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Tien Yin Wong

Consulting Professor in the Department of Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology

Selected Publications


Exploring Factors Underlying Ethnic Difference in Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevalence.

Conference Ophthalmic Epidemiol · October 2020 AIMS: To assess contributions of dietary and genetic factors to ethnic differences in AMD prevalence. DESIGN: Population-based analytical study. METHODS: In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, Australia (European ancestry n = 2826) and Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Validation of a novel diabetic retinopathy utility index using discrete choice experiments.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · February 2020 BACKGROUND/AIMS: To validate a preference-based Diabetic Retinopathy Utility Index (DRU-I) using discrete choice experiment (DCE) methods and assess disutilities associated with vision-threatening DR (VTDR: severe non-proliferative DR, proliferative DR and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Six-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy in Indian adults: the Singapore Indian Eye study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · December 2019 AIMS: Diabetes is a major public health problem in migrants and ethnic minorities worldwide. We determined the incidence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in migrant Indians living in Singapore. METHODS: We included data from 759 Indian adults ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is Myopia Associated with the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy?

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · December 2019 PURPOSE: We sought to determine the association of refractive error and its associated determinants (axial length [AL], anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature) with the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). DESIGN: Population-based ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between diabetic retinopathy and incident cognitive impairment.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · November 2019 BACKGROUND/AIM: The relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and cognitive impairment (CI) is unclear due to equivocal findings from cross-sectional studies and a lack of long-term data. In this population-based cohort study, we investigated the long ... Full text Link to item Cite

Normative pattern and determinants of outer retinal thickness in an Asian population: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · October 2019 BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the distribution and determinants of outer retinal thickness in eyes without retinal diseases, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Participants were recruited from the Singapore Epidemiology of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glaucoma in myopia: diagnostic dilemmas.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · October 2019 Myopic eyes have an increased risk of glaucoma. However, glaucomatous changes in a myopic eye are often difficult to detect. Classic structural and functional investigations to diagnose glaucoma may be confounded by myopia. Here, we identify some of the co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations of retinal microvascular caliber with intermediate phenotypes of large arterial function and structure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article Microcirculation · October 2019 OBJECTIVE: Intermediate phenotypes of microcirculation (retinal microvascular caliber) are associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and independently predict CV events. However, the effect of microcirculation variation on the vascular system is unc ... Full text Link to item Cite

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CHOROIDAL VASCULATURE IN MYOPIC MACULOPATHY WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC ANGIOGRAPHY.

Journal Article Retina · September 2019 PURPOSE: To characterize the choriocapillaris (CC) in highly myopic eyes with myopic maculopathy, using optical coherence tomographic angiography. METHODS: Prospective, clinic-based study of 42 eyes of 38 patients with high myopia (≤-6 diopters and axial l ... Full text Link to item Cite

Beyond vision loss: the independent impact of diabetic retinopathy on vision-related quality of life in a Chinese Singaporean population.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · September 2019 BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess the independent impact of diabetic retinopathy (DR) on three domains of vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in a Chinese Singapore population. METHODS: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study (n=3353; 2009-2011) was a population-based ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of bariatric surgery on retinal microvascular architecture in obese patients.

Journal Article Int J Obes (Lond) · September 2019 STUDY AIM: Retinal microvasculature changes reflect systemic small vessel damage from obesity. The impact of bariatric surgery induced weight loss on the microvasculature is relatively unknown. We hypothesized that weight loss following bariatric surgery w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Deep learning in ophthalmology: The technical and clinical considerations.

Journal Article Prog Retin Eye Res · September 2019 The advent of computer graphic processing units, improvement in mathematical models and availability of big data has allowed artificial intelligence (AI) using machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques to achieve robust performance for broad ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of myopic macular degeneration severity on treatment outcomes with intravitreal aflibercept in the MYRROR study.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · August 2019 PURPOSE: To determine the influence of baseline myopic macular degeneration (MMD) severity on outcomes with intravitreal aflibercept (IVT-AFL) in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: MYRROR was a randomized, double-masked study ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial differences and determinants of macular thickness profiles in multiethnic Asian population: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2019 AIM: To evaluate racial differences, and ocular and systemic determinants of macular thickness (MT), measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a normal multiethnic Asian population. METHOD: MT was measured from a 6×6 mm2 central ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in South-east Asia and Oceania in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2019 BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of vision impairment in South-east Asia and Oceania regions from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast the figures for 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness (presenting ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in North Africa and Middle East in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2019 BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in North Africa and the Middle East (NAME) from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast projections for 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, the prevalence of blindness ... Full text Link to item Cite

Peripheral capillary non-perfusion in treatment-naïve proliferative diabetic retinopathy associates with postoperative disease activity 6 months after panretinal photocoagulation.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · June 2019 BACKGROUND/AIMS: With the perspective to provide individualised panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), we evaluated if retinal peripheral capillary non-perfusion (PCNP) and oximetry, as non-invasive markers of ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Informant AD8 Can Discriminate Patients with Dementia From Healthy Control Participants in an Asian Older Cohort.

Journal Article J Am Med Dir Assoc · June 2019 OBJECTIVES: The informant-AD8 (i-AD8) was found to be reliable in detecting cognitive impairment and dementia in tertiary and primary health care settings. We evaluated the discriminability of the i-AD8, as compared to other brief cognitive measures, and i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multiancestry Genome-Wide Association Study of Lipid Levels Incorporating Gene-Alcohol Interactions.

Journal Article Am J Epidemiol · June 1, 2019 A person's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multiancestry genome-wide asso ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Effect of Gender on Visual Field Sensitivity: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · June 2019 PURPOSE: Visual field (VF) sensitivity is known to be age-dependent, but there is a paucity of evidence on whether it is gender-dependent. We therefore investigated the effect of gender on VF sensitivity. METHODS: An observational study involving 491 adult ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exploring Factors Underlying Ethnic Difference in Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevalence.

Conference Ophthalmic Epidemiol · October 2020 AIMS: To assess contributions of dietary and genetic factors to ethnic differences in AMD prevalence. DESIGN: Population-based analytical study. METHODS: In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, Australia (European ancestry n = 2826) and Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Validation of a novel diabetic retinopathy utility index using discrete choice experiments.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · February 2020 BACKGROUND/AIMS: To validate a preference-based Diabetic Retinopathy Utility Index (DRU-I) using discrete choice experiment (DCE) methods and assess disutilities associated with vision-threatening DR (VTDR: severe non-proliferative DR, proliferative DR and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Six-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy in Indian adults: the Singapore Indian Eye study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · December 2019 AIMS: Diabetes is a major public health problem in migrants and ethnic minorities worldwide. We determined the incidence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in migrant Indians living in Singapore. METHODS: We included data from 759 Indian adults ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is Myopia Associated with the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy?

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · December 2019 PURPOSE: We sought to determine the association of refractive error and its associated determinants (axial length [AL], anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature) with the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). DESIGN: Population-based ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between diabetic retinopathy and incident cognitive impairment.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · November 2019 BACKGROUND/AIM: The relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and cognitive impairment (CI) is unclear due to equivocal findings from cross-sectional studies and a lack of long-term data. In this population-based cohort study, we investigated the long ... Full text Link to item Cite

Normative pattern and determinants of outer retinal thickness in an Asian population: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · October 2019 BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the distribution and determinants of outer retinal thickness in eyes without retinal diseases, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Participants were recruited from the Singapore Epidemiology of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glaucoma in myopia: diagnostic dilemmas.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · October 2019 Myopic eyes have an increased risk of glaucoma. However, glaucomatous changes in a myopic eye are often difficult to detect. Classic structural and functional investigations to diagnose glaucoma may be confounded by myopia. Here, we identify some of the co ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations of retinal microvascular caliber with intermediate phenotypes of large arterial function and structure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article Microcirculation · October 2019 OBJECTIVE: Intermediate phenotypes of microcirculation (retinal microvascular caliber) are associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and independently predict CV events. However, the effect of microcirculation variation on the vascular system is unc ... Full text Link to item Cite

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CHOROIDAL VASCULATURE IN MYOPIC MACULOPATHY WITH OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHIC ANGIOGRAPHY.

Journal Article Retina · September 2019 PURPOSE: To characterize the choriocapillaris (CC) in highly myopic eyes with myopic maculopathy, using optical coherence tomographic angiography. METHODS: Prospective, clinic-based study of 42 eyes of 38 patients with high myopia (≤-6 diopters and axial l ... Full text Link to item Cite

Beyond vision loss: the independent impact of diabetic retinopathy on vision-related quality of life in a Chinese Singaporean population.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · September 2019 BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess the independent impact of diabetic retinopathy (DR) on three domains of vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in a Chinese Singapore population. METHODS: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study (n=3353; 2009-2011) was a population-based ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of bariatric surgery on retinal microvascular architecture in obese patients.

Journal Article Int J Obes (Lond) · September 2019 STUDY AIM: Retinal microvasculature changes reflect systemic small vessel damage from obesity. The impact of bariatric surgery induced weight loss on the microvasculature is relatively unknown. We hypothesized that weight loss following bariatric surgery w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Deep learning in ophthalmology: The technical and clinical considerations.

Journal Article Prog Retin Eye Res · September 2019 The advent of computer graphic processing units, improvement in mathematical models and availability of big data has allowed artificial intelligence (AI) using machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques to achieve robust performance for broad ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of myopic macular degeneration severity on treatment outcomes with intravitreal aflibercept in the MYRROR study.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · August 2019 PURPOSE: To determine the influence of baseline myopic macular degeneration (MMD) severity on outcomes with intravitreal aflibercept (IVT-AFL) in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: MYRROR was a randomized, double-masked study ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial differences and determinants of macular thickness profiles in multiethnic Asian population: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2019 AIM: To evaluate racial differences, and ocular and systemic determinants of macular thickness (MT), measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a normal multiethnic Asian population. METHOD: MT was measured from a 6×6 mm2 central ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in South-east Asia and Oceania in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2019 BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of vision impairment in South-east Asia and Oceania regions from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast the figures for 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness (presenting ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in North Africa and Middle East in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2019 BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in North Africa and the Middle East (NAME) from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast projections for 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, the prevalence of blindness ... Full text Link to item Cite

Peripheral capillary non-perfusion in treatment-naïve proliferative diabetic retinopathy associates with postoperative disease activity 6 months after panretinal photocoagulation.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · June 2019 BACKGROUND/AIMS: With the perspective to provide individualised panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), we evaluated if retinal peripheral capillary non-perfusion (PCNP) and oximetry, as non-invasive markers of ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Informant AD8 Can Discriminate Patients with Dementia From Healthy Control Participants in an Asian Older Cohort.

Journal Article J Am Med Dir Assoc · June 2019 OBJECTIVES: The informant-AD8 (i-AD8) was found to be reliable in detecting cognitive impairment and dementia in tertiary and primary health care settings. We evaluated the discriminability of the i-AD8, as compared to other brief cognitive measures, and i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multiancestry Genome-Wide Association Study of Lipid Levels Incorporating Gene-Alcohol Interactions.

Journal Article Am J Epidemiol · June 1, 2019 A person's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multiancestry genome-wide asso ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Effect of Gender on Visual Field Sensitivity: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · June 2019 PURPOSE: Visual field (VF) sensitivity is known to be age-dependent, but there is a paucity of evidence on whether it is gender-dependent. We therefore investigated the effect of gender on VF sensitivity. METHODS: An observational study involving 491 adult ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in a Multiethnic Normal Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · May 2019 PURPOSE: To describe variations in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness based on spectral-domain (SD) OCT in a multiethnic Asian population. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Indian adults older ... Full text Link to item Cite

Artificial intelligence using deep learning to screen for referable and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy in Africa: a clinical validation study.

Journal Article Lancet Digit Health · May 2019 BACKGROUND: Radical measures are required to identify and reduce blindness due to diabetes to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of an artificial intelligence (AI) model using deep learning in a populati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluation of deep convolutional neural networks for glaucoma detection.

Journal Article Jpn J Ophthalmol · May 2019 PURPOSE: To investigate the performance of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) for glaucoma discrimination using color fundus images STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study PATIENTS AND METHODS: To investigate the discriminative ability of 3 DCNNs, we u ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship Between Sleep and Symptoms of Tear Dysfunction in Singapore Malays and Indians.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · May 1, 2019 PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between sleep (duration and quality) and symptoms of dry eye in Singapore Malay and Indian adults. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 3303 subjects aged 40 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of systemic vascular risk factors on the choriocapillaris using optical coherence tomography angiography in patients with systemic hypertension.

Journal Article Sci Rep · April 9, 2019 We investigated the characteristics of the choriocapillaris flow voids using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in 85 patients (164 eyes) with hypertension (mean ± SD age, 56 ± 11 years; 45% women; 20% poorly controlled BP; 16% diabetes) who a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Spectral-Domain OCT Measurements in Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · April 2019 TOPIC: OCT is a noninvasive tool to measure specific retinal layers in the eye. The relationship of retinal spectral-domain (SD) OCT measurements with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains unclear. Hence, we conducted a syste ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of 387,272 individuals identifies new loci associated with serum lipids.

Journal Article Nat Genet · April 2019 The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking i ... Full text Link to item Cite

EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF INTRAVITREAL AFLIBERCEPT AND RANIBIZUMAB IN ASIAN PATIENTS WITH NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: Subgroup Analyses From the VIEW Trials.

Journal Article Retina · March 2019 PURPOSE: To assess the treatment effect of intravitreal aflibercept and ranibizumab in Asian patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: We evaluated data from VIEW 1 and VIEW 2, comparing functional and morphologic outcomes at Wee ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of hypertension on retinal capillary microvasculature using optical coherence tomographic angiography.

Journal Article J Hypertens · March 2019 OBJECTIVE: Reduction in capillary density or rarefaction is a hallmark of essential hypertension. We measured the retinal capillary density using noninvasive optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A) in adults with treated systemic hypertension and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Kidney Disease With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · March 1, 2019 IMPORTANCE: The association of diabetic microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) with mortality in populations is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of DR and DKD separately and jointly w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myopia - A 21st Century Public Health Issue.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 28, 2019 Full text Link to item Cite

Inter-relationship between ageing, body mass index, diabetes, systemic blood pressure and intraocular pressure in Asians: 6-year longitudinal study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · February 2019 BACKGROUND: To investigate the biological effect of ageing on intraocular pressure (IOP) and risk factors in a population-based cohort study of Malay and Indian adults. METHODS: Participants aged 40-80 years were recruited for baseline and 6-year follow-up ... Full text Link to item Cite

Artificial intelligence and deep learning in ophthalmology.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · February 2019 Artificial intelligence (AI) based on deep learning (DL) has sparked tremendous global interest in recent years. DL has been widely adopted in image recognition, speech recognition and natural language processing, but is only beginning to impact on healthc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multiethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Liability Threshold Modeling of Duration of Diabetes and Glycemic Control.

Journal Article Diabetes · February 2019 To identify genetic variants associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR), we performed a large multiethnic genome-wide association study. Discovery included eight European cohorts (n = 3,246) and seven African American cohorts (n = 2,611). We meta-analyzed a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Potential retinal biomarkers for dementia: what is new?

Journal Article Curr Opin Neurol · February 2019 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current findings on clinical retinal diseases and retinal imaging changes with dementia, focusing on Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies observed that clinical retinal diseases such as age-related macular degen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship of Estimated GFR and Albuminuria to Concurrent Laboratory Abnormalities: An Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis in a Global Consortium.

Journal Article Am J Kidney Dis · February 2019 RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complicated by abnormalities that reflect disruption in filtration, tubular, and endocrine functions of the kidney. Our aim was to explore the relationship of specific laboratory result abnormalities a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic and lifestyle risk factors for MRI-defined brain infarcts in a population-based setting.

Journal Article Neurology · January 28, 2019 OBJECTIVE: To explore genetic and lifestyle risk factors of MRI-defined brain infarcts (BI) in large population-based cohorts. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and examined associations of vascular risk factors ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvasculature changes in amyloid-negative subcortical vascular cognitive impairment compared to amyloid-positive Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Article J Neurol Sci · January 15, 2019 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate small vessel abnormalities in patients with cognitive impairment, we compared retinal microvascular alterations between patients with cognitive impairment related to Alzheimer's disease (ADCI) and those with subcortic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Author Correction: Cross-ancestry genome-wide association analysis of corneal thickness strengthens link between complex and Mendelian eye diseases.

Journal Article Nat Commun · January 8, 2019 Emmanuelle Souzeau, who contributed to analysis of data, was inadvertently omitted from the author list in the originally published version of this Article. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of Diabetes With Central Corneal Thickness Among a Multiethnic Asian Population.

Journal Article JAMA Netw Open · January 4, 2019 IMPORTANCE: Thicker or thinner central corneas may lead to either overestimation or underestimation of intraocular pressure, which is the most important causal and treatable risk factor for glaucoma. However, the findings on the associations between diabet ... Full text Link to item Cite

Population genomics in South East Asia captures unexpectedly high carrier frequency for treatable inherited disorders.

Journal Article Genet Med · January 2019 PURPOSE: Genomic studies have demonstrated the necessity of ethnicity-specific population data to ascertain variant pathogenicity for disease diagnosis and treatment. This study examined the carrier prevalence of treatable inherited disorders (TIDs), where ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular changes and right ventricular structure and function: the MESA-Right Ventricle and MESA-Eye studies

Journal Article Pulmonary Circulation · January 1, 2019 Retinal vessel diameters have been associated with left ventricular morphology and function but their relationship with the right ventricle (RV) has not been studied. We hypothesized that wider retinal venules and narrower retinal arterioles are associated ... Full text Cite

The use of real-world evidence for evaluating anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Surv Ophthalmol · 2019 Randomized controlled trials are the gold standard in medical research, providing evidence of the efficacy of a treatment in well-defined patient populations. By contrast, real-world studies explore the effectiveness of treatments in routine clinical pract ... Full text Link to item Cite

Simplified end stage renal failure risk prediction model for the low-risk general population with chronic kidney disease.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2019 BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) contributes significant morbidity and mortality among Asians; hence interventions should focus on those most at-risk of progression. However, current end stage renal failure (ESRF) risk stratification tools are comp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microvascular narrowing and BP monitoring: A single centre observational study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2019 INTRODUCTION: Half of all hypertensive individuals have inadequately-controlled BP because monitoring methods are ineffective. This single centre study examined consecutive subjects undergoing 24 hour BP measurements for clinic and ambulatory BP levels, an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Recent advances in the applications of metabolomics in eye research.

Journal Article Anal Chim Acta · December 11, 2018 Metabolomics, the identification and quantitation of metabolites in a system, have been applied to identify new biomarkers or elucidate disease mechanism. In this review, we discussed the application of metabolomics in several ocular diseases and recent de ... Full text Link to item Cite

Six-Year Incidence of and Risk Factors for Cataract Surgery in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · December 2018 PURPOSE: To report the 6-year incidence of cataract surgery in an Asian population-based cohort of Malay, Indian, and Chinese persons living in Singapore and factors associated with undergoing cataract surgery over the follow-up period. DESIGN: Population- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Periodontitis and multiple markers of cardiometabolic risk in the fourth decade: A cohort study.

Journal Article Community Dent Oral Epidemiol · December 2018 OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between periodontitis at ages 32 and 38 and a range of early cardiometabolic risk biomarkers at age 38. METHODS: Periodontal probing depth and bleeding on probing data collected during the age-32 and age-38 assessments i ... Full text Link to item Cite

An Automated Grading System for Detection of Vision-Threatening Referable Diabetic Retinopathy on the Basis of Color Fundus Photographs.

Journal Article Diabetes Care · December 2018 OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to describe the development and validation of an artificial intelligence-based, deep learning algorithm (DLA) for the detection of referable diabetic retinopathy (DR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A DLA using a convolu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early atherosclerosis is associated with retinal microvascular changes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Journal Article Pediatr Diabetes · December 2018 BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes have early macrovascular changes (increased intima-media thickness [IMT]) and early retinal changes that predict clinical disease in adulthood. We hypothesized that early changes in the macrovascular a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association between Choroidal Thickness and Drusen Subtypes in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Journal Article Ophthalmol Retina · December 2018 PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between the choroidal thickness (CT) and the characteristics of drusen and exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) sub-phenotypes in Asian and white populations. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical cohort study. PAR ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interethnic analyses of blood pressure loci in populations of East Asian and European descent.

Journal Article Nat Commun · November 28, 2018 Blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and more than 200 genetic loci associated with BP are known. Here, we perform a multi-stage genome-wide association study for BP (max N = 289,038) principally in East Asians and meta-ana ... Full text Link to item Cite

Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Journal Article Lancet · November 10, 2018 BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a comprehensive approach to risk factor quantification that offers a useful tool for synthesising evidence on risks and risk-outcome ... Full text Open Access Link to item Cite

Peripheral retinal changes in highly myopic young Asian eyes.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · November 2018 PURPOSE: To determine the type and prevalence of peripheral retinal changes and its relationship with axial length (AL) in a population of young Asian adult males. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of male subjects aged between 19 and 25 years old. ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · November 2018 PURPOSE: To examine the relationships of retinal vessel geometric characteristics (RVGCs) to the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). DESIGN: Observational, prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred ninety-six persons with typ ... Full text Link to item Cite

A genome-wide association study suggests new evidence for an association of the NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene with severe diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · November 2018 PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy is the most common eye complication in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic factors contributing to severe diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: A genome-wide association approach was applied. In t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of Ideal Cardiovascular Health in Childhood on the Retinal Microvasculature in Midadulthood: Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

Journal Article J Am Heart Assoc · October 16, 2018 Background This study examined the association between ideal cardiovascular health ( CVH ) and the retinal microvasculature in midadulthood. Methods and Results The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study included children from 5 Finnish University cities ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in First and Second-Generation Indians: The Singapore Indian Eye Study.

Journal Article Sci Rep · October 4, 2018 Population-based data investigating generational differences in the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk determinants are rare. We examined the 6-year incidence of CVD and its risk factors in first- and second-generation ethnic Indian ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inter-relationship between ocular perfusion pressure, blood pressure, intraocular pressure profiles and primary open-angle glaucoma: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · October 2018 OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the inter-relationship between ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), blood pressure (BP), intraocular pressure (IOP) profiles and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in a multiethnic Asian population. METHODS: Participants were recruited ... Full text Link to item Cite

Level of tear cytokines in population-level participants and correlation with clinical features.

Journal Article Cytokine · October 2018 AIMS: Tear cytokine levels indicate severity of ocular surface inflammation. Previous reports of cytokine concentrations were based on hospital-based studies or non-Chinese populations. We determine the range of tear concentration of cytokines in a represe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Lancet · September 29, 2018 Age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of visual impairment and severe vision loss. Clinically, it is classified as early-stage (medium-sized drusen and retinal pigmentary changes) to late-stage (neovascular and atrophic). Age-related macular ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Impact of Myopic Macular Degeneration on Visual Impairment and Functioning Among Adults in Singapore.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · September 4, 2018 PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of myopic macular degeneration (MMD) on visual impairment and functioning among adults in Singapore. METHODS: A comprehensive eye examination, including subjective refraction, axial length, and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aldose Reductase Polymorphisms, Fasting Blood Glucose, and Age-Related Cortical Cataract.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · September 4, 2018 PURPOSE: To determine whether there is an association between polymorphisms of the AKR1B1 gene and cortical cataract in the presence of hyperglycemia. METHODS: In the second cross section of the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES), 3508 participants (2334 at 5 ... Full text Link to item Cite

COMPARISON OF OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHIC CHANGES AFTER ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR THERAPY ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY.

Journal Article Retina · September 2018 PURPOSE: To compare changes in optical coherence tomography angiography in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy after treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monotherapy or combined with photodynamic therapy. METHODS: This is a longit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diet soft drink is associated with increased odds of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · September 2018 IMPORTANCE: While consumption of soft drink may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, the relationship between soft drink consumption and diabetes complications is unknown. BACKGROUND: To explore the association between regular and diet soft drink c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy on Vision-Specific Functioning.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · September 2018 PURPOSE: To investigate the independent impact of the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) on visual functioning (VF). DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 518 participants aged 40 to 80 years (baseline visit 20 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diet and risk of myopia in three-year-old Singapore children: the GUSTO cohort.

Journal Article Clin Exp Optom · September 2018 BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between dietary intakes at six, nine and 12 months and risk of myopia in three-year-old children in a birth cohort. METHODS: Three hundred and seventeen children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy O ... Full text Link to item Cite

The effect of pre-eclampsia on retinal microvascular caliber at delivery and post-partum

Journal Article Obstetric Medicine · September 1, 2018 Background: The retinal microcirculation provides a unique view of microvessel structure by means of non-invasive, retinal image analysis. The aim of the study was to compare the retinal vessel caliber at delivery and one-year post-partum between women who ... Full text Cite

A novel model of persistent retinal neovascularization for the development of sustained anti-VEGF therapies.

Journal Article Exp Eye Res · September 2018 Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies lead to a major breakthrough in treatment of neovascular retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Current management of these conditions require regular and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Correlation of Color Fundus Photograph Grading with Risks of Early Age-related Macular Degeneration by using Automated OCT-derived Drusen Measurements.

Journal Article Sci Rep · August 28, 2018 We evaluated automated OCT-derived drusen volume measures in a population-based study (n = 4,512) aged ≥40 years, and its correlation with conventional color fundus photographs (CFP)-derived early AMD features. Participants had protocol-based assessment to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends of Visual Impairment and Blindness in the Singapore Chinese Population over a Decade.

Journal Article Sci Rep · August 15, 2018 We evaluated the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) and blindness among Chinese adults in the Singapore Chinese Eye Study (SCES, 2009-2011), and compared the trends with the Tanjong Pagar Survey, Singapore (TPS), conducted a decade earlier. The SCES comp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Macular thickness profile and diabetic retinopathy: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · August 2018 BACKGROUND: To evaluate retinal thickness profiles in eyes with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) among individuals with diabetes. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the Singapore Epide ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incidence of Fellow Eye Involvement in Patients With Unilateral Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · August 1, 2018 IMPORTANCE: Since the advent of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A), nonexudative neovascularization has been described in the fellow eyes of unilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, there is limited literature des ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal Arteriolar Narrowing in Young Adults With Glaucomatous Optic Disc.

Journal Article J Glaucoma · August 2018 PURPOSE: Glaucomatous optic disc (GOD) might represent various subclinical processes. However, whether the presence of GOD is related to vascular processes is less clear. This study aimed to assess the retinal vessel diameter, as surrogate markers of vascu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Macro- and Microvascular Parameters After Toxic Shock Syndrome.

Journal Article Pediatr Infect Dis J · August 2018 Whether individuals who had toxic shock syndrome in childhood have differences in macro- and retinal microvascular parameters indicative of increased cardiovascular risk is unknown. We found no evidence of adverse macrovascular changes in 22 toxic shock sy ... Full text Link to item Cite

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Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · August 2018 Full text Link to item Cite

Global prevalence of visual impairment associated with myopic macular degeneration and temporal trends from 2000 through 2050: systematic review, meta-analysis and modelling.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2018 PURPOSE: We used systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and assimilate evidence quantifying blindness and visual impairment (VI) associated with myopic macular degeneration (MMD), then derived models to predict global patterns. The models were use ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy and Safety of Intravitreal Aflibercept for Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in the PLANET Study: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · July 1, 2018 IMPORTANCE: Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is common in Asian populations, but an optimal treatment approach remains to be confirmed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) in participants with PCV and compare IAI monother ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inter-relationship between visual symptoms, activity limitation and psychological functioning in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2018 AIMS: We explored the direct and indirect impact of restrictions in daily living activities on the relationship between perceived visual symptoms associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and psychological functioning. METHODS: In this prospective, cross-s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Artificial Intelligence using Deep Learning System for Glaucoma Suspect Detection

Conference INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE · July 1, 2018 Link to item Cite

CFH and VIPR2 as susceptibility loci in choroidal thickness and pachychoroid disease central serous chorioretinopathy.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · June 12, 2018 Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a common disease affecting younger people and may lead to vision loss. CSC shares phenotypic overlap with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As recent studies have revealed a characteristic increase of choroid ... Full text Link to item Cite

Six-Year Incidence and Risk Factors of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Singaporean Indians: The Singapore Indian Eye Study.

Journal Article Sci Rep · June 11, 2018 We aimed to determine the 6-year incidence and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in first and second generations of Singaporean Indians. Baseline examination was conducted in 2007-9 and 6-year propsective follow-up examination of this ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vasculature and 5-year metabolic syndrome among women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Journal Article Metabolism · June 2018 BACKGROUND: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at greater risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We studied the association between second-trimester retinal microvasculature and 5-year MetS incidence in women with GDM. METHODS: A total of 142 m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Temporal changes in retinal vascular parameters associated with successful panretinal photocoagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: A prospective clinical interventional study.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · June 2018 PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate changes in retinal vascular geometry over time after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: Thirty-seven eyes with PDR were included. Wide-field fluorescein ang ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error.

Journal Article Nat Genet · June 2018 Refractive errors, including myopia, are the most frequent eye disorders worldwide and an increasingly common cause of blindness. This genome-wide association meta-analysis in 160,420 participants and replication in 95,505 participants increased the number ... Full text Link to item Cite

Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants.

Journal Article Int J Epidemiol · June 1, 2018 BACKGROUND: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-press ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations of Peripapillary Atrophy and Fundus Tessellation with Diabetic Retinopathy.

Journal Article Ophthalmol Retina · June 2018 PURPOSE: There is a limited understanding of ocular risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Our aim therefore was to determine the relationship of 2 retinal signs related to axial myopia (peripapillary atrophy [PPA] and fundus tessellation) with DR. DE ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ocular disease detection from multiple informatics domains

Conference Proceedings - International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging · May 23, 2018 Computer aided detection for automatic ocular disease detection is an important area of research. As different ocular diseases possess different characteristics and present at different locations within the eye, it is difficult to find a common way to effe ... Full text Cite

Falls and Recurrent Falls among Adults in A Multi-ethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article Sci Rep · May 15, 2018 We evaluated the rate and risk factors associated with falls and recurrent falls in a multi-ethnic Asian population. 10,009 participants aged ≥40 years (mean[SD] age = 58.9[10.4] years) underwent clinical examinations and completed interviewer-administered ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cross-ancestry genome-wide association analysis of corneal thickness strengthens link between complex and Mendelian eye diseases.

Journal Article Nat Commun · May 14, 2018 Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a highly heritable trait associated with complex eye diseases such as keratoconus and glaucoma. We perform a genome-wide association meta-analysis of CCT and identify 19 novel regions. In addition to adding support for kn ... Full text Link to item Cite

Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy: Definition, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · May 2018 Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) subtype and is seen particularly in Asians. Previous studies have suggested disparity in response to intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VE ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluation of Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma Susceptibility Loci in Patients with Early Stages of Angle-Closure Disease.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · May 2018 PURPOSE: To investigate whether newly identified genetic loci for primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) are associated with early stage angle-closure disease defined as primary angle closure suspect (PACS). DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: A total ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2018 BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical lit ... Full text Link to item Cite

AI for medical imaging goes deep.

Journal Article Nat Med · May 2018 Full text Link to item Cite

Family-Based Genome-Wide Association Study of South Indian Pedigrees Supports WNT7B as a Central Corneal Thickness Locus.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · May 1, 2018 PURPOSE: To identify genetic risk factors contributing to central corneal thickness (CCT) in individuals from South India, a population with a high prevalence of ocular disorders. METHODS: One hundred ninety-five individuals from 15 large South Indian pedi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Publisher Correction: Evidence that breast cancer risk at the 2q35 locus is mediated through IGFBP5 regulation.

