diatomics. The κ-refinement model [Coppens, Guru Row, Leung, Stevens, Becker and Yan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Room temperature and cryogenic performance of self-aligned AlInAs-GaInAs HEMTs with 0.15 μm gate length

Journal Article Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · December 1, 1990 A novel self-aligned technique for 0.15μm gate length AlInAs-GaInAs HEMTs has been demonstrated. Devices with an oxide sidewall yielded an fT of 177 GHz whereas devices with no sidewall exhibited an fT greater than 250 GHz. The difference has been related ... Cite

The effects and implications of ESD on semiconductor technology

Journal Article Electrotechnology (UK) · 1990 Since the development and implementation of large scale and very large scale integration techniques (LSI and VLSI), manufacturers have become increasingly aware of the damaging and destructive properties of electrostatic discharge (ESD) on semiconductor ma ... Cite

GaAs MESFET digital integrated circuits fabricated with low temperature buffer technology

Journal Article Proceedings of the Custom Integrated Circuits Conference · December 1, 1989 High-performance digital integrated circuits have been fabricated for the first time with low-temperature buffer GaAs MESFET technology. The new materials structure eliminates sidegating and light sensitivity, and improves FET performance. Individual 0.2 μ ... Full text Cite

Novel high performance self-aligned 0.15 micron long T-gate AlInAs-GaInAs HEMTs

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · December 1, 1989 A novel self-aligned technique for 0.15-μm-gate-length HEMTs (high electron mobility transistors) has been demonstrated. This technology uses a 0.15-μm-long T-gate structure defined by e-beam lithography with a SiO2 sidewall to implement the self-aligned s ... Cite

Vertical scaling of ultra-high-speed AlInAs-GaInAs HEMTs

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · December 1, 1989 The scaling of the vertical dimensions of 0.15-μm-gate-length Al0.48In0.52As-Ga0.47In0.53As high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) to reduce their well-known excessive gate leakage current, premature breakdown voltage, and poor output conductance is di ... Cite

Low-temperature buffer AlInAs/GaInAs on InP HEMT technology for ultra-high-speed integrated circuits

Journal Article Technical Digest - GaAs IC Symposium (Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuit) · December 1, 1989 A report is presented on the development of a planar low-temperature buffer AlInAs/GaInAs on InP high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) technology for use in digital and analog integrated circuits. This technology is attractive for circuit applications b ... Cite

Low temperature MBE growth of GaAs and AlInAs for high speed devices

Journal Article · December 1, 1989 Low-temperature GaAs buffer technology was used to fabricate high-performance 0.2-μm-gate-length, spike-doped GaAs MESFETs. A 400.0-nm low-temperature GaAs buffer was grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at a substrate temperature of 300°C. The substrate ... Cite

Impact of buffer layer design on the performance of AlInAs-GaInAs HEMT's

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · November 1, 1989 Summary form only given. The authors report a study of the impact of buffer layer design on the characteristics of Al0.48In0.52As-Ga0.47In0.53As HEMTs (high-electron-mobility transistors). The aim of the study is to understand and correct the problem of hi ... Cite

GaAs MESFET digital integrated circuits fabricated with low temperature buffer technology

Journal Article Proceedings of the Custom Integrated Circuits Conference · May 1, 1989 High-performance digital integrated circuits have been fabricated with low-temperature buffer GaAs MESFET technology. The materials structure eliminates side-gating and light sensitivity, and improves FET performance. Individual transistors with a 0.2-μm g ... Cite

Ultrahigh speed static and dynamic frequency divider circuits

Journal Article Microwave journal · March 1, 1989 This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of high speed GaAs MESFET and AlInAs/GaInAs HEMT frequency divider circuits. GaAs MESFET static frequency dividers operate at frequencies up to 18 GHz, and GaAs MESFET dynamic dividers operate at fre ... Cite

The Effect of Interface and Alloy Quality on the DC and RF Performance of Ga0.47In0.53As-Al0.48In0.52As HEMT's

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1989 Ga0.47ln0.53As-Al0.48In0.52As high electron mobility transistors (HEMT's) were fabricated in material with varying degrees of alloy and interface disorder. The conductivities of the epitaxial layers are highest for material with the smallest amount of inte ... Full text Cite

The AlInAs-GaInAs HEMT for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Applications

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques · January 1, 1989 This paper reviews the status of lattice-matched and pseudomorphic AHnAs-GaInAs HEMPs grown on InP substrates. The best lattice-matched devices with 0.1 μm gate length had a transconductance gm = 1080 mS/mm and unity current gain cutoff frequenc ... Full text Cite