Journal Article Nat Commun · April 10, 2018 This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5999. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of imaging features that determine quality and repeatability of retinal capillary plexus density measurements in OCT angiography.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · April 2018 PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) potentially allows for rapid and non-invasive quantification of retinal capillary plexus density in various disease states. This study aims to identify the key features that influenced the repeatabi ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Adolescent Cardio-Renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT): retinal vascular geometry and renal function in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Journal Article Diabetologia · April 2018 AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the hypothesis that elevation in urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes is associated with abnormal retinal vascular geometry (RVG) phenotypes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study at baseline of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Individuals' Perspectives on Coping with Vision Loss from Diabetic Retinopathy.

Journal Article Optom Vis Sci · April 2018 SIGNIFICANCE: People with vision loss from diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) use problem-focused and emotion-regulation strategies that may influence their short- and longer-term adaptation and psychological outcomes. Our findings ... Full text Link to item Cite

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Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · April 2018 Full text Link to item Cite

Differential effect of body mass index on the incidence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in two Asian populations.

Journal Article Nutr Diabetes · March 7, 2018 AIMS: To examine the association of body mass index (BMI) with the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asians. METHODS: We analysed data from 4101 adults (Malay, n = 1901 and Indian, n = 2200) who participated in the baseli ... Full text Link to item Cite

Change in vision-related quality of life and influencing factors in Asians receiving treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · March 2018 AIM: To assess the change in vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) after treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and factors influencing this change in an Asian population. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 116 patients (mean ... Full text Link to item Cite

Changes in retinal venular oxygen saturation predict activity of proliferative diabetic retinopathy 3 months after panretinal photocoagulation.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · March 2018 BACKGROUND/AIMS: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a severe blinding condition. We investigated whether retinal metabolism, measured by retinal oximetry, may predict PDR activity after panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP). METHODS: We performe ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Large-Scale Multi-ancestry Genome-wide Study Accounting for Smoking Behavior Identifies Multiple Significant Loci for Blood Pressure.

Journal Article Am J Hum Genet · March 1, 2018 Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy on postpartum cardiometabolic risk.

Journal Article Endocr Connect · March 2018 AIMS: The cumulative effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) on postpartum cardio-metabolic diseases is equivocal. We aimed to assess the associations of GDM and HDP's individual and synergic contribution ... Full text Link to item Cite

Caregiver-Reported Sleep Disturbances Are Associated With Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in an Asian Elderly Cohort With Cognitive Impairment-No Dementia.

Journal Article J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol · March 2018 OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances were found to be associated with more behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPS) in early patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, data on preclinical stages of dementia are lacking. Hence, the present study sought to ... Full text Link to item Cite

The NLRP3 Inflammasome May Contribute to Pathologic Neovascularization in the Advanced Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Journal Article Sci Rep · February 12, 2018 Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a retinal microvascular disease characterized by inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. In this study, we evaluated NLRP3 inflammasome in a double transgenic mouse model, Akimba (Ins2 Akita xVEGF+/-), which demonstrates hypergly ... Full text Link to item Cite

Factors affecting signal strength in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · February 2018 PURPOSE: To identify ocular factors that affect signal strength in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Data from 1312 participants of the population-based Singapore Malay Eye Study-2 (SiMES-2) were included in the analysis. All ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · February 2018 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence, subtypes, severity and determinants of ocular trauma (OT) in a population-based study in Singapore. METHODS: We included 3353 Chinese adults aged ≥40 years from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based study, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Factors that influence tear meniscus area and conjunctivochalasis: The Singapore Indian eye study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · February 2018 PURPOSE: Assessment of tear film and conjunctiva is critical to define presence and severity of ocular surface disease. We aimed to characterize tear meniscus area (TMA) and conjunctivochalasis by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) in po ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dynamic changes in retinal vessel diameter during acute hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes.

Journal Article J Diabetes Complications · February 2018 AIMS: To investigate changes in retinal vessel diameter during acute hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a study on 11 subjects with type 1 diabetes. Euglycemia was maintained for 3h followed by induction of hyperglycemia ... Full text Link to item Cite

Shared Cared for Stable Glaucoma Patients: Economic Benefits and Patient-centered Outcomes of a Feasibility Trial.

Journal Article J Glaucoma · February 2018 PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to assess the quality of care and economic benefits of a shared care model managing patients with stable glaucoma in a primary eye care (PEC) clinic compared with a tertiary specialist outpatient clinic (SOC) in Sing ... Full text Link to item Cite

Erratum: Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls.

Journal Article Sci Data · January 23, 2018 This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/sdata.2017.179. ... Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship of dietary fish intake to diabetic retinopathy and retinal vascular caliber in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Journal Article Sci Rep · January 15, 2018 In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the association of dietary fish intake with varying severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vascular caliber in Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 357 Asians (median age: 58 years; 31% women; 78% Chi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cardiometabolic Health Among Adult Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

Journal Article J Am Heart Assoc · January 6, 2018 BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic health among adult offspring of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is relatively unknown. We hypothesized that offspring of HDP would have abnormalities in the retinal microvasculature and cardiac structure by midadulthoo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diabetic macular oedema: evidence-based treatment recommendations for Asian countries.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · January 2018 Diabetic macular oedema is the most common cause of diabetic retinopathy-induced vision loss. Efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in diabetic macular oedema has been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials. An Asian-specific gu ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Effect of Testing Reliability on Visual Field Sensitivity in Normal Eyes: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · January 2018 PURPOSE: To quantitatively determine how the reliability indices in standard automated perimetry (SAP) affect the global indices of visual field (VF) results in nonglaucomatous eyes. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 83 ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Study of Neurocognitive Outcomes, Radiological and Retinal Effects of Aspirin in Sleep Apnoea- rationale and methodology of the SNORE-ASA study.

Journal Article Contemp Clin Trials · January 2018 PURPOSE: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in older adults. Increasing evidence links SDB to the risk of dementia, mediated via a number of pathways, some of which may be attenuated by low-dose aspirin. This study will evaluate, in a hea ... Full text Link to item Cite

A spectrum of retinal vasculature measures and coronary artery disease.

Journal Article Atherosclerosis · January 2018 BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to comprehensively describe a spectrum of retinal vessel measures including fractal dimension (Df) and their associations with indices of coronary artery disease (CAD) extent and severity, as well as hypertension and diabetes. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genomic locus modulating corneal thickness in the mouse identifies POU6F2 as a potential risk of developing glaucoma.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · January 2018 Central corneal thickness (CCT) is one of the most heritable ocular traits and it is also a phenotypic risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). The present study uses the BXD Recombinant Inbred (RI) strains to identify novel quantitative trait l ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diabetic Retinopathy in the Asia-Pacific.

Journal Article Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) · 2018 Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in middle-aged and elderly in the Asia-Pacific. It has been estimated that 51% of all those with blindness due to DR globally (n = ... Full text Link to item Cite

A genome-wide association study of corneal astigmatism: The CREAM Consortium.

Journal Article Mol Vis · 2018 PURPOSE: To identify genes and genetic markers associated with corneal astigmatism. METHODS: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of corneal astigmatism undertaken for 14 European ancestry (n=22,250) and 8 Asian ancestry (n=9,120) coh ... Link to item Cite

Comparison of retinal vascular geometry in obese and non-obese children.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 PURPOSE: Childhood obesity is associated with adult cardiometabolic disease. We postulate that the underlying microvascular dysfunction begins in childhood. We thus aimed to compare retinal vascular parameters between obese and non-obese children. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Homocysteine and Cerebral Atrophy: The Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore Study.

Journal Article J Alzheimers Dis · 2018 BACKGROUND: Plasma homocysteine levels are increasingly studied as a potential risk factor for dementia. Elevated homocysteine levels have been linked with gray and white matter volume reduction among individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheime ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality and diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 BACKGROUND: Abnormal durations of sleep have been associated with risk of diabetes. However, it is not clear if sleep duration is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we included 1,231 (Malay, n = 395; Indian, n = ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel genetic associations for blood pressure identified via gene-alcohol interaction in up to 570K individuals across multiple ancestries.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study accounting for gene-alcohol con ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diagnostic accuracy of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness for glaucoma detection in a population-based study: Comparison with optic nerve head imaging parameters.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 AIMS: To determine the diagnostic performance of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for glaucoma detection in a Chinese population in comparison with optic nerve h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related macular degeneration and progression of coronary artery calcium: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) shares many similarities with cardiovascular disease (CVD) pathophysiology. We sought to determine the relationship of AMD to the progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) using data from the Multi-Ethn ... Full text Link to item Cite

Human pharyngeal microbiota in age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 BACKGROUND: While the aetiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-a major blinding disease-remains unknown, the disease is strongly associated with variants in the complement factor H (CFH) gene. CFH variants also confer susceptibility to invasive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of serum lutein and zeaxanthin with quantitative measures of retinal vascular parameters.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 To evaluate the association between serum carotenoids and quantitative measures of retinal vasculature in elderly Singapore Chinese subjects. The following details were collected in 128 healthy subjects: sociodemographics, lifestyle information, medical an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Alterations in Brain Network Topology and Structural-Functional Connectome Coupling Relate to Cognitive Impairment.

Journal Article Front Aging Neurosci · 2018 According to the network-based neurodegeneration hypothesis, neurodegenerative diseases target specific large-scale neural networks, such as the default mode network, and may propagate along the structural and functional connections within and between thes ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sleep Duration and Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Journal Article Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) · 2018 Aims: Abnormally short or long durations of sleep have been proposed as a risk factors for diabetes and its micro- and macro-vascular complications. However, the relationship between sleep duration and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has not been well-charac ... Full text Link to item Cite

Correction: A 32 kb Critical Region Excluding Y402H in CFH Mediates Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2018 [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025598.]. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study identifies a missense variant at APOA5 for coronary artery disease in Multi-Ethnic Cohorts from Southeast Asia.

Journal Article Sci Rep · December 20, 2017 Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) among predominantly Europeans. However, their relevance to multi-ethnic populations from Southeast Asia is largely unknown. We perform ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automated Detection of Iris Furrows and their Influence on Dynamic Iris Volume Change.

Journal Article Sci Rep · December 20, 2017 We introduced a new method for detecting iris surface furrows and identify its associations with dynamic changes in iris volume in healthy eyes. Swept-source optical coherence tomography was performed on 65 subjects with open angle under light and dark con ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls.

Journal Article Sci Data · December 19, 2017 To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestrie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults.

Journal Article Lancet · December 16, 2017 BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development and Validation of a Deep Learning System for Diabetic Retinopathy and Related Eye Diseases Using Retinal Images From Multiethnic Populations With Diabetes.

Journal Article JAMA · December 12, 2017 IMPORTANCE: A deep learning system (DLS) is a machine learning technology with potential for screening diabetic retinopathy and related eye diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of a DLS in detecting referable diabetic retinopathy, vision-threat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Serum Phosphate and Retinal Microvascular Changes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · December 2017 PURPOSE: Higher levels of serum phosphate are strongly linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and therapies aimed to lower serum phosphate are employed in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data are limited, however, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and myopic refractive error: a Mendelian randomization study.

Journal Article Int J Epidemiol · December 1, 2017 BACKGROUND: Myopia prevalence has increased in the past 20 years, with many studies linking the increase to reduced time spent outdoors. A number of recent observational studies have shown an inverse association between vitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Shared genetic variants for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration in East Asians.

Journal Article J Hum Genet · December 2017 Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), a subtype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) more frequently seen in East Asians, has both common and distinct clinical manifestations with typical neovascular AMD (tAMD). We aim to examine the extent to whic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetically Determined Plasma Lipid Levels and Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Journal Article Diabetes · December 2017 Results from observational studies examining dyslipidemia as a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy (DR) have been inconsistent. We evaluated the causal relationship between plasma lipids and DR using a Mendelian randomization approach. We pooled genome-wi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gestational retinal microvasculature and the risk of 5 year postpartum abnormal glucose metabolism.

Journal Article Diabetologia · December 2017 AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Changes in retinal microvasculature may reflect insulin resistance. We examined the association of changes in retinal microvasculature during pregnancy and risk of subsequent abnormal glucose metabolism in a cohort of mothers at baseline a ... Full text Link to item Cite

HDL-cholesterol levels and risk of age-related macular degeneration: a multiethnic genetic study using Mendelian randomization.

Journal Article Int J Epidemiol · December 1, 2017 BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss. However, epidemiological studies have yielded ... Full text Link to item Cite

Global causes of blindness and distance vision impairment 1990-2020: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article Lancet Glob Health · December 2017 BACKGROUND: Contemporary data for causes of vision impairment and blindness form an important basis of recommendations in public health policies. Refreshment of the Global Vision Database with recently published data sources permitted modelling of cause of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exome chip meta-analysis identifies novel loci and East Asian-specific coding variants that contribute to lipid levels and coronary artery disease.

Journal Article Nat Genet · December 2017 Most genome-wide association studies have been of European individuals, even though most genetic variation in humans is seen only in non-European samples. To search for novel loci associated with blood lipid levels and clarify the mechanism of action at pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association Between Perceived Barriers to Diabetes Self-management and Diabetic Retinopathy in Asian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · December 1, 2017 IMPORTANCE: A patient’s perceived barriers to diabetes self-management (DSM) may affect his or her risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR); however, few studies have examined this association. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between perceived barriers to D ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association Between the Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy and Falls in an Asian Population With Diabetes: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · December 1, 2017 IMPORTANCE: The presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) may contribute to the risk of falling in persons with diabetes, but evidence is currently equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of diabetes and DR severity with the likeliho ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diabetic Retinopathy and Macular Edema Quality-of-Life Item Banks: Development and Initial Evaluation Using Computerized Adaptive Testing.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · December 1, 2017 PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) quality-of-life (QoL) item banks and determine the utility of the final calibrated item banks by simulating a compute ... Full text Link to item Cite

Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia.

Journal Article J Vis Exp · November 6, 2017 The retina offers a unique "window" to study pathophysiological processes of dementia in the brain, as it is an extension of the central nervous system (CNS) and shares prominent similarities with the brain in terms of embryological origin, anatomical feat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Singapore Indian Eye Study-2: methodology and impact of migration on systemic and eye outcomes.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · November 2017 IMPORTANCE: Asian Indians are the fastest growing migration groups in the world. Studies evaluating the impact of migration on disease outcomes in this population are rare. BACKGROUND: We describe the methodology of the Singapore Indian Eye Study-2 (SINDI- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization: Review, Guidance, and Consensus Statement on Management.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · November 2017 TOPIC: The aim of this article is to review and compile available information on the classification, pathophysiology, and clinical features of myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV); to describe the latest data on the management of this disease; and to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is Corneal Arcus Independently Associated With Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Asians?

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · November 2017 PURPOSE: To examine the longitudinal relationship between baseline corneal arcus (CA) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ethnic Indian and Malay adults in Singapore. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. METHODS: Indian and Malay adults aged 40- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficacy and Safety of Ranibizumab With or Without Verteporfin Photodynamic Therapy for Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · November 1, 2017 IMPORTANCE: Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a common subtype of exudative age-related macular degeneration among Asian individuals. To our knowledge, there are no large randomized clinical trials to evaluate intravitreal ranibizumab, with and wi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Abnormal creatine transport of mutations in monocarboxylate transporter 12 (MCT12) found in patients with age-related cataract can be partially rescued by exogenous chaperone CD147.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · November 1, 2017 Membrane transporters influence biological functions in the ocular lens. Here, we investigate the monocarboxylate transporter 12 (MCT12), also called creatine transporter 2 (CRT2), which is found in the ocular lens and is involved in cataract. As the age-r ... Full text Link to item Cite

Availability and variability in guidelines on diabetic retinopathy screening in Asian countries.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · October 2017 BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a blinding yet treatable complication of diabetes. DR screening is highly cost-effective at reducing blindness. Amidst the rapidly growing diabetic population in Asia, the prevalence of DR in the region is relativel ... Full text Link to item Cite

A nationwide cohort study of cigarette smoking and risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in East Asian men.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · October 2017 BACKGROUND: Few longitudinal studies have evaluated the relationship between cigarette smoking and risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among Asian populations. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the association between cigare ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incidence and risk factors of symptomatic dry eye disease in Asian Malays from the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

Journal Article Ocul Surf · October 2017 PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of symptomatic dry eye disease (SDED) and associated risk factors in a well-characterized cohort of ethnic Malays in Singapore. METHODS: We included 1682 participants (mean age [SD]: 57 [10]years; 55.4% female) without SD ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and Associations of Retinal Emboli With Ethnicity, Stroke, and Renal Disease in a Multiethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease Study.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · October 1, 2017 IMPORTANCE: To our knowledge, population-based data on retinal emboli are limited in Asia. Besides its associations with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and stroke, associations between retinal emboli and renal disease and function remain unclear. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Innovative technology shows impact of glycaemic control on peripheral retinal vessels in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Journal Article Diabetologia · October 2017 AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Retinal imaging enables non-invasive microvasculature assessment; however, only central retinal vessels have been studied in type 1 diabetes. Peripheral smaller vessels have a major haemodynamic role and may differ from central vessels in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Metabolomics of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Journal Article Curr Diab Rep · September 23, 2017 PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolomics is the study of dysregulated metabolites in biological materials. We reviewed the use of the technique to elucidate the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy. RECENT FIN ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of Corneal Biomechanical Properties between Indian and Chinese Adults.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · September 2017 PURPOSE: To investigate the difference in corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) between Indian and Chinese populations. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred eighty-two Singaporean Indian persons ... Full text Link to item Cite

Plasma lipoprotein subfraction concentrations are associated with lipid metabolism and age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article J Lipid Res · September 2017 Disturbance in lipid metabolism has been suggested as a major pathogenic factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Conventional lipid measures have been inconsistently associated with AMD. Other factors that can alter lipid metabolism include lipo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and Blindness in Indonesian Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · September 2017 PURPOSE: To report the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and DR-related blindness in an Indonesian population with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Community health centers. STUDY POPULATION: We recru ... Full text Link to item Cite

Magnitude, temporal trends, and projections of the global prevalence of blindness and distance and near vision impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article Lancet Glob Health · September 2017 BACKGROUND: Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment. M ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of common genetic determinants of Hemoglobin A1c on type 2 diabetes risk and diagnosis in ancestrally diverse populations: A transethnic genome-wide meta-analysis.

Journal Article PLoS Med · September 2017 BACKGROUND: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to diagnose type 2 diabetes (T2D) and assess glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 18 HbA1c-associated genetic variants. These variants pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal Vascular Imaging Markers and Incident Chronic Kidney Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Journal Article Sci Rep · August 24, 2017 Retinal microvascular changes indicating microvascular dysfunction have been shown to be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cross-sectional studies, but findings were mixed in prospective studies. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gestational hypertensive disorders and retinal microvasculature: the Generation R Study.

Journal Article BMC Med · August 14, 2017 BACKGROUND: Changes in the microvasculature associated with pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension have been proposed as a potential pathway in the development of cardiovascular disease. We examined whether gestational hypertensive disorders, such as p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Choroidal Remodeling in Age-related Macular Degeneration and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy: A 12-month Prospective Study.

Journal Article Sci Rep · August 11, 2017 Choroid thinning occurs in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, it remains unclear whether the reduction is due to reduction in choroidal vessels or shrinkage of choroidal stroma, or both. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes o ... Full text Link to item Cite

A genome-wide association study identified a novel genetic loci STON1-GTF2A1L/LHCGR/FSHR for bilaterality of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Sci Rep · August 3, 2017 Bilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes much more handicaps for patients than unilateral neovascular AMD. Although several AMD-susceptibility genes have been evaluated for their associations to bilaterality, genome-wide associat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Characterisation of choroidal morphological and vascular features in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · August 2017 AIM: We aimed to characterise specific morphological and vascular features of the choroid in Indian adults with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: Consecutive participants from the Singapore Indian Eye Study's 6-year follow-up examination und ... Full text Link to item Cite

CHARACTERIZATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY USING SWEPT SOURCE OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY.

Journal Article Retina · August 2017 PURPOSE: To determine the correlation and agreement between swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCT-A) with fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) in characterizing polypoid ... Full text Link to item Cite

Similarity regularized sparse group lasso for cup to disc ratio computation

Journal Article Biomedical Optics Express · August 1, 2017 Automatic cup to disc ratio (CDR) computation from color fundus images has shown to be promising for glaucoma detection. Over the past decade, many algorithms have been proposed. In this paper, we first review the recent work in the area and then present a ... Full text Cite

A Low-Frequency Inactivating AKT2 Variant Enriched in the Finnish Population Is Associated With Fasting Insulin Levels and Type 2 Diabetes Risk.

Journal Article Diabetes · July 2017 To identify novel coding association signals and facilitate characterization of mechanisms influencing glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes risk, we analyzed 109,215 variants derived from exome array genotyping together with an additional 390,225 variants f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic association study of exfoliation syndrome identifies a protective rare variant at LOXL1 and five new susceptibility loci.

Journal Article Nat Genet · July 2017 Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common known risk factor for secondary glaucoma and a major cause of blindness worldwide. Variants in two genes, LOXL1 and CACNA1A, have previously been associated with XFS. To further elucidate the genetic basis of X ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Nonexudative Neovascularization in Fellow Eyes of Patients With Unilateral Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · July 1, 2017 PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of subclinical nonexudative neovascularization and associated choroidal vascular changes in the fellow eyes of patients presenting with unilateral typical exudative AMD (tAMD) or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Short-term poor glycemic control and retinal microvascular changes in pediatric Type 1 Diabetes patients in Singapore: a pilot study.

Journal Article BMC Ophthalmol · June 15, 2017 BACKGROUND: Poor glycemic control in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) patients is strongly associated with an increased risk of diabetes-related microvascular complications later in life, but it is unclear whether short period of poor glycemic control in children wit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of Diabetic Macular Edema and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy With Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · June 1, 2017 IMPORTANCE: Previous studies on the relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) focused on the early stages of DR. Understanding whether patients with type 2 diabetes and severe stages of DR (diabetic macular edema [DME] ... Full text Link to item Cite

SLCO1B1 gene, statin use and incidence of age-related cataract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study

Conference INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE · June 1, 2017 Link to item Cite

Determinants of Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Metrics in Patients with Diabetes.

Journal Article Sci Rep · May 31, 2017 Early microvascular damage in diabetes (e.g. capillary nonperfusion and ischemia) can now be assessed and quantified with optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A). The morphology of vascular tissue is indeed affected by different factors; however, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Causal Effect of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 on Coronary Heart Disease.

Journal Article J Am Heart Assoc · May 26, 2017 BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) plays an essential role in the fibrinolysis system and thrombosis. Population studies have reported that blood PAI-1 levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Howev ... Full text Link to item Cite

Customized Consensus Spectral Library Building for Untargeted Quantitative Metabolomics Analysis with Data Independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry and MetaboDIA Workflow.

Journal Article Anal Chem · May 2, 2017 Data independent acquisition-mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) coupled with liquid chromatography is a promising approach for rapid, automatic sampling of MS/MS data in untargeted metabolomics. However, wide isolation windows in DIA-MS generate MS/MS spectra cont ... Full text Link to item Cite

Characterization of Choroidal Morphologic and Vascular Features in Young Men With High Myopia Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · May 2017 PURPOSE: To describe detailed morphologic and vascular features of the choroid in eyes with high myopia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 515 eyes of young men (mean age 21.59 ± 1.15 years) with high myopia (defined as -6.0 diopter [D] or ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vision impairment and major eye diseases reduce vision-specific emotional well-being in a Chinese population.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2017 AIMS: To assess the relationship between vision impairment (VI) and major eye diseases, with vision-specific emotional well-being in a Chinese population. METHODS: In this population-based cross-sectional study, 3353 Chinese participants aged 40-80 years a ... Full text Link to item Cite

The impact of typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy on vision-related quality of life in Asian patients.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2017 AIMS: To determine the impact of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in an Asian population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 162 subjects with nAMD from the Asian AMD Phenotyping Study and 1 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association analyses of East Asian individuals and trans-ancestry analyses with European individuals reveal new loci associated with cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · May 1, 2017 Large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >175 loci associated with fasting cholesterol levels, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (L ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cumulative incidence and risk factors of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in a Singaporean Malay cohort.

Journal Article Diabetes Res Clin Pract · May 2017 AIMS: The aim of this work was to determine the cumulative incidence and independent risk factors of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a well-characterized cohort of Malays in Singapore. METHODS: We included 1137 participants (mean age [SD]: 55 (10 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dynamic Responses in Retinal Vessel Caliber With Flicker Light Stimulation and Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy and Its Progression.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · May 1, 2017 PURPOSE: This study investigated the associations between the responses of retinal vessels to flickering light and the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of adult subjects with diabetes mellitus. The ... Full text Link to item Cite

Urinary Isoprostane Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · May 1, 2017 PURPOSE: Oxidative stress, characterized by an excessive production of reactive oxygen intermediates has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We examined the association of urinary F2-isoprostanes (F2 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Vision-Specific Functioning.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · May 1, 2017 IMPORTANCE: Understanding the link between ethnicity and health is critical to making appropriate public policy decisions. Few population-level data are available about this connection, however, including the influence of ethnicity on the association betwe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Journal Article JAMA Oncol · May 1, 2017 IMPORTANCE: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. OBJECTIVE: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Progressive Retinal Vasodilation in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study of Retinal Vascular Geometry.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · May 1, 2017 PURPOSE: Retinal vessels can be used to noninvasively monitor changes in microvasculature. These changes in retinal vascular geometry (RVG) may predict chronic diabetes complications. We evaluated longitudinal RVG changes in adolescents with type 1 diabete ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal Vessel Geometry and the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · May 1, 2017 PURPOSE: To analyze the associations between retinal vessel geometry and the 1-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a Chinese population. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of adult subjects with diabetes mellitus. Retin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Resident research: why some do and others don't.

Journal Article Singapore Med J · April 2017 INTRODUCTION: Although research is widely considered to be a relevant and essential skill to resident development, the actual participation rate of residents in research remains low, and the factors associated with participation are unclear. METHODS: We ex ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-Wide Association Study Meta-Analysis of Long-Term Average Blood Pressure in East Asians.

Journal Article Circ Cardiovasc Genet · April 2017 BACKGROUND: Genome-wide single marker and gene-based meta-analyses of long-term average (LTA) blood pressure (BP) phenotypes may reveal novel findings for BP. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted genome-wide analysis among 18 422 East Asian participants (stag ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dr Robert Loh Choo Kiat, JP, BBM, PJG (1925 - 2017).

Journal Article Ann Acad Med Singap · April 2017 Link to item Cite

Prevalence and risk factors for epiretinal membrane: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · March 2017 AIM: To examine prevalence and risk factors of epiretinal membrane (ERM) in a large, contemporary, multiethnic Asian population. METHODS: Combined analysis of three population-based studies of eye diseases, with a total of 9799 Chinese, Malays and Indians ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reply.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · March 2017 Full text Link to item Cite

Association of Systemic Medication Use With Intraocular Pressure in a Multiethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · March 1, 2017 IMPORTANCE: There is limited understanding of the associations between systemic medication use and intraocular pressure (IOP) in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between systemic medication use and IOP in a multiethnic Asian po ... Full text Link to item Cite

Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Variants and Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · March 2017 PURPOSE: Genetic association studies to date have not identified any robust risk loci for diabetic retinopathy (DR). We hypothesized that individuals with more diabetes genetic risk alleles have a higher risk of developing DR. DESIGN: Case-control genetic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Imaging retina to study dementia and stroke.

Journal Article Prog Retin Eye Res · March 2017 With increase in life expectancy, the number of persons suffering from common age-related brain diseases, including neurodegenerative (e.g., dementia) and cerebrovascular (e.g., stroke) disease is expected to rise substantially. As current neuro-imaging mo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Biometric authentication system using retinal vessel pattern and geometric hashing

Journal Article IET Biometrics · March 1, 2017 Retinal vascular network pattern is unique to each individual which can be used for person identification in biometric authentication. In this study, the authors have proposed a novel biometric authentication method using retinal vascular branch, bifurcati ... Full text Cite

Retinopathy Signs Improved Prediction and Reclassification of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Diabetes: A prospective cohort study.

Journal Article Sci Rep · February 2, 2017 CVD risk prediction in diabetics is imperfect, as risk models are derived mainly from the general population. We investigate whether the addition of retinopathy and retinal vascular caliber improve CVD prediction beyond established risk factors in persons ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is Choroidal or Scleral Thickness Related to Myopic Macular Degeneration?

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 1, 2017 PURPOSE: The relative contribution of mechanical and vascular factors to the pathogenesis of myopic macular degeneration (MMD) is unclear. To address this gap, we examined the association of choroidal thickness (CT) and scleral thickness (ST) with MMD. MET ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular imaging technology to monitor disease severity and complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

Journal Article Microcirculation · February 2017 OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a major disease affecting a large number of young patients. In the recent years, retinal vascular imaging has provided an objective assessment of vascular health in patients with T1DM. Our study aimed to review ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reducing respondent burden: validation of the Brief Impact of Vision Impairment questionnaire.

Journal Article Qual Life Res · February 2017 PURPOSE: To develop a psychometrically sound and valid Brief Impact of Vision Impairment (IVI) questionnaire. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from four prospective studies (2001-2008) were pooled and randomly divided into development/validation sets (n = 416 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Classification of Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration With Pachyvessels on En Face Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 1, 2017 PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to classify exudative maculopathy by the presence of pachyvessels on en face swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT). METHODS: Consecutive patients with signs of exudative maculopathy underwent SSOCT, fluore ... Full text Link to item Cite

Rationale and Methodology for a Community-Based Study of Diabetic Retinopathy in an Indonesian Population with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Jogjakarta Eye Diabetic Study in the Community.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · February 2017 PURPOSE: There are no available data about diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Indonesian population. This report summarizes the rationale and study design of the Jogjakarta Eye Diabetic Study in the Community (JOGED.COM), a community-based study to estimate ... Full text Link to item Cite

An anomaly detection approach for the identification of DME patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images.

Journal Article Comput Methods Programs Biomed · February 2017 This paper proposes a method for automatic classification of spectral domain OCT data for the identification of patients with retinal diseases such as Diabetic Macular Edema (DME). We address this issue as an anomaly detection problem and propose a method ... Full text Link to item Cite

Systemic, Ocular and Genetic Risk Factors for Age-related Macular Degeneration and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in Singaporeans.

Journal Article Sci Rep · January 25, 2017 To examine the association of systemic, ocular and genetic risk factors in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in a large cohort of Asian patients, and to further compare risk factors between those with typical AMD and polypoidal choroidal ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.

Journal Article Nat Commun · January 18, 2017 The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evidence of Microvascular Changes in the Retina following Kawasaki Disease.

Journal Article Sci Rep · January 17, 2017 It is unclear whether all children with Kawasaki disease (KD) have increased later cardiovascular risk. The retinal microvasculature reflects changes in the microcirculation and is associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and events. The aim ... Full text Link to item Cite

Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants.

Journal Article Lancet · January 7, 2017 BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study of Parkinson's disease in East Asians.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · January 1, 2017 Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on Parkinson's disease (PD) have mostly been done in Europeans and Japanese. No study has been done in Han Chinese, which make up nearly a fifth of the world population. We conducted the first Han Chinese GWAS analysi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Impact of Undiagnosed Visually Significant Cataract: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2017 OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of undiagnosed visually significant cataract in an Asian population. METHODS: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases is a population-based study where 8,697 adults of Malay, Indian, and C ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of Axial Eye Length on Retinal Vessel Parameters in 6 to 12-Year-Old Malay Girls.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2017 PURPOSE: Retinal vessel analysis is affected by both systemic and ocular factors. Malays are the major ethnicity in South East Asia. Data on the retinal microvasculature in Malays is limited, especially among children. We aim to evaluate the influence of o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cerebral microbleeds and neuropsychiatric symptoms in an elderly Asian cohort.

Journal Article J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry · January 2017 OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are commonly found in patients with cerebral small vessel disease such as white matter hyperintensities and lacunar infarcts. However, the association between cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and NPS has not been exam ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Malays - Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore Study.