Impact of buffer layer design on the performance of AlInAs-GaInAs HEMT's

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · 1989 Summary form only given. The authors report a study of the impact of buffer layer design on the characteristics of Al0.48In0.52As-Ga0.47In0.53As HEMTs (high-electron-mobility transistors). The aim of the study is to understand and correct the problem of hi ... Cite

AlInAs-GaInAs HEMT’s Utilizing Low-Temperature Alin As Buffers Grown by MBE

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · January 1, 1989 Low-temperature AlInAs buffer layers have been incorporated in AlInAs-GaInAs HEMT epitaxial layers grown by MBE. A growth temperature of 150°C followed by a short anneal is shown to eliminate kinks in the device I-V characteristic, sidegating, and to reduc ... Full text Cite

Ultrahigh speed static and dynamic frequency divider circuits

Journal Article Microw. J. (USA) · 1989 The authors describe the design, fabrication and testing of high speed GaAs MESFET and AlInAs-GaInAs HEMT frequency divider circuits. GaAs MESFET static frequency dividers operate at frequencies up to 18 GHz, and GaAs MESFET dynamic dividers operate at fre ... Cite

The effect of inhibited growth kinetics on GaInAs and AlInAs alloy and interface quality

Journal Article J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom. (USA) · 1989 Ga0.47In0.53As and Al0.48In0.52As alloys, lattice matched to InP substrates, are typically grown under conditions (low substrate temperature and high V/III flux ratios) which limit cation surface mobilities. For the (Al,Ga)As system, the growth of material ... Full text Link to item Cite

Low-Temperature Buffer GaAs MESFET Technology for High-Speed Integrated Circuit Applications

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · January 1, 1989 High-performance digital integrated circuits have been fabricated with low-temperature buffer (LTB) GaAs MESFET technology. Individual 0.2-µm gate length transistors have a gmof 600 mS/mm and an extrapolated fTof 80 GHz. Backgating and light sensitivity ar ... Full text Cite

Self-aligned AlInAs-GaInAs heterojunction bipolar transistors and circuits

Journal Article Electron device letters · 1989 AlInAs-GaInAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and static flip-flop frequency dividers have been fabricated. An ft and an fmax of 49 and 62 GHz, respectively, have been achieved in a device with a 2 x 5-μm2 emitter. Current-mode logic (CML) was us ... Cite

DC and RF performance of 0.1 μm gate length Al.48In.52As-Ga.38In.62As pseudomorphic HEMT's

Conference Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · December 1, 1988 The authors report on the epitaxial layer design, device fabrication, and millimeter-wave performance of lattice-matched and pseudomorphic AlInAs-GaInAs HEMTs (high-electron-mobility transistors). The authors fabricated 0.1-μm gate length HEMTs using pseud ... Cite

Photoluminescence broadening mechanisms in high quality GaInAs-AlInAs quantum well structures

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · December 1, 1988 GaInAs-AlInAs quantum well structures have been analyzed by low-temperature photoluminescence. The photoluminescence linewidth (full width at half-maximum) of thicker quantum wells (>10 nm) grown directly on AlInAs buffer layers shows that an inverse relat ... Full text Cite

48 GHz AlInAs/GaInAs heterojunction bipolar transistors

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · December 1, 1988 The authors report on the DC and RF performance of self-aligned Al0.48In0.52As-Ga0.47In0.53As heterojunction bipolar transistors. The properties that make the AlInAns/GalnAs material system extremely attractive for heterojunction bipolar transistors are di ... Cite

25 GHz static frequency dividers in AlInAs-GaInAs HEMT technology.

Journal Article Digest of Technical Papers - IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference · December 1, 1988 The authors describe the ultrahigh-speed performance of static flip-flop divide-by-two circuits implemented in both buffered FET logic (BFL) and capacitively enhanced logic (CEL) families utilizing 0.2-μm gate-length Al.48In.52As-Ga.4 7In.53As high-electro ... Cite

InGaAs/AlInAs HEMT technology for millimeter wave applications

Journal Article Technical Digest - GaAs IC Symposium (Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuit) · December 1, 1988 AlInAS-GaInAs modulation-doped structures grown by MBE (molecular-beam epitaxy) on InP have demonstrated excellent electronic and optical properties. Extremely high sheet charge densities (ns ~5 × 1018 cm-3) and room temperature mobilities (μ ~9500 cm2 V-1 ... Cite

Ultrahigh-speed Digital Circuit Performance in 0.2-μm Gate-Length AlInAs/GalnAs HEMT Technology

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · January 1, 1988 Fifteen-stage ring oscillators and static flip-flop frequency dividers have been fabricated with 0.2-μm gate-length AlInAs/GalnAs HEMI technology. The fabricated HEMT devices within the circuits demonstrated a gm of 750 mS/mm and a full channel current of ... Full text Cite

Substrate misorientation effects on the structure and electronic properties of GaInAs-AlInAs interfaces

Journal Article Applied Physics Letters · January 1, 1988 The effects of substrate misorientation on the interface quality of Ga 0.47In0.53As/Al0.48In0.52As quantum well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy lattice matched on InP substrates have been investigated. Transmission electron microscopy and low-te ... Full text Cite

IIIB-4 Noise Performance of Submicrometer AlInAs-GaInAs HEMT's

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · January 1, 1988 Full text Cite

The effect of InP substrate misorientation on GaInAs-AlInAs interface and alloy quality

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 1988 The quality of GaInAs-AlInAs epitaxial layers is found to be critically dependent on the degree of (100)-InP substrate misorientation. The alloy quality of both materials is improved when the substrate is misoriented 4°off the (100). The heterojunction int ... Full text Cite

High-Performance Submicrometer AlInAs-GalnAs HEMT's

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · January 1, 1988 The performance of long (1.3μm) and short (0.3μm) gate-length Al 0.48 In 0.52 As-Gao 0.47 In 0.53 As high electron mobility transistors (HEMT's) is reported. Transconductances of 465 and 650 mS/mm, respectively, were achieved. The 0.3-μm-long gate-length d ... Full text Cite

The impact of epitaxial layer design and quality on GaInAs/AlInAs high-electron-mobility transistor performance

Journal Article J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom. (USA) · 1988 Ga0.47In0.53As-Al0.48In0.52As high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT's) exhibit high transconductance and gain because of the high conductivities achievable in the structures. The effect of epitaxial layer design (spacer thickness and active channel thic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microwave Performance of AlInAs-GalnAs HEMT's with 0.2- and 0.1-μm Gate Length

Journal Article IEEE Electron Device Letters · January 1, 1988 We report on the microwave performance of Al0.48In0.52As-Ga0.47In0.53As on InP HEMT's with 0.2- and 0.1-μm gate length. Devices of 50μm width exhibited extrinsic transconductances of 800 and 1080 mS/mm, respectively. External fT of 120 and 135 GHz, respect ... Full text Cite

DC and RF performance of 0.1 μm gate length Al.48In.52As-Ga.38In.62As pseudomorphic HEMT's

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · 1988 The authors report on the epitaxial layer design, device fabrication, and millimeter-wave performance of lattice-matched and pseudomorphic AlInAs-GaInAs HEMTs (high-electron-mobility transistors). The authors fabricated 0.1-μm gate length HEMTs using pseud ... Cite

LOW NOISE 0. 1- mu m GaAs MESFETS BY MBE.

Journal Article · December 1, 1987 It is demonstrated that by applying proper scaling techniques, high-performance 0. 1- mu m-gate-length GaAs MESFETs can be routinely fabricated. The noise performance of these devices compares favorably with that of state-of-the-art HEMT structures. The pe ... Cite

HIGH PERFORMANCE SUBMICROMETER ALINAS-GAINAS HEMT'S.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · November 1, 1987 The performance of long-gate and short-gate Al//0//. //4//8In//0//. //5//2As-Ga//0//. //4//7In//0//. //5//3As HEMTs fabricated on high-quality MBE (molecular-beam-epitaxially)-grown material is discussed. The device structures were grown lattice-matched to ... Cite

Characterization of strained GaInAs/AlInAs quantum well TEGFETS grown by molecular beam epitaxy

Journal Article Journal of Crystal Growth · February 2, 1987 Defect free strained layer epitaxy opens possibilities for further improvement on the quantum well two-dimensional electron gas FET (TEGFET) structures grown using the GaInAs/AlInAs on InP materials system. Increased freedom with composition allows for opt ... Full text Cite

Microwave characterisation of 1 μm-gate al0.48ln0.52as/ga0.47ln0.53as/lnp modfets

Journal Article Electronics Letters · January 1, 1987 We report microwave characterisation of nominally 1 μM gate Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.47In0.53As (lattice-matched to InP) modulation-doped field-effect transistors MODFETs). The Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.47In0.53As MODFETs have room-temperature extrinsic transconductanc ... Full text Cite

Molecular-beam epitaxial growth and characterization of strained GaInAs/AlInAs and InAs/GaAs quantum well two-dimensional electron gas field-effect transistors

Journal Article J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom. (USA) · 1987 Defect free strained layer epitaxy opens possibilities for further improvement on the quantum well two-dimensional electron gas (TEG) structures grown using the GaInAs/AlInAs on InP materials system. Increased freedom with composition allows for optimizing ... Full text Link to item Cite

HIGH PERFORMANCE SUBMICROMETER ALINAS-GAINAS HEMT'S.