Journal Article Curr Alzheimer Res · 2017 OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia in communitydwelling Malays from Singapore; and to examine differences in prevalence among Chinese and Malays. METHODS: Subjects (≥ 60 years) - drawn from the Malay component of the on ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is aspirin associated with diabetic retinopathy? The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2017 BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the association between aspirin use and diabetic retinopathy (DR) among persons with diabetes, in a population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Subjects with diabetes aged >40 years from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye ... Full text Link to item Cite

The role of testosterone in coordinating male life history strategies: The moderating effects of the androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism.

Journal Article Horm Behav · January 2017 Partnered fathers often have lower testosterone than single non-parents, which is theorized to relate to elevated testosterone (T) facilitating competitive behaviors and lower T contributing to nurturing. Cultural- and individual-factors moderate the expre ... Full text Link to item Cite

Detecting retinal microaneurysms and hemorrhages with robustness to the presence of blood vessels.

Journal Article Comput Methods Programs Biomed · January 2017 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diabetic Retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries in the age group 20-74 years. It is characterized by lesions on the retina and this paper focuses on detecting two of these lesions, Microaneurysms and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Combined poor diabetes control indicators are associated with higher risks of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema than poor glycemic control alone.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2017 PURPOSE: To examine the association of individual and combined indicators of diabetes control with diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this clinical, cross-sectional study, 613 adults with type 2 diabetes (372 any dia ... Full text Link to item Cite

Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Neuronal and Axonal Measures on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Cognitive Impairment.

Journal Article Front Neurol · 2017 BACKGROUND: With increasing interest in determining if measurement of retinal neuronal structure with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is useful in accessing neurodegenerative process in cognitive decline and development of dementia, i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association.

Journal Article Nat Neurosci · December 2016 Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,4 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cost-effectiveness of a National Telemedicine Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program in Singapore.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · December 2016 PURPOSE: To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of a new telemedicine technician-based assessment relative to an existing model of family physician (FP)-based assessment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Singapore from the health system and societal ... Full text Link to item Cite

Biomarkers of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Journal Article Curr Diab Rep · December 2016 Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of acquired vision loss, is a microvascular complication of diabetes. While traditional risk factors for diabetic retinopathy including longer duration of diabetes, poor blood glucose control, and dyslipidemia are ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myopia-The Silent Epidemic That Should Not Be Ignored.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · December 1, 2016 Full text Link to item Cite

Choroidal thickness does not predict visual acuity in young high myopes.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · December 2016 PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of choroidal thickness (CT) on visual acuity (VA) in young persons with extremely high myopia. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of young men with extremely high myopia and controls with emmetropia recruited f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study identifies WNT7B as a novel locus for central corneal thickness in Latinos.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · November 15, 2016 The cornea is the outermost layer of the eye and is a vital component of focusing incoming light on the retina. Central corneal thickness (CCT) is now recognized to have a significant role in ocular health and is a risk factor for various ocular diseases, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship of retinal vascular caliber variation with intracranial arterial stenosis.

Journal Article Microvasc Res · November 2016 BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: To investigate the associations of retinal vessel parameters with intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) assessed by Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. METHOD: Data on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and quantitative retinal ve ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of Changes in Visual Acuity With Vision-Specific Functioning in the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · November 1, 2016 IMPORTANCE: Longitudinal population-based data on the effect of vision loss on vision-specific functioning (VSF) are scarce, particularly in Asian populations. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between changes in presenting visual acuity (PVA) and VSF. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cortical cerebral microinfarcts on 3T MRI: A novel marker of cerebrovascular disease.

Journal Article Neurology · October 11, 2016 OBJECTIVE: We examined the risk factors of cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) on 3T MRI and their association with cognitive impairment. METHODS: Participants (aged 60 years and older) from the multiethnic Epidemiology of Dementia In Singapore Study un ... Full text Link to item Cite

The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342,415 individuals.

Journal Article Nat Genet · October 2016 To dissect the genetic architecture of blood pressure and assess effects on target organ damage, we analyzed 128,272 SNPs from targeted and genome-wide arrays in 201,529 individuals of European ancestry, and genotypes from an additional 140,886 individuals ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of Vision Impairment and Major Eye Diseases With Mobility and Independence in a Chinese Population.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · October 1, 2016 IMPORTANCE: Mobility limitations arising from vision impairment (VI) can result in loss of independence and reduced quality of life. However, few data are available on the association between VI and mobility limitations at a population-based level, particu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of Common Retinal Vessel Caliber Measurement Software and a Conversion Algorithm.

Journal Article Transl Vis Sci Technol · October 2016 PURPOSE: To compare three commonly used retinal vessel caliber measurement software systems, and propose an algorithm for conversion between measurement systems. METHODS: We used 120 retinal photographs to evaluate the agreement between three commonly used ... Full text Link to item Cite

Iris Crypts Influence Dynamic Changes of Iris Volume.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · October 2016 PURPOSE: To determine the association of iris surface features with iris volume change after physiologic pupil dilation in adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Chinese adults aged ≥ 50 years without ocular diseases. METHODS: D ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Association Between Retinal Neuronal Layer and Brain Structure is Disrupted in Patients with Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

Journal Article J Alzheimers Dis · September 6, 2016 Both healthy and pathological aging due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with decreased brain grey matter volume (GMV) and disrupted white matter (WM) microstructure. Thinner macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) measured by spectr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vitamin D insufficiency and cognitive impairment in Asians: a multi-ethnic population-based study and meta-analysis.

Journal Article J Intern Med · September 2016 BACKGROUND: The relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and cognitive impairment remains equivocal in Asians. We examined the association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration and cognitive performance in a large multi-ethnic S ... Full text Link to item Cite

Global Estimates on the Number of People Blind or Visually Impaired by Diabetic Retinopathy: A Meta-analysis From 1990 to 2010.

Journal Article Diabetes Care · September 2016 OBJECTIVE: To estimate global and regional trends from 1990 to 2010 of the prevalence and number of persons visually impaired specifically by diabetic retinopathy (DR), as a complication of the precipitous trends in global diabetes, is fundamental for heal ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interaction Between Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ and Epithelial Membrane Protein 2 Polymorphisms Influences HDL-C Levels in the Chinese Population.

Journal Article Ann Hum Genet · September 2016 Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors involved in the regulation of key metabolic pathways. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have established their important roles in lipid metabolism. A few SNPs in PPAR genes h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Choroidal Structural Changes in Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization After Treatment With Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Over 1 Year.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · September 1, 2016 PURPOSE: To evaluate choroidal structural changes in eyes with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) treated with anti-VEGF over 12 months. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and choroidal vascularity index (CVI) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Investigation of PACG associated genetic variants in persons with early stages of angle closure disease

Conference INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE · September 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

An intergenic risk locus containing an enhancer deletion in 2q35 modulates breast cancer risk by deregulating IGFBP5 expression.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · September 1, 2016 Breast cancer is the most diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in females. Previous association studies have identified variants on 2q35 associated with the risk of breast cancer. To identify functional susceptibility loci ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aspirin and Diabetic Retinopathy: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) study

Conference INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE · September 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

6 year Incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: the Singapore Malay Eye Study

Conference INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE · September 1, 2016 Link to item Cite

The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.

Journal Article Nature · August 4, 2016 The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associat ... Full text Link to item Cite

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Journal Article American Journal of Ophthalmology · August 1, 2016 Full text Cite

Ten Emerging Trends in the Epidemiology of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · August 2016 PURPOSE: Diabetes is a major public health problem affecting 415 million people worldwide. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is emerging as the leading cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. METHODS: We reviewed previou ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence, Correlates, and Impact of Uncorrected Presbyopia in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · August 2016 PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, correlates, and impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-specific functioning (VF) in a multiethnic Asian population. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: We included 7890 presbyopic subjects (3909 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Classification of SD-OCT volumes with multi pyramids, LBP and HOG descriptors: application to DME detections.

Conference Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · August 2016 This paper deals with the automated detection of Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) volumes. Our method considers a generic classification pipeline with preprocessing for noise removal and flattening of each B-Scan. Features ... Full text Link to item Cite

A century of trends in adult human height

Journal Article eLife · July 26, 2016 Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1 ... Full text Cite

A century of trends in adult human height.

Journal Article Elife · July 26, 2016 Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sex-Specific Association of Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Retinal Microvascular Signs: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Journal Article J Am Heart Assoc · July 22, 2016 BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition affecting more men than women. The relationship of OSA with microvascular disease is unclear, complicated by possible sex difference. Assessment of the relationship of OSA with retinal microva ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bayesian reclassification statistics for assessing improvements in diagnostic accuracy.

Journal Article Stat Med · July 10, 2016 We propose a Bayesian approach to the estimation of the net reclassification improvement (NRI) and three versions of the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) under the logistic regression model. Both NRI and IDI were proposed as numerical characteri ... Full text Link to item Cite

Posterior Eye Shape Measurement With Retinal OCT Compared to MRI.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · July 1, 2016 PURPOSE: Posterior eye shape assessment by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to study myopia. We tested the hypothesis that optical coherence tomography (OCT), as an alternative, could measure posterior eye shape similarly to MRI. METHODS: Macular s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Inter-Relationships Between Retinal Vascular Caliber, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness, and Glaucoma: A Mediation Analysis Approach.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · July 1, 2016 PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationships among retinal vascular caliber, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and glaucoma; in particular, whether the relationship between narrower retinal vascular caliber and glaucoma is media ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and clinical correlates of focal choroidal excavation in eyes with age-related macular degeneration, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and central serous chorioretinopathy.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2016 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence and clinical characteristics of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) in patients with exudative maculopathy due to age-related macular degeneration with choroidal neovascularisation (AMD-CNV), polypoidal choroidal vasculopat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age of onset of myopia predicts risk of high myopia in later childhood in myopic Singapore children.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Physiol Opt · July 2016 PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of age of myopia onset on the severity of myopia later in life among myopic children. METHODS: In this prospective study, school children aged 7-9 years from the Singapore Cohort Of the Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM) wer ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is there a link between passive smoke exposure and early-onset myopia in preschool Asian children?

Journal Article Ophthalmic Physiol Opt · July 2016 PURPOSE: To investigate the association of passive tobacco smoke exposure with early-onset myopia among three-year-old children in Singapore. METHODS: Pregnant mothers who attended their first trimester clinic at two major maternity units were recruited in ... Full text Link to item Cite

A novel computer aided quantification method of focal arteriolar narrowing using colour retinal image.

Journal Article Comput Biol Med · July 1, 2016 We present a novel method for the quantification of focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN) in human retina, a precursor for hypertension, stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. A reliable and robust arteriolar boundary mapping method is proposed where intensi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of independent association signals and putative functional variants for breast cancer risk through fine-scale mapping of the 12p11 locus.

Journal Article Breast Cancer Res · June 21, 2016 BACKGROUND: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk. METHOD: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Joint Effect of Early Microvascular Damage in the Eye &Kidney on Risk of Cardiovascular Events.

Journal Article Sci Rep · June 8, 2016 Microalbuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but not all individuals require treatment. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and microalbuminuria reflect early systemic microvascular changes. We examined the joint e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Multi-Ethnic United States Population: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · June 2016 PURPOSE: To describe the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors in 4 racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese) residing in the United States. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total ... Full text Link to item Cite

A missense variant in FGD6 confers increased risk of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

Journal Article Nat Genet · June 2016 Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), a subtype of 'wet' age-related macular degeneration (AMD), constitutes up to 55% of cases of wet AMD in Asian patients. In contrast to the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) subtype, the genetic risk factors for PCV ... Full text Link to item Cite

Characterization of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 7 (FABP7) in the Murine Retina.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · June 1, 2016 PURPOSE: To characterize the mouse retina lacking fatty acid binding protein (FABP7-/-). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed in 8-week-old mice to localize FABP7 in the retina. Retinal thickness was measured using image-guided spectral-domain ... Full text Link to item Cite

Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium.

Journal Article Sci Rep · May 13, 2016 Myopia, currently at epidemic levels in East Asia, is a leading cause of untreatable visual impairment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 39 loci associated with refractive error and myopia. Here, the age-of-onset of associat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study identifies five new susceptibility loci for primary angle closure glaucoma.

Journal Article Nat Genet · May 2016 Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) followed by replication in a combined total of 10,503 PACG cases and 29,567 controls drawn from 24 countries across Asia, Aus ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of pupil diameters and pupil dynamics in an adult Chinese population.

Journal Article Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol · May 2016 BACKGROUND: To investigate the determinants of pupil diameter (PD), amplitude of pupil diameter change (PD-change) and speed of pupil constriction (SPC) using video anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in a population-based sample of Chin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal ganglion cell neuronal damage in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · May 2016 BACKGROUND: To examine the association of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR) with retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. DESIGN: Observational case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Type 2 diabetes cases and age-gender matched controls without diabetes. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · May 2016 PURPOSE: Myopia is a common cause of vision loss, with uncorrected myopia the leading cause of distance vision impairment globally. Individual studies show variations in the prevalence of myopia and high myopia between regions and ethnic groups, and there ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diabetic retinopathy: global prevalence, major risk factors, screening practices and public health challenges: a review.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · May 2016 Diabetes retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in middle-aged and elderly people globally. Early detection and prompt treatment allow prevention of diabetes-related visual impairment. Patients with diabetes require regular follow-up with prima ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular imaging in early life: insights into processes and risk of cardiovascular disease.

Journal Article J Physiol · April 15, 2016 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. In recent years, studies have shown that the origins of CVD may be traced to vascular and metabolic processes in early life. Retinal vascular imaging is a new technology ... Full text Link to item Cite

Validation of the Total Cerebrovascular Disease Burden Scale in a Community Sample.

Journal Article J Alzheimers Dis · April 12, 2016 BACKGROUND: A total cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) burden scale was previously constructed and an inverse association of CeVD burden and cognition was found. However, the generalizability of the CeVD scale has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: The objective wa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants.

Journal Article Lancet · April 9, 2016 BACKGROUND: One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants.

Journal Article Lancet · April 2, 2016 BACKGROUND: Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a comp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessment of the psychometric properties of the Chinese Impact of Vision Impairment questionnaire in a population-based study: findings from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

Journal Article Qual Life Res · April 2016 PURPOSE: We investigated whether the Chinese impact of vision impairment (IVI) questionnaire is valid to generate reliable person estimates in a population-based sample. METHODS: VRQoL was measured using the 32-item Chinese version of the IVI questionnaire ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluation of transethnic fine mapping with population-specific and cosmopolitan imputation reference panels in diverse Asian populations.

Journal Article Eur J Hum Genet · April 2016 There has been limited success in identifying causal variants underlying association signals observed in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The use of 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) allows the imputation to estimate the genetic information at untyped var ... Full text Link to item Cite

Linking a genome-wide association study signal to a LRRK2 coding variant in Parkinson's disease.

Journal Article Mov Disord · April 2016 BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Whole-exome sequencing detects rare coding variants, but their links with PD genome-wide association study loci are unknown. Our objective wa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Choroidal Thickness Changes in Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy: A 12-Month Prospective Study.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · April 2016 PURPOSE: To describe 12-month changes in choroidal thickness after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy for typical age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). DESIGN: Prospective, consecutive, ... Full text Link to item Cite

MYOPIC RETINOSCHISIS IN ASIANS: Structural Features and Determinants of Visual Acuity and Prognostic Factors for Progression.

Journal Article Retina · April 2016 PURPOSE: To describe microstructural changes and schisis extent in eyes with myopic retinoschisis and to determine their influence on visual acuity at baseline and follow-up. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 50 eyes of 38 patients with myo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myopic Maculopathy and Optic Disc Changes in Highly Myopic Young Asian Eyes and Impact on Visual Acuity.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · April 2016 PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of myopic maculopathy and specific optic disc and macular changes in highly myopic eyes of young Asian adults and their impact on visual acuity. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: In to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal Vessel Tortuosity and Its Relation to Traditional and Novel Vascular Risk Markers in Persons with Diabetes.

Journal Article Curr Eye Res · April 2016 PURPOSE/AIM: To investigate the association between retinal vascular tortuosity and traditional- and vascular-related risk factors in persons with diabetes. METHODS: We recruited 224 diabetic patients. Retinal vascular tortuosity was measured from fundus p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error.

Journal Article Nat Commun · March 29, 2016 Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Nat Rev Dis Primers · March 17, 2016 Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and is a major cause of vision loss in middle-aged and elderly people. One-third of people with diabetes have DR. Severe stages of DR include proliferative DR, caused by the abnormal g ... Full text Link to item Cite

Metabolic syndrome and eye diseases.

Journal Article Diabetes Res Clin Pract · March 2016 Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sleep apnea and retinal signs in cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Journal Article Sleep Breath · March 2016 PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between sleep apnea, retinal vascular caliber and retinopathy, and their impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: A multi-ethnic cohort of 5,803 participants was examined based on s ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Impact of Lens Vault on Visual Acuity and Refractive Error: Implications for Management of Primary Angle-closure Glaucoma.

Journal Article J Glaucoma · March 2016 PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between lens vault (LV), visual acuity (VA), and refraction. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 2047 subjects aged 50 years and older recruited from a community polyclinic. Anterior segment optical coheren ... Full text Link to item Cite

Increased Burden of Vision Impairment and Eye Diseases in Persons with Chronic Kidney Disease - A Population-Based Study.

Journal Article EBioMedicine · March 2016 BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been shown to be associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), leading causes of blindness in elderly adults in previous studies. However, the association of CKD with visu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship of ocular and systemic factors to the visibility of choroidal-scleral interface using spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · March 2016 PURPOSE: To assess the visibility of the choroidal-scleral interface (CSI) from spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and evaluate the ocular and systemic factors influencing the visibility of CSI in healthy eyes from population-based Malay ... Full text Link to item Cite

Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010.

Journal Article Optom Vis Sci · March 2016 The purpose of this systematic review was to estimate worldwide the number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18, ≥3/60) or blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) due to uncorrected refractive error ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessing the Causality between Blood Pressure and Retinal Vascular Caliber through Mendelian Randomisation.

Journal Article Sci Rep · February 25, 2016 We aimed to determine the association between blood pressure (BP) and retinal vascular caliber changes that were free from confounders and reverse causation by using Mendelian randomisation. A total of 6528 participants from a multi-ethnic cohort (Chinese, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Choroidal vascularity index as a measure of vascular status of the choroid: Measurements in healthy eyes from a population-based study.

Journal Article Sci Rep · February 12, 2016 The vascularity of the choroid has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various eye diseases. To date, no established quantifiable parameters to estimate vascular status of the choroid exists. Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) may potentially be used to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Axial length/corneal radius of curvature ratio and myopia in 3-year-old children

Journal Article Translational Vision Science and Technology · February 9, 2016 Purpose: This study investigated the association of axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CRC) ratio with spherical equivalent (SE) in a 3-year old Asian cohort. Methods: Three-hundred forty-nine 3-year old Asian children from The Growing Up in ... Full text Cite

Genome-wide association analysis identifies TXNRD2, ATXN2 and FOXC1 as susceptibility loci for primary open-angle glaucoma.

Journal Article Nat Genet · February 2016 Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed meta-analysis on genome-wide association study (GWAS) results from eight independent studies from the United States (3,853 cases ... Full text Link to item Cite

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Journal Article Ophthalmology · February 2016 Full text Link to item Cite

Cup-to-Disc Ratio From Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 and High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Agrees Poorly With Clinical Assessment.

Journal Article J Glaucoma · February 2016 PURPOSE: To investigate the agreement of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) measured from Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 (HRT-3), high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT), and clinical grading. METHODS: A total of 933 consecutive subjects underw ... Full text Link to item Cite

Suppression of inflammatory disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with improvements in retinal microvascular health.

Journal Article Rheumatology (Oxford) · February 2016 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of suppressing inflammation on retinal microvascular health in patients with RA. METHODS: Two groups of patients with RA were recruited and studied concurrently. Group A included patients with moderate to high disease a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel Genetic Loci Associated With Retinal Microvascular Diameter.

Journal Article Circ Cardiovasc Genet · February 2016 BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that retinal microvascular diameters are associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular conditions. The shared genetic effects of these associations are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to increase o ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function.

Journal Article Nat Commun · January 21, 2016 Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data ... Full text Link to item Cite

Joint Effects of Intraocular Pressure and Myopia on Risk of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article Sci Rep · January 13, 2016 We examined the joint effects of intraocular pressure (IOP) and myopia on the risk of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. A total of 9,422 participants (18,469 eyes) in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study wer ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · 2016 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and its risk factors in a multi-ethnic Asian population. METHODS: This population-based study of 10,033 participants (75.7% response rate) included Chinese, Indian and Malay persons aged 4 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glaucoma in Asia: regional prevalence variations and future projections.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · January 2016 PURPOSE: To evaluate glaucoma prevalence and disease burden across Asian subregions from 2013 to 2040. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 23 population-based studies of 1318 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) cases in 66,800 ind ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ranibizumab in Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization: A Subgroup Analysis by Ethnicity, Age, and Ocular Characteristics in RADIANCE.

Journal Article Ophthalmologica · 2016 PURPOSE: To assess the impact of ethnicity, age, and ocular characteristics on ranibizumab efficacy in myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: In this post hoc subgroup analysis from the phase III RADIANCE study, best-corrected visual acuity (B ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Impact of Macronutrients on Retinal Microvasculature among Singapore Pregnant Women during the Mid-Late Gestation.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2016 BACKGROUND: Imbalanced macronutrient intakes can induce impairment of endothelial and vascular function, and further lead to metabolic and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the influence of such diets on endothelial and vascular dysfun ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship Between Peripapillary Choroid and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in a Population-Based Sample of Nonglaucomatous Eyes.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · January 2016 PURPOSE: To describe the relationship between peripapillary choroidal thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in a population-based sample of nonglaucomatous eyes. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 478 no ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship of Intraocular Pressure with Central Aortic Systolic Pressure.

Journal Article Curr Eye Res · 2016 PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) and intraocular pressure (IOP), and to compare the strength of any association with that of peripheral blood pressure and IOP. METHODS: Adults ranging in age from 40 to 80 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Characteristics and Predictors of Early and Delayed Responders to Ranibizumab Treatment in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Retrospective Analysis from the ANCHOR, MARINA, HARBOR, and CATT Trials.

Journal Article Ophthalmologica · 2016 PURPOSE: This retrospective review examined visual acuity (VA) in subjects with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and identified early and delayed response to ranibizumab. PROCEDURES: MARINA, ANCHOR, HARBOR, and CATT published data were examined ... Full text Link to item Cite

Classifying DME vs normal SD-OCT volumes: A review

Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition · January 1, 2016 This article reviews the current state of automatic classification methodologies to identify Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) versus normal subjects based on Spectral Domain OCT (SD-OCT) data. Addressing this classification problem has valuable interest since ... Full text Cite

Semantic reconstruction-based nuclear cataract grading from slit-lamp lens images

Conference Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) · January 1, 2016 Cataracts are the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Cataract grading,i.e. assessing the presence and severity of cataracts,is essential for diagnosis and progression monitoring. We present in this work an automatic method for pred ... Full text Cite

Classification of SD-OCT volumes for DME detection: An anomaly detection approach

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · January 1, 2016 Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is the leading cause of blindness amongst diabetic patients worldwide. It is characterized by accumulation of water molecules in the macula leading to swelling. Early detection of the disease helps prevent further loss of visio ... Full text Cite

Classification of SD-OCT Volumes Using Local Binary Patterns: Experimental Validation for DME Detection

Journal Article Journal of Ophthalmology · January 1, 2016 This paper addresses the problem of automatic classification of Spectral Domain OCT (SD-OCT) data for automatic identification of patients with DME versus normal subjects. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been a valuable diagnostic tool for DME, whic ... Full text Cite

Number of People Blind or Visually Impaired by Glaucoma Worldwide and in World Regions 1990 - 2010: A Meta-Analysis.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2016 OBJECTIVE: To assess the number of individuals visually impaired or blind due to glaucoma and to examine regional differences and temporal changes in this parameter for the period from 1990 to 2012. METHODS: As part of the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) S ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypertensive/Microvascular Disease and COPD: a Case Control Study.

Journal Article Kidney Blood Press Res · 2016 BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have more small vessel disease and more severe disease than an age- and gender- matched hospital patient comparison group. METHODS: This wa ... Full text Link to item Cite

A Vision "Bolt-On" Item Could Increase the Discriminatory Power of the EQ-5D Index Score.

Journal Article Value Health · December 2015 BACKGROUND: Recently, a vision "bolt-on" EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) was developed and tentative utility values (i.e., a "value set") for this new descriptive system were estimated. OBJECTIVES: To compare the discriminatory power of this ... Full text Link to item Cite

The natural history of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a multi-center series of untreated Asian patients.

Journal Article Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol · December 2015 PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the long-term natural history of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in untreated patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational case series. Patients with symptomatic PCV who did not receive any treatment for at ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and determinants of undiagnosed diabetic retinopathy and vision-threatening retinopathy in a multiethnic Asian cohort: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · December 2015 OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of undiagnosed diabetic retinopathy (DR), in particular vision-threatening DR (VTDR) in a multiethnic Asian cohort. DESIGN: A population-based survey of 3353 Chinese, 3280 Malays and 3400 Indians (73. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relative Contribution of Risk Factors for Early-Onset Myopia in Young Asian Children.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · December 2015 PURPOSE: To investigate the associations of near work, outdoor activity, and anthropometric risk factors with early-onset myopia in Singaporean preschool children. METHODS: Pregnant women who attended their first-trimester clinic at two major maternity uni ... Full text Link to item Cite

A prospective case-control study to investigate retinal microvascular changes in acute dengue infection.

Journal Article Sci Rep · November 25, 2015 Dengue infection can affect the microcirculation by direct viral infection or activation of inflammation. We aimed to determine whether measured retinal vascular parameters were associated with acute dengue infection. Patients with acute dengue were recrui ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of Visual Impairment and Eye diseases on Mortality: the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES).

Journal Article Sci Rep · November 9, 2015 We investigated the relationship of visual impairment (VI) and age-related eye diseases with mortality in a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3,280 Malay adults aged 40-80 years between 2004-2006. Participants underwent a full ophthalmic examin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Interventions for Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · November 2015 PURPOSE: To systematically review the effectiveness of systemic interventions for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in type 1 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for studies published f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ancestry, Socioeconomic Status, and Age-Related Cataract in Asians: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · November 2015 PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of age-related cataract and its ancestral and socioeconomic risk factors in a multi-ethnic Asian population. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 033 adults (3353 Chinese, 3280 Ma ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation.

Journal Article Nat Genet · November 2015 We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood ... Full text Link to item Cite

Choroidal thickness and high myopia: a case-control study of young Chinese men in Singapore.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · November 2015 PURPOSE: To determine the distribution of choroidal thickness (CT) and ocular factors associated with CT in high myopic eyes in comparison with emmetropic eyes of young healthy adults. METHODS: A case-control study of 648 young, male subjects, including 52 ... Full text Link to item Cite

MMP20 and ARMS2/HTRA1 Are Associated with Neovascular Lesion Size in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · November 2015 PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual impairment. Despite treatment, a central scotoma often remains. The size of the scotoma depends on the lesion size of the choroidal neovascular membrane and significantly ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic Feature Learning to Grade Nuclear Cataracts Based on Deep Learning.

Journal Article IEEE Trans Biomed Eng · November 2015 GOAL: Cataracts are a clouding of the lens and the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Assessing the presence and severity of cataracts is essential for diagnosis and progression monitoring, as well as to facilitate clinical research and management of th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of neuropsychiatric symptoms and sub-syndromes with cognitive impairment in community-dwelling Asian elderly.

Journal Article Int Psychogeriatr · November 2015 OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and sub-syndromes in elderly community-dwelling Asians with varying severity of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Chinese and Malay participants (n = 613) from the Epidemiology of Deme ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in previously treated patients with diabetic macular edema: subgroup analysis of the MEAD study.

Journal Article BMC Ophthalmol · October 30, 2015 BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7 mg (DEX 0.7) was approved for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) after demonstration of its efficacy and safety in the MEAD registration trials. We performed subgroup analysis of MEAD study results ... Full text Link to item Cite

Body fat distribution, metabolic and inflammatory markers and retinal microvasculature in school-age children. The Generation R Study.

Journal Article Int J Obes (Lond) · October 2015 OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of body fatness, metabolic and inflammatory markers with retinal vessel calibers among children. DESIGN: We performed a population-based cohort study among 4145 school-age children. At the median age of 6.0 years (95% ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic white matter lesion segmentation using contrast enhanced FLAIR intensity and Markov Random Field.

Journal Article Comput Med Imaging Graph · October 2015 White matter lesions (WMLs) are small groups of dead cells that clump together in the white matter of brain. In this paper, we propose a reliable method to automatically segment WMLs. Our method uses a novel filter to enhance the intensity of WMLs. Then a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Number of People Blind or Visually Impaired by Cataract Worldwide and in World Regions, 1990 to 2010.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · October 2015 PURPOSE: To estimate prevalence and number of people visually impaired or blind due to cataract. METHODS: Based on the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 and ongoing literature research, we examined how many people were affected by moderate to severe vis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ocular Fundus Photography as a Tool to Study Stroke and Dementia.

Journal Article Semin Neurol · October 2015 Although cerebral small vessel disease has been linked to stroke and dementia, due to limitations of current neuroimaging technology, direct in vivo visualization of changes in the cerebral small vessels (e.g., cerebral arteriolar narrowing, tortuous micro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Developmental energetics, sibling death, and parental instability as predictors of maturational tempo and life history scheduling in males from Cebu, Philippines

Journal Article American Journal of Physical Anthropology · October 1, 2015 Objectives Cross-species comparisons show that high extrinsic mortality favors the evolution of "faster" life histories. There is interest in applying this principle to human life history plasticity, based on the idea that psychosocial stressors that corre ... Full text Cite

Conversion to aflibercept for diabetic macular edema unresponsive to ranibizumab or bevacizumab

Journal Article Clinical Ophthalmology · September 16, 2015 Background: The purpose of this study was to determine if eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) unresponsive to ranibizumab or bevacizumab would benefit from conversion to aflibercept. Methods: This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review of s ... Full text Cite

Bayesian estimation of varying-coefficient models with missing data, with application to the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study

Journal Article Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation · August 13, 2015 Motivated by the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS), we propose a Bayesian approach for the estimation of semiparametric varying-coefficient models for longitudinal continuous and cross-sectional binary responses. These models have proved to be more ... Full text Cite

Chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and mortality: A prospective cohort study in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

Journal Article Eur J Prev Cardiol · August 2015 BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on adverse cardiovascular outcomes and deaths in Asian populations. We evaluated the associations of CKD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a multi-e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331,288 participants.

Journal Article Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol · August 2015 BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both ... Full text Link to item Cite

THREE-YEAR RESULTS OF POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY TREATED WITH PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY: Retrospective Study and Systematic Review.

Journal Article Retina · August 2015 PURPOSE: To evaluate the 3-year outcome in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) treated with photodynamic therapy with verteporfin. METHODS: Retrospective study and review of the literature. We performed a retrospective study of patients with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Exposure to Atomic Bomb Radiation and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Later Life: The Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivor Study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · August 2015 PURPOSE: To investigate the association between radiation exposure from the atomic bombings and the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among older residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. METHODS: The Adult Health Study is a cohort study of a ... Full text Link to item Cite

The Prevalence and Types of Glaucoma in an Urban Chinese Population: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · August 2015 IMPORTANCE: Glaucoma represents a major public health challenge in an aging population. The Tanjong Pagar Eye Study reported the prevalence and risk factors of glaucoma in a Singapore Chinese population in 1997, which established the higher rates of blindn ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glaucoma detection based on deep convolutional neural network.

Conference Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · August 2015 Glaucoma is a chronic and irreversible eye disease, which leads to deterioration in vision and quality of life. In this paper, we develop a deep learning (DL) architecture with convolutional neural network for automated glaucoma diagnosis. Deep learning sy ... Full text Link to item Cite

Red lesion detection in retinal fundus images using Frangi-based filters.