Journal Article IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices · 1987 The performance of long-gate and short-gate Al//0//. //4//8In//0//. //5//2As-Ga//0//. //4//7In//0//. //5//3As HEMTs fabricated on high-quality MBE (molecular-beam-epitaxially)-grown material is discussed. The device structures were grown lattice-matched to ... Cite

ULTRA-HIGH SPEED AlInAs-GaInAs HEMT TECHNOLOGY.

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · January 1, 1987 The authors report on the ultrahigh-speed performance of 15-stage ring oscillators utilizing 0. 2- mu m gate length Al//. //4//8In//. //5//2As-Ga//. //4//7In//. //5//3As HEMTs (high-electron-mobility transistors) fabricated on InP substrates. The AlInAs-Ga ... Full text Cite

MBE GROWN GaAs MESFETS WITH ULTRA-HIGH G//M AND F//T.

Journal Article Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting · December 1, 1986 The authors report on the design, fabrication, and test performance of GaAs MESFETs with 0. 1- mu m gate length. The devices were fabricated on epitaxial material grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a Riber 2300 system. The mean features of the design ... Cite

DEPLETION- AND ENHANCEMENT-MODE Al//0//. //4//8In//0//. //5//2As/Ga//0//. //4//7In//0//. //5//3As MODULATION-DOPED FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS WITH A RECESSED GATE STRUCTURE.

Journal Article Institute of Physics Conference Series · December 1, 1986 Depletion- and enhancement-mode Al//0//. //4//8In//0//. //5//2As/Ga//0//. //4//7In//0//. //5//3As modulation doped field effect transistors with 1 mu m gate length have been successfully fabricated by employing a recessed gate structure and an undoped Al// ... Cite

Mn redistribution in doped GaInAs

Journal Article J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, Microelectron. Process. Phenom. (USA) · 1986 Summary for only given. The authors discuss some aspects of the diffusion behavior of Mn in the presence of electric fields. Impurity profiles were measured by using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). No matrix effects exist for Mn detection in either ... Full text Link to item Cite

Si diffusion in GaInAs-AlInAs high-electron-mobility transistor structures

Journal Article Journal of Applied Physics · January 1, 1986 Secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, Hall-effect measurements, and dc I-V characteristics of 1-μm Ga0.47In0.53As-Al 0.48In0.52As high-electron mobility transistor structures indicate that significant diffusion of Si can occur in these layers. The source of the ... Full text Cite

RECESSED GATE Al//0 //. //4 //8 In//0 //. //5 //2 As/Ga//0 //. //4 //7 In//0 //. //5 //3 As MODULATION DOPED FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR.

Journal Article · December 1, 1985 1- mu m gate Al//0 //. //4 //8 In//0 //. //5 //2 As/Ga//0 //. //4 //7 In//0 //. //5 //3 As modulation-doped field effect transistors have been successfully fabricated by using a recessed gate structure and an undoped Al//0 //. //4 //8 In//0 //. //5 //2 As ... Cite

The behavior of unintentional impurities in Ga0.47 In0.53As grown by MBE

Journal Article Journal of Electronic Materials · May 1, 1985 A number of factors contribute to the high n-type background carrier concentration (high 1015 to low 1016 cm-3) measured in MBE Ga0.47In0.53As lattice-matched to InP. The results of this study indicate that the outdiffusion of impurities from InP substrate ... Full text Cite

HEAT TREATMENT OF FE-DOPED INP SUBSTRATES FOR THE GROWTH OF HIGHER PURITY GA//0 //. //4 //7 IN//0 //. //5 //3 AS BY MBE.

Journal Article · December 1, 1984 Impurity outdiffusion, in particular Fe, Mn, and Cr, from Fe-doped InP into GaInAs epitaxial layers during molecular beam epitaxy growth can account for as much as two-thirds of the carrier concentration and can reduce electron mobilities by as much as 40% ... Cite

DEPENDENCE OF ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MBE Ga//0//. //4//7In//0//. //5//3As PLANAR DOPED BARRIERS ON InP SUBSTRATES.

Journal Article Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics Processing and Phenomena · April 1, 1983 The potential barrier height in planar-doped barrier structures is particularly sensitive to the concentration of background impurities present in the nominally undoped regions. MBE grown GaInAs lattice matched to InP typically has n-type background carrie ... Full text Cite