Conference Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · August 2015 This paper presents a method to detect red lesions related to Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), namely Microaneurysms and Hemorrhages from retinal fundus images with robustness to the presence of blood vessels. Filters based on Frangi filters are used for the fir ... Full text Link to item Cite

Targeting the Effect of VEGF in Diabetic Macular Edema

Journal Article The New England journal of medicine · July 30, 2015 Full text Cite

A common variant near TGFBR3 is associated with primary open angle glaucoma.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · July 1, 2015 Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a complex disease with a significant genetic contribution. We performed Exome Array (Illumina) analysis on 3504 POAG cases and 9746 controls with replication of the most significa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of birth parameters and early life growth patterns on retinal microvascular structure in children: The Generation R Study.

Journal Article J Hypertens · July 2015 OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the associations of birth outcomes and longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with retinal vessel calibers in childhood. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4122 chi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Peripapillary choroidal thickness assessed using automated choroidal segmentation software in an Asian population.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2015 AIMS: To objectively quantify the thickness of peripapillary choroid using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with enhanced depth imaging (EDI) followed by a novel automated choroidal segmentation software in Asian eyes and to evaluate i ... Full text Link to item Cite

IMPROVED SPECIFICITY OF POLYPOIDAL CHOROIDAL VASCULOPATHY DIAGNOSIS USING A MODIFIED EVEREST CRITERIA.

Journal Article Retina · July 2015 PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) diagnosis using fundus camera-based indocyanine green angiography, comparing a single sign of "subretinal focal hyperfluorescence" on indocyanine green angiography with a modif ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of new susceptibility loci for IgA nephropathy in Han Chinese.

Journal Article Nat Commun · June 1, 2015 IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common primary glomerulonephritis. Previously identified genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci explain only a fraction of disease risk. To identify novel susceptibility loci in Han Chinese, we conduct a four-st ... Full text Link to item Cite

African Ancestry Analysis and Admixture Genetic Mapping for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in African Americans.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · June 2015 PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between proportion of African ancestry (PAA) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and to identify genetic loci associated with PDR using admixture mapping in African Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aggregate Effects of Intraocular Pressure and Cup-to-Disc Ratio Genetic Variants on Glaucoma in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · June 2015 PURPOSE: High intraocular pressure (IOP) and large vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) are important risk factors of glaucoma. Recent genome-wide association studies have discovered several genetic variants associated with IOP and VCDR. In this study, we exa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Analysis of genetic risk factors for primary open angle glaucoma in Singaporean Chinese

Conference INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE · June 1, 2015 Link to item Cite

Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Age-related Macular Degeneration

Conference INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE · June 1, 2015 Link to item Cite

Relationship of systemic endothelial function and peripheral arterial stiffness with diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · June 2015 BACKGROUND: To investigate possible associations between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and systemic vascular endothelial function and arterial stiffness measured using reactive hyperaemia peripheral arterial tonometry. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional obser ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection in Patients with Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization: The MYRROR Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · June 2015 PURPOSE: To evaluate intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). DESIGN: An international, phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, sham-controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk Factors and Consequences of Cortical Thickness in an Asian Population.

Journal Article Medicine (Baltimore) · June 2015 Cortical thickness has been suggested to be one of the most important markers of cortical atrophy. In this study, we examined potential risk factors of cortical thickness and its association with cognition in an elderly Asian population from Singapore. Thi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of optical coherence tomography-derived minimum neuroretinal rim width in a normal Chinese population.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · May 2015 PURPOSE: To characterize an optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived parameter, Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW), and its association with demographic and clinical parameters in normal Chinese subjects. METHODS: Right eyes of 466 cons ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvessels reflect familial vulnerability to psychotic symptoms: A comparison of twins discordant for psychotic symptoms and controls.

Journal Article Schizophr Res · May 2015 Mounting evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia have an underlying vulnerability to cardiovascular disease, and a recent study suggested that this vulnerability might be reflected in the retinal microvasculature. The purpose of this study wa ... Full text Link to item Cite

The clinical implications of recent studies on the structure and function of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes.

Journal Article Diabetologia · May 2015 The retinal blood vessels provide the opportunity to study early structural and functional changes in the microvasculature prior to clinically significant microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Advances in digital retinal photography an ... Full text Link to item Cite

International photographic classification and grading system for myopic maculopathy.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · May 2015 PURPOSE: To develop a classification and grading system for myopic maculopathy. DESIGN: Development and evaluation of a classification system for myopic maculopathy based on observational case series. METHODS: A comprehensive set of myopic macular lesions ... Full text Link to item Cite

Circulating markers of inflammation and endothelial function, and their relationship to diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Diabet Med · May 2015 AIM: To examine the relationships of serum markers of inflammation and endothelial function to diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: We recruited 224 patients with diabetes (85 with Type 1 and 139 with Type 2 diabetes) aged 18-70 years. Serum markers of inflammat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vessels change in primary angle-closure glaucoma: the Handan Eye Study.

Journal Article Sci Rep · April 30, 2015 Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. To examine the relationship between angle closure and the retinal vessel diameter in Chinese adults, we conducted Handan Eye Study (HES), a large population-based cross-sectional study, which enr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Whole-exome sequencing implicates UBE3D in age-related macular degeneration in East Asian populations.

Journal Article Nat Commun · April 15, 2015 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible central blindness among the elderly worldwide. We use exome sequencing to analyse nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) across the whole genome of 216 neovascular AMD cases ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal arteriolar narrowing and incidence of knee replacement for osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study.

Journal Article Osteoarthritis Cartilage · April 2015 OBJECTIVES: The role of the microcirculation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. This prospective cohort study examined the association between retinal vascular calibre and incidence of knee replacement for OA. DESIGN: 1838 particip ... Full text Link to item Cite

A common variant mapping to CACNA1A is associated with susceptibility to exfoliation syndrome.

Journal Article Nat Genet · April 2015 Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common recognizable cause of open-angle glaucoma worldwide. To better understand the etiology of XFS, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,484 cases and 1,188 controls from Japan and followed up th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvasculature and cardiovascular health in childhood.

Journal Article Pediatrics · April 2015 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Alterations in retinal microvasculature are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the associations of retinal vessel caliber with cardiovascular markers in school-age children. METHODS: Among 4007 s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular caliber between eyes with asymmetric glaucoma.

Journal Article Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol · April 2015 PURPOSE: To compare differences in retinal arterial and venular caliber (RAC and RVC respectively) between fellow eyes with glaucoma of asymmetric severity. METHODS: We included subjects with bilateral primary glaucoma that had vertical cup-disc ratios (VC ... Full text Link to item Cite

Angle-closure glaucoma in Asians: comparison of biometric and anterior segment parameters between Japanese and Chinese subjects.

Journal Article Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol · April 2015 PURPOSE: To compare anterior segment parameters in Chinese and Japanese subjects with angle closure using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). METHODS: One hundred and forty-two Japanese and one hundred and ninety-two Chinese subjects wit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fibrosis-related biomarkers and large and small vessel disease: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

Journal Article Atherosclerosis · April 2015 OBJECTIVE: Fibrosis has been implicated in a number of pathological, organ-based conditions of the liver, kidney, heart, and lungs. The objective of this study was to determine whether biomarkers of fibrosis are associated with vascular disease in the larg ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multiethnic genome-wide association study of cerebral white matter hyperintensities on MRI.

Journal Article Circ Cardiovasc Genet · April 2015 BACKGROUND: The burden of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is associated with an increased risk of stroke, dementia, and death. WMH are highly heritable, but their genetic underpinnings are incompletely characterized. To identify novel genetic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of myopia-associated WNT7B polymorphisms provides insights into the mechanism underlying the development of myopia.

Journal Article Nat Commun · March 31, 2015 Myopia can cause severe visual impairment. Here, we report a two-stage genome-wide association study for three myopia-related traits in 9,804 Japanese individuals, which was extended with trans-ethnic replication in 2,674 Chinese and 2,690 Caucasian indivi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of adult height in East Asians identifies 17 novel loci.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · March 15, 2015 Human height is associated with risk of multiple diseases and is profoundly determined by an individual's genetic makeup and shows a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity. Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of adult height in Europeans have i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Metabolic syndrome and risk of age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Retina · March 2015 PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with the risk of early- and late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: A prospective cohort of individuals aged older than or equal to 49 years w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Novel Loci Associated With Optic Disc Morphology.

Journal Article Genet Epidemiol · March 2015 Primary open-angle glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy and an important cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The optic nerve head or optic disc is divided in two parts: a central cup (without nerve fibers) surrounded by the neuroretinal rim ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glaucoma and associated visual acuity and field loss significantly affect glaucoma-specific psychosocial functioning.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · March 2015 OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of glaucoma and visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF) losses on psychosocial functioning (PF). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We compared PF between 192 participants with bilateral glaucoma with VA or VF lo ... Full text Link to item Cite

The age-specific prevalence of myopia in Asia: a meta-analysis.

Journal Article Optom Vis Sci · March 2015 PURPOSE: To estimate the age-specific prevalence of myopia in Asia. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from their inception through September 2013 for population-based surveys reporting the prevalence of myopia in adults or children in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myopic choroidal neovascularisation: current concepts and update on clinical management.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · March 2015 Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) is a common vision-threatening complication of myopia and pathological myopia. Despite significant advances in understanding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and natural history of myopic CNV, there is no standard definitio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · March 2015 PURPOSE: To describe the rates of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and mortality in patients who have treatment with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: A retros ... Full text Link to item Cite

A meta-analysis of gene expression signatures of blood pressure and hypertension.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · March 2015 Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered numerous genetic variants (SNPs) that are associated with blood pressure (BP). Genetic variants may lead to BP changes by acting on intermediate molecular phenotypes such as coded protein sequence or ge ... Full text Link to item Cite

Usefulness of retinal microvascular endothelial dysfunction as a predictor of coronary artery disease.

Journal Article Am J Cardiol · March 1, 2015 Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of atherosclerosis. Retinal microvascular endothelial function can be assessed using noninvasive dynamic vessel imaging techniques. Whether it is impaired in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. T ... Full text Link to item Cite

Serum leptin and age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 24, 2015 PURPOSE: Leptin, a 167-amino acid protein secreted by adipocytes, has been shown to reduce beta-amyloid deposition and intracellular lipid concentration in animal models, two key pathogenic mechanisms underlying aging. We examined the association between s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Peripapillary choroidal thickness in young Asians with high myopia.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 5, 2015 PURPOSE: To describe the topography and predictors of peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPCT) in highly myopic eyes of young, healthy, Asian subjects. METHODS: A total of 870 young male subjects aged 21.63 ± 1.15 years were recruited from the Singapore mi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus using HbA1c in Asians: relationship between HbA1c and retinopathy in a multiethnic Asian population.

Journal Article J Clin Endocrinol Metab · February 2015 CONTEXT: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol) has recently been included as a criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. It is unclear whether this criterion is appropriate in Asians. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between HbA1c and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study for refractive astigmatism reveals genetic co-determination with spherical equivalent refractive error: the CREAM consortium.

Journal Article Hum Genet · February 2015 To identify genetic variants associated with refractive astigmatism in the general population, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were performed for: White Europeans aged at least 25 years (20 cohorts, N = 31,968); Asian subjects aged at leas ... Full text Link to item Cite

Distribution and determinants of choroidal thickness and volume using automated segmentation software in a population-based study.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · February 2015 PURPOSE: To objectively quantify choroidal thickness and choroidal volume using fully automated choroidal segmentation software applied to images obtained from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD OCT) in a population ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diabetic macular ischaemia is associated with narrower retinal arterioles in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · February 2015 PURPOSE: Diabetic macular ischaemia (DMI) is an important cause of visual loss in patients with diabetes, but its relationship to the larger retinal vessels is unknown. We examined whether retinal vessel calibre is related to DMI. METHODS: Clinic-based cas ... Full text Link to item Cite

Low-frequency and rare exome chip variants associate with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes susceptibility.

Journal Article Nat Commun · January 29, 2015 Fasting glucose and insulin are intermediate traits for type 2 diabetes. Here we explore the role of coding variation on these traits by analysis of variants on the HumanExome BeadChip in 60,564 non-diabetic individuals and in 16,491 T2D cases and 81,877 c ... Full text Link to item Cite

New loci and coding variants confer risk for age-related macular degeneration in East Asians.

Journal Article Nat Commun · January 28, 2015 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness, but presents differently in Europeans and Asians. Here, we perform a genome-wide and exome-wide association study on 2,119 patients with exudative AMD and 5,691 controls, with independen ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lens status influences the association between CFH polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration: findings from two population-based studies in Singapore.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2015 AIMS: To determine the differential effects of genetic polymorphism in CFH and ARMS2 on risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) between phakic vs. pseudophakic/aphakic eyes. METHODS: 9,529 eyes of 4,918 participants from the Singapore Malay Eye Stud ... Full text Link to item Cite

Elevated serum leptin, adiponectin and leptin to adiponectin ratio is associated with chronic kidney disease in Asian adults.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2015 BACKGROUND: Adiponectin and leptin, two of the key cytokines secreted by adipocytes, have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not clear. We examined ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvascular abnormalities and risk of renal failure in Asian populations.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2015 BACKGROUND: Retinal microvascular signs may provide insights into the structure and function of small vessels that are associated with renal disease. We examined the relationship of retinal microvascular signs with both prevalent and incident end-stage ren ... Full text Link to item Cite

Non-traditional systemic treatments for diabetic retinopathy: an evidence-based review.

Journal Article Curr Med Chem · 2015 The rapid escalation in the global prevalence diabetes, with more than 30% being afflicted with diabetic retinopathy (DR), means it is likely that associated vision-threatening conditions will also rise substantially. This means that new therapeutic approa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Moderate consumption of white and fortified wine is associated with reduced odds of diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article J Diabetes Complications · 2015 AIM: To explore the association between alcohol consumption and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients with type 2 diabetes answered questions on consumption of low and full-strength beer, white wine/cha ... Full text Link to item Cite

Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2015 PURPOSE: To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and India ... Full text Link to item Cite

Serum Cystatin C, Markers of Chronic Kidney Disease, and Retinopathy in Persons with Diabetes.

Journal Article J Diabetes Res · 2015 PURPOSE: We examined the association of CKD defined by serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, and albuminuria with moderate diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: We examined 1,119 Indian adults with diabetes, aged 40-80 years, who participated in the Singapore ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification and functional characterization of G6PC2 coding variants influencing glycemic traits define an effector transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 locus.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · January 2015 Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute su ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations of maternal retinal vasculature with subsequent fetal growth and birth size.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2015 OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the maternal retinal microvasculature at mid-trimester and its relationship with subsequent fetal growth and birth size. METHODS: We recruited 732 pregnant women aged 18-46 years in the first trimester with singleton pregnancie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intracranial stenosis, cerebrovascular diseases, and cognitive impairment in chinese.

Journal Article Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord · 2015 Extracranial carotid artery disease has been shown to be related to cognitive deficits. However, limited data are available on intracranial stenosis (ICS) and cognitive impairment. We investigate the association between ICS and cognitive impairment in Chin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal ganglion cell analysis using high-definition optical coherence tomography in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Article J Alzheimers Dis · 2015 BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with emerging evidence that it is associated with retinal ganglion cell loss; however, few data exist to establish this association. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether macular ganglion cell- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal neurodegeneration on optical coherence tomography and cerebral atrophy.

Journal Article Neurosci Lett · January 1, 2015 Neurodegeneration in dementia is mainly evaluated by assessing cerebral atrophy, while retinal neurodegeneration can be quantified in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We examined the association of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and ganglio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema and related vision loss.

Journal Article Eye Vis (Lond) · 2015 Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision-loss globally. Of an estimated 285 million people with diabetes mellitus worldwide, approximately one third have signs of DR and of these, a further one third of DR is vision-threatening DR, including ... Full text Link to item Cite

Subcortical Atrophy in Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

Journal Article J Alzheimers Dis · 2015 BACKGROUND: Cortical atrophy is a key neuroimaging feature of dementia. However, the role of subcortical gray matter reduction in cognitive impairment has not been explored extensively. OBJECTIVES: We examined the risk factors of subcortical structures on ... Full text Link to item Cite

Repeatability of Perimacular Ganglion Cell Complex Analysis with Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

Journal Article J Ophthalmol · 2015 Purpose. To assess the repeatability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to measure macular and perimacular ganglion cell complex thicknesses and compare retinal ganglion cell parameters between algorithms. Methods. Ninety-two nonglaucomatous e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microvascular Disease After Renal Transplantation.

Journal Article Kidney Blood Press Res · 2015 BACKGROUND/AIMS: Individuals who reach end-stage kidney disease (CKD5) have a high risk of vascular events that persists even after renal transplantation. This study compared the prevalence and severity of microvascular disease in transplant recipients and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multiple ocular diseases detection based on joint sparse multi-task learning.

Conference Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2015 In this paper, we present a multiple ocular diseases detection scheme based on joint sparse multi-task learning. Glaucoma, Pathological Myopia (PM), and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are three major causes of vision impairment and blindness worldw ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic feature learning for glaucoma detection based on deep learning

Conference Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) · January 1, 2015 Glaucoma is a chronic and irreversible eye disease in which the optic nerve is progressively damaged, leading to deterioration in vision and quality of life. In this paper, we present an Automatic feature Learning for glAucomaDetection based onDeep LearnIN ... Full text Cite

Discriminative feature selection for multiple ocular diseases classification by sparse induced graph regularized group lasso

Conference Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) · January 1, 2015 Glaucoma, Pathological Myopia (PM), and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are three leading ocular diseases worldwide. Visual features extracted from retinal fundus images have been increasingly used for detecting these three diseases. In this paper, ... Full text Cite

Automatic feature learning to grade nuclear cataracts based on deep learning

Conference Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) · January 1, 2015 Cataracts are a clouding of the lens and the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Assessing the presence and severity of cataracts is essential for diagnosis and progression monitoring, as well as to facilitate clinical research and management of the dise ... Full text Cite

Visual Impairment in White, Chinese, Black, and Hispanic Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · 2015 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of visual impairment and examine its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. METHODS: Visual acuity data were obtained from 6134 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of common SIX6 polymorphisms with peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness: the Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · December 23, 2014 PURPOSE: Recently the common SIX6 missense variant rs33912345 was found to be highly associated with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between this SIX6 variant and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sex differences in retinal microvasculature through puberty in type 1 diabetes: are girls at greater risk of diabetic microvascular complications?

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · December 4, 2014 PURPOSE: Adolescent females with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are reported to have greater risk of early microvascular complications than males. We hypothesize sex differences in retinal vascular geometry (RVG) through puberty are associated with earlier-onset mi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in persons without diabetes: the Singapore Indian Eye Study.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · December 2014 PURPOSE: To describe prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in an Asian Indian population without diabetes. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 3400 Indians aged 40-80 years residing in Singapore was conducted. Retinopathy was assesse ... Full text Link to item Cite

Body mass index and preclinical kidney disease in Indian adults aged 40 years and above without chronic kidney disease.

Journal Article Clin Exp Nephrol · December 2014 BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with diabetes and hypertension, two major risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, it has been shown that obesity is associated with preclinical kidney disease defined by elevated levels of cystatin C among ... Full text Link to item Cite

Understanding indocyanine green angiography in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: the group experience with digital fundus photography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

Journal Article Retina · December 2014 PURPOSE: To evaluate the angiographic features in using fundus camera-based versus confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO)-based indocyanine green angiography in differentiating polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) from typical age-related macular ... Full text Link to item Cite

Current concepts in diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Diabetes Metab J · December 2014 For the past several decades, tremendous efforts have been made to decrease the complications of diabetes, including diabetic retinopathy. New diagnostic modalities like ultrawide field fundus fluorescein angiography and spectral domain optical coherence t ... Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship between changes in body mass index and retinal vascular caliber in children.

Journal Article J Pediatr · December 2014 OBJECTIVE: To examine the longitudinal relationship between changes in childhood body mass index (BMI) and retinal vascular caliber. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 421 healthy children aged 7-9 years in 2001 who returned for follow-up in 2006. At bot ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in multiethnic Asians identifies two loci for age-related nuclear cataract.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · November 15, 2014 Age-related cataract is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, especially in developing countries where access to cataract surgery remains limited. Previous linkage and candidate gene studies suggested genetic influences on age-related nuclear cataract bu ... Full text Link to item Cite

CMPK1 and RBP3 are associated with corneal curvature in Asian populations.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · November 15, 2014 Corneal curvature (CC) measures the steepness of the cornea and is an important parameter for clinically diseases such as astigmatism and myopia. Despite the high heritability of CC, only two associated genes have been discovered to date. We performed a th ... Full text Link to item Cite

cnvCapSeq: detecting copy number variation in long-range targeted resequencing data.

Journal Article Nucleic Acids Res · November 10, 2014 Targeted resequencing technologies have allowed for efficient and cost-effective detection of genomic variants in specific regions of interest. Although capture sequencing has been primarily used for investigating single nucleotide variants and indels, it ... Full text Link to item Cite

Global prevalence of glaucoma and projections of glaucoma burden through 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · November 2014 PURPOSE: Glaucoma is the leading cause of global irreversible blindness. Present estimates of global glaucoma prevalence are not up-to-date and focused mainly on European ancestry populations. We systematically examined the global prevalence of primary ope ... Full text Link to item Cite

Correlation of structural and electrophysiological changes in the retina of young high myopes.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Physiol Opt · November 2014 PURPOSE: Despite a high prevalence of myopia among young East Asian adults, there is a lack of data on the myopic retina structure-function relationship in this group. We examined the association between optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretino ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is chronic kidney disease associated with diabetic retinopathy in Asian adults?

Journal Article J Diabetes · November 2014 BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is commonly associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Few studies have demonstrated that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with DR. However, it is not clear if CKD in the absence of albuminuria is associated ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vessel calibers predict long-term microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes: the Danish Cohort of Pediatric Diabetes 1987 (DCPD1987).

Journal Article Diabetes · November 2014 Diabetic neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy cause significant morbidity in patients with type 1 diabetes, even though improvements in treatment modalities delay the appearance and reduce the severity of these complications. To prevent or further dela ... Full text Link to item Cite

Development and reliability of retinal arteriolar central light reflex quantification system: a new approach for severity grading.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · October 30, 2014 PURPOSE: To describe the methodology and assess the reliability of novel computer-based semiautomated software that quantifies retinal arteriolar central light reflex (CR) from digital retinal photographs. METHODS: A total of 150 optic disc-centered digita ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship between iris surface features and angle width in Asian eyes.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · October 23, 2014 PURPOSE: To examine the associations between iris surface features with anterior chamber angle width in Asian eyes. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 600 subjects from a large population-based study, the Singapore Epidemiolog ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intraocular pressure rise is predictive of vision improvement after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diabetic macular oedema: a retrospective analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial.

Journal Article BMC Ophthalmol · October 21, 2014 BACKGROUND: Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) is an effective treatment for recalcitrant diabetic macular oedema (DMO). It has been shown to improve vision with benefits persisting up to five years. The most common initial side effect of IVTA tre ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · October 15, 2014 Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reliability and determinants of retinal vessel oximetry measurements in healthy eyes.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · October 9, 2014 PURPOSE: To assess the reliability and determinants of retinal vessel oximetry measurements with the Oxymap T1 Retinal Oximeter in normal Asian eyes. METHODS: Subjects older than 40 years without a history of stroke and heart disease were recruited from a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide analysis of multi-ancestry cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma.

Journal Article Nat Genet · October 2014 Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population coh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Common variants near ABCA1 and in PMM2 are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma.

Journal Article Nat Genet · October 2014 We performed a genome-wide association study for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in 1,007 cases with high-pressure glaucoma (HPG) and 1,009 controls from southern China. We observed genome-wide significant association at multiple SNPs near ABCA1 at 9q31 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Visual impairment and blindness due to macular diseases globally: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · October 2014 PURPOSE: To estimate the number of people visually impaired or blind due to macular diseases except those caused by diabetic maculopathy. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. METHODS: Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 and ongoing literature research, we e ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ethnic differences of intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness: the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · October 2014 PURPOSE: To determine the ethnic differences in the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in a multi-ethnic Asian population by self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differing associations of white matter lesions and lacunar infarction with retinal microvascular signs.

Journal Article Int J Stroke · October 2014 BACKGROUND: White matter lesions (WML) and lacunar infarcts (LI) are believed to have microvascular etiologies but the exact microvascular changes occurring in each is unclear. AIM: Using the retina as a proxy, we assessed retinal microvascular changes in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hemoglobin is associated with retinal vascular fractals in type 1 diabetes patients.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · October 2014 PURPOSE: Retinal vascular fractal dimension, a measure of the density of the retinal vasculature, has been suggested as a marker of systemic microvascular disorders in diabetes. As hemoglobin concentration is tightly related to vascular physiology and hypo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evidence that breast cancer risk at the 2q35 locus is mediated through IGFBP5 regulation.

Journal Article Nat Commun · September 23, 2014 GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies novel loci that influence cupping and the glaucomatous process.

Journal Article Nat Commun · September 22, 2014 Glaucoma is characterized by irreversible optic nerve degeneration and is the most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Here, the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium conducts a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of verti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic determinants of age-related macular degeneration in diverse populations from the PAGE study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · September 9, 2014 PURPOSE: Substantial progress has been made in identifying susceptibility variants for AMD in European populations; however, few studies have been conducted to understand the role these variants play in AMD risk in diverse populations. The present study ai ... Full text Link to item Cite

Health burden associated with visual impairment in Singapore: the Singapore epidemiology of eye disease study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · September 2014 OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of visual impairment (VI) on health-related quality of life and to compare the health burden of VI and other health conditions in Singapore. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We studied the 10 009 ... Full text Link to item Cite

The eye: a window of opportunity in rheumatoid arthritis?

Journal Article Nat Rev Rheumatol · September 2014 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common autoimmune disorder associated with dry eye syndrome, is also associated with sight-threatening ocular diseases such as peripheral ulcerative keratitis, scleritis and corneal melts. Tissue damage on the ocular sur ... Full text Link to item Cite

A survey on computer aided diagnosis for ocular diseases.

Journal Article BMC Med Inform Decis Mak · August 31, 2014 BACKGROUND: Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), which can automate the detection process for ocular diseases, has attracted extensive attention from clinicians and researchers alike. It not only alleviates the burden on the clinicians by providing objective op ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microvascular network alterations in retina of subjects with cerebral small vessel disease.

Journal Article Neurosci Lett · August 8, 2014 Novel retinal imaging techniques have enabled the assessment of quantitative vascular parameters, which provide information on the microvasculature before the appearance of retinopathy signs. Advances in neuroimaging have revealed that cerebral microbleeds ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trends in age-related macular degeneration management in Singapore.

Journal Article Optom Vis Sci · August 2014 PURPOSE: To describe the trends and patterns of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) use for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the National Eye Centre in Singapore over a 4-year period. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence, racial variations, and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Singaporean Chinese, Indians, and Malays.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · August 2014 OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a multiethnic Asian cohort of Chinese, Malay, and Indian persons. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 033 persons ( ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and early age-related macular degeneration in a rural Chinese adult population.

Journal Article Retina · August 2014 BACKGROUND: There have been a limited number of population-based studies investigating the associations between cardiovascular disease risk factors and early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: A total of 7,557 eligible people aged 30 or older ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early signs of exudative age-related macular degeneration in Asians.

Journal Article Optom Vis Sci · August 2014 PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between the early signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the risk of developing exudative AMD (typical AMD or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy [PCV]) in the fellow eye of Japanese patients with unilate ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is renal function associated with early age-related macular degeneration?

Journal Article Optom Vis Sci · August 2014 PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and chronic kidney disease both involve immune dysregulation and may share underlying pathophysiologic changes to systemic homeostasis. Hence, we aim to evaluate associations between impaired kidney function ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of exudative age-related macular degeneration subtypes in Japanese and French Patients: multicenter diagnosis with multimodal imaging.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · August 2014 PURPOSE: To compare and analyze differences and similarities between Japanese and French patients in subtype diagnosis of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) as determined by fundus photography (FP) and fluorescein angiography (FA), and a mult ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is age-related macular degeneration a manifestation of systemic disease? New prospects for early intervention and treatment.

Journal Article J Intern Med · August 2014 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common vision-threatening condition affecting the elderly. AMD shares common risk factors and processes, including vascular and inflammatory pathways, with many systemic disorders. Associations have been reported ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular caliber and age-related macular degeneration in an Indian population from Singapore.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · August 2014 PURPOSE: To examine the association between retinal vascular caliber and early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an Indian population. METHODS: A total of 3112 Indian participants aged ≥40 years from the population-based Singapore Indian Eye Study ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multi-scale superpixel classification for optic cup localization

Conference 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, ISBI 2014 · July 29, 2014 In this paper, we present a multi-scale approach based on superpixel classification for optic cup localization. Our approach provides 3 major contributions. First, a contrast enhancement scheme is proposed to reduce illumination influence and enhance featu ... Full text Cite

Analysis of non-synonymous-coding variants of Parkinson's disease-related pathogenic and susceptibility genes in East Asian populations.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · July 15, 2014 To evaluate the contribution of non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-linked genes for Parkinson's disease (PD) to PD risk in the East Asian population, we sequenced all the coding exons of 39 PD-relate ... Full text Link to item Cite

Dynamic responses in retinal vessel caliber with flicker light stimulation in eyes with diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · July 15, 2014 PURPOSE: This study investigated the responses of retinal vessels to flickering light in diabetic patients with various stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study evaluated adult subjects with diabetes mellitus. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Accounting for standard errors of vision-specific latent trait in regression models.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · July 11, 2014 PURPOSE: To demonstrate the effectiveness of Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) approach in a modeling framework for association effects that accounts for SEs of vision-specific latent traits assessed using Rasch analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature review w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Gene-age interactions in blood pressure regulation: a large-scale investigation with the CHARGE, Global BPgen, and ICBP Consortia.

Journal Article Am J Hum Genet · July 3, 2014 Although age-dependent effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported, they have not been systematically investigated in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We leveraged the infrastructure of three well-established consortia (CHARGE, GB ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multiple nonglycemic genomic loci are newly associated with blood level of glycated hemoglobin in East Asians.

Journal Article Diabetes · July 2014 Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used as a measure of glycemic control and also as a diagnostic criterion for diabetes. To discover novel loci harboring common variants associated with HbA1c in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of 13 genome-wide ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ethnic variation in early age-related macular degeneration lesions between white Australians and Singaporean Asians.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · June 26, 2014 PURPOSE: We compared early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) lesion characteristics between white Australians and Singaporean Asians. METHODS: Participants of the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES; whites, n = 3508) and the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye ... Full text Link to item Cite

Linkage disequilibrium and signatures of positive selection around LINE-1 retrotransposons in the human genome.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · June 3, 2014 Insertions of the human-specific subfamily of LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon are highly polymorphic across individuals and can critically influence the human transcriptome. We hypothesized that L1 insertions could represent genetic variants determining import ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of levels of fasting glucose and insulin with rare variants at the chromosome 11p11.2-MADD locus: Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium Targeted Sequencing Study.

Journal Article Circ Cardiovasc Genet · June 2014 BACKGROUND: Common variation at the 11p11.2 locus, encompassing MADD, ACP2, NR1H3, MYBPC3, and SPI1, has been associated in genome-wide association studies with fasting glucose and insulin (FI). In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidem ... Full text Link to item Cite

Can an inexperienced observer accurately plot disc contours using Heidelberg retinal Tomograph?

Journal Article Can J Ophthalmol · June 2014 OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability of inexperienced observers in plotting optic disc contours on Heidelberg retinal tomography images before and after training. DESIGN: Observational study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eyes that were randomly selected from ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ministry of Health Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diabetes Mellitus.

Journal Article Singapore Med J · June 2014 The Ministry of Health (MOH) have updated the clinical practice guidelines on Diabetes Mellitus to provide doctors and patients in Singapore with evidence-based treatment for diabetes mellitus. This article reproduces the introduction and executive summary ... Full text Link to item Cite

Kidney and eye diseases: common risk factors, etiological mechanisms, and pathways.

Journal Article Kidney Int · June 2014 Chronic kidney disease is an emerging health problem worldwide. The eye shares striking structural, developmental, and genetic pathways with the kidney, suggesting that kidney disease and ocular disease may be closely linked. A growing number of studies ha ... Full text Link to item Cite

A cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating an incentive-based outdoor physical activity programme to increase outdoor time and prevent myopia in children.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Physiol Opt · May 2014 PURPOSE: To evaluate an incentive-based intervention to increase time spent outdoors among children in a 9-month cluster randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-five children aged 6-12 years of age were randomised to the intervention ( ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessment of iris surface features and their relationship with iris thickness in Asian eyes.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · May 2014 PURPOSE: To assess iris surface features in Asian eyes and examine their associations with iris thickness measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 250 subjects from the Si ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia: 1990-2010.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2014 BACKGROUND: To examine the prevalence, patterns and trends of vision impairment and its causes from 1990 to 2010 in Central and South Asia. METHODS: Based on the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 and ongoing literature searches, we examined prevalence a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in East Asia: 1990-2010.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2014 AIMS: To describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in East Asia in 1990 and 2010. METHOD: Data from population-based studies conducted from 1980 to 2012 were identified, and eligibility for inclusion was assessed. Data on preval ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Southeast Asia and Oceania: 1990-2010.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2014 BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of vision impairment in Southeast Asia and Oceania in 1990 and 2010. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe: 1990-2010.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2014 BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment in high-income regions and in Central/Eastern Europe in 1990 and 2010. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of moderate and severe vision impa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in North Africa and the Middle East: 1990-2010.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2014 BACKGROUND: To describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in North Africa and the Middle East (NAME) in 1990 and 2010. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, we examined prevalence and causes of moderate and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa: 1990-2010.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2014 AIM: To estimate the magnitude, temporal trends and subregional variation in the prevalence of blindness, and moderate/severe vision impairment (MSVI) in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of published and unpublished population ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Latin America and the Caribbean: 1990-2010.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2014 OBJECTIVE: To present regional estimates of the magnitude and temporal trends in the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate/severe visual impairment (MSVI) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). METHODS: A systematic review of cross-sectional p ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular fractals and cognitive impairment.

Journal Article Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra · May 2014 BACKGROUND: Retinal microvascular network changes have been found in patients with age-related brain diseases such as stroke and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. We examine whether retinal microvascular network changes are also present in preclinica ... Full text Link to item Cite

Childhood Obesity, Body Fatness Indices, and Retinal Vasculature

Chapter · April 10, 2014 Childhood obesity has become a critical public health problem both in developed and developing countries and is currently affecting millions of children worldwide. A body of evidence has shown that pediatric obesity is associated with a range of cardiovasc ... Full text Cite

Metabolic Syndrome and Cataract

Chapter · April 10, 2014 Metabolic syndrome, characterized by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity, is an emerging public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Age-related cataract is the leading cau ... Full text Cite

Measurement of macular fractal dimension using a computer-assisted program.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · April 9, 2014 PURPOSE: Macular diseases may be associated with an altered retinal vasculature. We describe and test new software for the measurement of retinal vascular fractal dimension to quantify the complexity of retinal vasculature at the macula (D mac) and to comp ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ocular anti-VEGF therapy for diabetic retinopathy: overview of clinical efficacy and evolving applications.

Journal Article Diabetes Care · April 2014 Ocular anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy represents one of the most significant advances in modern medicine. The introduction and widespread use of ocular anti-VEGF therapy for age-related macular degeneration heralded a new era in the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clarifying the role of ATOH7 in glaucoma endophenotypes.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · April 2014 BACKGROUND/AIMS: The ATOH7 gene has been previously associated with glaucoma and glaucoma-related traits, such as disc size and cup/disc ratio (CDR). CDR is an important part of the glaucoma phenotype, whereas the relationship between the disc size and the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ethnic variation in central corneal refractive power and steep cornea in Asians.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · April 2014 PURPOSE: To describe ethnic differences in the distribution of central corneal refractive power and steep cornea in a multiethnic Asian population. METHODS: A total of 2968 Chinese, 2957 Indian and 2928 Malay participants aged over 40 years were included i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvascular structure and function in patients with risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

Journal Article Atherosclerosis · April 2014 OBJECTIVE: Retinal microvascular signs are markers of cardiovascular disease risk. There are limited data, on relationships between retinal microvascular signs and retinal microvascular endothelial function. We sought to determine the relationship of retin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Female reproductive factors and major eye diseases in Asian women -the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · April 2014 PURPOSE: To examine the association of reproductive factors and major eye diseases, including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy and cataract, in Asian women. METHODS: The Singapore Malay Eye Study is a population-based ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic nuclear cataract grading using image gradients

Journal Article Journal of Medical Imaging · April 1, 2014 This paper deals with automatic grading of nuclear cataract (NC) from slit-lamp images in order to reduce the efforts in traditional manual grading. Existing works on this topic have mostly used brightness and color of the eye lens for the task but not the ... Full text Cite

Structural and functional differences in Glaucoma Patients with Disc Haemorrhage

Conference INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE · April 1, 2014 Link to item Cite

Higher Serum Leptin Levels Are Protective of Age-related Macular Degeneration

Conference INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE · April 1, 2014 Link to item Cite

Automated segmentation of white matter lesions using global neighbourhood given contrast feature-based random forest and markov random field

Conference Proceedings - 2014 IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics, ICHI 2014 · March 2, 2014 Recent studies show that, cerebral White MatterLesion (WML) is related to cerebrovascular diseases,cardiovascular diseases, dementia and psychiatric disorders.Manual segmentation of WML is not appropriate for long termlongitudinal studies because it is tim ... Full text Cite

Microvascular network alterations in the retina of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Article Alzheimers Dement · March 2014 BACKGROUND: Although cerebral small-vessel disease has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cerebral microcirculation is difficult to visualize directly in vivo. Because the retina provides a noninvasive window to assess the ... Full text Link to item Cite

ABCC5, a gene that influences the anterior chamber depth, is associated with primary angle closure glaucoma.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · March 2014 Anterior chamber depth (ACD) is a key anatomical risk factor for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on ACD to discover novel genes for PACG on a total of 5,308 population-based individuals of Asian de ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.

Journal Article Nat Genet · March 2014 To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Marital status and its relationship with the risk and pattern of visual impairment in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

Journal Article J Public Health (Oxf) · March 2014 BACKGROUND: To examine whether marital status is a significant determinant of visual impairment (VI) in urban multi-ethnic Asian population. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of Singapore-resident ethnic Malays, Indians and Chinese aged ≥40 ye ... Full text Link to item Cite

Potential applications of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the study of Alzheimer's disease

Journal Article Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare · March 1, 2014 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common subtype of dementia. As the prevalence of dementia is projected to increase, the burden of the disease on society is expected to become increasingly significant. The link between eye pathology and neurodegenerati ... Full text Cite

RADIANCE: a randomized controlled study of ranibizumab in patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to pathologic myopia.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · March 2014 OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab 0.5 mg, guided by visual acuity (VA) stabilization or disease activity criteria, versus verteporfin photodynamic therapy (vPDT) in patients with visual impairment due to myopic choroidal neovascu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Journal Article Lupus · March 2014 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with antiphospholipid syndrome can have ocular complications. We report a 44-year-old Chinese lady with recurrent relapses of SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome with high disease activity, presenting with visual ... Full text Link to item Cite

Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article Lancet Glob Health · February 2014 BACKGROUND: Numerous population-based studies of age-related macular degeneration have been reported around the world, with the results of some studies suggesting racial or ethnic differences in disease prevalence. Integrating these resources to provide su ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular caliber and the development of hypertension: a meta-analysis of individual participant data.

Journal Article J Hypertens · February 2014 OBJECTIVE: Microvascular dysfunction has been suggested to be a major pathogenic factor for the development of hypertension. We examined the association between retinal vascular caliber, a marker of systemic microvascular dysfunction, and incident hyperten ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ethnic differences in undercorrected refractive error in Asians.

Journal Article Optom Vis Sci · February 2014 PURPOSE: To describe the ethnic variations in the prevalence and risk factors for undercorrected refractive error and its impact on vision-specific functioning (VF) in a multiethnic Asian population. METHODS: A total of 3353 Chinese, 3400 Indians, and 3280 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sorting multiple classes in multi-dimensional ROC analysis: parametric and nonparametric approaches.

Journal Article Biomarkers · February 2014 In large-scale data analysis, such as in a microarray study to identify the most differentially expressed genes, diagnostic tests are frequently used to classify and predict subjects into their different categories. Frequently, these categories do not have ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effects of simvastatin on retinal structure and function of a high-fat atherogenic mouse model of thickened Bruch's membrane.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · January 23, 2014 PURPOSE: To determine the effect of a statin (simvastatin) on the ultrastructure and function of the RPE, Bruch's membrane (BM), and photoreceptor interface in a high-fat atherogenic mouse model of thickened BM. METHODS: Wild-type C57BL/6 mice (6-weeks old ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is the association between smoking and the retinal venular diameter reversible following smoking cessation?

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · January 21, 2014 PURPOSE: Wider retinal venular caliber is shown to be associated with an increased risk of stroke, and smoking is associated with a wider retinal venular caliber. However, the impact of smoking cessation on the retinal vessels has not been previously repor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Education influences the association between genetic variants and refractive error: a meta-analysis of five Singapore studies.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · January 15, 2014 Refractive error is a complex ocular trait governed by both genetic and environmental factors and possibly their interplay. Thus far, data on the interaction between genetic variants and environmental risk factors for refractive errors are largely lacking. ... Full text Link to item Cite

The prognostic role of body mass index on mortality amongst the middle-aged and elderly: a competing risk analysis.

Journal Article Diabetes Res Clin Pract · January 2014 AIMS: To determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) including its 5-year changes and mortality, and compare the results obtained using Cox and competing risks models. METHODS: Our study subjects included 2216 persons aged ≥49 years who partic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of measurement error on testing genetic association with quantitative traits.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 Measurement error of a phenotypic trait reduces the power to detect genetic associations. We examined the impact of sample size, allele frequency and effect size in presence of measurement error for quantitative traits. The statistical power to detect gene ... Full text Link to item Cite

A prospective study of treatment patterns and 1-year outcome of Asian age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 OBJECTIVE: To study the treatment patterns and visual outcome over one year in Asian patients with choroidal neovascular membrane secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD-CNV) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). DESIGN: Prospective cohor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Forecasting the burden of type 2 diabetes in Singapore using a demographic epidemiological model of Singapore.

Journal Article BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care · 2014 OBJECTIVE: Singapore is a microcosm of Asia as a whole, and its rapidly ageing, increasingly sedentary population heralds the chronic health problems other Asian countries are starting to face and will likely face in the decades ahead. Forecasting the chan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of CKD-EPI Cystatin C and Creatinine Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation Equations in Asian Indians.

Journal Article Int J Nephrol · 2014 Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is identified in the general population using estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) calculated from a serum creatinine-based equation, the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations between depression and anxiety symptoms and retinal vessel caliber in adolescents and young adults.

Journal Article Psychosom Med · 2014 OBJECTIVE: Previous longitudinal studies suggest that depression and anxiety are associated with risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether an association between depression and anxiety symptoms and retinal vessel cal ... Full text Link to item Cite

Local patch reconstruction framework for optic cup localization in glaucoma detection.

Conference Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2014 Optic cup localization/segmentation has attracted much attention from medical imaging researchers, since it is the primary image component clinically used for identifying glaucoma, which is a leading cause of blindness. In this work, we present an optic cu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multiple modality fusion for glaucoma diagnosis

Conference IFMBE Proceedings · January 1, 2014 Computer-aided diagnosis for diagnosis/ screening makes use of artificial intelligence based analytical methodologies to handle patient data. Ocular disease Glaucoma is the major irreversible cause of blindness. Past works focus on building systems on sing ... Full text Cite

Incorporating privileged genetic information for fundus image based glaucoma detection.

Journal Article Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv · 2014 Visual features extracted from retinal fundus images have been increasingly used for glaucoma detection, as those images are generally easy to acquire. In recent years, genetic researchers have found that some single nucleic polymorphisms (SNPs) play impor ... Full text Link to item Cite

Optic cup segmentation for glaucoma detection using low-rank superpixel representation.

Journal Article Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv · 2014 We present an unsupervised approach to segment optic cups in fundus images for glaucoma detection without using any additional training images. Our approach follows the superpixel framework and domain prior recently proposed in, where the superpixel classi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvasculature in Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Article J Alzheimers Dis · 2014 Although cerebral small vessel disease has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cerebral microcirculation is difficult to visualize directly in vivo. As the retina and the brain share similar embryological origin, anatomical ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide meta-analysis of myopia and hyperopia provides evidence for replication of 11 loci.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 Refractive error (RE) is a complex, multifactorial disorder characterized by a mismatch between the optical power of the eye and its axial length that causes object images to be focused off the retina. The two major subtypes of RE are myopia (nearsightedne ... Full text Link to item Cite

Complete blood count and retinal vessel calibers.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of posterior corneal biometric measurements in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 PURPOSE: To describe the corneal and anterior segment determinants of posterior corneal arc length (PCAL) and posterior corneal curvature (PCC). METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study of 1069 subjects (1069 eyes) aged 40-80 years, from three majo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Estimated cases of blindness and visual impairment from neovascular age-related macular degeneration avoided in Australia by ranibizumab treatment.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, such as ranibizumab, have significantly improved the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. This study used patient-level simulation modelling to estimate the n ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cerebral microbleeds and cognition: the epidemiology of dementia in Singapore study.

Journal Article Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord · 2014 Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are considered to be a novel marker of cerebral small vessel disease. However, the link with cognitive impairment remains unclear. We investigated whether CMBs-independent of other traditional markers of cerebral small vessel di ... Full text Link to item Cite

A simplified method to measure choroidal thickness using adaptive compensation in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2014 PURPOSE: To evaluate a simplified method to measure choroidal thickness (CT) using commercially available enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: We measured CT in 31 subjects without ocular diseases usi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ankle-brachial index, cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular disease in a Chinese population.

Journal Article Neuroepidemiology · 2014 BACKGROUND: Previous studies have assessed the association between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and cognition, mainly using brief cognitive tests. We investigated whether ABI was associated with cognition independent of neuroimaging markers of cerebrovascula ... Full text Link to item Cite

Challenges in elucidating the genetics of diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article JAMA Ophthalmol · January 2014 IMPORTANCE: In the past decade, significant progress in genomic medicine and technologic developments has revolutionized our approach to common complex disorders in many areas of medicine, including ophthalmology. A disorder that still needs major genetic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular fractal dimension is associated with cognitive dysfunction.

Journal Article J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis · January 2014 Fractal analysis is a method used to quantify the geometric branching complexity and density of retinal vessels. This study examined the relationship of retinal vascular fractal dimension and other retinal vascular parameters with cognitive dysfunction in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Performance of the Moorfields motion displacement test for identifying eyes with glaucoma.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · January 2014 PURPOSE: The Moorfields Motion Displacement Test (MMDT; Enhanced Standard Threshold Algorithm [ESTA] version 1, London, UK) is a new 31-point suprathreshold test for visual field assessment using moving line stimuli displayed on a standard laptop computer. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Progress on retinal image analysis for age related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Prog Retin Eye Res · January 2014 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in those over the age of 50 years in the developed countries. The number is expected to increase by ∼1.5 fold over the next ten years due to an increase in aging population. One of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiology and disease burden of pathologic myopia and myopic choroidal neovascularization: An evidence-based systematic review

Journal Article American Journal of Ophthalmology · January 1, 2014 Purpose To summarize the epidemiology of pathologic myopia and myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and their impact on vision. Design Systematic literature review of all English-language studies evaluating the epidemiology and visual burden of pathol ... Full text Cite

Randomized controlled trial of intravitreal ranibizumab versus standard grid laser for macular edema following branch retinal vein occlusion

Journal Article American Journal of Ophthalmology · January 1, 2014 Purpose To assess the efficacy of intravitreal 0.5 mg ranibizumab for the treatment of center-involving macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) over 1 year compared with standard-of-care grid laser. Design A prospective randomized c ... Full text Cite

Retinal artery and venular caliber grading: a semi-automated evaluation tool.

Journal Article Comput Biol Med · January 2014 Retinal imaging can facilitate the measurement and quantification of subtle variations and abnormalities in retinal vasculature. Retinal vascular imaging may thus offer potential as a noninvasive research tool to probe the role and pathophysiology of the m ... Full text Link to item Cite

Transformed representations for convolutional neural networks in diabetic retinopathy screening

Conference AAAI Workshop - Technical Report · January 1, 2014 Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are flexible, biologically-inspired variants of multi-layer perceptions that have proven themselves to be exceptionally suited to discriminative vision tasks. However, relatively little is known on whether they can be m ... Cite

Testosterone, Immune Function, and Life History Transitions in Filipino Males (Homo sapiens)

Journal Article International Journal of Primatology · January 1, 2014 Testosterone contributes to male life history trade-offs through effects on behavior and energy usage. Testosterone's role as a trade-off mediator is often discussed as manifesting partly through a negative impact on investment in survival, via immune supp ... Full text Cite

Salivary estradiol and testosterone in Filipino men: Diurnal patterns and relationships with adiposity.

Journal Article Am J Hum Biol · 2014 OBJECTIVES: We used detailed saliva sampling procedures to test for diurnal changes in men's salivary estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) and assessed whether greater adiposity predicted higher E2 and T. METHODS: We drew on a subsample of young adults enro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Epidemiology of myopia

Chapter · January 1, 2014 Full text Cite

Serum Cystatin C, Markers of Chronic Kidney Disease and Retinopathy in Indians with Diabetes

Conference INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE · 2014 Cite

The singapore eye vessel assessment system

Chapter · January 1, 2014 Images of the retina provide one of the few avenues to observe human microcirculation in a noninvasive manner. A variety of measurements have been proposed over the years to quantify multiple aspects of retinal vascular morphology. Many of these measures h ... Full text Cite

Retinal vascular imaging in clinical research

Chapter · January 1, 2014 Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the introduction of the ophthalmoscope in clinical practice provided an ideal opportunity to assess in vivo the human retina, including the microcirculation, noninvasively. The Scottish physician Robert Marcus Gunn ... Full text Cite

Genome-wide association study identifies ZFHX1B as a susceptibility locus for severe myopia.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · December 20, 2013 Severe myopia (defined as spherical equivalent < -6.0 D) is a predominant problem in Asian countries, resulting in substantial morbidity. We performed a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS), all of East Asian descent totaling 1603 c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular parameter variations in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · December 5, 2013 PURPOSE: To compare the retinal vascular parameters in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with normal controls, and to determine the relationship between retinal vascular parameters and HIV-related blood biomarkers (CD4(+) T-lymphoc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of macular thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in healthy eyes: the Singapore Chinese Eye study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · December 5, 2013 PURPOSE: We determined ocular and systemic factors influencing macular thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a population-based sample of healthy eyes. METHODS: We recruited 490 healthy Chinese adults, aged 40 to 80 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship between ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer and optic disc/retinal nerve fibre layer parameters in non-glaucomatous eyes.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · December 2013 AIMS: To determine the relationship between macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness and optic disc/retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) parameters in non-glaucomatous eyes measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Reliability and reproducibility of retinal oxygen saturation measurements using a predefined peri-papillary annulus.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · December 2013 PURPOSE: To determine the reliability and reproducibility of the Vesselmap Oximetry Module for arteriolar and venular oxygen saturation (SO2 ) of the same retinal area, specified by a peripapillary annulus, in healthy subjects. METHODS: Fundus oximetry ima ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microvascular abnormality in schizophrenia as shown by retinal imaging.

Journal Article Am J Psychiatry · December 2013 OBJECTIVE: Retinal and cerebral microvessels are structurally and functionally homologous, but unlike cerebral microvessels, retinal microvessels can be noninvasively measured in vivo by retinal imaging. The authors tested the hypothesis that individuals w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Validity of a new optic disc grading software for use in clinical and epidemiological research.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · December 2013 BACKGROUND: To determine the reliability and agreement of a new optic disc grading software program for use in clinical, epidemiological research. DESIGN: Reliability and agreement study. SAMPLES: 328 monoscopic and 85 stereoscopic optic disc images. METHO ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study of intraocular pressure identifies the GLCCI1/ICA1 region as a glaucoma susceptibility locus.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · November 15, 2013 To discover quantitative trait loci for intraocular pressure, a major risk factor for glaucoma and the only modifiable one, we performed a genome-wide association study on a discovery cohort of 2175 individuals from Sydney, Australia. We found a novel asso ... Full text Link to item Cite

The economic cost of myopia in adults aged over 40 years in Singapore.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · November 13, 2013 PURPOSE: To estimate the economic cost of myopia among adults aged 40 years and older in Singapore. METHODS: A substudy of 113 Singaporean adults aged 40 years and older with myopia (spherical equivalent refraction of at least -0.5 diopters) in the populat ... Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship of retinal vessel caliber with erectile dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · November 5, 2013 PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship of retinal vessel caliber with erectile dysfunction (ED) in males with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study. Male patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from the Diabetic Management ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship between retinal vascular geometry with retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer in nonglaucomatous eyes.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · November 5, 2013 PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between retinal vascular geometric parameters with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) parameters in nonglaucomatous subjects. METHODS: Study subjects were identified from t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myopia and age-related cataract: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · November 2013 PURPOSE: To examine if myopia is a risk factor for age-related cataract. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed and Embase from their inception to March 2013 for population-bas ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pathways-driven sparse regression identifies pathways and genes associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in two Asian cohorts.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · November 2013 Standard approaches to data analysis in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) ignore any potential functional relationships between gene variants. In contrast gene pathways analysis uses prior information on functional structure within the genome to ident ... Full text Link to item Cite

An automated method for retinal arteriovenous nicking quantification from color fundus images.

Journal Article IEEE Trans Biomed Eng · November 2013 Retinal arteriovenous (AV) nicking is one of the prominent and significant microvascular abnormalities. It is characterized by the decrease in the venular caliber at both sides of an artery-vein crossing. Recent research suggests that retinal AV nicking is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Changes in retinal microvascular caliber precede the clinical onset of preeclampsia.

Journal Article Hypertension · November 2013 Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The degree of maternal cardiovascular dysfunction that precedes the onset of preeclampsia is largely unknown. This prospective cohort study aimed to characterize differences in vivo in re ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations of candidate genes to age-related macular degeneration among racial/ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · November 2013 PURPOSE: To describe the relationships of selected candidate genes to the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a cohort of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: setting: Multicent ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of silent lacunar infarct with brain atrophy and cognitive impairment.

Journal Article J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry · November 2013 OBJECTIVE: Silent lacunar infarct (SLI) is associated with cognitive decline and linked to an increased risk of stroke and dementia. We examined the association of SLI with MRI measures of cortical thickness, subcortical and lateral ventricular shapes and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Mini-Mental State Examination in detecting multi-domain mild cognitive impairment in a Chinese sub-sample drawn from a population-based study.

Journal Article Int Psychogeriatr · November 2013 BACKGROUND: We examined the discriminant validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in detecting multiple-domain mild cognitive impairment (md-MCI) in a Chinese sub-sample drawn from elderly population ... Full text Link to item Cite

Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.

Journal Article Nat Genet · November 2013 Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association refl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.

Journal Article Nat Genet · November 2013 Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing ... Full text Link to item Cite

Do testosterone declines during the transition to marriage and fatherhood relate to men's sexual behavior? Evidence from the Philippines.

Journal Article Horm Behav · November 2013 Testosterone (T) is thought to help facilitate trade-offs between mating and parenting in humans. Across diverse cultural settings married men and fathers have lower T than other men and couples' sexual activity often declines during the first years of mar ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels.

Journal Article J Lipid Res · November 2013 Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study meta-analysis reveals transethnic replication of mean arterial and pulse pressure loci.

Journal Article Hypertension · November 2013 We conducted a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure among 26,600 East Asian participants (stage 1) followed by replication study of up to 28,783 participants (stage 2). For novel loci, statistical signifi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automated quantification of retinal arteriovenous nicking from colour fundus images

Conference Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS · October 31, 2013 Retinal arteriovenous nicking (AV nicking) is the phenomenon where the venule is compressed or decreases in its caliber at both sides of an arteriovenous crossing. Recent research suggests that retinal AVN is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular ... Full text Cite

Self-assessment for optic disc segmentation

Conference Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS · October 31, 2013 Optic disc segmentation from retinal fundus image is a fundamental but important step in many applications such as automated glaucoma diagnosis. Very often, one method might work well on many images but fail on some other images and it is difficult to have ... Full text Cite

Systemic medical management of diabetic retinopathy

Journal Article Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology · October 1, 2013 Diabetes mellitus (DM) has assumed epidemic proportions and as a consequence, diabetic retinopathy is expected to be a major societal problem across the world. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects the vision by way of proliferative disease that results in vit ... Full text Cite

Refractive errors and age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · October 2013 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between refractive errors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A clear understanding of the relationship between refractive error and AMD provides insights into the pathophysiology of AMD ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular fractal and blood pressure in a multiethnic population.

Journal Article J Hypertens · October 2013 OBJECTIVE(S): To examine the effect of blood pressure (BP) on retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df), a measure of microvascular network complexity and density in a multiethnic cohort. METHODS: A population-based study of 3876 Chinese, Malay and Indian pa ... Full text Link to item Cite

No association of 9p21 with arterial elasticity and retinal microvascular findings.

Journal Article Atherosclerosis · October 2013 OBJECTIVE: How 9p21 variation affects risk of cardiovascular disease is unclear, so we assessed whether 9p21 variants are associated with arterial elasticity or retinal microvascular findings. METHODS: In the prospective Multi-Ethnic Study of Atheroscleros ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypertensive retinopathy and risk of stroke.

Journal Article Hypertension · October 2013 Although assessment of hypertensive retinopathy signs has been recommended for determining end-organ damage and stratifying vascular risk in persons with hypertension, its value remains unclear. In this study, we examine whether hypertensive retinopathy pr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Can the retinal microvasculature offer clues to cardiovascular risk factors in early life?

Journal Article Acta Paediatr · October 2013 UNLABELLED: Adulthood cardiovascular diseases (CVD) burdening in adulthood have been suggested to have possible predisposition early in life. We aimed to systematically review the literatures on retinal microvasculature among paediatric population in relat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ocular parameters of biological ageing in HIV-infected individuals in South Africa: relationship with chronological age and systemic biomarkers of ageing.

Journal Article Mech Ageing Dev · September 2013 HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of age-related morbidity despite antiretroviral treatment (ART). Several anatomic and functional ophthalmological parameters are associated with increasing chronological age. These may, therefore, potentially ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvascular changes and risk of stroke: the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

Journal Article Stroke · September 2013 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between retinal microvascular measures and incident stroke in an Asian Malay population. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, population-based cohort study of Asian Malay persons 40 to 80 years at baselin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Evaluation of item candidates for a diabetic retinopathy quality of life item bank.

Journal Article Qual Life Res · September 2013 PURPOSE: We are developing an item bank assessing the impact of diabetic retinopathy (DR) on quality of life (QoL) using a rigorous multi-staged process combining qualitative and quantitative methods. We describe here the first two qualitative phases: cont ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of blood pressure and body mass index on retinal vascular caliber in preschool-aged children.

Journal Article J Hum Hypertens · September 2013 We assessed the associations between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) with the retinal microvasculature among preschool-aged children. Three hundred and seventy-nine children aged 3-<6 years old had gradable retinal photographs, and quantifiab ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lack of association between primary angle-closure glaucoma susceptibility loci and the ocular biometric parameters anterior chamber depth and axial length.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · August 27, 2013 PURPOSE: Three susceptibility loci for primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) were recently identified: PLEKHA7 rs11024102, COL11A1 rs3753841, and rs1015213 located in the intergenic region between PCMTD1 and ST18. The purpose of this study was to investiga ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic notch detection in retinal images

Conference Proceedings - International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging · August 22, 2013 This paper presents a new method to detect notching in the optic cup using retinal images. Optic cup notching is an important feature in differentiating normal from glaucomatous eyes. The proposed notching detection method comprises four steps: disc and ve ... Full text Cite

THALIA - An automatic hierarchical analysis system to detect drusen lesion images for amd assessment

Conference Proceedings - International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging · August 22, 2013 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of permanent blindness. In its early stage AMD is characterized by drusen which are extracellelur deposits in the retina. In this paper, we present THALIA, an automatic system for the detection of d ... Full text Cite

Domain prior based superpixel propagation for optic cup localization

Conference Proceedings - International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging · August 22, 2013 In this paper, we present an unsupervised framework using domain priors extracted from the primary structures of the optic nerve head for automated optic cup localization. Our approach provides 3 major contributions. First, we identify a new domain prior, ... Full text Cite

Learn to recognize pathological myopia in fundus images using bag-of-feature and sparse learning approach

Conference Proceedings - International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging · August 22, 2013 Pathological myopia is a leading cause of visual impairment, and can lead to blindness in children if left undetected. We present a bag-of-feature and sparse learning based framework to automatically recognize pathological myopia in retinal fundus images a ... Full text Cite

Combined genotype and haplotype tests for region-based association studies.

Journal Article BMC Genomics · August 21, 2013 BACKGROUND: Although single-SNP analysis has proven to be useful in identifying many disease-associated loci, region-based analysis has several advantages. Empirically, it has been shown that region-based genotype and haplotype approaches may possess much ... Full text Link to item Cite

Familial correlation of retinal vascular caliber in Singapore Chinese.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · August 19, 2013 PURPOSE: Our study aimed to explore the heritability of retinal vascular caliber among Singapore Chinese families. METHODS: In the Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Refractive Error Study in Singaporean Chinese Preschoolers (STARS) family study conducted from 200 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quantitative measurement of hard exudates in patients with diabetes and their associations with serum lipid levels.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · August 15, 2013 PURPOSE: To describe a reproducible method of quantifying macular hard exudates (HEs) in diabetic maculopathy and determine the associations of HEs with systemic risk factors. METHODS: Patients with diabetes were recruited from a tertiary eye hospital in M ... Full text Link to item Cite

Nine loci for ocular axial length identified through genome-wide association studies, including shared loci with refractive error.

Journal Article Am J Hum Genet · August 8, 2013 Refractive errors are common eye disorders of public health importance worldwide. Ocular axial length (AL) is the major determinant of refraction and thus of myopia and hyperopia. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for AL, comb ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cardio-metabolic risk factors and prehypertension in persons without diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease.

Journal Article BMC Public Health · August 7, 2013 BACKGROUND: Prehypertension has been shown to be an early risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the prevalence and pattern of cardiometabolic risk factors in prehypertension in three ethnic Asian populations in Singapore. METHODS: We ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of a novel risk variant in the FUS gene in essential tremor.

Journal Article Neurology · August 6, 2013 OBJECTIVE: A nonsense mutation in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis gene FUS has been found to segregate in a large family with essential tremor (ET). Coding variants in this gene have not been comprehensively evaluated in ET. We conducted a genetic analys ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among Asian Indians living in urban Singapore and rural India.

Journal Article J Hypertens · August 2013 BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We compared the epidemiology of hypertension in South Asian Indians living in two geographic regions with vastly different socioeconomic sett ... Full text Link to item Cite

Utility of EQ-5D to assess patients undergoing cataract surgery.

Journal Article Optom Vis Sci · August 2013 PURPOSE: To assess the construct validity and responsiveness of the EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) instrument in Asian patients undergoing cataract surgery in Singapore. METHODS: In this prospective study, English- or Chinese-speaking patients (n = 216) completed the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is quality of diet associated with the microvasculature? An analysis of diet quality and retinal vascular calibre in older adults.

Journal Article Br J Nutr · August 2013 It is unknown whether diet quality is associated with microvascular structure. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between diet quality, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines, with retinal microvascular calibre in older adults. The ... Full text Link to item Cite

Baseline central macular thickness predicts the need for retreatment with intravitreal triamcinolone plus laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema

Journal Article Clinical Ophthalmology · August 1, 2013 Purpose: To identify baseline characteristics that predict the number of treatments with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) plus laser photocoagulation needed to treat diabetic macular edema over a 2-year period. Methods: Individual data from 42 e ... Full text Cite

Microvascular structure and network in the retina of patients with ischemic stroke.

Journal Article Stroke · August 2013 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Microvascular disease has been implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. The retina provides a window to assess microcirculation noninvasively. We studied the association between quantitatively measured retinal microvascular charact ... Full text Link to item Cite

The prevalence and types of glaucoma in an urban Indian population: the Singapore Indian Eye Study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · July 10, 2013 PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and types of glaucoma in an urban Singaporean Indian population. METHODS: The Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI) was a population-based, cross-sectional survey that examined 3400 (75.6% response) persons aged 40 to 80 y ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myopia, axial length, and age-related cataract: the Singapore Malay eye study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · July 2, 2013 PURPOSE: To describe the associations of myopia and axial length (AL) with age-related cataract in an Asian population in Singapore. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study that examined 3280 (78.7% response) adults of Malay ethnicity aged 40 to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in five cohorts reveals common variants in RBFOX1, a regulator of tissue-specific splicing, associated with refractive error.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · July 1, 2013 Visual refractive errors (REs) are complex genetic traits with a largely unknown etiology. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of moderate size have identified several novel risk markers for RE, measured here as mean spherical equivalent (MSE) ... Full text Link to item Cite

Simultaneously identifying all true vessels from segmented retinal images.

Journal Article IEEE Trans Biomed Eng · July 2013 Measurements of retinal blood vessel morphology have been shown to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The wrong identification of vessels may result in a large variation of these measurements, leading to a wrong clinical diagnosis. In this ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal artery-vein caliber grading using color fundus imaging.

Journal Article Comput Methods Programs Biomed · July 2013 Recent research suggests that retinal vessel caliber (or cross-sectional width) measured from retinal photographs is an important feature for predicting cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). One of the most utilized measures is to quantify retinal arteriolar and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vessel caliber and lifelong neuropsychological functioning: retinal imaging as an investigative tool for cognitive epidemiology.

Journal Article Psychol Sci · July 1, 2013 Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new, noninvasive ... Full text Link to item Cite

Common genetic determinants of breast-cancer risk in East Asian women: a collaborative study of 23 637 breast cancer cases and 25 579 controls.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · June 15, 2013 In a consortium including 23 637 breast cancer patients and 25 579 controls of East Asian ancestry, we investigated 70 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 67 independent breast cancer susceptibility loci recently identified by genome-wide association ... Full text Link to item Cite

Optic disk localization by a robust fusion method

Conference Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering · June 5, 2013 The optic disk localization plays an important role in developing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macula degeneration. In this paper, we propose an intelligent fusion of meth ... Full text Cite

Superpixel classification based optic disc and optic cup segmentation for glaucoma screening.

Journal Article IEEE Trans Med Imaging · June 2013 Glaucoma is a chronic eye disease that leads to vision loss. As it cannot be cured, detecting the disease in time is important. Current tests using intraocular pressure (IOP) are not sensitive enough for population based glaucoma screening. Optic nerve hea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors for strabismus and amblyopia in young Singapore Chinese children.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · June 2013 PURPOSE: To determine the risk factors for strabismus and amblyopia in young Singapore Chinese children. METHODS: A total of 3009 children were recruited for the population-based cross-sectional Strabismus, Amblyopia and Refractive Error in Singaporean Pre ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is aspirin intake associated with early age-related macular degeneration? The Singapore Indian Eye Study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · June 2013 BACKGROUND/AIMS: To examine the relationship between aspirin intake and early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among an Asian population. METHODS: A population based cross sectional study of 3207 ethnic Indians aged 40 years or older residing in Sing ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial variations in the prevalence of refractive errors in the United States: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · June 2013 PURPOSE: To describe racial variations in the prevalence of refractive errors among adult white, Chinese, Hispanic, and black subjects in the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort study-the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclero ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal venular calibre is increased in patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease: a case-control study.

Journal Article Curr Eye Res · June 2013 AIM: To examine retinal vessel calibre in autoimmune rheumatic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease were recruited from a Rheumatology clinic. Retinal vessel calibre was measured from fundus photographs, and summarised ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of cognitive impairment in Chinese: epidemiology of dementia in Singapore study.

Journal Article J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry · June 2013 OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of and associated factors for cognitive impairment and dementia in community dwelling Chinese from Singapore. METHODS: This study includes Chinese subjects from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore (EDIS) study, aged ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations between complications and health-related quality of life in individuals with diabetes.

Journal Article Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) · June 2013 OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes and associated complications adversely affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, it is unclear whether different complications have the same or different associations with HRQoL. We examined associations between ret ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myopia-related fundus changes in Singapore adults with high myopia.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · June 2013 PURPOSE: To examine the pattern of myopia-related macular and optic disc changes in Singapore adults with high myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-6.00 diopters). DESIGN: Asian adults with high myopia from 3 population-based surveys. METHODS: Adults 40 years an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study in a Chinese population identifies a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes at 7q32 near PAX4.

Journal Article Diabetologia · June 2013 AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Most genetic variants identified for type 2 diabetes have been discovered in European populations. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a Chinese population with the aim of identifying novel variants for type 2 diabetes i ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparing methods for performing trans-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · June 1, 2013 Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered thousands of variants that are associated with human health and disease. Whilst early GWASs have primarily focused on genetically homogeneous populations of European, East Asian and South Asian ancest ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study identifies a novel locus contributing to type 2 diabetes susceptibility in Sikhs of Punjabi origin from India.

Journal Article Diabetes · May 2013 We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a multistage meta-analysis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Punjabi Sikhs from India. Our discovery GWAS in 1,616 individuals (842 case subjects) was followed by in silico replication of the top 513 indepe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pathologic changes in highly myopic eyes of young males in Singapore.

Journal Article Ann Acad Med Singap · May 2013 INTRODUCTION: This study describes the pathologic changes in the retina of a group of young Asian subjects with myopia worse than -10 diopters spherical equivalent (SE) refraction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consists of 20 male subjects un ... Link to item Cite

Branch retinal vein occlusion and optic nerve head topographic parameters: the Singapore Indian eye study.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2013 AIM: To examine the association between branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and quantitative optic disc topographic parameters. METHODS: The Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI) is a population-based study of 3400 Singapore Indians aged 40+ years. BRVO was ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypertensive retinopathy: comparing the Keith-Wagener-Barker to a simplified classification.

Journal Article J Hypertens · May 2013 PURPOSE: This study assessed the interobserver and intraobserver grading reliability of the Keith-Wagener-Barker (KWB) system to the proposed Mitchell-Wong 'simplified' three-grade classification for hypertensive retinopathy. METHODS: Digital retinal image ... Full text Link to item Cite

A new community-based outdoor intervention to increase physical activity in Singapore children: findings from focus groups.

Journal Article Ann Acad Med Singap · May 2013 INTRODUCTION: Myopia is a significant public health problem in Singapore with estimates that more than 50% of the population is affected by it by the time of adulthood. Childhood obesity is also increasing and has been linked to long-term health problems. ... Link to item Cite

Racial differences in retinal vessel geometric characteristics: a multiethnic study in healthy Asians.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · May 1, 2013 PURPOSE: To investigate potential racial/ethnic differences in retinal vascular geometric parameters in a multiethnic Asian population (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) free of clinical diseases. METHODS: A series of retinal vascular parameters were measured fr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Structural changes in the retinal microvasculature and renal function.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · April 26, 2013 PURPOSE: To evaluate the associations between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and microalbuminuria, and a comprehensive range of retinal microvascular abnormalities including traditional and new retinal vascular measures. METHODS: This was a population-based, ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations of iris structural measurements in a Chinese population: the Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · April 23, 2013 PURPOSE: We determined the ocular biometric and demographic factors associated with iris parameters in Singaporean Chinese persons from a population-based sample. METHODS: Subjects were participants in the Singapore Chinese Eye Study, a population-based cr ... Full text Link to item Cite

SLC1A2 variant associated with essential tremor but not Parkinson disease in Chinese subjects.

Journal Article Neurology · April 23, 2013 Essential tremor (ET) is characterized by postural and action tremor.(1-3) A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a LINGO1 gene variant to be associated with ET.(4) Subsequent GWAS further identified an intronic variant (rs3794087) of the main g ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ethnic differences in the association between blood pressure components and chronic kidney disease in middle aged and older Asian adults.

Journal Article BMC Nephrol · April 17, 2013 BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health problem worldwide. Previous studies have shown an association between blood pressure (BP) and CKD. However, it is not clear if there are ethnic differences in this association. We examin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic grading of cortical and PSC cataracts using retroillumination lens images

Conference Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) · April 11, 2013 In this paper, we propose an automatic approach to grade cortical and Posterior Sub-Capsular (PSC) cataracts using retroillumination images. Low-level vision features are used to characterize the photometric appearances and geometric structures of cortical ... Full text Cite

Superpixel classification based optic disc segmentation

Conference Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) · April 11, 2013 Optic disc segmentation in retinal fundus images is important in computer aided diagnosis. In this paper, an optic disc segmentation method based on superpixel classification is proposed. In the classification, histograms from contrast enhanced image chann ... Full text Cite

Prevalence of refractive errors in a multiethnic Asian population: the Singapore epidemiology of eye disease study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · April 9, 2013 PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of refractive errors in a multiethnic Asian population aged over 40 years and to examine secular trends and racial differences. METHODS: A total of 10,033 adults (3353 Chinese, 3400 Indians, and 3280 Malays) participate ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ethnic variation in the impact of metabolic syndrome components and chronic kidney disease.

Journal Article Maturitas · April 2013 OBJECTIVE: To examine the ethnic differences in the association between metabolic syndrome components and CKD in Asian populations. METHODS: We analyzed data from three independent populations in Singapore representing the three major Asian ethnic groups ( ... Full text Link to item Cite

Serum cystatin C and prediabetes in non-obese US adults.

Journal Article Eur J Epidemiol · April 2013 Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of end stage renal disease. Cystatin C, a marker of early renal impairment has been shown to be associated with diabetes. However, it is not clear if cystatin C is associated with prediabetes, an early stage in the hy ... Full text Link to item Cite

Systemic associations of dynamic retinal vessel analysis: a review of current literature.

Journal Article Microcirculation · April 2013 Endothelial dysfunction is a key pathogenic mechanism of CVD. The retinal microvascular network offers a unique, non-invasive window to study endothelial function. Recently, dynamic measurement of retinal vessel caliber using flicker light stimulation has ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in Indians: a comparative study in Singapore and India.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · April 2013 PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2 Indian populations, 1 living in urban Singapore and 1 in rural central India. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional studies of Indians aged 40+ years. M ... Full text Link to item Cite

Serum C-reactive protein level and prehypertension in two Asian populations.

Journal Article J Hum Hypertens · April 2013 Few previous studies in Western populations have reported an association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and prehypertension. However, no previous study has examined this association in Asians. We examined individuals who were free of hypertension from tw ... Full text Link to item Cite

Temporal changes in retinal microvascular caliber and blood pressure during pregnancy.

Journal Article Hypertension · April 2013 The microvasculature plays an important role in regulating cardiovascular changes in pregnancy, but changes in microvasculature have been difficult to document in vivo. This study objectively quantifies changes in the maternal retinal arteriolar and venula ... Full text Link to item Cite

Seven new loci associated with age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Nat Genet · April 2013 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of blindness in older individuals. To accelerate the understanding of AMD biology and help design new therapies, we executed a collaborative genome-wide association study, including >17,100 advanced ... Full text Link to item Cite

Coordinated genetic scaling of the human eye: shared determination of axial eye length and corneal curvature.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · March 7, 2013 PURPOSE: To examine the extent to which the two major determinants of refractive error, corneal curvature and axial length, are scaled relative to one another by shared genetic variants, along with their relationship to the genetic scaling of height. METHO ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship between intraocular pressure and angle configuration: an anterior segment OCT study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · March 5, 2013 PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and anterior chamber angle (ACA) configuration as assessed by gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). METHODS: A total of 2045 subjects aged 50 years and ... Full text Link to item Cite

How much eye care services do Asian populations need? Projection from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · March 1, 2013 PURPOSE: We quantified and measured the needs for specific eye care services, including refractive services (RS), annual eye examination services (AES), cataract surgery services (CSS), and low vision services (LVS) in urban adult populations in Asia. METH ... Full text Link to item Cite

Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of lipid loci identifies population-specific signals and allelic heterogeneity that increases the trait variance explained.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · March 2013 Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a tr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide meta-analyses of multiancestry cohorts identify multiple new susceptibility loci for refractive error and myopia.

Journal Article Nat Genet · March 2013 Refractive error is the most common eye disorder worldwide and is a prominent cause of blindness. Myopia affects over 30% of Western populations and up to 80% of Asians. The CREAM consortium conducted genome-wide meta-analyses, including 37,382 individuals ... Full text Link to item Cite

The association between ocular biometry and retinal vascular caliber is comparable from early childhood to adolescence.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 27, 2013 PURPOSE: We aimed to establish whether the change in retinal microvascular structure observed cross-sectionally with axial elongation and larger corneal curvature is comparable from early childhood to adolescence. METHODS: In all, 1077 Sydney Paediatric Ey ... Full text Link to item Cite

The association of aspirin use with age-related macular degeneration

Journal Article JAMA Internal Medicine · February 25, 2013 Objective: To determine whether regular aspirin use is associated with a higher risk for developing agerelated macular degeneration (AMD) by using analyzed data from a 15-year prospective cohort. Methods: A prospective analysis was conducted of data from a ... Full text Cite

Feasibility of screening for diabetic retinopathy at an Australian pathology collection service: a pilot study.

Journal Article Med J Aust · February 4, 2013 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of a novel diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening model using a pathology collection centre (PCC) as a screening site. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional pilot study conducted in one urban PCC in Victoria between 1 Sept ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of glaucoma severity and laterality on vision-specific functioning: the Singapore Malay eye study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 1, 2013 PURPOSE: We determined the impact of glaucoma severity and laterality on vision-specific functioning (VF) in an Asian population. METHODS: The Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES) was a population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 Malays aged 40 to 80 years ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vision impairment and major causes of vision loss impacts on vision-specific functioning independent of socioeconomic factors.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · February 2013 PURPOSE: To quantify the eye disease-specific impact of unilateral and bilateral vision impairment (VI) on vision-specific functioning (VF). DESIGN: The Singapore Indian Eye population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Ethnic Indians older than 40 years of age li ... Full text Link to item Cite

Metabolic syndrome and mortality in the elderly: a time-dependent association.

Journal Article Diabetes Res Clin Pract · February 2013 AIMS: To evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and mortality over time. METHODS: 3086 residents aged ≥49 years were followed in the Blue Mountains Eye Study, Australia. MetS components as defined by the International Diabete ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic association of refractive error and axial length with 15q14 but not 15q25 in the Blue Mountains Eye Study cohort.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · February 2013 PURPOSE: Myopia is a common complex condition influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Two recent genome-wide association studies have identified loci on chromosomes 15q25 and 15q14 associated with refractive error in Caucasian populations. Our stu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differential associations of myopia with major age-related eye diseases: the Singapore Indian Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · February 2013 PURPOSE: To determine the associations of myopia and axial length (AL) with major age-related eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related cataract, and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). DESIGN: P ... Full text Link to item Cite

Frequency and risk factors of non-retinopathy ocular conditions in people with diabetes: the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

Journal Article Diabet Med · February 2013 AIM: To investigate the frequency and risk factors of non-retinopathy ocular conditions in persons with diabetes. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study of 3176 Malay persons aged between 40 and 79 years in Singapore was conducted. Cataract, gla ... Full text Link to item Cite

Argon laser with and without anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for extrafoveal polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · February 2013 PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of eyes with extrafoveal polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) treated with argon laser. DESIGN: Prospective cohort, noninterventional study. METHODS: A prospective study of Asian patients wit ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association analyses identify multiple loci associated with central corneal thickness and keratoconus.

Journal Article Nat Genet · February 2013 Central corneal thickness (CCT) is associated with eye conditions including keratoconus and glaucoma. We performed a meta-analysis on >20,000 individuals in European and Asian populations that identified 16 new loci associated with CCT at genome-wide signi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myopia and cognitive dysfunction: the singapore malay eye study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · January 28, 2013 PURPOSE: To investigate a possible relationship between refractive error and cognitive function. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study included 1032 persons aged 60 to 79 who participated in the Singapore Malay Eye Study. Refraction (sphere ... Full text Link to item Cite

Metabolic syndrome and risk of age-related cataract over time: an analysis of interval-censored data using a random-effects model.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · January 21, 2013 PURPOSE: To investigate whether the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components on the incidence of different cataract subtypes (cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataract [PSC]) change with time. METHODS: A prospective cohort of pers ... Full text Link to item Cite

Deep whole-genome sequencing of 100 southeast Asian Malays.

Journal Article Am J Hum Genet · January 10, 2013 Whole-genome sequencing across multiple samples in a population provides an unprecedented opportunity for comprehensively characterizing the polymorphic variants in the population. Although the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) has offered brief insights into th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cataract conversion assessment using lens opacity classification system III and Wisconsin cataract grading system.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · January 9, 2013 PURPOSE: To propose a general conversion approximation algorithm and illustrate its application to two cataract classification systems, the Lens Opacity Classification System III (LOCS III) and Wisconsin Cataract Grading System (Wisconsin system). METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

A study assessing the association of glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) associated variants with HbA1C, chronic kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy in populations of Asian ancestry.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 Glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level is used as a diagnostic marker for diabetes mellitus and a predictor of diabetes associated complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with HbA1C level. Most of these stu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular caliber measurements: clinical significance, current knowledge and future perspectives.

Journal Article Ophthalmologica · 2013 The retinal vasculature provides a unique window to assess vascular health noninvasively and directly in vivo. Advances in fundus photography and retinal image analysis techniques have enabled the objective and accurate assessment of quantitative retinal v ... Full text Link to item Cite

Classification algorithms based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements for detection of angle closure.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · January 2013 OBJECTIVE: A recent study found that a combination of 6 anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) parameters (anterior chamber area, volume, and width [ACA, ACV, ACW], lens vault [LV], iris thickness at 750 μm from the scleral spur, and iris cr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic detection of retinal vascular landmark features for colour fundus image matching and patient longitudinal study

Conference 2013 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP 2013 - Proceedings · January 1, 2013 Retinal vascular landmark points such as branching points and crossovers are important features for automatic retinal image matching and vascular abnormality detection. These landmark points can enable automatic screening of large dataset through the detec ... Full text Cite

Automatic grading of nuclear cataracts from slit-lamp lens images using group sparsity regression.

Journal Article Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv · 2013 Cataracts, which result from lens opacification, are the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Current methods for determining the severity of cataracts are based on manual assessments that may be weakened by subjectivity. In this work, we propose a system ... Full text Link to item Cite

Superpixel classification based optic cup segmentation.

Journal Article Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv · 2013 In this paper, we propose a superpixel classification based optic cup segmentation for glaucoma detection. In the proposed method, each optic disc image is first over-segmented into superpixels. Then mean intensities, center surround statistics and the loc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Localized changes in retinal vessel caliber after focal/grid laser treatment in patients with diabetic macular edema: a measure of treatment response?

Journal Article Retina · 2013 PURPOSE: To compare retinal vessel caliber changes at the macula region and surrounding the optic disk after focal/grid laser treatment for diabetic macular edema. METHODS: The study included 69 eyes from 46 patients treated with focal/grid laser for diabe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic glaucoma diagnosis through medical imaging informatics.

Journal Article J Am Med Inform Assoc · 2013 BACKGROUND: Computer-aided diagnosis for screening utilizes computer-based analytical methodologies to process patient information. Glaucoma is the leading irreversible cause of blindness. Due to the lack of an effective and standard screening practice, mo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of cataract surgery and visual outcomes in Indian immigrants in Singapore: the Singapore Indian eye study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cataract surgery and factors associated with post-surgical visual outcomes in migrant Indians living in Singapore. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based study in 3,400 Indian immigrants resid ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship between diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular oedema and erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetics.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · 2013 BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema with erectile dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Hospital-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred twenty-four men with diab ... Full text Link to item Cite

Traditional and novel risk factors of diabetic retinopathy and research challenges.

Journal Article Curr Med Chem · 2013 Diabetic retinopathy affects one-third of people with diabetes and is the most frequent cause of blindness in working aged adults. Although diabetic retinopathy blindness appears to have fallen in the developed world, the rapidly increasing number of perso ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fenofibrate: a new treatment for diabetic retinopathy. Molecular mechanisms and future perspectives.

Journal Article Curr Med Chem · 2013 Despite improving standards of care, people with diabetes remain at risk of development and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and visual impairment. Identifying novel therapeutic approaches, preferably targeting more than one pathogenic pathway in D ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vitamin D deficiency is not associated with changes in retinal geometric parameters in young people with type 1 diabetes.

Journal Article J Diabetes Res · 2013 Changes in retinal geometric parameters predict risk and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We have shown that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is associated with DR. We hypothesized that VDD mediates changes in retinal geometric parameters. Retinal vascu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Assessment of candidate ocular biomarkers of ageing in a South African adult population: relationship with chronological age and systemic biomarkers.

Journal Article Mech Ageing Dev · 2013 Certain anatomic and functional parameters of the eye change with increasing chronological age. They may, therefore, serve as potential biomarkers of ageing. We investigated associations between four such ocular parameters (lens density, retinal vessel cal ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of bilateral open and closed-angle glaucoma on glaucoma-specific functioning in Asians.

Journal Article J Glaucoma · 2013 PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of bilateral primary glaucoma on glaucoma-specific functioning in Asians. METHODS: Patients with bilateral primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) aged 40 years or above of Chinese ethnic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic diagnosis of pathological myopia from heterogeneous biomedical data.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 Pathological myopia is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. The condition is particularly prevalent in Asia. Unlike myopia, pathological myopia is accompanied by degenerative changes in the retina, which if left untreated can lead to irrecover ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of anterior segment optical tomography parameters measured using a semi-automatic software to standard clinical instruments.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 OBJECTIVE: To compare anterior segment parameters measured using a semi-automatic software (Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program, ZAP) applied to anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images, with commonly used instruments. METHODS: Cross-se ... Full text Link to item Cite

The NeuroAiD II (MLC901) in vascular cognitive impairment study (NEURITES).

Journal Article Cerebrovasc Dis · 2013 BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients after nondisabling stroke are cognitively impaired compared to age- and education-matched community-dwelling controls. Moreover, poststroke patients who have 'vascular cognitive impairment no dementia' (VCIN ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic risk, ethnic variations and pharmacogenetic biomarkers in AMD and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

Journal Article Expert Review of Ophthalmology · January 1, 2013 In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of ethnic differences in the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation and manifestation of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although phenotypically very similar to AMD, polypoidal choroida ... Full text Cite

Obesity and the microvasculature: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are thought to significantly influence a person's risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly via its effect on the microvasculature. Retinal vascular caliber is a surrogate marker of microvascular disease and a predictor of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lack of awareness of common eye conditions in the community.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · 2013 PURPOSE: Awareness of eye conditions aids health promotion activities and leads to better outcomes. We examined factors influencing the lack of awareness of common eye conditions in a population. METHODS: The Singapore Malay Eye Study examined 3280 (78.7% ... Full text Link to item Cite

New systematic review methodology for visual impairment and blindness for the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · 2013 PURPOSE: To describe a systematic review of population-based prevalence studies of visual impairment (VI) and blindness worldwide over the past 32 years that informs the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study. METHODS: A systematic revi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and associations of cataract in a rural Chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study.

Journal Article Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol · January 2013 BACKGROUND: Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in the world and in China. However, data on the prevalence of cataract based on standardized lens grading protocols from mainland China are limited. This paper estimated the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Six-month visual prognosis in eyes with submacular hemorrhage secondary to age-related macular degeneration or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

Journal Article Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol · January 2013 BACKGROUND: To determine clinical or imaging prognostic features for visual outcome in eyes with submacular hemorrhage secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). METHODS: A prospective case series of 11 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vessel caliber is associated with the 10-year incidence of glaucoma: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · January 2013 PURPOSE: To examine associations between quantitatively measured retinal vessel caliber and the 10-year incidence of primary open-angle glaucoma (OAG). DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 persons ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular geometry and glaucoma: the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · January 2013 PURPOSE: To determine the associations of geometric measurements (tortuosity, branching angle, and fractal dimension) of retinal vessels with glaucoma. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Persons aged 40 to 80 years who participa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Infant feeding and school attainment in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 BACKGROUND: Performance in intelligence tests tends to be higher among individuals breastfed as infants, but little is known about the association between breastfeeding and achieved schooling. We assessed the association of infant feeding with school achie ... Full text Link to item Cite

Personalized medicine in ophthalmology: From pharmacogenetic biomarkers to therapeutic and dosage optimization

Journal Article Journal of Personalized Medicine · January 1, 2013 Rapid progress in genomics and nanotechnology continue to advance our approach to patient care, from diagnosis and prognosis, to targeting and personalization of therapeutics. However, the clinical application of molecular diagnostics in ophthalmology has ... Full text Cite

SU‐E‐T‐138: Range Verification for Proton Therapy Systems: A Multi‐Center Study

Conference Medical Physics · January 1, 2013 Purpose: Proton beams have finite range and spare normal tissues distal to the target. Accurate determination and routine verification of proton range are critical in proton therapy, but depends on measurement device and method and could vary with proton c ... Full text Cite

Genetic loci for retinal arteriolar microcirculation.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 Narrow arterioles in the retina have been shown to predict hypertension as well as other vascular diseases, likely through an increase in the peripheral resistance of the microcirculatory flow. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Are C-reactive protein associated genetic variants associated with serum levels and retinal markers of microvascular pathology in Asian populations from Singapore?

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 INTRODUCTION: C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammation. We assessed whether CRP-associated loci were associated with serum CRP and retinal markers of microvascular disease, in Asian populations. M ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic associations of type 2 diabetes with islet amyloid polypeptide processing and degrading pathways in asian populations.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by beta cell dysfunctions. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is highly conserved and co-secreted with insulin with over 40% of autopsy cases of T2D showing islet amyloid formation due to IAPP aggregat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 BACKGROUND: Mild retinopathy (microaneurysms or dot-blot hemorrhages) is observed in persons without diabetes or hypertension and may reflect microvascular disease in other organs. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mild retinopathy in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Insights into the genetic architecture of early stage age-related macular degeneration: a genome-wide association study meta-analysis.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2013 Genetic factors explain a majority of risk variance for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for late AMD implicate genes in complement, inflammatory and lipid pathways, the genetic architecture of early AMD ... Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship between retinal vessel calibre and knee cartilage and BMLs.

Journal Article BMC Musculoskelet Disord · December 20, 2012 BACKGROUND: Whether the increase in vascular disease prevalence and mortality in OA populations is a result of co-occurrence of cardiovascular disease and OA, which are both common in the older population, is due to OA treatments or to the common associati ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early age-related macular degeneration detection by focal biologically inspired feature

Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP · December 1, 2012 Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss. The presence of drusen are often associated to AMD. Drusen are tiny yellowish-white extracellular buildup present around the macular region of the retina. Clinically, ophthalmologist ... Full text Cite

Peripapillary atrophy detection by biologically inspired feature

Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition · December 1, 2012 Peripapillary atrophy (PPA) is an atrophy of preexisting retina tissue. Because of its association with eye diseases such as myopia and glaucoma, it is important to determine the presence of PPA clinically. Experienced ophthalmologists are able to determin ... Cite

Automatic localization of the macula in a supervised graph-based approach with contextual superpixel features

Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition · December 1, 2012 Localization of the macula centre is an important step in retinal image analysis, in particular for macular disease. We propose the use of a superpixelbased approach for macular localization. Features are extracted from the superpixels, including a propose ... Cite

Efficient optic cup localization based on superpixel classification for glaucoma diagnosis in digital fundus images

Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition · December 1, 2012 Optic cup is the primary image indicator clinically used for identifying glaucoma. To automatically localize the optic cup in fundus images, an effective and efficient superpixel classification based approach is proposed in this work, which maintains both ... Cite

Detecting the optic cup excavation in retinal fundus images by automatic detection of vessel kinking

Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition · December 1, 2012 Identifying the boundary of the optic cup excavation is of critical importance in the assessment of glaucomatous risk. Currently, most approaches are focused on the use of pallor. We present an automatic method to determine the cup excavation boundary base ... Cite

The impact of diabetic retinopathy on quality of life: qualitative findings from an item bank development project.

Journal Article Qual Life Res · December 2012 PURPOSE: Assessing the efficacy of treatment modalities for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from the patient's perspective is restricted due to a lack of a comprehensive patient-reported outcome measure. We are developing a DR-specific quality of life (QoL) item ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic fovea detection in retinal fundus images

Conference Proceedings of the 2012 7th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ICIEA 2012 · December 1, 2012 T The fovea (centre of the retinal macula region) is responsible for central vision. Conditions which can affect the macula region in particular include AMD and macular oedema, which lead to a direct loss in visual acuity due to the effect on central visio ... Full text Cite

Automatic pupil detection on retro-illumination lens images from a population-based study

Conference Proceedings of the 2012 7th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ICIEA 2012 · December 1, 2012 Automatic detection of the pupil is an important step in cataract assessment. This paper proposes a new pupil detection method which addresses the challenges faced in current methods employed for this task. We evaluate the performance of the proposed metho ... Full text Cite

Associations between metabolic syndrome and syndrome components and retinal microvascular signs in a rural Chinese population: the Handan Eye Study.

Journal Article Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol · December 2012 BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to determine the relationship of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with retinal microvascular abnormalities in a rural Chinese population. METHODS: The Handan Eye Study, a population-based survey, recruited 6,830 (90. ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvascular signs and risk of stroke: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Journal Article Stroke · December 2012 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small-vessel disease contributes to the pathophysiology of stroke, and retinal microvascular signs have been linked to the risk of stroke. We examined the relationship of retinal signs with incident stroke in a multiethnic cohort. M ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of retinal venular diameter: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · December 2012 OBJECTIVE: To describe how retinal venular diameter changes over time for an individual and to examine differences in these changes among people with different risk profiles. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4600 persons aged ... Full text Link to item Cite

Peripapillary atrophy detection by sparse biologically inspired feature manifold.

Journal Article IEEE Trans Med Imaging · December 2012 Peripapillary atrophy (PPA) is an atrophy of pre-existing retina tissue. Because of its association with eye diseases such as myopia and glaucoma, PPA is an important indicator for diagnosis of these diseases. Experienced ophthalmologists are able to deter ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of lens opacities in Asian Malays.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · December 2012 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of lens opacities and cataract surgery in an older Malay population in Singapore. METHODS: The Singapore Malay Eye Study is a population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 (78.7% response rate) Malay adults aged 40-80 y ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of long-term measures of glucose and blood pressure on the retinal microvasculature.

Journal Article Atherosclerosis · December 2012 OBJECTIVE: Retinopathy and retinal microvascular abnormalities are common in adult populations, yet few long-term predictors have been identified. We therefore examined the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and fasting plasma glucose, asses ... Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship between aortic stiffness and changes in retinal microvessels among Asian ischemic stroke patients.

Journal Article J Hum Hypertens · December 2012 Large-artery stiffness is a risk factor for stroke, including cerebral small-vessel disease. Retinal microvascular changes are thought to mirror those in cerebral microvessels. We investigated the relationship between aortic stiffness and retinal microvasc ... Full text Link to item Cite

Accuracy of diabetic retinopathy screening by trained non-physician graders using non-mydriatic fundus camera.

Journal Article Singapore Med J · November 2012 INTRODUCTION: We compared the agreement of diabetic retinopathy (DR) assessment between trained non-physician graders (NPGs) and family physicians (FPs) in a primary healthcare setting. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted retrospectively ov ... Link to item Cite

Retinal microvasculature as a model to study the manifestations of hypertension.

Journal Article Hypertension · November 2012 The retinal vasculature allows direct noninvasive visualization of the body's mircrovasculature. Because the retina and other end organs (brain and kidney) share similar anatomical features and physiological properties, the retinal vessels offer a unique a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and risk factors of meibomian gland dysfunction: the Singapore Malay eye study.

Journal Article Cornea · November 2012 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence and associations of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in an urban Malay population in Singapore. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 (78.7% response rate) Malay persons aged 40 to 80 years, living in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automated segmentation of optic disc and optic cup in fundus images for glaucoma diagnosis

Conference Proceedings - IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems · October 16, 2012 The vertical Cup-to-Disc Ratio (CDR) is an important indicator in the diagnosis of glaucoma. Automatic segmentation of the optic disc (OD) and optic cup is crucial towards a good computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. This paper presents a statistical mode ... Full text Cite

Correlation and reproducibility of retinal vascular geometric measurements for stereoscopic retinal images of the same eyes.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · October 2012 PURPOSE: To assess the correlation and reproducibility of retinal vascular geometric measurements obtained from two stereo-paired fundus images. METHODS: Thirty stereoscopic pairs of color optic disc-centered photographs from the Blue Mountains Eye Study w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in migrant Indians in an urbanized society in Asia: the Singapore Indian eye study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · October 2012 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Indian persons living in a newly urbanized society in Asia. DESIGN: Population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Ethnic Indians aged ≥40 years living in Singapore. METHODS: T ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular fractal dimension and its relationship with cardiovascular and ocular risk factors.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · October 2012 PURPOSE: To examine the influence of a range of cardiovascular risk factors and ocular conditions on retinal vascular fractal dimension in the Singapore Malay Eye Study. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: Fractal analysis of the retin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intraocular pressure and its relationship to ocular and systemic factors in a healthy Chinese rural population: the Handan Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · October 2012 PURPOSE: To describe the distribution of and factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP) in a healthy adult rural Chinese population in northern China. METHODS: The Handan Eye Study is a cross-sectional, population-based study of eye diseases among 6,830 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association analyses identify three new susceptibility loci for primary angle closure glaucoma.

Journal Article Nat Genet · October 2012 Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study including 1,854 PACG cases and 9,608 controls across 5 sample collections in Asia. Replication experiments were conducted in 1,917 P ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of genetic variants on 8p21 and 4q12 with age-related macular degeneration in Asian populations.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · September 25, 2012 PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of genetic variants at chromosomes 8p21 and 4q12 with the risk of developing AMD and its two main subtypes, choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), in Asian populations. METHODS ... Full text Link to item Cite

Language barrier and its relationship to diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article BMC Public Health · September 13, 2012 BACKGROUND: Language barrier is an important determinant of health care access and health. We examined the associations of English proficiency with type-2 diabetes (T2DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asian Indians living in Singapore, an urban city whe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Longer axial length is protective of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · September 2012 PURPOSE: To assess the association of ocular biometric parameters and refractive error with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) in persons with diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, clinic-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with diabet ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal pathology as biomarker for cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

Journal Article J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry · September 2012 Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Furthermore, over the last few decades, there has been a shift towards identifying earlier stages of AD, which include mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Improved methods of screening and early d ... Full text Link to item Cite

Choroidal neovascularization in pathological myopia.

Journal Article Prog Retin Eye Res · September 2012 Myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment worldwide. The clinical and socioeconomic impact of myopic CNV in Asian countries is particularly significant due to rising trend in the prevalence and severity of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Large scale international replication and meta-analysis study confirms association of the 15q14 locus with myopia. The CREAM consortium.

Journal Article Hum Genet · September 2012 Myopia is a complex genetic disorder and a common cause of visual impairment among working age adults. Genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility loci on chromosomes 15q14 and 15q25 in Caucasian populations of European ancestry. Here, w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of maternal body mass index on the retinal microvasculature in pregnancy.

Journal Article Obstet Gynecol · September 2012 OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy weight gain on the retinal microvasculature among pregnant women. METHODS: We studied 814 pregnant women aged 18-46 years who were recruited as part of the Growing Up in Sin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Does retinal vascular geometry vary with cardiac cycle?

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · August 24, 2012 PURPOSE: Changes in retinal vascular parameters have been shown to be associated with systemic vascular diseases. In this study, we assessed the physiologic variations in retinal vascular measurements during the cardiac cycle. METHODS: Fundus images were t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · August 24, 2012 PURPOSE: To determine the distribution, variation, and determinants of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness in nonglaucomatous eyes measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). METHODS: Six hundred twenty-three Chine ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic detection of the optic cup using vessel kinking in digital retinal fundus images

Conference Proceedings - International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging · August 15, 2012 Detection of the optic cup, which is an excavation in the optic disc, is an essential step in glaucoma assessment. In digital fundus photography, which captures 2D images of the retina, identification of the optic cup can be challenging. Kinks are bendings ... Full text Cite

Variation in prevalence of myopia between generations of migrant indians living in Singapore.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · August 2012 PURPOSE: To assess the influence of factors related to migration and acculturation on myopia in migrant Indians in Singapore. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 3400 Singaporean Indians (75.6% response rate) aged over 40 ye ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship of blood pressure and other factors to serial retinal arteriolar diameter measurements over time: the beaver dam eye study.

Journal Article Arch Ophthalmol · August 2012 OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship of blood pressure (BP), antihypertensive medication use, and other factors to serial measurements of retinal arteriolar diameters over time in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. METHODS: Retinal arteriolar diameter was measur ... Full text Link to item Cite

Current epidemiology of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema.

Journal Article Curr Diab Rep · August 2012 With increasing global prevalence of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is set to be the principle cause of vision impairment in many countries. DR affects a third of people with diabetes and the prevalence increases with duration of diabetes, hyperglycem ... Full text Link to item Cite

Singapore Malay Eye Study: rationale and methodology of 6-year follow-up study (SiMES-2).

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · August 2012 BACKGROUND:   To describe the rationale and study design of a follow-up epidemiological eye study among Singaporean Malay adults. DESIGN:   Follow-up prospective population-based study. PARTICIPANTS:   Participants of the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES-1 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of and racial differences in pterygium: a multiethnic population study in Asians.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · August 2012 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence and risk factors of pterygium in a multiethnic Asian population and to examine racial differences. DESIGN: Population-based study in Singapore, located 1° north of the equator. PARTICIPANTS: Data were analyzed from 8906 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Anterior chamber dimensions and posterior corneal arc length in Malay eyes: an anterior segment optical coherence tomography study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · July 20, 2012 PURPOSE: We provided normative data of corneal and anterior segment dimensions, and a novel parameter, posterior corneal arc length (PCAL), in an adult Malay population. METHODS: The current analysis is a substudy of the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES), ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meta-analysis identifies multiple loci associated with kidney function-related traits in east Asian populations.

Journal Article Nat Genet · July 15, 2012 Chronic kidney disease (CKD), impairment of kidney function, is a serious public health problem, and the assessment of genetic factors influencing kidney function has substantial clinical relevance. Here, we report a meta-analysis of genome-wide associatio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ocular manifestations of hypertension

Journal Article Hipertension y Riesgo Vascular · July 1, 2012 Elevated blood pressure leads to a multitude of vascular changes in eye. The earliest ocular effect of hypertension comprises of retinal microvascular changes called hypertensive retinopathy which is associated with indicators of end-organ damage (e.g., le ... Full text Cite

Retinal vascular changes following intravitreal ranibizumab injections for neovascular AMD over a 1-year period.

Journal Article Eye (Lond) · July 2012 PURPOSE: To assess retinal vascular calibre changes in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, over a 1-year period and compare any such changes to untreated fe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Update on animal models of diabetic retinopathy: from molecular approaches to mice and higher mammals.

Journal Article Dis Model Mech · July 2012 Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes and one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of DR has been investigated using several animal models of diabetes. These models have been generated b ... Full text Link to item Cite

Serum apolipoproteins are associated with systemic and retinal microvascular function in people with diabetes.

Journal Article Diabetes · July 2012 Serum apolipoprotein (apo)AI and -B have been shown to be associated with diabetic retinopathy, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated whether apoAI and apoB levels are associated with measures of systemic and retinal microvascular func ... Full text Link to item Cite

The impact of cataract, cataract types, and cataract grades on vision-specific functioning using Rasch analysis.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · July 2012 PURPOSE: To determine the impact of cataracts and their types and grades on vision-specific functioning. DESIGN: Prospective population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: The Singapore Indian Eye Study examined 3400 of 4497 (75.6% response rate) ethnic ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fenofibrate - a potential systemic treatment for diabetic retinopathy?

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · July 2012 PURPOSE: To review clinical and experimental data for fenofibrate as a possible systemic treatment for diabetic retinopathy. DESIGN: Perspective. METHODS: Review of clinical studies focused on 2 major randomized controlled trials: the FIELD (Fenofibrate In ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prolactin, fatherhood, and reproductive behavior in human males.

Journal Article Am J Phys Anthropol · July 2012 Although humans are considered unusual among mammals for the intensity of care that fathers often provide offspring, little is known about the hormonal architecture regulating human paternal investment. Prolactin has important reproductive functions in bot ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of measurements of time outdoors and light levels as risk factors for myopia in young Singapore children.

Journal Article Eye (Lond) · July 2012 AIMS: To compare methods to measure time outdoor and light levels, two possible predictors of myopia, in Singapore children. METHODS: Outdoor time from a diary and portable light meter over a 1-week period was compared in 117 Singapore children aged 6-12 y ... Full text Link to item Cite

Visual impairment, age-related eye diseases, and cognitive function: the Singapore Malay Eye study.

Journal Article Arch Ophthalmol · July 2012 OBJECTIVE: To describe the associations of visual impairment and major age-related eye diseases with cognitive function in an older Asian population. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1179 participants aged 60 to 80 years from the Singa ... Full text Link to item Cite

Blood pressure and retinal microvascular characteristics during pregnancy: Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study.

Journal Article Hypertension · July 2012 Changes in maternal blood pressure during pregnancy are associated with poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. We investigated whether maternal blood pressure during midpregnancy has an impact on the retinal microcirculation among pregnant Asian women. A tot ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quantitative analysis of retinal vessel attenuation in eyes with retinitis pigmentosa.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · June 28, 2012 PURPOSE: Retinal vessel attenuation is a key finding in the diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), but there have been no studies to determine whether quantitative measurement of this retinal sign is useful. We aimed to investigate retinal vessel caliber ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of anterior chamber depth: the Singapore Chinese Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · June 2012 PURPOSE: Recent advances in anterior segment imaging have enabled the measurement of novel ocular biometric parameters, such as lens vault (LV), posterior corneal arc length (PCAL), and iris area. The aims of this study were to identify the determinants of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship between a range of sedentary behaviours and blood pressure during early adolescence.

Journal Article J Hum Hypertens · June 2012 Very few studies have explored links between physical activity, sedentary behaviours and blood pressure (BP) in early adolescence. We aimed to assess the association between a range of sedentary activities (screen time, television (TV) viewing, computer us ... Full text Link to item Cite

The impact of bilateral or unilateral cataract surgery on visual functioning: when does second eye cataract surgery benefit patients?

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · June 2012 AIM: To examine the impact of bilateral or unilateral cataract surgery on visual functioning. METHODS: The Singapore Malay Eye Study is a population-based study of 3280 Singapore Malay patients aged 40-80 years, of which 3225 had data available for inclusi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of the duration of macular edema on clinical outcomes in retinal vein occlusion treated with dexamethasone intravitreal implant.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · June 2012 PURPOSE: To assess the effect of duration of macular edema (ME) on clinical outcomes after treatment with dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7 mg (Ozurdex; Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA) in patients with ME following branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or c ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related macular degeneration and long-term risk of stroke subtypes.

Journal Article Stroke · June 2012 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We examined the relationship of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with incident stroke, including stroke subtypes of cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: We included 12 216 participants with retinal photog ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvascular abnormalities and cognitive function in Latino adults in Los Angeles.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · June 2012 PURPOSE: Retinal vessels may provide a readily accessible surrogate approach to study vascular disease in brain small vessels. Previous epidemiologic studies of retinal microvascular abnormalities and cognition have not included large numbers of Latinos wh ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Lancet · May 5, 2012 Age-related macular degeneration is a major cause of blindness worldwide. With ageing populations in many countries, more than 20% might have the disorder. Advanced age-related macular degeneration, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration (w ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular geometry in Asian persons with diabetes and retinopathy.

Journal Article J Diabetes Sci Technol · May 1, 2012 PURPOSE: Our purpose was to examine the relationship of retinal vascular parameters with diabetes and retinopathy in an older Asian population. METHODS: Retinal photographs from participants of a population-based survey of Asian Malay persons aged 40-80 ye ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of dilated retinal arteriolar caliber with early age-related macular degeneration: the Handan Eye Study.

Journal Article Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol · May 2012 BACKGROUND: To identify factors associated with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a rural Chinese population, with emphasis on retinal vessel caliber. METHODS: The study population comprised the 6,830 participants of the Handan Eye Study. All ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of diabetes on macular thickness measured using optical coherence tomography: the Singapore Indian Eye Study.

Journal Article Eye (Lond) · May 2012 PURPOSE: To determine the influence of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and other factors on macular thickness, measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT), in a population-based sample. METHODS: Data from the population-based Singapore Indian Ey ... Full text Link to item Cite

Early retinal arteriolar changes and peripheral neuropathy in diabetes.

Journal Article Diabetes Care · May 2012 OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between early retinal arteriolar abnormalities and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from 608 people (aged 40-80 years) with diabetes from the population-based Singapore Malay Eye ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular calibre as a predictor of incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Clin Exp Optom · May 2012 Recent advances in retinal photographic imaging techniques have allowed objective and precise measurement of subtle vascular characteristics in the retina, including the retinal vessel calibre (diameter). Data from population-based and clinic-based studies ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of diabetic retinopathy on patients' beliefs about diabetes.

Journal Article Clin Exp Optom · May 2012 BACKGROUND: The aim was to compare beliefs about diabetes and determine their associations with psychological well-being, self-management behaviour and glycaemic control in those with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: We recruited 400 patient ... Full text Link to item Cite

Carbohydrate nutrition is associated with changes in the retinal vascular structure and branching pattern in children.

Journal Article Am J Clin Nutr · May 2012 BACKGROUND: Higher intake of carbohydrates and high-glycemic index (high-GI) diets could lead to small vessel dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the associations between intakes of high-GI and high-glycemic load (high-GL) diets, carbohydrate, and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Multi-stage segmentation of white matter hyperintensity, cortical and lacunar infarcts.

Journal Article Neuroimage · May 1, 2012 Cerebral abnormalities such as white matter hyperintensity (WMH), cortical infarct (CI), and lacunar infarct (LI) are of clinical importance and frequently present in patients with stroke and dementia. Up to date, there are limited algorithms available to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography measurements of optic disc parameters.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · April 2012 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the agreement between scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg retinal tomograph 3; HRT-3) and high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) for measurements of optic nerve head (ONH) parameters. METHODS: As part of a pop ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automated analysis of retinal vascular tortuosity on color retinal images.

Journal Article J Med Syst · April 2012 Recent advances in medical imaging modality have enabled us to identify new features in retinal vasculature. One of the features is retinal vascular tortuosity which has been shown to become a predictive factor for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. The ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in a multiethnic Asian cohort.

Journal Article Arch Ophthalmol · April 2012 OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a multiethnic Asian cohort of Chinese, Malay, and Indian persons. METHODS: In this population-based study, 3172 persons of Chinese, Malay, and Indian et ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related macular degeneration and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · April 2012 OBJECTIVE: To determine whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a risk indicator for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events independent of other known risk factors in a multi-ethnic cohort. DESIGN: Population-based p ... Full text Link to item Cite

A statistical method for region-based meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in genetically diverse populations.

Journal Article Eur J Hum Genet · April 2012 Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become the preferred experimental design in exploring the genetic etiology of complex human traits and diseases. Standard SNP-based meta-analytic approaches have been utilized to integrate the results from multip ... Full text Link to item Cite

A common BIM deletion polymorphism mediates intrinsic resistance and inferior responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer.

Journal Article Nat Med · March 18, 2012 Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) elicit high response rates among individuals with kinase-driven malignancies, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (EGFR NSCLC). However, the exte ... Full text Link to item Cite

Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Diabetes Care · March 2012 OBJECTIVE: To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A pooled analysis using individual participant data ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular geometry predicts incident renal dysfunction in young people with type 1 diabetes.

Journal Article Diabetes Care · March 2012 OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between retinal vascular geometry parameters and development of incident renal dysfunction in young people with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 511 adolescents with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel versus traditional risk markers for diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Diabetologia · March 2012 AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To explore the relative contribution of novel and traditional risk markers for diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: A clinic-based study of 224 diabetic patients (85 type 1, 139 type 2) from a diabetes clinic was performed. DR was graded fr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and risk factors of epiretinal membrane in Asian Indians.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 27, 2012 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of epiretinal membrane (ERM) and its risk factors in an Indian population and compare the findings with other populations. METHODS: The Singapore Indian Eye Study is a population-based survey of 3400 Asian Indians aged b ... Full text Link to item Cite

Republished article: The impact of diabetic retinopathy: Understanding the patient's perspective

Journal Article Postgraduate Medical Journal · February 23, 2012 Understanding the impact of a condition from the patient's perspective is important, and different types of patient-reported outcomes or instruments are available to help with this. This review article summarizes the current evidence on the impact of diabe ... Full text Cite

Meta-analysis identifies common variants associated with body mass index in east Asians.

Journal Article Nat Genet · February 19, 2012 Multiple genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI) have been identified through genome-wide association studies conducted predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We performed a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ap ... Full text Link to item Cite

The impact of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema on health-related quality of life in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 13, 2012 PURPOSE: To assess the impact of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in type 1 and type 2 diabetes using the EuroQoL EQ-5D generic multi-attribute utility instrument (MAUI). METHODS: In this ... Full text Link to item Cite

Aspirin for the prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly: rationale and design of a neuro-vascular imaging study (ENVIS-ion).

Journal Article BMC Neurol · February 8, 2012 BACKGROUND: This paper describes the rationale and design of the ENVIS-ion Study, which aims to determine whether low-dose aspirin reduces the development of white matter hyper-intense (WMH) lesions and silent brain infarction (SBI). Additional aims includ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Review of key findings from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES-1).

Journal Article Singapore Med J · February 2012 INTRODUCTION: This study highlights the key epidemiological findings from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES-1). METHODS: SiMES-1 was a cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study on eye diseases. It was performed on 3,280 randomly selected M ... Link to item Cite

Comparing stereometric parameters between Heidelberg Retinal Tomography 2 and 3 in Asian eyes: the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

Journal Article J Glaucoma · February 2012 PURPOSE: To examine the correlation and agreement of stereometric parameters between Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph version 2 (HRT-2) and HRT-3 in a normal Asian population. METHODS: This was a population-based study using data from the Singapore Malay Eye S ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of angle width in Chinese Singaporeans.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · February 2012 PURPOSE: To investigate determinants of angle width and derive mathematic models to best predict angle width. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1067 Chinese subjects aged ≥40 years. METHODS: Participants underwent go ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvascular calibre and risk of incident diabetes: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Journal Article Diabetes Res Clin Pract · February 2012 AIM: To prospectively examine the association of retinal microvascular signs with incident diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a multi-ethnic population-based cohort. METHODS: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis comprised Caucasians, Afric ... Full text Link to item Cite

How does hypertension affect your eyes?

Journal Article J Hum Hypertens · February 2012 Hypertension has profound effects on various parts of the eye. Classically, elevated blood pressure results in a series of retinal microvascular changes called hypertensive retinopathy, comprising of generalized and focal retinal arteriolar narrowing, arte ... Full text Link to item Cite

Elevated blood pressure is associated with rarefaction of the retinal vasculature in children.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · January 31, 2012 PURPOSE: Retinal vascular fractal dimension (D(f)) is a measure of the geometric complexity of the retinal microvasculature, and has been associated with diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the authors examined the relationship between blood pressure and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Panretinal photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · January 19, 2012 Full text Link to item Cite

Anterior segment optical coherence tomography study of the cornea and anterior segment in adult ethnic South Asian Indian eyes.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · January 17, 2012 PURPOSE: To report normative results of anterior segment and corneal biometric parameters and their associations in ethnic South Asian Indian adults. METHODS: The Singapore Indian Eye Study is a cross-sectional, population-based study of ethnic South Asian ... Full text Link to item Cite

Identification of four novel variants that influence central corneal thickness in multi-ethnic Asian populations.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · January 15, 2012 Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a highly heritable trait. Genes that significantly influence CCT can be candidate genes for common disorders in which CCT has been implicated, such as primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and keratoconus. Because the geneti ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal venular caliber predicts visual outcome after intravitreal ranibizumab injection treatments for neovascular AMD.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · January 3, 2012 PURPOSE: To examine whether baseline retinal vascular caliber predicts visual response to intravitreal ranibizumab injections in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, patients with neov ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypertension

Chapter · January 1, 2012 Full text Cite

Superpixel classification for initialization in model based optic disc segmentation.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2012 Optic disc segmentation in retinal fundus image is important in ocular image analysis and computer aided diagnosis. Because of the presence of peripapillary atrophy which affects the deformation, it is important to have a good initialization in deformable ... Full text Link to item Cite

An ensembling approach for optic cup detection based on spatial heuristic analysis in retinal fundus images.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2012 Optic cup detection remains a challenging task in retinal image analysis, and is of particular importance for glaucoma evaluation, where disease severity is often assessed by the size of the optic cup. In this paper, we propose spatial heuristic ensembling ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficient optic cup localization using regional propagation based on retinal structure priors.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2012 We present a regional propagation approach based on retinal structure priors to localize the optic cup in 2D fundus images, which is the primary image component clinically used for identifying glaucoma. This method provides three major contributions. First ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sector-based optic cup segmentation with intensity and blood vessel priors.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2012 The optic cup segmentation is critical for automated cup-to-disk ratio measurement, and hence computer-aided diagnosis of glaucoma. In this paper, we propose a novel sector-based method for optic cup segmentation. The method comprises two parts: intensity- ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic localization of retinal landmarks.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2012 Retinal landmark detection is a key step in retinal screening and computer-aided diagnosis for different types of eye diseases, such as glaucomma, age-related macular degeneration(AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we propose a semantic image tr ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic detection of the macula in retinal fundus images using seeded mode tracking approach.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2012 The macula is the part of the eye responsible for central high acuity vision. Detection of the macula is an important task in retinal image processing as a landmark for subsequent disease assessment, such as for age-related macula degeneration. In this pap ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic pterygium detection on cornea images to enhance computer-aided cortical cataract grading system.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2012 In this paper, we present a new method to detect pterygiums using cornea images. Due to the similarity of appearances and spatial locations between pterygiums and cortical cataracts, pterygiums are often falsely detected as cortical cataracts on retroillum ... Full text Link to item Cite

Efficient optic cup detection from intra-image learning with retinal structure priors.

Journal Article Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv · 2012 We present a superpixel based learning framework based on retinal structure priors for glaucoma diagnosis. In digital fundus photographs, our method automatically localizes the optic cup, which is the primary image component clinically used for identifying ... Full text Link to item Cite

Pentosidine levels in nonproteinuric diabetes associated with both low estimated glomerular filtration rate and cataract

Journal Article Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity · January 1, 2012 Background: The main objective of this study was to investigate whether plasma pentosidine levels were associated with cataract and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in nonproteinuric type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: We characterized 888 no ... Full text Cite

The association of systemic microvascular changes with lung function and lung density: a cross-sectional study.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2012 Smoking causes endothelial dysfunction and systemic microvascular disease with resultant end-organ damage in the kidneys, eyes and heart. Little is known about microvascular changes in smoking-related lung disease. We tested if microvascular changes in the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal arterioles narrow with increasing duration of anti-retroviral therapy in HIV infection: a novel estimator of vascular risk in HIV?

Journal Article PLoS One · 2012 OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of age-related morbidity mediated by immune dysfunction, atherosclerosis and inflammation. Changes in retinal vessel calibre may reflect cumulative structural damage arising from these mechanis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Microvascular dilatation after haemodialysis is determined by the volume of fluid removed and fall in mean arterial pressure.

Journal Article Kidney Blood Press Res · 2012 BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effects of haemodialysis on the microcirculation are poorly understood. This study examined the changes in small vessel calibre. METHODS: 24 patients (including 12 males, median age 62.5 years, range 30-87) underwent digital retinal ph ... Full text Link to item Cite

Asian age-related macular degeneration phenotyping study: rationale, design and protocol of a prospective cohort study.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · 2012 BACKGROUND:   Current knowledge of the phenotypic characteristics (e.g. clinical features, risk factors, natural history and treatment response) of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Asians remains limited. This report summarizes the rationale and s ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal microvascular signs are associated with chronic kidney disease in persons with and without diabetes.

Journal Article Kidney Blood Press Res · 2012 BACKGROUND/AIMS: In persons with diabetes, retinal microvascular abnormalities are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is not clear if the same relationship applies in persons without diabetes. METHODS: We examined 2,971 participants ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of migration and acculturation on prevalence of type 2 diabetes and related eye complications in Indians living in a newly urbanised society.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2012 BACKGROUND: Health of migrants is a major public health challenge faced by governments and policy makers. Asian Indians are among the fastest growing migration groups across Asia and the world, but the impact of migration and acculturation on diabetes and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Methodology and early findings of the Diabetes Management Project: a cohort study investigating the barriers to optimal diabetes care in diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · 2012 BACKGROUND: The Diabetes Management Project is investigating the clinical, behavioural and psychosocial barriers to optimal diabetes care in individuals with and without diabetic retinopathy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and twenty ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal venular calibre dilatation after intravitreal ranibizumab treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · 2012 BACKGROUND: To describe the changes in retinal vascular calibre in response to intravitreal ranibizumab injections in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. DESIGN: Prospective interventional case series. PARTICIPANTS: Treatment naïve ... Full text Link to item Cite

Amblyopia prevalence and risk factors in Australian preschool children.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · January 2012 PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with amblyopia in a sample of Australian preschool children. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: The Sydney Paediatric Eye Disease Study examined 2461 (73.8% particip ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal arteriolar tortuosity is associated with retinopathy and early kidney dysfunction in type 1 diabetes.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · January 2012 PURPOSE: To examine the association of retinal vessel tortuosity with diabetic retinopathy and early nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: A total of 1159 participants with type 1 diabetes aged 12 to 20 years, attending diabetes ... Full text Link to item Cite

Replication of 13 obesity loci among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Asian-Indian populations.

Journal Article Int J Obes (Lond) · January 2012 OBJECTIVE: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 38 obesity-associated loci among European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities is largely unknown. METHODS: We utilised five GWAS (N=10 482) from C ... Full text Link to item Cite

Characteristics and appearance of the normal optic nerve head in 6-year-old children.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · January 2012 AIM: To document planimetric measures of normal optic nerve head parameters in 6-year-old children and to report prevalence and associations of common optic nerve signs. METHODS: The Sydney Childhood Eye Study examined 1765 children aged 6 years. Complete ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lipids and diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Expert Opin Biol Ther · January 2012 INTRODUCTION: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a significant cause of visual impairment worldwide. The association between hyperlipidemia or dyslipidemia and DR has been investigated extensively, but a conclusive link remains elusive. This review summarizes th ... Full text Link to item Cite

Natural positive selection and north-south genetic diversity in East Asia.

Journal Article Eur J Hum Genet · January 2012 Recent reports have identified a north-south cline in genetic variation in East and South-East Asia, but these studies have not formally explored the basis of these clinical differences. Understanding the origins of these variations may provide valuable in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Age-related rarefaction in the fractal dimension of retinal vessel.

Journal Article Neurobiol Aging · January 2012 Previous work suggests a general reduction in complexity with aging, referred to as the aging-complexity theory. Fractal dimension (FD) of the vessels in the retina is a global measure of the complexity of the vasculature. However, earlier works did not fi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Social and emotional impact of diabetic retinopathy: a review.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · 2012 People with vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy are likely to experience enhanced social and emotional strain. Critically, those with both vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy and psychosocial problems may have significantly reduced levels of functi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Maternal cortisol disproportionately impacts fetal growth in male offspring: evidence from the Philippines.

Journal Article Am J Hum Biol · 2012 OBJECTIVES: Lower birth weight (BW) reoccurs across generations, but the intermediate mechanisms remain poorly understood. One potential pathway involves cortisol, which may be elevated in women born small and in turn could lead to fetal growth restriction ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · 2012 Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association stu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic variants on chromosome 1q41 influence ocular axial length and high myopia.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · 2012 As one of the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness, myopia poses a significant public health burden in Asia. The primary determinant of myopia is an elongated ocular axial length (AL). Here we report a meta-analysis of three genome-wide associ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · 2012 Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of quantitative optic nerve measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a population-based sample of non-glaucomatous subjects.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · December 20, 2011 PURPOSE: To evaluate the ocular and systemic factors influencing measurements of optic nerve head (ONH) parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in healthy Chinese adults. METHODS: ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship of ocular biometry and retinal vascular caliber in preschoolers.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · December 20, 2011 PURPOSE: To systematically examine the association between ocular biometry and retinal vascular caliber in Singapore Chinese preschoolers aged 48 to 72 months. METHODS: A total of 469 Singapore Chinese children aged 48 to 72 months were recruited through t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies eight new loci for type 2 diabetes in east Asians.

Journal Article Nat Genet · December 11, 2011 We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ranibizumab and bevacizumab for AMD.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · December 8, 2011 Full text Link to item Cite

Computer-aided cataract detection using enhanced texture features on retro-illumination lens images

Conference Proceedings - International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP · December 1, 2011 Cataract is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Computer-aided cataract detection is two-fold significant. Firstly, it will be helpful in mass screening. Secondly, it can be used as the preprocessing step for computer-aided grading. In this paper, the ... Full text Cite

Prevalence and characteristics of choroidal nevi: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · December 2011 OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of choroidal nevi in 4 racial or ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese) in the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Participants of the second examination of the Multi-Ethnic Study o ... Full text Link to item Cite

The prevalence and risk factors of ocular trauma: the Singapore Indian eye study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · December 2011 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence and risk factors of ocular trauma in an urban Southeast Asian population. METHODS: A population-based survey of 3,400 (75.6% response rate) adults of Indian ethnicity aged 40-80 years residing in Singapore was conducted ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is bilateral age-related macular degeneration less common in Asians than Caucasians?

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · December 2011 PURPOSE: To compare the frequency and pattern of bilateral involvement of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) between Asian Malays and Caucasians. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the baseline examination for subjects aged 50-79 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vessel caliber and myopic retinopathy: the blue mountains eye study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · December 2011 PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in the retinal vasculature in eyes with myopic retinopathy. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Emmetropic and myopic participants from the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline survey were included in this study. Myo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide meta-analysis of five Asian cohorts identifies PDGFRA as a susceptibility locus for corneal astigmatism.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · December 2011 Corneal astigmatism refers to refractive abnormalities and irregularities in the curvature of the cornea, and this interferes with light being accurately focused at a single point in the eye. This ametropic condition is highly prevalent, influences visual ... Full text Link to item Cite

SgD-CNV, a database for common and rare copy number variants in three Asian populations.

Journal Article Hum Mutat · December 2011 Copy number variants (CNVs) extend our understanding of the genetic diversity in humans. However, the distribution and characteristics of CNVs in Asian populations remain largely unexplored, especially for rare CNVs that have emerged as important genetic f ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study identifies FCGR2A as a susceptibility locus for Kawasaki disease.

Journal Article Nat Genet · November 13, 2011 Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, with clinical observations suggesting a substantial genetic contribution to disease susceptibility. We conducted a genome-wide association study and replication analysis in 2,173 individuals wi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Independent impact of area-level socioeconomic measures on visual impairment.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · November 11, 2011 PURPOSE: It is known that a person's socioeconomic status (SES; individual-level SES) is closely correlated with his or her degree of visual impairment. Whether there is an independent relationship between area-level measures of SES (e.g., living in a lowe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Corneal arcus is a sign of cardiovascular disease, even in low-risk persons.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · November 2011 PURPOSE: To examine the association of corneal arcus to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an adult, ethnic Indian population. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: Population-based study of ethnic South Asian Indians 40 to 80 years of age ... Full text Link to item Cite

Hypertension, hypertension control, and chronic kidney disease in a Malay population in Singapore.

Journal Article Asia Pac J Public Health · November 2011 Studies conducted in Western populations demonstrate that blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The authors examined the cross-sectional association between BP and CKD in 3280 adults of Malay ethnicity aged 40 to 80 y ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal arteriolar caliber and urine albumin excretion: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Journal Article Nephrol Dial Transplant · November 2011 BACKGROUND: Changes in retinal microvascular caliber, which occur prior to onset of retinopathy, may indicate presence of kidney damage. METHODS: This study examined the association between retinal arteriolar [central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE)] and ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differential association of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber with diabetes and retinopathy.

Journal Article Diabetes Res Clin Pract · November 2011 AIMS: To describe the relationship of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber with diabetes, retinopathy and hyperglycemia, in an Asian Indian population. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study of 3400 (75.6% response rate) Singapore eth ... Full text Link to item Cite

Change in peripheral refraction over time in Singapore Chinese children.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · October 7, 2011 PURPOSE. Relative peripheral hyperopia has been associated with central myopia. This study was conducted to determine whether baseline relative peripheral hyperopia is associated with an increased risk of developing myopia or myopia progression in young Si ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors and ocular biometry parameters in an elderly Asian population: the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS).

Journal Article Eye (Lond) · October 2011 PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence rates of refractive errors and pattern of ocular biometry in a multi-ethnic elderly Asian population. METHODS: A population-based study of 1835 residents aged 55-85 years, evaluating the refractive error and ocular biom ... Full text Link to item Cite

Myopia-related optic disc and retinal changes in adolescent children from singapore.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · October 2011 PURPOSE: To examine early myopia-related optic disc and retinal changes in a Singapore Chinese adolescent sample without confounding ocular or systemic disease. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 12 to 16 years at a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Literacy is an independent risk factor for vision impairment and poor visual functioning.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · September 29, 2011 PURPOSE: People with limited literacy are at increased risks of chronic systemic conditions. The authors therefore investigated the independent contribution of limited literacy on visual impairment and visual function in a large eye survey in Singapore. ME ... Full text Link to item Cite

Racial differences in the prevalence of diabetes but not diabetic retinopathy in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · September 29, 2011 PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a multi-ethnic Asian population of Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore. METHODS: A total of 2919 individuals participated in a population-based, cro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Candidate gene association study for diabetic retinopathy in persons with type 2 diabetes: the Candidate gene Association Resource (CARe).

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · September 29, 2011 PURPOSE: To investigate whether variants in cardiovascular candidate genes, some of which have been previously associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and diabetic nephropathy (DN), are associated with DR in the Candidate gene Ass ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fluvastatin downregulates VEGF-A expression in TNF-α-induced retinal vessel tortuosity.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · September 27, 2011 PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) on the mouse retinal vasculature, function, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and to evaluate the pro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Differential association of serum lipids with diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · September 27, 2011 PURPOSE: To assess the association of serum lipids with diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic macular edema (DME), and macular thickness in adults with diabetes. METHODS: Diabetic patients aged ≥ 18 years were prospectively recruited from specialized eye cli ... Full text Link to item Cite

Longitudinal evidence that fatherhood decreases testosterone in human males.

Journal Article Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · September 27, 2011 In species in which males care for young, testosterone (T) is often high during mating periods but then declines to allow for caregiving of resulting offspring. This model may apply to human males, but past human studies of T and fatherhood have been cross ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.

Journal Article Nature · September 11, 2011 Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even sma ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lens image registration for cataract detection

Conference Proceedings of the 2011 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ICIEA 2011 · September 5, 2011 Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. In this paper, registration of retroillumination image is investigated for detection of cortical and posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). The pupil region is detected by local entropy filtering. The an ... Full text Cite

Prevalence and characteristics of myopic retinopathy in a rural Chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study.

Journal Article Arch Ophthalmol · September 2011 OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors for myopic retinopathy in a rural population in Northern China. METHODS: The Handan Eye Study is a population-based study of eye disease in rural Chinese individuals 30 years or olde ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in an urban Indian population: the Singapore Indian Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · September 2011 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in an urban Indian population. DESIGN: Population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Ethnic Indians aged more than 40 years living in Singapore. METHODS: Participants underwent stand ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular tortuosity in persons with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

Journal Article Diabetologia · September 2011 AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this hypothesis was to examine the association of retinal vessel tortuosity with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: A clinic-based study of 327 participants (224 with diabetes and 103 non-diabetic controls) aged ≥ 1 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Parental history of hypertension is associated with narrower retinal arteriolar caliber in young girls.

Journal Article Hypertension · September 2011 We aimed to assess the associations between parental history of hypertension and indicators of cardiovascular risk (retinal vessel diameter, presence of obesity, and elevated blood pressure) in prepubertal children. There were 1739 (77.7% of those eligible ... Full text Link to item Cite

Similarities and differences in early retinal phenotypes in hypertension and diabetes.

Journal Article J Hypertens · September 2011 The use of retinal photography in clinical practice and research has substantially increased the knowledge about the epidemiology, natural history and significance of diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy. Early retinopathy signs, including retinal microan ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of variants in FRAP1 and PDGFRA with corneal curvature in Asian populations from Singapore.

Journal Article Human molecular genetics · September 2011 Corneal curvature (CC) is a key determinant of major eye diseases, such as keratoconus, myopia and corneal astigmatism. No prior studies have discovered the genes for CC. Here we report the findings from four genome-wide association studies of CC in 10 008 ... Full text Cite

Retinal microvascular changes and subsequent vascular events after ischemic stroke.

Journal Article Neurology · August 30, 2011 OBJECTIVES: Retinal microvasculature changes are associated with vascular events including stroke in healthy populations. It is not known whether retinal microvascular changes predict recurrent vascular events after ischemic stroke. We examined the relatio ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association study in individuals of South Asian ancestry identifies six new type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci.

Journal Article Nat Genet · August 28, 2011 We carried out a genome-wide association study of type-2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals of South Asian ancestry. Our discovery set included 5,561 individuals with T2D (cases) and 14,458 controls drawn from studies in London, Pakistan and Singapore. We ident ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ocular biometry in an urban Indian population: the Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI).

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · August 22, 2011 PURPOSE. To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters in adult Singapore Indians. METHODS. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 3400 Indians aged 40 to 83 years residing in Singapore. Ocular components ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations of physical activity and television viewing time with retinal vascular caliber in a multiethnic Asian population.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · August 17, 2011 PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of physical activity and television (TV) viewing time with retinal vascular caliber in a multiethnic Asian population. METHODS. Chinese, Indian, and Malay participants (n = 3866) were examined ... Full text Link to item Cite

Cataract prevalence varies substantially with assessment systems: comparison of clinical and photographic grading in a population-based study.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Epidemiol · August 2011 PURPOSE: Cataract is the major cause of blindness worldwide yet there is no consensus on its assessment and definition. This study compares age-related cataract prevalence derived from two commonly used methods: clinical assessment using the Lens Opacity C ... Full text Link to item Cite

Ten-year longitudinal changes in retinal microvascular lesions: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · August 2011 OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on the natural history and longitudinal changes of retinal microvascular lesions. We examined 10-year changes in retinal microvascular lesions, focusing on those related to hypertension and shown to predict development of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and risk factors for visual impairment in preschool children the sydney paediatric eye disease study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · August 2011 PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence and associations of visual impairment (VI) in preschool children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2461 children (73.8% participation rate), aged 6 to 72 months, were examined in th ... Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship of body fatness indices and retinal vascular caliber in children.

Journal Article Int J Pediatr Obes · August 2011 OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between body fatness indices and retinal vascular calibre in Singapore Chinese children. METHODS: We recruited 136 Singapore Chinese children aged 6-16 years from the STARS (The Strabismus, Amblyopia and Refractive Err ... Full text Link to item Cite

The microvasculature in chronic kidney disease.

Journal Article Clin J Am Soc Nephrol · August 2011 BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 have an increased risk of cardiac and other vascular disease. Here we examined the association of CKD 3 to 5 with small vessel caliber. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & ... Full text Link to item Cite

A new and efficient vessel segmentation method from color retinal images

Conference BIOSIGNALS 2011 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Bio-Inspired Systems and Signal Processing · July 18, 2011 Retinal blood vessel changes (e.g., vessel caliber) are important indicators for earlier diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. To quantify the changes automatically, a reliable vessel detection is essential. However, blood vessel detection in retinal image ... Cite

An automated method for retinal image matching using vascular features

Conference BIOSIGNALS 2011 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Bio-Inspired Systems and Signal Processing · July 18, 2011 In this paper, we propose a method for retinal image matching that can be used in image matching for person identification or patient longitudinal study. Vascular invariant features are extracted from the retinal image and a feature vector is constructed f ... Cite

Retinal vascular geometry predicts incident retinopathy in young people with type 1 diabetes: a prospective cohort study from adolescence.

Journal Article Diabetes Care · July 2011 OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between retinal vascular geometry and subsequent development of incident retinopathy in young patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 736 people with type 1 diabetes ag ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal arteriolar narrowing and subsequent development of CKD Stage 3: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Journal Article Am J Kidney Dis · July 2011 BACKGROUND: Microvascular disease is a major pathogenic factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in persons with diabetes, but the role of microvascular disease in the development of CKD in the general population is unclear. The aim of this study is to exam ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in a rural Chinese population: the Handan Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · July 2011 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of age-related degeneration (AMD) in a rural Chinese population and to assess its associations with age, gender, and smoking. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS: Persons aged 30+ years, recruited betw ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal arteriolar wall signs and early age-related macular degeneration: the singapore malay eye study.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · July 2011 PURPOSE: To determine whether retinal arteriolar wall signs are associated with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: The Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES) is a population-based eye survey in ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of blood pressure on retinal vascular caliber in young children.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · July 2011 OBJECTIVE: Prior studies have reported that blood pressure (BP) has a significant influence on retinal vascular caliber both in adults and children aged 6 years and older. This study aimed to examine the association between BP and retinal vascular caliber ... Full text Link to item Cite

Novel anterior-chamber angle measurements by high-definition optical coherence tomography using the Schwalbe line as the landmark.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · July 2011 OBJECTIVE: To propose the Schwalbe line (SL) as a new anatomical landmark, independent of the scleral spur (SS) location, for assessing anterior chamber angle (ACA) width quantitatively with high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). METHODS: S ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of refractive error on optic disc topographic parameters: the singapore malay eye study.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · July 2011 PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between refractive error and optic disc topographic parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: All 3,280 (78.7% response rate) persons of Asian Ma ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of corneal biomechanical properties in an adult Chinese population.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · July 2011 PURPOSE: To investigate variations in corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) and their ocular and systemic associations in Chinese adults. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We included 1136 subjects of Chin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular characteristics and blood pressure.

Journal Article J Hypertens · July 2011 OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effects of blood pressure on a spectrum of quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular signs. METHODS: Retinal photographs from the Singapore Malay Eye Study, a population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of retinal arteriolar dilatation with lower verbal memory: the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study.

Journal Article Diabetologia · July 2011 AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Retinal vascular calibre changes may reflect early subclinical microvascular disease in diabetes. Because of the considerable homology between retinal and cerebral microcirculation, we examined whether retinal vascular calibre, as a proxy ... Full text Link to item Cite

Are obesity and anthropometry risk factors for diabetic retinopathy? The diabetes management project.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · June 22, 2011 PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between anthropometric parameters and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adults with diabetes. METHODS: Five hundred participants with diabetes were recruited prospectively from ophthalmology clinics in Melbourne, Austral ... Full text Link to item Cite

Bevacizumab for retinopathy of prematurity.

Journal Article N Engl J Med · June 16, 2011 Full text Link to item Cite

Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in a rural Chinese population with type 2 diabetes: the Handan Eye Study.

Journal Article Acta Ophthalmol · June 2011 PURPOSE: To describe risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a population-based sample of rural Chinese with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The Handan Eye Study is a population-based cross-sectional study surveyed 6830 Chinese people aged 30+ ... Full text Link to item Cite

Effect of obesity on retinal vascular structure in pre-adolescent children.

Journal Article Int J Pediatr Obes · June 2011 UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVES. In adults, obesity is linked to changes in the retinal microvasculature. Limited research has been conducted into this association in children. We examined in a cohort of pre-adolescents the relationship between body mass index (BMI ... Full text Link to item Cite

Diabetic retinopathy is related to both endothelium-dependent and -independent responses of skin microvascular flow.

Journal Article Diabetes Care · June 2011 OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction has been hypothesized as a possible pathogenic factor in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We examined the relationship of DR to endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses in skin microvascula ... Full text Link to item Cite

The impact of diabetic retinopathy: understanding the patient's perspective.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · June 2011 Understanding the impact of a condition from the patient's perspective is important, and different types of patient-reported outcomes or instruments are available to help with this. This review article summarises the current evidence on the impact of diabe ... Full text Link to item Cite

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common variants associated with blood pressure variation in east Asians.

Journal Article Nat Genet · June 2011 We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in 19,608 subjects of east Asian ancestry from the AGEN-BP consortium followed up with de novo genotyping (n = 10,518) and further replicat ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in Indians: the Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI).

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · May 16, 2011 PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in middle-aged to elderly Singaporeans of Indian ethnicity. METHODS: A population-based, cross-sectional study of Indians aged over 40 years of age residing in Southwestern Singapo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Association of narrow angles with anterior chamber area and volume measured with anterior-segment optical coherence tomography.

Journal Article Arch Ophthalmol · May 2011 OBJECTIVES: To describe the measurement of anterior chamber area and anterior chamber volume by anterior-segment optical coherence tomography and to investigate the association of these parameters with the presence of narrow angles. METHODS: This was a cro ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association studies in Asians confirm the involvement of ATOH7 and TGFBR3, and further identify CARD10 as a novel locus influencing optic disc area.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · May 1, 2011 Damage to the optic nerve (e.g. from glaucoma) has an adverse and often irreversible impact on vision. Earlier studies have suggested that the size of the optic nerve head could be governed by hereditary factors. We conducted a genome-wide association stud ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of physical activity and screen time on the retinal microvasculature in young children.

Journal Article Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol · May 2011 OBJECTIVE: It is not clear whether physical activity and sedentary behavior affect retinal microvascular caliber. We investigated associations among physical activity (outdoor and indoor sporting activities), sedentary behaviors (including screen time, tel ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular calibre is altered in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a biomarker of disease activity and cardiovascular risk?

Journal Article Rheumatology (Oxford) · May 2011 OBJECTIVES: Alterations in retinal vascular calibre, particularly wider venular calibre, have been independently associated with elevated markers of inflammation and cardiovascular risk in the general population. We hypothesized that retinal vascular calib ... Full text Link to item Cite

Is diabetic retinopathy related to subclinical cardiovascular disease?

Journal Article Ophthalmology · May 2011 OBJECTIVE: Persons with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine whether DR is associated with a range of measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons without clini ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal vascular tortuosity, blood pressure, and cardiovascular risk factors.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · May 2011 OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of retinal vascular tortuosity to age, blood pressure, and other cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3280 participants aged 40 to 80 years from the Si ... Full text Link to item Cite

Intravitreal triamcinolone prior to laser treatment of diabetic macular edema: 24-month results of a randomized controlled trial.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · May 2011 PURPOSE: To report the 24 months outcomes from a clinical trial of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) plus laser versus laser treatment only in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). DESIGN: Prospective, double-masked, randomized, placebo-control ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship of smoking and cardiovascular risk factors with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and age-related macular degeneration in Chinese persons.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · May 2011 PURPOSE: Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) has been described as a distinct clinical entity from choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The present study aimed to determine risk factors for PCV and to ... Full text Link to item Cite

Impact of early and late age-related macular degeneration on vision-specific functioning.

Journal Article Br J Ophthalmol · May 2011 AIM: To assess the impact of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on vision-specific functioning in Singapore Malays. METHODS: AMD was assessed from fundus photographs. The following endpoints were considered for (a) AMD: no AMD, early AMD ... Full text Link to item Cite

Metabolic syndrome components and age-related cataract: the Singapore Malay eye study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · April 14, 2011 PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its components, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure (BP), obesity, and dyslipidemia, with age-related cataract. METHODS: A population-based sample of 2794 Malay adults aged 40 to 80 yea ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinopathy signs in people without diabetes: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · April 2011 OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of retinopathy and associations with cardiovascular risk factors in persons without diabetes in 4 racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese). DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANT ... Full text Link to item Cite

Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review.

Journal Article Clin Exp Ophthalmol · April 2011 Glaucoma, one of the major causes of blindness in the world, is a progressive optic neuropathy. Elevated intraocular pressure is a well-known major risk factor for glaucoma. In addition, there is growing evidence that vascular factors may play a role in gl ... Full text Link to item Cite

Determinants of image quality of Heidelberg Retina Tomography II and its association with optic disc parameters in a population-based setting.

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · April 2011 PURPOSE: To assess the determinants of image quality of Heidelberg Retina Tomography II (HRT II) and its association with optic disc parameters in a population-based setting. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study involving 3280 (78.7% response) A ... Full text Link to item Cite

Serum C-reactive protein level and prediabetes in two Asian populations.

Journal Article Diabetologia · April 2011 AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Prediabetes, an early stage in the hyperglycaemic continuum, increases the future risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, is associated with diabetes and CVD. Howeve ... Full text Link to item Cite

Emerging therapeutic approaches in the management of retinal angiogenesis and edema.

Journal Article J Mol Med (Berl) · April 2011 Conditions resulting in retinal angiogenesis and edema (exudative age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion and retinopathy of prematurity) are major causes of visual impairment, with significant impact on quality of li ... Full text Link to item Cite

Distribution of ankle--brachial index and the risk factors of peripheral artery disease in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

Journal Article Vasc Med · April 2011 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We describe the prevalence and risk factors of PAD in a multi-ethnic Asian population (Chinese, Malays a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and risk factors for epiretinal membranes in a multi-ethnic United States population.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · April 2011 PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for epiretinal membrane (ERM) in a multi-ethnic population and to evaluate possible racial or ethnic differences. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Comparison of ocular response analyzer parameters in chinese subjects with primary angle-closure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

Journal Article Arch Ophthalmol · April 2011 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate corneal hysteresis (CH) and intraocular pressure (IOP) measured by the Ocular Response Analyzer in Chinese subjects with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), assess their relationship with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) meas ... Full text Link to item Cite

Transferability of type 2 diabetes implicated loci in multi-ethnic cohorts from Southeast Asia.

Journal Article PLoS Genet · April 2011 Recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci which harbor genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), many of which encode proteins not previously suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of T2D ... Full text Link to item Cite

The authors reply

Journal Article New England Journal of Medicine · March 10, 2011 Full text Cite

Validity of a new computer-aided diagnosis imaging program to quantify nuclear cataract from slit-lamp photographs.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · March 10, 2011 PURPOSE: To validate a new computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) imaging program for the assessment of nuclear lens opacity. METHODS: Slit-lamp lens photographs from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES) were graded using both the CAD imaging program and manual a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Relationship of central corneal thickness with optic disc parameters: the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · March 10, 2011 PURPOSE: To examine the relationship of central corneal thickness (CCT) with optic disc parameters measured by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoloscopy in a Malay population. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study of Asian Malay adults ... Full text Link to item Cite

Physical activity, television viewing time, and retinal microvascular caliber: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Journal Article Am J Epidemiol · March 1, 2011 Physical activities and sedentary behaviors are 2 broad classes of behavior that may be clearly distinguished from each other and have different patterns of determinants. The authors examined the associations of physical activity and television viewing tim ... Full text Link to item Cite

Lens vault, thickness, and position in Chinese subjects with angle closure.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · March 2011 PURPOSE: To investigate the association of lens parameters-specifically, lens vault (LV), lens thickness (LT), and lens position (LP)-with angle closure. DESIGN: Prospective, comparative study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred two Chinese subjects with angle clos ... Full text Link to item Cite

Associations of retinal microvascular signs and intracranial large artery disease.

Journal Article Stroke · March 2011 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial large artery disease (ICLAD) is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Retinal microvascular changes are associated with stroke, including small vessel cerebral disease and extracranial carotid disease. We examined the relat ... Full text Link to item Cite

The heritability and sibling risk of angle closure in Asians.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · March 2011 PURPOSE: To describe the heritability and sibling risk for angle closure. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. PARTICIPANTS: Probands with primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and their first-degree relatives. METHODS: One h ... Full text Link to item Cite

Peripheral refraction and refractive error in singapore chinese children.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 28, 2011 PURPOSE: Peripheral hyperopia was hypothesized to stimulate axial elongation. This study describes peripheral refraction and its associations with central refractive error in young Singapore Chinese children. METHODS: Two hundred fifty children aged 40 mon ... Full text Link to item Cite

Collagen-related genes influence the glaucoma risk factor, central corneal thickness.

Journal Article Hum Mol Genet · February 15, 2011 Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a risk factor of glaucoma, the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The identification of genetic determinants affecting CCT in the normal population will provide insights into the mechanisms underlying ... Full text Link to item Cite

Influence of refractive error and axial length on retinal vessel geometric characteristics.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 3, 2011 PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of refractive error and axial length (AL) on retinal vascular network geometry measurements in an adult Asian population. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study on 2882 persons with diabetes in the Si ... Full text Link to item Cite

Serum apolipoprotein AI and B are stronger biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy than traditional lipids.

Journal Article Diabetes Care · February 2011 OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the associations of serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins with diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 224 diabetic patients (85 type 1 and 139 type 2) from a diabetes clini ... Full text Link to item Cite

Physical activity, television viewing time, and retinal vascular caliber.

Journal Article Med Sci Sports Exerc · February 2011 PURPOSE: to examine the associations of physical activity and television (TV) viewing time with retinal vascular caliber in Australian adults. METHODS: a total of 2024 adults aged 25 yr or older without known diabetes in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, a ... Full text Link to item Cite

Robust methodology for fractal analysis of the retinal vasculature.

Journal Article IEEE Trans Med Imaging · February 2011 We have developed a robust method to perform retinal vascular fractal analysis from digital retina images. The technique preprocesses the green channel retina images with Gabor wavelet transforms to enhance the retinal images. Fourier Fractal dimension is ... Full text Link to item Cite

Prevalence and causes of amblyopia in a rural adult population of Chinese the Handan Eye Study.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · February 2011 OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with amblyopia in a rural Chinese population. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Six thousand eight hundred thirty Han Chinese aged 30 years or more, recruited fro ... Full text Link to item Cite

The relationship between retinal arteriolar and venular calibers is genetically mediated, and each is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · February 2011 PURPOSE: Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers are highly heritable and associated with cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to investigate the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the high phenotypic correlation (r = 0.5 ... Full text Link to item Cite

Transient ischemic attack and acute ischemic stroke: associations with retinal microvascular signs.

Journal Article Stroke · February 2011 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small vessel disease plays a role in cerebral events. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of retinal microvascular signs (surrogates for cerebral small vessel disease) among patients with transient ischemic attack (T ... Full text Link to item Cite

Are lung disease and function related to age-related macular degeneration?

Journal Article Am J Ophthalmol · February 2011 PURPOSE: To describe the relationship of lung disease and function with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a population-based study. DESIGN: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 12,596 middle-aged participants from the Atherosclerosis ... Full text Link to item Cite

Fractal analysis of retinal microvasculature and coronary heart disease mortality.

Journal Article Eur Heart J · February 2011 AIM: Fractal analysis provides a global assessment of vascular network architecture. We examined the relationship of retinal vascular fractal dimension (D(f)) with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the relationship of ... Full text Link to item Cite

Genome-wide association studies reveal genetic variants in CTNND2 for high myopia in Singapore Chinese.

Journal Article Ophthalmology · February 2011 OBJECTIVE: To determine susceptibility genes for high myopia in Singaporean Chinese. DESIGN: A meta-analysis of 2 genome-wide association (GWA) datasets in Chinese and a follow-up replication cohort in Japanese. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Two independent d ... Full text Link to item Cite

A hybrid framework for genome wide epistasis discovery.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2011 A hybrid framework integrating Random Forest and Logistic Regression is proposed and implemented for genome-wide epistasis study. The two-stage approach first uses random forest model to capture a pool of epistasis-prone single nucleotide polymorphisms (SN ... Full text Link to item Cite

MRMR optimized classification for automatic glaucoma diagnosis.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2011 Min-Redundancy Max-Relevance (mRMR) is a feature selection methodology based on information theory. We explore the mRMR principle for automatic glaucoma diagnosis. Optimal candidate feature sets are acquired from a composition of clinical screening data an ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic optic disc segmentation with peripapillary atrophy elimination.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2011 Optic disc segmentation from retinal fundus image is a fundamental but important step for automatic glaucoma diagnosis. In this paper, an optic disc segmentation method is proposed based on peripapillary atrophy elimination. The elimination is done through ... Full text Link to item Cite

Focal edge association to glaucoma diagnosis.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2011 Glaucoma is an optic nerve disease resulting in the loss of vision. There are two common types of glaucoma: open angle glaucoma and angle closure glaucoma. Glaucoma type classification is important in glaucoma diagnosis. Clinically, ophthalmologists examin ... Full text Link to item Cite

Model-based optic nerve head segmentation on retinal fundus images.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2011 The optic nerve head (optic disc) plays an important role in the diagnosis of retinal diseases. Automatic localization and segmentation of the optic disc is critical towards a good computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. In this paper, we propose a method t ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic glaucoma diagnosis from fundus image.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2011 Glaucoma is currently diagnosed by glaucoma specialists using specialized imaging devices like HRT and OCT. Fundus imaging is a modality widely used in primary healthcare. An automatic glaucoma diagnosis system based on fundus image can be deployed to prim ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic detection of cortical and PSC cataracts using texture and intensity analysis on retro-illumination lens images.

Journal Article Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc · 2011 Cataract remains a leading cause for blindness worldwide. Cataract diagnosis via human grading is subjective and time-consuming. Several methods of automatic grading are currently available, but each of them suffers from some drawbacks. In this paper, a ne ... Full text Link to item Cite

Focal biologically inspired feature for glaucoma type classification.

Journal Article Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv · 2011 Glaucoma is an optic nerve disease resulting in loss of vision. There are two common types of glaucoma: open angle glaucoma and angle closure glaucoma. Glaucoma type classification is important in glaucoma diagnosis. Ophthalmologists examine the iridocorne ... Full text Link to item Cite

Retinal image matching using hierarchical vascular features.

Journal Article Comput Intell Neurosci · 2011 We propose a method for retinal image matching that can be used in image matching for person identification or patient longitudinal study. Vascular invariant features are extracted from the retinal image, and a feature vector is constructed for each of the ... Full text Link to item Cite

Sliding window and regression based cup detection in digital fundus images for glaucoma diagnosis.

Journal Article Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv · 2011 We propose a machine learning framework based on sliding windows for glaucoma diagnosis. In digital fundus photographs, our method automatically localizes the optic cup, which is the primary structural image cue for clinically identifying glaucoma. This lo ... Full text Link to item Cite

Author reply

Journal Article Ophthalmology · January 1, 2011 Full text Cite

A 32 kb critical region excluding Y402H in CFH mediates risk for age-related macular degeneration.

Journal Article PLoS One · 2011 Complement factor H shows very strong association with Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), and recent data suggest that multiple causal variants are associated with disease. To refine the location of the disease associated variants, we characterized in ... Full text Link to item Cite

The use of HRT with and without the aid of disc photographs.

Journal Article J Glaucoma · 2011 PURPOSE: To evaluate the measurement of optic disc morphology using Heidelberg Retinal Tomography (HRT) with and without the aid of optic disc photos. METHODS: One hundred three children (aged 11 and 12 y, 52 boys) were selected randomly from the Singapore ... Full text Link to item Cite

Toll-like receptor 3 polymorphism rs3775291 is not associated with choroidal neovascularization or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Chinese subjects.

Journal Article Ophthalmic Res · 2011 BACKGROUND/AIMS: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs3775291) in the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD in Caucasian ... Full text Link to item Cite

A computer assisted method for nuclear cataract grading from slit-lamp images using ranking.

Journal Article IEEE Trans Med Imaging · January 2011 In clinical diagnosis, a grade indicating the severity of nuclear cataract is often manually assigned by a trained ophthalmologist to a patient after comparing the lens' opacity severity in his/her slit-lamp images with a set of standard photos. This gradi ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glycated hemoglobin and the risk of kidney disease and retinopathy in adults with and without diabetes.

Journal Article Diabetes · January 2011 OBJECTIVE: Glycated hemoglobin was recently recommended for use as a diagnostic test for diabetes. We examined the association between 2010 American Diabetes Association diagnostic cut points for glycated hemoglobin and microvascular outcomes (chronic kidn ... Full text Link to item Cite

Glycemic thresholds for diabetes-specific retinopathy: implications for diagnostic criteria for diabetes.

Journal Article Diabetes Care · January 2011 OBJECTIVE: To re-evaluate the relationship between glycemia and diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a data-pooling analysis of nine studies from five countries with 44,623 participants aged 20-79 years with gradable retinal phot ... Full text Link to item Cite

Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

Journal Article Asia Pac J Clin Nutr · 2011 Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Fil ... Link to item Cite

Positive antibody response to vaccination in adolescence predicts lower C-reactive protein concentration in young adulthood in the Philippines.

Journal Article Am J Hum Biol · 2011 OBJECTIVES: Inflammation has been associated with a wide range of chronic degenerative diseases, but the developmental factors contributing to the regulation of inflammation are poorly understood. This study investigates the within-individual association b ... Full text Link to item Cite

Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal Article BMC Ophthalmol · December 13, 2010 BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in Western countries. Numerous risk factors have been reported but the evidence and strength of association is variable. We aimed to identify those risk factors with stron ... Full text Link to item Cite

Automatic optic disc segmentation based on image brightness and contrast

Conference Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE · December 1, 2010 Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness. As glaucoma often produces additional pathological cupping of the optic disc (OD), cupdisc- ratio is one measure that is widel ... Full text Cite

Feature analysis in slit-lamp image for nuclear cataract diagnosis

Conference Proceedings - 2010 3rd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, BMEI 2010 · December 1, 2010 Nuclear cataract is the most common type of age-related cataract and it is clinically diagnosed using slit-lamp images. Objective measurement of the features in slit-lamp image is investigated using a computerized software system. The correlation between t ... Full text Cite

Retinal vascular features for cardio vascular disease prediction: A review

Journal Article Recent Patents on Computer Science · December 1, 2010 Recent advances in retinal imaging modality have enabled the identification of retinal vascular features which have been shown to predict cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Studies have shown that a number of retinal vascular features are associated with the s ... Cite

Hyperopic refractive error and shorter axial length are associated with age-related macular degeneration: the Singapore Malay Eye Study.

Journal Article Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci · December 2010 PURPOSE: To describe the association between refractive errors, ocular biometry, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an Asian Malay population in Singapore. METHODS: A population-based study of 3280 Malay individuals aged 40 to 80 years was condu ... Full text Link to item Cite

Re-Model-fitting adequacy and clinical rationality in multivariate linear regression analysis

Journal Article Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science · December 1, 2010 Full text Cite

AGLAIA system architecture for glaucoma diagnosis

Conference APSIPA ASC 2010 - Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference · December 1, 2010 The AGLAIA (Automatic GLaucoma Diagnosis and Its Genetic Association Study through Medical Image InformAtics) system architecture is proposed to address the automatic diagnosis of Glaucoma. Instead of using single image feature, AGLAIA measures the charact ... Cite